parouse.com
 Parouse.com



Jacob
Jacob
(/ˈdʒeɪkəb/; Hebrew: יַעֲקֹב‬, Modern  Ya‘aqōv (help·info), Tiberian Yā‘āqōḇ), later given the name Israel, is regarded as a Patriarch
Patriarch
of the Israelites. According to the Book of Genesis, Jacob
Jacob
was the third Hebrew progenitor with whom God
God
made a covenant. He is the son of Isaac
Isaac
and Rebecca, the grandson of Abraham, Sarah
Sarah
and Bethuel, the nephew of Ishmael, and the younger twin brother of Esau. Jacob
Jacob
had twelve sons and at least one daughter, by his two wives, Leah
Leah
and Rachel, and by their handmaidens Bilhah and Zilpah. Jacob's twelve sons, named in Genesis, were Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Dan, Naphtali, Gad, Asher, Issachar, Zebulun, Joseph, and Benjamin. His only daughter mentioned in Genesis is Dinah. The twelve sons became the progenitors of the "Tribes of Israel".[1]

Jacob's Dream statue and display on the campus of Abilene Christian University. The artwork is based on Genesis 28:10–22 and graphically represents the scenes alluded to in the hymn "Nearer, My God, to Thee" and the spiritual "We Are Climbing Jacob's Ladder" as well as other musical works.

As a result of a severe drought in Canaan, Jacob
Jacob
and his sons moved to Egypt
Egypt
at the time when his son Joseph
Joseph
was viceroy. After 17 years in Egypt, Jacob
Jacob
died, and the length of Jacob's life was 147 years. Joseph
Joseph
carried Jacob's remains to the land of Canaan, and gave him a stately burial in the same Cave of Machpelah
Cave of Machpelah
as were buried Abraham, Sarah, Isaac, Rebecca, and Jacob's first wife, Leah. Jacob
Jacob
is mentioned in a number of sacred scriptures, including the Hebrew Bible, the Talmud, the New Testament, the Quran, hadith, and the Book of Mormon.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Genesis narrative

2.1 Jacob
Jacob
and Esau's birth 2.2 Acquiring birthright 2.3 Blessing of Isaac 2.4 Jacob's ladder 2.5 Jacob's marriages 2.6 Journey back to Canaan 2.7 Jacob
Jacob
in Hebron 2.8 Seven year famine 2.9 Jacob
Jacob
in Egypt 2.10 Final days 2.11 Children of Jacob 2.12 Family tree

3 Religious perspectives

3.1 Jewish tradition 3.2 Christianity 3.3 Islamic tradition 3.4 Non-religious perspective

4 Historicity 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links

Etymology According to the folk etymology found in Genesis 25:26, the name Yaʿaqob[clarification needed] יעקב‎ is derived from aqeb עָקֵב‎ "heel".[2][3] The historical origin of the name is uncertain. Yaʿqob-'el[clarification needed] is notably recorded as a placename in a list by Thutmose III
Thutmose III
(15th century BC). The same name is recorded earlier still, in c. 1800 BC, in cuneiform inscriptions (spelled ya-ah-qu-ub-el, ya-qu-ub-el).[4] The suggestion that the personal name may be shortened from this compound name, which would translate to "may El protect", originates with Bright (1960).[5] The Septuagint
Septuagint
renders the name Ιακωβος, whence Latin Jacobus, English Jacob. The name Israel given to Jacob
Jacob
following the episode of his wrestling with the angel (Genesis 32:22–32) is etymologized as composition of אֵל‎ el "god" and the root שָׂרָה‎ śarah "to rule, contend, have power, prevail over": [6] שָׂרִיתָ עִם־אֱלֹהִים‎ (KJV: "a prince hast thou power with God"); alternatively, the el can be read as the subject, for a translation of "El rules/condends/struggles".[7] Genesis narrative

The biblical account of the life of Jacob
Jacob
is found in the Book of Genesis, chapters 25–50. Jacob
Jacob
and Esau's birth Jacob
Jacob
and his twin brother, Esau, were born to Isaac
Isaac
and Rebecca
Rebecca
after 20 years of marriage, when Isaac
Isaac
was 60 years of age (Genesis 25:20, 25:26). Rebekah was uncomfortable during her pregnancy and went to inquire of God
God
why she was suffering. She received the prophecy that twins were fighting in her womb and would continue to fight all their lives, even after they became two separate nations. The prophecy also said that "the one people shall be stronger than the other people; and the elder shall serve the younger;" (Genesis 25:25 KJV) When the time came for Rebecca
Rebecca
to give birth, the firstborn, Esau, came out covered with red hair, as if he were wearing a hairy garment, and his heel was grasped by the hand of Jacob, the secondborn. According to Genesis 25:25, Isaac
Isaac
and Rebecca
Rebecca
named the first son Hebrew: עשו‎, Esau. The second son they named יעקב, Jacob (Ya`aqob or Ya`aqov, meaning "heel-catcher", "supplanter", "leg-puller", "he who follows upon the heels of one", from Hebrew: עקב‎, `aqab or `aqav, "seize by the heel", "circumvent", "restrain", a wordplay upon Hebrew: עקבה‎, `iqqebah or `iqqbah, "heel").[8] The boys displayed very different natures as they matured. "... and Esau
Esau
was a cunning hunter, a man of the field; but Jacob
Jacob
was a simple man, dwelling in tents" (Genesis 25:27). Moreover, the attitudes of their parents toward them also differed: "And Isaac
Isaac
loved Esau, because he did eat of his venison: but Rebecca
Rebecca
loved Jacob." (Genesis 25:28)

Jacob
Jacob
offering a dish of lentils to Esau
Esau
for his birthright, 18th-century painting by Zacarias Gonzalez Velazquez.

Acquiring birthright Main article: Jacob
Jacob
and Esau Genesis 25:29–34 tells the account of Esau
Esau
selling his birthright to Jacob. This passage tells that Esau, returning famished from the fields, begged Jacob
Jacob
to give him some of the stew that Jacob
Jacob
had just made. ( Esau
Esau
referred to the dish as "that same red pottage", giving rise to his nickname, Hebrew: אדום‎ (`Edom, meaning "Red").) Jacob
Jacob
offered to give Esau
Esau
a bowl of stew in exchange for his birthright, to which Esau
Esau
agreed. Blessing of Isaac As Isaac
Isaac
aged, he became blind and was uncertain when he would die, so he decided to bestow Esau's birthright upon him. He requested that Esau
Esau
go out to the fields with his weapons (quiver and bow) to kill some venison. Isaac
Isaac
then requested that Esau
Esau
make "savory meat" for him out of the venison, according to the way he enjoyed it the most, so that he could eat it and bless Esau. Rebecca
Rebecca
overheard this conversation. It is suggested that she realized prophetically that Isaac's blessings would go to Jacob, since she was told before the twins' birth that the older son would serve the younger.[9] Rebecca
Rebecca
blessed Jacob
Jacob
and she quickly ordered Jacob
Jacob
to bring her two kid goats from their flock so that he could take Esau's place in serving Isaac
Isaac
and receiving his blessing. Jacob
Jacob
protested that his father would recognize their deception since Esau
Esau
was hairy and he himself was smooth-skinned. He feared his father would curse him as soon as he felt him, but Rebecca
Rebecca
offered to take the curse herself, then insisted that Jacob
Jacob
obey her.[10] Jacob
Jacob
did as his mother instructed and, when he returned with the kids, Rebekah made the savory meat that Isaac
Isaac
loved. Before she sent Jacob
Jacob
to his father, she dressed him in Esau's garments and laid goatskins on his arms and neck to simulate hairy skin.

An elderly Isaac
Isaac
blessing Jacob, oil on canvas by Govert Flinck, 1638

Disguised as Esau, Jacob
Jacob
entered Isaac's room. Surprised that Esau
Esau
was back so soon, Isaac
Isaac
asked how it could be that the hunt went so quickly. Jacob
Jacob
responded, "Because the LORD your God
God
brought it to me." Rashi, on Genesis 27:21 says Isaac's suspicions were aroused even more, because Esau
Esau
never used the personal name of God. Isaac
Isaac
demanded that Jacob
Jacob
come close so he could feel him, but the goatskins felt just like Esau's hairy skin. Confused, Isaac
Isaac
exclaimed, "The voice is Jacob's voice, but the hands are the hands of Esau!" Genesis 27:22. Still trying to get at the truth, Isaac
Isaac
asked him directly, "Art thou my very son Esau?" and Jacob
Jacob
answered simply, "I am." Isaac
Isaac
proceeded to eat the food and to drink the wine that Jacob
Jacob
gave him, and then told him to come close and kiss him. As Jacob
Jacob
kissed his father, Isaac smelled the clothes which belonged to Esau
Esau
and finally accepted that the person in front of him was Esau. Isaac
Isaac
then blessed Jacob
Jacob
with the blessing that was meant for Esau. Genesis 27:28–29 states Isaac's blessing: "Therefore God
God
give thee of the dew of heavens, and the fatness of the earth, and plenty of corn and wine: Let people serve thee: be lord over thy brethren, and let thy mother's sons bow down to thee: cursed be every one that curseth thee, and blessed be he that blesseth thee." Jacob
Jacob
had scarcely left the room when Esau
Esau
returned from the hunt to prepare his game and receive the blessing. The realization that he had been deceived shocked Isaac, yet he acknowledged that Jacob
Jacob
had received the blessings by adding, "Indeed, he will be [or remain] blessed!" (27:33). Esau
Esau
was heartbroken by the deception and begged for his own blessing. Having made Jacob
Jacob
a ruler over his brothers, Isaac
Isaac
could only promise, "By your sword you shall live, but your brother you shall serve; yet it shall be that when you are aggrieved, you may cast off his yoke from upon your neck" (27:39–40). Although Esau
Esau
sold Jacob
Jacob
his own birthright, which was his blessing, for "red pottage", Esau
Esau
still hated Jacob
Jacob
for receiving his blessing that their father Isaac
Isaac
unknowingly had given to him. He vowed to kill Jacob
Jacob
as soon as Isaac
Isaac
died. When Rebecca
Rebecca
heard about his murderous intentions,[11] she ordered Jacob
Jacob
to travel to her brother Laban's house in Haran, until Esau's anger subsided. She convinced Isaac
Isaac
to send Jacob
Jacob
away by telling him that she despaired of his marrying a local girl from the idol-worshipping families of Canaan
Canaan
(as Esau
Esau
had done). After Isaac
Isaac
sent Jacob
Jacob
away to find a wife, Esau
Esau
realized his own Canaanite wives were evil in his father's eyes and so he took a daughter of Isaac's half-brother, Ishmael, as another wife. Jacob's ladder Main article: Jacob's Ladder

Jacob's Dream by William Blake
William Blake
(c. 1800, British Museum, London)

Near Luz en route to Haran, Jacob
Jacob
experienced a vision of a ladder, or staircase, reaching into heaven with angels going up and down it, commonly referred to as "Jacob's ladder". He heard the voice of God, who repeated many of the blessings upon him, coming from the top of the ladder. According to Midrash
Midrash
Genesis Rabbah, the ladder signified the exiles that the Jewish people would suffer before the coming of the Jewish Messiah: the angels that represented the exiles of Babylonia, Persia, and Greece each climbed up a certain number of steps, paralleling the years of the exile, before they "fell down"; but the angel representing the last exile, that of Edom, kept climbing higher and higher into the clouds. Jacob
Jacob
feared that his descendants would never be free of Esau's domination, but God
God
assured him that at the End of Days, Edom
Edom
too would come falling down.[12] In the morning, Jacob
Jacob
awakened and continued on his way to Haran, after naming the place where he had spent the night "Bethel", "God's house". Jacob's marriages Arriving in Haran, Jacob
Jacob
saw a well where shepherds were gathering their flocks to water them and met Laban's younger daughter, Rachel, Jacob's first cousin; she was working as a shepherdess. He loved her immediately, and after spending a month with his relatives, asked for her hand in marriage in return for working seven years for Laban the Aramean. Laban agreed to the arrangement. These seven years seemed to Jacob
Jacob
"but a few days, for the love he had for her", but when they were complete and he asked for his wife, Laban deceived Jacob
Jacob
by switching Rachel
Rachel
for her older sister, Leah, as the veiled bride.

Rachel
Rachel
and Jacob
Jacob
by William Dyce

In the morning, when the truth became known, Laban justified his action, saying that in his country it was unheard of to give a younger daughter before the older. However, he agreed to give Rachel
Rachel
in marriage as well if Jacob
Jacob
would work another seven years. After the week of wedding celebrations with Leah, Jacob
Jacob
married Rachel, and he continued to work for Laban for another seven years. Jacob
Jacob
loved Rachel
Rachel
more than Leah, and Leah
Leah
felt hated. God
God
opened Leah's womb and she gave birth to four sons rapidly: Reuben, Simeon, Levi, and Judah. Rachel, however, remained barren. Following the example of Sarah, who gave her handmaid to Abraham
Abraham
after years of infertility, Rachel
Rachel
gave Jacob
Jacob
her handmaid, Bilhah, in marriage so that Rachel
Rachel
could raise children through her. Bilhah gave birth to Dan and Naphtali. Seeing that she had left off childbearing temporarily, Leah
Leah
then gave her handmaid Zilpah to Jacob
Jacob
in marriage so that Leah could raise more children through her. Zilpah gave birth to Gad and Asher. Afterwards, Leah
Leah
became fertile again and gave birth to Issachar, Zebulun, and Dinah, Jacob's first and only daughter. God remembered Rachel, who gave birth to Joseph
Joseph
and Benjamin. If pregnancies of different marriages overlapped, the first twelve births (all the sons except Benjamin, and the daughter Dinah) could have occurred within seven years. That is one obvious, but not universally held, interpretation of Genesis 29:27–30:25.[13] After Joseph
Joseph
was born, Jacob
Jacob
decided to return home to his parents. Laban the Aramean
Aramean
was reluctant to release him, as God
God
had blessed his flock on account of Jacob. Laban asked what he could pay Jacob. Jacob suggested that all the spotted, speckled, and brown goats and sheep of Laban's flock, at any given moment, would be his wages. Jacob
Jacob
placed rods of poplar, hazel, and chestnut, all of which he peeled "white streaks upon them",[14] within the flocks' watering holes or troughs in a performance of sympathetic magic, associating the stripes of the rods with the growth of stripes on the livestock.[15] Despite this practicing of magic, later on Jacob
Jacob
says to his wives that it was God who made the livestock give birth to the convenient offspring, in order to turn the tide against the deceptive Laban.[16] As time passed, Laban's sons noticed that Jacob
Jacob
was taking the better part of their flocks, and so Laban's friendly attitude towards Jacob
Jacob
began to change. The angel of the Lord, in a dream back during the breeding season, told Jacob
Jacob
"Now lift your eyes and see [that] all the he goats mounting the animals are ringed, speckled, and striped, for I have seen all that Laban is doing to you",[17] that he is the God
God
whom Jacob
Jacob
met at Bethel,[18] and that Jacob
Jacob
should leave and go back to the land where he was born,[19] which he and his wives and children did without informing Laban. Before they left, Rachel
Rachel
stole the teraphim, considered to be household idols, from Laban's house. Laban pursued Jacob
Jacob
for seven days. The night before he caught up to him, God
God
appeared to Laban in a dream and warned him not to say anything good or bad to Jacob. When the two met, Laban said to Jacob, “What have you done, that you have tricked me and driven away my daughters like captives of the sword?"[20] He also asked for his stolen teraphim back. Knowing nothing about Rachel's theft, Jacob
Jacob
told Laban that whoever stole them should die and stood aside to let him search. When Laban reached Rachel's tent, she hid the teraphim by sitting on them and stating she could not get up because she was menstruating. Jacob
Jacob
and Laban then parted from each other with a pact to preserve the peace between them. Laban returned to his home and Jacob
Jacob
continued on his way. Journey back to Canaan

Jacob
Jacob
Wrestling with the Angel by Eugène Delacroix.

Main article: Jacob
Jacob
wrestling with the angel As Jacob
Jacob
neared the land of Canaan, he sent messengers ahead to his brother Esau. They returned with the news that Esau
Esau
was coming to meet Jacob
Jacob
with an army of 400 men. With great apprehension, Jacob
Jacob
prepared for the worst. He engaged in earnest prayer to God, then sent on before him a tribute of flocks and herds to Esau, "a present to my lord Esau
Esau
from thy servant Jacob". Jacob
Jacob
then transported his family and flocks across the ford Jabbok
Jabbok
by night, then recrossed back to send over his possessions, being left alone in communion with God. There, a mysterious being appeared ("man", Genesis 32:24, 28; or "God", Genesis 32:28, 30, Hosea
Hosea
12:3, 5; or "angel", Hosea
Hosea
12:4), and the two wrestled until daybreak. When the being saw that he did not overpower Jacob, he touched Jacob
Jacob
on the sinew of his thigh (the gid hanasheh, גיד הנשה), and, as a result, Jacob
Jacob
developed a limp (Genesis 32:31). Because of this, "to this day the people of Israel do not eat the sinew of the thigh that is on the hip socket" (Genesis 32:32). This incident is the source of the mitzvah of porging.[21] Jacob
Jacob
then demanded a blessing, and the being declared in Genesis 32:28 that, from then on, Jacob
Jacob
would be called יִשְׂרָאֵל, Israel (Yisra`el, meaning "one that struggled with the divine angel" (Josephus), "one who has prevailed with God" (Rashi), "a man seeing God" (Whiston), "he will rule as God" (Strong), or "a prince with God" (Morris), from Hebrew: שרה‎, "prevail", "have power as a prince").[22] While he is still called Jacob
Jacob
in later texts, his name Israel makes some consider him the eponymous ancestor of the Israelites. Jacob
Jacob
asked the being's name, but he refused to answer. Afterwards, Jacob
Jacob
named the place Penuel
Penuel
(Penuw`el, Peniy`el, meaning "face of God"),[23] saying: "I have seen God
God
face to face and lived." Because the terminology is ambiguous ("el" in Yisra`el) and inconsistent, and because this being refused to reveal his name, there are varying views as to whether he was a man, an angel, or God. Josephus uses only the terms "angel", "divine angel", and "angel of God", describing the struggle as no small victory. According to Rashi, the being was the guardian angel of Esau
Esau
himself, sent to destroy Jacob
Jacob
before he could return to the land of Canaan. Trachtenberg theorized that the being refused to identify itself for fear that, if its secret name was known, it would be conjurable by incantations.[24] Literal Christian
Christian
interpreters like Henry M. Morris
Henry M. Morris
say that the stranger was " God
God
Himself and, therefore, Christ in His preincarnate state", citing Jacob's own evaluation and the name he assumed thereafter, "one who fights victoriously with God", and adding that God
God
had appeared in the human form of the Angel of the Lord
Angel of the Lord
to eat a meal with Abraham
Abraham
in Genesis 18.[25] Geller wrote that, "in the context of the wrestling bout, the name implies that Jacob
Jacob
won this supremacy, linked to that of God's, by a kind of theomachy."[26] In the morning, Jacob
Jacob
assembled his 4 wives and 11 sons, placing the maidservants and their children in front, Leah
Leah
and her children next, and Rachel
Rachel
and Joseph
Joseph
in the rear. Some commentators cite this placement as proof that Jacob
Jacob
continued to favor Joseph
Joseph
over Leah's children, as presumably the rear position would have been safer from a frontal assault by Esau, which Jacob
Jacob
feared. Jacob
Jacob
himself took the foremost position. Esau's spirit of revenge, however, was apparently appeased by Jacob's bounteous gifts of camels, goats and flocks. Their reunion was an emotional one.

Peter Paul Rubens, The Reconciliation of Jacob
Jacob
and Esau, 1624.

Esau
Esau
offered to accompany them on their way back to Israel, but Jacob protested that his children were still young and tender (born 6 to 13 years prior in the narrative); Jacob
Jacob
suggested eventually catching up with Esau
Esau
at Mount Seir. According to the Sages, this was a prophetic reference to the End of Days, when Jacob's descendants will come to Mount Seir, the home of Edom, to deliver judgment against Esau's descendants for persecuting them throughout the millennia (see Obadiah 1:21). Jacob
Jacob
actually diverted himself to Succoth and was not recorded as rejoining Esau
Esau
until, at Machpelah, the two bury their father Isaac, who lived to be 180, and was 60 years older than they were. Jacob
Jacob
then arrived in Shechem, where he bought a parcel of land, now identified as Joseph's Tomb. In Shechem, Jacob's daughter Dinah
Dinah
was kidnapped and raped by the ruler's son, who desired to marry the girl. Dinah's brothers, Simeon and Levi, agreed in Jacob's name to permit the marriage as long as all the men of Shechem
Shechem
first circumcised themselves, ostensibly to unite the children of Jacob
Jacob
in Abraham's covenant of familial harmony. On the third day after the circumcisions, when all the men of Shechem
Shechem
were still in pain, Simeon and Levi
Levi
put them all to death by the sword and rescued their sister Dinah, and their brothers plundered the property, women, and children. Jacob
Jacob
condemned this act, saying: "You have brought trouble on me by making me a stench to the Canaanites
Canaanites
and Perizzites, the people living in this land."[27] He later rebuked his two sons for their anger in his deathbed blessing (Genesis 49:5–7).

Jacob
Jacob
struggles with the angel. Gutenberg Bible, 1558.

Jacob
Jacob
returned to Bethel, where he had another vision of blessing. Although the death of Rebecca, Jacob's mother, is not explicitly recorded in the Bible, Deborah, Rebecca's nurse, died and was buried at Bethel, at a place that Jacob
Jacob
calls Allon Bachuth (אלון בכות), "Oak of Weepings" (Genesis 35:8). According to the Midrash,[28] the plural form of the word "weeping" indicates the double sorrow that Rebecca
Rebecca
also died at this time. Jacob
Jacob
then made a further move while Rachel
Rachel
was pregnant; near Bethlehem, Rachel
Rachel
went into labor and died as she gave birth to her second son, Benjamin
Benjamin
(Jacob's twelfth son). Jacob
Jacob
buried her and erected a monument over her grave. Rachel's Tomb, just outside Bethlehem, remains a popular site for pilgrimages and prayers to this day. Jacob
Jacob
then settled in Migdal Eder, where his firstborn, Reuben, slept with Rachel's servant Bilhah; Jacob's response was not given at the time, but he did condemn Reuben
Reuben
for it later, in his deathbed blessing. Jacob
Jacob
was finally reunited with his father Isaac
Isaac
in Mamre (outside Hebron). When Isaac
Isaac
died at the age of 180, Jacob
Jacob
and Esau
Esau
buried him in the Cave of the Patriarchs, which Abraham
Abraham
had purchased as a family burial plot. At this point in the biblical narrative, two genealogies of Esau's family appear under the headings "the generations of Esau". A conservative interpretation is that, at Isaac's burial, Jacob
Jacob
obtained the records of Esau, who had been married 80 years prior, and incorporated them into his own family records, and that Moses augmented and published them.[29] Jacob
Jacob
in Hebron Main article: Plot against Joseph The house of Jacob
Jacob
dwelt in Hebron,[30] in the land of Canaan. His flocks were often fed in the pastures of Shechem[31][32] as well as Dothan.[33] Of all the children in his household, he loved Rachel’s firstborn son, Joseph, the most. Thus Joseph’s half brothers were jealous of him and they ridiculed him often. Joseph
Joseph
even told his father about all of his half brothers’ misdeeds. When Joseph
Joseph
was seventeen years old, Jacob
Jacob
made a long coat or tunic of many colors for him. Seeing this, the half brothers began to hate Joseph. Then Joseph
Joseph
began to have dreams that implied that his family would bow down to him. When he told his brothers about these dreams, it drove them to conspire against him. When Jacob
Jacob
heard of these dreams, he rebuked his son for proposing the idea that the house of Jacob
Jacob
would even bow down to Joseph. Yet, he contemplated his son’s words about these dreams. (Genesis 37:1–11)

Joseph's Coat Brought to Jacob by Giovanni Andrea de Ferrari, c. 1640.

Sometime afterward, the sons of Jacob
Jacob
by Leah, Bilhah and Zilpah, were feeding his flocks in Shechem. Jacob
Jacob
wanted to know how things were doing, so he asked Joseph
Joseph
to go down there and return with a report.[34] This was the last time he would ever see his son in Hebron. Later that day, the report that Jacob
Jacob
ended up receiving came from Joseph's brothers who brought before him a coat laden with blood. Jacob
Jacob
identified the coat as the one he made for Joseph. At that moment he cried “It is my son’s tunic. A wild beast has devoured him. Without doubt Joseph
Joseph
is torn to pieces.” He rent his clothes and put sackcloth around his waist mourning for days. No one from the house of Jacob
Jacob
could comfort him during this time of bereavement. (Genesis 37:31–35) The truth was, Joseph's older brothers had turned on him, apprehended him and ultimately sold into slavery on a caravan headed for Egypt. (Genesis 37:36) Seven year famine See also: Joseph's brothers sent to Egypt Twenty years later,[35] throughout the Middle East a severe famine occurred like none other that lasted seven years.[36] It crippled nations.[37] The word was that the only kingdom prospering was Egypt. In the second year of this great famine,[38] when Israel (Jacob) was about 130 years old,[39] he told his ten sons of Leah, Bilhah and Zilpah, to go to Egypt
Egypt
and buy grain. Israel’s youngest son Benjamin, born from Rachel, stayed behind by his father’s order to keep him safe. (Genesis 42:1–5) Nine of the sons returned to their father Israel from Egypt, stockpiled with grain on their donkeys. They relayed to their father all that had happened in Egypt. They spoke of being accused of as spies and that their brother Simeon, had been taken prisoner. When Reuben, the eldest, mentioned that they needed to bring Benjamin
Benjamin
to Egypt
Egypt
to prove their word as honest men, their father became furious with them. He couldn't understand how they were put in a position to tell the Egyptians all about their family. When the sons of Israel opened their sacks, they saw their money that they used to pay for the grain. It was still in their possession, and so they all became afraid. Israel then became angry with the loss of Joseph, Simeon, and now possibly Benjamin. (Genesis 42:26–38) It turned out that Joseph, who identified his brothers in Egypt, was able to secretly return that money that they used to pay for the grain, back to them.[40] When the house of Israel consumed all the grain that they brought from Egypt, Israel told his sons to go back and buy more. This time, Judah spoke to his father in order to persuade him about having Benjamin
Benjamin
accompany them, so as to prevent Egyptian retribution. In hopes of retrieving Simeon and ensuring Benjamin's return, Israel told them to bring the best fruits of their land, including: balm, honey, spices, myrrh, pistachio nuts and almonds. Israel also mentioned that the money that was returned to their money sacks was probably a mistake or an oversight on their part. So, he told them to bring that money back and use double that amount to pay for the new grain. Lastly, he let Benjamin
Benjamin
go with them and said “may God
God
Almighty give you mercy… If I am bereaved, I am bereaved!” (Genesis 43:1–14) Jacob
Jacob
in Egypt

House of Israel welcomed by Pharaoh, watercolor by James Tissot
James Tissot
(c. 1900)

Joseph
Joseph
with his father Jacob
Jacob
and brothers in Egypt

See also: Joseph's family reunited When the sons of Israel (Jacob) returned to Hebron
Hebron
from their second trip, they came back with twenty additional donkeys carrying all kinds of goods and supplies as well as Egyptian transport wagons. When their father came out to meet them, his sons told him that Joseph
Joseph
was still alive, that he was the governor over all of Egypt
Egypt
and that he wanted the house of Israel to move to Egypt. Israel’s heart “stood still” and just couldn’t believe what he was hearing. Looking upon the wagons he declared “ Joseph
Joseph
my son is still alive. I will go and see him before I die.” (Genesis 45:16–28) Israel and his entire house of seventy,[41] gathered up with all their livestock and began their journey to Egypt. En route, Israel stopped at Beersheba
Beersheba
for the night to make a sacrificial offering to his God, Yahweh. Apparently he had some reservations about leaving the land of his forefathers, but God
God
reassured him not to fear that he would rise again. God
God
also assured that he would be with him, he would prosper, and he would also see his son Joseph
Joseph
who would lay him to rest. Continuing their journey to Egypt, when they approached in proximity, Israel sent his son Judah ahead to find out where the caravans were to stop. They were directed to disembark at Goshen. It was here, after twenty-two years, that Jacob
Jacob
saw his son Joseph
Joseph
once again. They embraced each other and wept together for quite a while. Israel then said, “Now let me die, since I have seen your face, because you are still alive.” (Genesis 46:1–30) The time had come for Joseph’s family to personally meet the Pharaoh of Egypt. After Joseph
Joseph
prepared his family for the meeting, the brothers came before the Pharaoh
Pharaoh
first, formally requesting to pasture in Egyptian lands. The Pharaoh
Pharaoh
honored their stay and even made the notion that if there were any competent men in their house, then they may elect a chief herdsman to oversee Egyptian livestock. Finally, Joseph’s father was brought out to meet the Pharaoh. Because the Pharaoh
Pharaoh
had such a high regard for Joseph, practically making him his equal,[42] it was an honor to meet his father. Thus, Israel was able to bless the Pharaoh. The two chatted for a bit, the Pharaoh
Pharaoh
even inquiring of Israel’s age which happened to be 130 years old at that time. After the meeting, the families were directed to pasture in the land of Ramses where they lived in the province of Goshen. The house of Israel acquired many possessions and multiplied exceedingly during the course of seventeen years, even through the worst of the seven-year famine. (Genesis 46:31–47:28) Final days Main article: Blessing of Jacob

Jacob
Jacob
blessing Ephraim
Ephraim
and Manasseh

Jacob's funeral procession

Israel (Jacob) was 147 years old when he called to his favorite son Joseph
Joseph
and pleaded that he not be buried in Egypt. Rather, he requested to be carried to the land of Canaan
Canaan
to be buried with his forefathers. Joseph
Joseph
swore to do as his father asked of him. Not too long afterward, Israel had fallen ill, losing much of his vision. When Joseph
Joseph
came to visit his father, he brought with him his two sons, Ephraim
Ephraim
and Manasseh. Israel declared that they would be heirs to the inheritance of the house of Israel, as if they were his own children, just as Reuben
Reuben
and Simeon were. Then Israel laid his right hand on the younger Ephraim’s head and his left hand on the eldest Manasseh’s head and blessed Joseph. However, Joseph
Joseph
was displeased that his father’s right hand was not on the head of his firstborn, so he switched his father’s hands. But Israel refused saying, “but truly his younger brother shall be greater than he.” A declaration he made, just as Israel himself was to his firstborn brother Esau. Then Israel called all of his sons in and prophesied their blessings or curses to all twelve of them in order of their ages. (Genesis 47:29–49:32) Afterward, Israel died and the family, including the Egyptians, mourned him seventy days. Israel was embalmed and a great ceremonial journey to Canaan
Canaan
was prepared by Joseph. He led the servants of Pharaoh, and the elders of the houses Israel and Egypt
Egypt
beyond the Jordan River
Jordan River
to Atad where they observed seven days of mourning. Their lamentation was so great that it caught the attention of surrounding Canaanites
Canaanites
who remarked “This is a deep mourning of the Egyptians.” This spot was then named Abel Mizraim. Then they buried him in the cave of Machpelah, the property of Abraham
Abraham
when he bought it from the Hittites. (Genesis 49:33–50:14) Children of Jacob See also: Israelites Jacob, through his two wives and his two concubines had twelve biological sons; Reuben
Reuben
(Genesis 29:32), Simeon (Genesis 29:33), Levi (Genesis 29:34), Judah (Genesis 29:35), Dan (Genesis 30:5), Naphtali (Genesis 30:7), Gad (Genesis 30:10), Asher
Asher
(Genesis 30:12), Issachar (Genesis 30:17), Zebulun (Genesis 30:19), Joseph
Joseph
(Genesis 30:23) and Benjamin
Benjamin
(Genesis 35:18) and at least one daughter, Dinah
Dinah
(if there were other daughters, they are not mentioned in the Genesis story)(Genesis 30:21). In addition, Jacob
Jacob
also adopted the two sons of Joseph, Manasseh and Ephraim.(Genesis 48:5)

v t e

Children of Jacob
Jacob
by wife in order of birth

Leah

Reuben
Reuben
(1) Simeon (2) Levi
Levi
(3) Judah (4) Issachar (9) Zebulun (10) Dinah
Dinah
(11)

Rachel

Joseph
Joseph
(12) Benjamin
Benjamin
(13)

Bilhah (Rachel's servant)

Dan (5) Naphtali (6)

Zilpah (Leah's servant)

Gad (7) Asher
Asher
(8)

The offspring of Jacob's sons became the tribes of Israel following the Exodus, when the Israelites
Israelites
conquered and settled in the Land of Israel. Family tree

Terah

Sarah[43]

Abraham

Hagar

Haran

Nahor

Ishmael

Milcah

Lot

Iscah

Ishmaelites

7 sons[44]

Bethuel

1st daughter

2nd daughter

Isaac

Rebecca

Laban

Moabites

Ammonites

Esau

Jacob

Rachel

Bilhah

Edomites

Zilpah

Leah

1. Reuben 2. Simeon 3. Levi 4. Judah 9. Issachar 10. Zebulun Dinah (daughter)

7. Gad 8. Asher

5. Dan 6. Naphtali

11. Joseph 12. Benjamin

Religious perspectives

Jacob/Israel

Russian Orthodox
Russian Orthodox
Icon
Icon
of St. Jacob, 18th century (Iconostasis) of Kizhi
Kizhi
monastery, Russia

Prophet, Patriarch

Venerated in Judaism Christianity Islam Bahá'í Faith

Major shrine Cave of the Patriarchs, Hebron

Jewish tradition There are two opinions in the Midrash
Midrash
as to how old Rebekah was at the time of her marriage and, consequently, at the twins' birth. According to the traditional counting cited by Rashi, Isaac
Isaac
was 37 years old at the time of the Binding of Isaac, and news of Rebekah's birth reached Abraham
Abraham
immediately after that event.[45] In that case, since Isaac was 60 when Jacob
Jacob
and Essau were born and they had been married for 20 years, then Isaac
Isaac
was 40 years old when he married Rebekah (Gen. 25:20), making Rebekah 3 years old at the time of her marriage, and 23 years old at the birth of Jacob
Jacob
and Essau. According to the second opinion, Rebekah was 14 years old at the time of their marriage, and 34 years old at the birth of Jacob
Jacob
and Essau.[citation needed] In either case, Isaac
Isaac
and Rebekah were married for 20 years before Jacob and Esau
Esau
were born. The Midrash
Midrash
says that during Rebekah's pregnancy whenever she would pass a house of Torah
Torah
study, Jacob
Jacob
would struggle to come out; whenever she would pass a house of idolatry, Esau
Esau
would agitate to come out.[46] Rashi
Rashi
explained that Isaac, when blessing Jacob
Jacob
instead of Esau, smelled the heavenly scent of Gan Eden (Paradise) when Jacob
Jacob
entered his room and, in contrast, perceived Gehenna
Gehenna
opening beneath Esau
Esau
when the latter entered the room, showing him that he had been deceived all along by Esau's show of piety.[47] When Laban planned to deceive Jacob
Jacob
into marrying Leah
Leah
instead of Rachel, the Midrash
Midrash
recounts that both Jacob
Jacob
and Rachel
Rachel
suspected that Laban would pull such a trick; Laban was known as the "Aramean" (deceiver), and changed Jacob's wages ten times during his employ (Genesis 31:7). The couple therefore devised a series of signs by which Jacob
Jacob
could identify the veiled bride on his wedding night. But when Rachel
Rachel
saw her sister being taken out to the wedding canopy, her heart went out to her for the public shame Leah
Leah
would suffer if she were exposed. Rachel
Rachel
therefore gave Leah
Leah
the signs so that Jacob
Jacob
would not realize the switch. Jacob
Jacob
had still another reason for grieving the loss of Joseph. God had promised to him: "If none of your sons dies during your lifetime, you may look upon it as a token that you will not be put in ( Hell
Hell
of) Gehenna
Gehenna
after your death."[48] Thinking Joseph
Joseph
to be dead, Jacob
Jacob
had his own destiny to lament because he considered that he was doomed to that Hell.[48] Jewish apocalyptic literature of the Hellenistic period includes many ancient texts with narratives about Jacob, many times with details different from Genesis. The more important are the book of Jubilees and the Book of Biblical Antiquities. Jacob
Jacob
is also the protagonist of the Testament of Jacob, of the Ladder of Jacob and of the Prayer of Joseph, which interpret the experience of this Patriarch
Patriarch
in the context of merkabah mysticism. Christianity The Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
and those Eastern Catholic Churches
Eastern Catholic Churches
which follow the Byzantine Rite
Byzantine Rite
see Jacob's dream as a prophecy of the Incarnation of the Logos, whereby Jacob's ladder
Jacob's ladder
is understood as a symbol of the Theotokos
Theotokos
(Virgin Mary), who, according to Orthodox theology, united heaven and earth in her womb. The biblical account of this vision (Genesis 28:10–17) is one of the standard Old Testament readings at Vespers
Vespers
on Great Feasts
Great Feasts
of the Theotokos. The Catholic church considers Jacob
Jacob
as a Saint along with other biblical patriarchs.[49] Along with other patriarchs his feast day is celebrated in the Byzantine rite of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
on the Second Sunday before the Advent (December 11–17), under the title the Sunday of the Forefathers.[50] Islamic tradition Main article: Jacob
Jacob
in Islam

Cenotaph of Jacob, Cave of the Patriarchs

Yaqub (Arabic: يَعْقُوب‎, translit. Yaʿqūb; also later Isra'il, Arabic: إِسْرَآئِیل [ˈisraāˈiyl]; Classical/ Qur'anic Arabic: إِسْرَآءِیْل [ˈisraāãˈiyl]), also known as Jacob
Jacob
in the Old Testament, is recognized in Islam
Islam
as a prophet who received inspiration from God. He is acknowledged as a patriarch of Islam. Muslims believe that he preached the same monotheistic faith as his forefathers ʾIbrāhīm, ʾIsḥāq and Ismā'īl. Jacob
Jacob
is mentioned 16 times in the Qur'an.[51] In the majority of these references, Jacob
Jacob
is mentioned alongside fellow prophets and patriarchs as an ancient and pious prophet. According to the Qur'an, Jacob
Jacob
remained in the company of the elect throughout his life. (38:47) The Qur'an
Qur'an
specifically mentions that Jacob
Jacob
was guided (6:84) and inspired (4:163) and was chosen to enforce the awareness of the Hereafter. (38:46) Jacob
Jacob
is described as a good-doer (21:72) and the Qur'an
Qur'an
further makes it clear that God inspired Jacob
Jacob
to contribute towards purification and hold the contact prayer. (21:73) Jacob
Jacob
is further described as being resourceful and a possessor of great vision (38:45) and is further spoken of as being granted a "tongue [voice] of truthfulness to be heard". (19:50) Of the life of Jacob, the Qur'an
Qur'an
narrates two especially important events. The first is the role he plays in the story of his son Joseph. The Qur'an
Qur'an
narrates the story of Joseph
Joseph
in detail, and Jacob, being Joseph's father, is mentioned thrice and is referenced another 25 times.[51] In the narrative, Jacob
Jacob
does not trust some of his older sons (12: 11, 18, 23) because they do not respect him. (12: 8, 16–17) Jacob's prophetic nature is evident from his foreknowledge of Joseph's future greatness (12:6), his foreboding and response to the supposed death of Joseph
Joseph
(12: 13, 18) and in his response to the sons' plight in Egypt. (12: 83, 86–87, 96) Islamic literature fleshes out the narrative of Jacob, and mentions that his wives included Rachel.[52] Jacob
Jacob
is later mentioned in the Qur'an
Qur'an
in the context of the promise bestowed to Zechariah, regarding the birth of John the Baptist. (19:6) Jacob’s second mention is in the Qur'an’s second chapter. As Jacob
Jacob
lay on his deathbed, he asked his twelve sons to testify their faith to him before he departed from this world to the next. (2:132) Each son testified in front of Jacob
Jacob
that they would promise to remain Muslim
Muslim
(in submission to God) until the day of their death, that is they would surrender their wholeselves to God
God
alone and would worship only Him. In contrast to the Judeo-Christian view of Jacob, one main difference is that the story of Jacob's blessing, in which he deceives Isaac, is not accepted in Islam. The Qur'an
Qur'an
makes it clear that Jacob
Jacob
was blessed by God
God
as a prophet and, therefore, Muslims believe that his father, being a prophet as well, also knew of his son's greatness.[53] Jacob
Jacob
is also cited in the Hadith
Hadith
as an example of one who was patient and trusting in God
God
in the face of suffering.[51] Non-religious perspective The life of Jacob
Jacob
as depicted in the Bible
Bible
also influenced and inspired many non-religious people. Critics tracing the history of the Love Story note the story of Jacob
Jacob
and Rachel
Rachel
as one of the earliest examples of this genre. During the Second World War, the French writer André Malraux
André Malraux
worked on his last novel, The Struggle with the Angel, the title drawn from the story of Jacob. The manuscript was destroyed by the Gestapo after Malraux's capture in 1944. A surviving first section, titled The Walnut Trees of Altenburg, was published after the war. Historicity According to Steven Feldman of the Center for Online Judaic Studies, most scholars would date the stories of the patriarchs to the period of the monarchy.[54] Recent excavations in the Timna Valley
Timna Valley
dating copper mining to the 10th century BCE also discovered what may be the earliest camel bones found in Israel or even outside the Arabian peninsula, dating to around 930 BCE. This is seen as evidence that the stories of Abraham, Joseph, Jacob, and Esau
Esau
were written after this time.[55] Nahum M. Sarna indicates that an inability to precisely date the patriarchs, according to the present state of knowledge does not necessarily invalidate the historicity of the narratives. William F. Albright maintained that the narratives contained accurate details of an earlier period.[56] Scholars such as Thomas L. Thompson view the patriarchical narratives, including the life of Jacob, as late (6th and 5th centuries BCE) literary compositions that have ideological and theological purposes but are unreliable for historical reconstruction of the presettlement period of Israel’s past.[57][58] In Thompson's The Historicity of the Patriarchal Narratives, he suggests that the patriarchal narratives arose in a response to some present situation, expressed as an imaginative picture of the past to embody present hope.[59] Gerhard von Rad, in his Old Testament
Old Testament
Theology, seems to take a middle view, explaining that the patriarch "saga" describes actual events subsequently interpreted by the community through its own experience.[60] It is neither entirely mythical, nor strictly "historical", according to the present understanding of the term. Goldingay cites R.J Coggins' analogy of looking to Genesis for the history of ancient Canaan
Canaan
as similar to reading Hamlet in order to learn Danish history.[59] References

^ Enumerations of the twelve tribes vary. Because Jacob
Jacob
effectively adopted two of his grandsons by Joseph
Joseph
and Asenath, namely Ephraim
Ephraim
and Manasseh, the two grandsons were often substituted for the Tribe
Tribe
of Joseph, yielding thirteen tribes, or twelve if Levi
Levi
is set apart. ^ יָדֹו אֹחֶזֶת בַּעֲקֵב עֵשָׂו‎ (KJV: "and his hand took hold on Esau's heel"). Strong's Concordance
Strong's Concordance
H6119. ^ David
David
Noel Freedman; Allen C. Myers (31 December 2000). Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Amsterdam University Press. p. 666. ISBN 978-90-5356-503-2.  ^ Victor P. Hamilton, The Book of Genesis, Chapters 18-50 (1995), p. 179. ^ Jonathan Z. Smith, Map is Not Territory: Studies in the History of Religions, University of Chicago Press (1978), p. 33. ^ שָׂרָה‎ śarah "to contend, have power, contend with, persist, exert oneself, persevere" ( Strong's Concordance
Strong's Concordance
H8323); שָׂרַר‎ śarar "to be or act as prince, rule, contend, have power, prevail over, reign, govern" ( Strong's Concordance
Strong's Concordance
h8280) ^ "The Jewish Study Bible" of Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
(p. 68=) "The scientific etymology of Israel is uncertain, a good guess being '[The God] El rules.'"[1] ^ Strong's Concordance
Strong's Concordance
3290, 6117. ^ Scherman, Rabbi
Rabbi
Nosson (1993). The Chumash. Brooklyn, New York: Mesorah Publications, p. 135. ^ Ginzberg, Louis (1909). Legends of the Jews Vol I : Isaac blesses Jacob
Jacob
(Translated by Henrietta Szold) Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society. ^ Genesis 27:42 ^ The Four Exiles by Rabbi
Rabbi
Dr. Hillel ben David ^ Zimmerman, Charles L (1972), "The chronology and birth of Jacob's children by Leah
Leah
and her handmaid" (PDF), Grace Journal, Grace Theological Seminary (13.1 (Winter 1972)): 3–12  ^ Genesis 30:37 ^ >Genesis 30:39 ^ Genesis 31:7-9 ^ Genesis 31:12 ^ Genesis 31:13 ^ Genesis 31:13 ^ Genesis 31:26 ^ Eisenstein, Judah David
David
(1901–1906). "Porging". Jewish Encyclopedia. New York City. LCCN:16014703. Retrieved 2008-11-19.  ^ Strong's Concordance
Strong's Concordance
3478, 8280. ^ Strong's Concordance
Strong's Concordance
6439. ^ Trachtenberg 1939, p. 80. ^ Morris, Henry M. (1976). The Genesis Record: A Scientific and Devotional Commentary on the Book of Beginnings. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House. pp. 337, 499–502.  ^ Geller, Stephen A. (1982). "The Struggle at the Jabbok: the Uses of Enigma in a Biblical Narrative". Journal of the Ancient Near Eastern Society (JANES). New Jork: Columbia University. 14: 37–60. Archived from the original on August 14, 2014. Retrieved June 27, 2013. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) Also in: Geller, Stephen A. (1996). "2 – The Struggle at the Jabbok. The uses of enigma in biblical religion (pp. 9ff.)". Sacred Enigmas. Literary Religion in the Hebrew Bible. London: Routledge. p. 22. ISBN 0-415-12771-8; ISBN 978-04-1512-771-4.  ^ Genesis 34:30 ^ Bereshit Rabbah 81:5. ^ Morris, Henry M. (1976). The Genesis Record: A Scientific and Devotional Commentary on the Book of Beginnings. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House. pp. 524–25.  ^ Genesis 37:14 ^ Genesis 37:12 ^ Josephus. The Antiquities of the Jews, Book II, 2.4.18 ^ Genesis 37:16,17 ^ Genesis 37:12–14 ^ Compare Genesis 37:2,41:46 ^ Genesis 41:53 ^ Genesis 41:54–57,47:13 ^ Genesis 45:9–11 ^ Compare Genesis 47:9 ^ Genesis 42:25 ^ Genesis 46:27 ^ Genesis 44:18 ^ Genesis 20:12: Sarah
Sarah
was the half–sister of Abraham. ^ Genesis 22:21-22: Uz, Buz, Kemuel, Chesed, Hazo, Pildash, and Jidlaph ^ Rashi
Rashi
writes, "The Holy One, blessed be He, announced to him [Abraham] that Rebekah, his [Isaac's] mate, had been born." Commentary on Gen. 22:20. ^ Bereshit Rabbah 63:6. ^ Pirkei d'Rav Kahana, quoted in Scherman, p. 139. ^ a b Ginzberg, Louis (1909). Legends of the Jews Vol I : Joseph's Coat Brought to His Father (Translated by Henrietta Szold) Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society ^ The patriarchs, prophets and certain other Old Testament
Old Testament
figures have been and always will be honored as saints in all the Church's liturgical traditions. – Catechism of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
61 ^ Liturgy > Liturgical year >The Christmas Fast – Byzantine Catholic Archeparchy of Pittsburgh ^ a b c "Jacob", Encyclopedia of Islam
Islam
Vol. XI, p. 254. ^ Kathir, Ibn. "Jacob", Stories of the Prophets ^ Azzam, Leila. " Isaac
Isaac
and Jacob", Lives of the Prophets ^ Feldman, Steven. "Biblical History: From Abraham
Abraham
to Moses, c. 1850–1200 BCE", COJS ^ Hasson, Nir (Jan 17, 2014). "Hump stump solved: Camels arrived in region much later than biblicalreference". Haaretz. Retrieved 30 January 2014.  ^ Bimson, John J. "Archaeological Data and the Dating of the Patriarchs", Essays on the Patriarchal Narratives, pp. 59–92, (A.R. Millard & D.J. Wiseman, eds., Leicester: IVP, 1980. Hbk. ISBN 0851117430 ^ Megan Bishop Moore, Brad E. Kelle, Biblical History and Israel's Past: The Changing Study of the Bible
Bible
and History, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2011, pp. 57–74. ^ Rainer Albertz, Israel in exile: the history and literature of the sixth century B.C.E., Society of Biblical Literature, 2003, p. 246 ^ a b Goldingay, John. "The Patriarchs in Scripture and History", Essays on the Patriarchal Narratives, pp. 11–42, (A.R. Millard & D.J. Wiseman, eds., Leicester: IVP, 1980. Hbk. ISBN 0851117430 ^ von Rad, Gerhard. Old Testament
Old Testament
Theology, vol. 1, pp. 106–08, New York: Harper, 1962

Further reading

Trachtenberg, Joshua
Joshua
(1939), Jewish Magic and Superstition: A Study in Folk Religion, New York: Behrman's Jewish Book house 

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jacob.

Texts on Wikisource:

“Jacob,” a poem by Arthur Hugh Clough Cook, Stanley Arthur (1911). "Jacob". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.).  "Jacob". The New Student's Reference Work. 1914.  "Jacob". Collier's New Encyclopedia. 1921. 

v t e

Prophets in the Hebrew Bible

Pre-Patriarchal

Abel Kenan Enoch Noah (in rabbinic literature)

Patriarchs / Matriarchs

Abraham Isaac Jacob Levi Joseph Sarah Rebecca Rachel Leah

Israelite prophets in the Torah

Moses (in rabbinic literature) Aaron Miriam Eldad and Medad Phinehas

Mentioned in the Former Prophets

Joshua Deborah Gideon Eli Elkanah Hannah Abigail Samuel Gad Nathan David Solomon Jeduthun Ahijah Shemaiah Elijah Elisha Iddo Hanani Jehu Micaiah Jahaziel Eliezer Zechariah ben Jehoiada Huldah

Major

Isaiah (in rabbinic literature) Jeremiah Ezekiel Daniel (in rabbinic literature)

Minor

Hosea Joel Amos Obadiah Jonah (in rabbinic literature) Micah Nahum Habakkuk Zephaniah Haggai Zechariah Malachi

Noahide

Beor Balaam Job (in rabbinic literature)

Other

Amoz Beeri Baruch Agur Uriah Buzi Mordecai Esther (in rabbinic literature) Oded Azariah

Italics indicate persons whose status as prophets is not universally accepted.

v t e

Prophets in the Quran

آدم إدريس نوح هود صالح إبراهيم لوط إسماعيل

Adam Adam

Idris Enoch (?)

Nuh Noah

Hud Eber
Eber
(?)

Saleh Salah (?)

Ibrahim Abraham

Lut Lot

Ismail Ishmael

إسحاق يعقوب يوسف أيوب شُعيب موسى هارون ذو الكفل داود

Is'haq Isaac

Yaqub Jacob

Yusuf Joseph

Ayyub Job

Shuayb Jethro (?)

Musa Moses

Harun Aaron

Dhul-Kifl Ezekiel
Ezekiel
(?)

Daud David

سليمان إلياس إليسع يونس زكريا يحيى عيسى مُحمد

Sulaiman Solomon

Ilyas Elijah

Al-Yasa Elisha

Yunus Jonah

Zakaria Zechariah

Yahya John

Isa Jesus

Muhammad Muhammad

Note: Muslims believe that there were many prophets sent by God
God
to mankind. The Islamic prophets above are only the ones mentioned by name in the Quran.

v t e

Adam
Adam
to David
David
according to the Bible

Creation to Flood

Adam Seth Enos Kenan Mahalalel Jared Enoch Methuselah Lamech Noah Shem

Cain line

Adam Cain Enoch Irad Mehujael Methusael Lamech Tubal-cain

Patriarchs after Flood

Arpachshad Cainan Shelah Eber Peleg Reu Serug Nahor Terah Abraham Isaac Jacob

Tribe of Judah
Tribe of Judah
to Kingdom

Judah Perez Hezron Ram Amminadab Nahshon Salmon Boaz Obed Jesse David

Names in italics only appear in the Greek Septuagint
Septuagint
version

v t e

People and things in the Quran

Characters

Non-humans

Allâh ("The God")

Names of Allah
Allah
found in the Quran

Beings in Paradise

Ghilmān or Wildān Ḥūr

Animals

Related

The baqarah (cow) of Israelites The dhi’b (wolf) that Jacob
Jacob
feared could attack Joseph The hud-hud (hoopoe) of Solomon The kalb (dog) of the sleepers of the cave The nūn (fish or whale) of Jonah The nāqaṫ (she-camel) of Saleh The fīl (elephant) of the Abyssinians)

Non-related

Ḥimār (domesticated donkey or wild ass) Qaswarah
Qaswarah
('Lion', 'Beast of prey' or 'Hunter')

Jinn

‘Ifrîṫ ("Strong one") Jann Mârid ("Rebellious one")

Iblīs the Shayṭān (Devil) Other Shayāṭīn (Demons)

Qarīn

Prophets

Mentioned

Ādam (Adam) Al-Yasa‘ (Elisha) Ayyūb (Job) Dāwūd (David) Dhūl-Kifl (Ezekiel?) Hārūn (Aaron) Hūd (Eber?) Idrīs (Enoch?) Ilyās (Elijah) ‘Imrān (Joachim the father of Maryam) Is-ḥāq (Isaac) Ismā‘īl (Ishmael)

Dhabih Ullah

Isma'il Ṣādiq al-Wa‘d (Fulfiller of the Promise) Lūṭ (Lot) Ṣāliḥ Shu‘ayb (Jethro, Reuel or Hobab?) Sulaymān ibn Dāwūd ( Solomon
Solomon
son of David) ‘ Uzair
Uzair
(Ezra?) Yaḥyā ibn Zakariyyā ( John the Baptist
John the Baptist
the son of Zechariah) Ya‘qūb (Jacob)

Isrâ’îl (Israel)

Yūnus (Jonah)

Dhūn-Nūn ("He of the Fish
Fish
(or Whale)" or "Owner of the Fish
Fish
(or Whale)") Ṣāḥib al-Ḥūṫ ("Companion of the Whale")

Yūsuf ibn Ya‘qūb ( Joseph
Joseph
son of Jacob) Zakariyyā (Zechariah)

Ulu-l-‘Azm

Muḥammad

Aḥmad Other names and titles of Muhammad

ʿĪsā (Jesus)

Al-Masīḥ (The Messiah) Ibn Maryam (Son of Mary)

Mūsā Kalīmullāh ( Moses
Moses
He who spoke to God) Ibrāhīm Khalīlullāh ( Abraham
Abraham
Friend of God) Nūḥ (Noah)

Debatable ones

Dhūl-Qarnain (Cyrus the Great?) Luqmân Maryam (Mary) Ṭâlûṫ (Saul or Gideon?)

Implied

Irmiyā (Jeremiah) Ṣamû’îl (Samuel) Yūsha‘ ibn Nūn (Joshua, companion and successor of Moses)

People of Prophets

Evil ones

Āzar (possibly Terah) Fir‘awn ( Pharaoh
Pharaoh
of Moses' time) Hāmān Jâlûṫ (Goliath) Qārūn (Korah, cousin of Moses) As-Sāmirī Abî Lahab Slayers of Saleh's she-camel (Qaddar ibn Salif and Musda' ibn Dahr)

Good ones

Adam's immediate relatives

Martyred son Wife

Believer of Ya-Sin Family of Noah

Father Lamech Mother Shamkhah bint Anush or Betenos

Luqman's son People of Aaron
Aaron
and Moses

Believer of Fir'aun Family (Hizbil/Hizqil ibn Sabura) Imra’aṫ Fir‘awn (Âsiyá bint Muzâḥim or Bithiah) Khidr Magicians of the Pharaoh Moses' wife Moses' sister-in-law Mother Sister

People of Abraham

Mother Abiona or Amtelai the daughter of Karnebo Ishmael's mother Isaac's mother

People of Jesus

Disciples (including Peter) Mary's mother Zechariah's wife

People of Joseph

Brothers (including Binyāmin (Benjamin) and Simeon) Egyptians

‘Azîz (Potiphar, Qatafir or Qittin) Malik (King Ar-Rayyân ibn Al-Walîd)) Wife of ‘Azîz (Zulaykhah)

Mother

People of Solomon

Mother Queen of Sheba Vizier

Zayd

Implied or not specified

Abrahah Bal'am/Balaam Barsisa Caleb or Kaleb the companion of Joshua Luqman's son Nebuchadnezzar II Nimrod Rahmah the wife of Ayyub Shaddad

Groups

Mentioned

Aş-ḥāb al-Jannah

People of Paradise People of the Burnt Garden

Aş-ḥāb as-Sabṫ (Companions of the Sabbath) Christian
Christian
apostles

Ḥawāriyyūn (Disciples of Jesus)

Companions of Noah's Ark Aş-ḥāb al-Kahf war-Raqīm (Companions of the Cave and Al-Raqaim? Companions of the Elephant People of al-Ukhdūd People of a township in Surah Ya-Sin People of Yathrib or Medina Qawm Lûṭ (People of Sodom and Gomorrah) Nation of Noah

Tribes, ethnicities or families

A‘rāb (Arabs or Bedouins)

ʿĀd (people of Hud) Companions of the Rass Qawm Tubba‘ (People of Tubba)

People of Saba’ or Sheba

Quraysh Thamûd (people of Saleh)

Aṣ-ḥâb al-Ḥijr ("Companions of the Stoneland")

Ajam Ar- Rûm (literally "The Romans") Banî Isrâ’îl (Children of Israel) Mu’ṫafikāṫ (The overthrown cities of Sodom and Gomorrah) People of Ibrahim People of Ilyas People of Nuh People of Shuaib

Ahl Madyan People of Madyan) Aṣ-ḥāb al-Aykah
Aṣ-ḥāb al-Aykah
("Companions of the Wood")

Qawm Yûnus (People of Jonah) Ya'juj and Ma'juj/Gog and Magog Ahl al-Bayṫ ("People of the Household")

Household of Abraham

Brothers of Yūsuf Daughters of Abraham's nephew Lot (Ritha, Za'ura, et al.) Progeny of Imran Household of Moses Household of Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib ibn Hashim

Daughters of Muhammad Wives of Muhammad

Household of Salih

People of Fir'aun Current Ummah of Islam
Islam
(Ummah of Muhammad)

Aṣ-ḥāb Muḥammad (Companions of Muhammad)

Muhajirun (Emigrants) Anṣār Muslims of Medina
Medina
who helped Muhammad
Muhammad
and his Meccan followers, literally 'Helpers')

People of Mecca

Umm Jamil (wife of Abu Lahab)

Children of Ayyub Dead son of Sulaiman Qabil/Cain (son of Adam) Wali'ah or Wa'ilah/Waala (wife of Nuh) Walihah or Wahilah (wife of Lut) Ya’jūj wa Ma’jūj (Gog and Magog) Yam or Kan'an (son of Nuh)

Implicitly mentioned

Amalek Ahl as-Suffa (People of the Verandah) Banu Nadir Banu Qaynuqa Banu Qurayza Iranian people Umayyad Dynasty Aus & Khazraj People of Quba

Religious groups

Ahl al-dhimmah (Dhimmi) Kâfirûn (Infidels) Zoroastrians Munāfiqūn (Hypocrites) Muslims People of the Book (Ahl al-Kiṫāb)

Naṣārā (Christian(s) or People of the Injil)

Ruhban ( Christian
Christian
monks) Qissis ( Christian
Christian
priest)

Yahūd (Jews)

Ahbār (Jewish scholars) Rabbani/Rabbi

Sabians

Polytheists

Meccan polytheists at the time of Muhammad Mesopotamian polytheists at the time of Abraham
Abraham
and Lot

Locations

Mentioned

Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah
Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah
("The Land The Blessed")

Al-Arḍ Al-Muqaddasah ("The Land The Holy")

In the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
(excluding Madyan)

Al-Aḥqāf ("The Sandy Plains," or "the Wind-curved Sand-hills")

Iram dhāṫ al-‘Imād (Iram of the Pillars)

Al-Madīnah (formerly Yathrib) ‘Arafāṫ Al-Ḥijr (Hegra) Badr Ḥunayn Makkah (Mecca)

Bakkah Ka‘bah (Kaaba) Maqām Ibrāhīm (Station of Abraham) Safa and Marwah

Saba’ (Sheba)

‘Arim Saba’ (Dam of Sheba)

Rass

Jahannam
Jahannam
(Hell) Jannah
Jannah
(Paradise, literally 'Garden') In Mesopotamia:

Al-Jūdiyy

Munzalanm-Mubārakan ("Place-of-Landing Blessed")

Bābil (Babylon) Qaryaṫ Yūnus ("Township of Jonah," that is Nineveh)

Door of Hittah Madyan (Midian) Majma' al-Bahrain Miṣr (Mainland Egypt) Salsabîl (A river in Paradise) Sinai Region or Tīh Desert

Al-Wād Al-Muqaddas Ṭuwan (The Holy Valley of Tuwa)

Al-Wādil-Ayman (The valley on the 'righthand' side of the Valley of Tuwa and Mount Sinai)

Mount Sinai
Mount Sinai
or Mount Tabor

Implied

Antioch

Antakya

Arabia Ayla Barrier of Dhul-Qarnayn Bayt al-Muqaddas
Bayt al-Muqaddas
& 'Ariha Bilād ar-Rāfidayn (Mesopotamia) Canaan Cave of Seven Sleepers Dār an-Nadwa Al-Ḥijāz (literally "The Barrier")

Black Stone
Black Stone
(Al-Ḥajar al-Aswad) & Al-Hijr of Isma'il Cave of Hira
Hira
& Ghar al-Thawr (Cave of the Bull) Ta'if

Hudaybiyyah Jordan River Nile
Nile
River Palestine River Paradise
Paradise
of Shaddad

Religious locations

Bay'a (Church) Mihrab Monastery Masjid (Mosque, literally "Place of Prostration")

Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām
Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām
("The Monument the Sacred") Al-Masjid Al-Aqṣā (Al-Aqsa Mosque, literally "The Place-of-Prostration The Farthest") Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (The Sacred Mosque
Mosque
of Mecca) Masjid al-Dirar A Mosque
Mosque
in the area of Medina, possibly:

Masjid Qubâ’ (Quba Mosque) The Prophet's Mosque

Salat (Synagogue)

Plant
Plant
matter

Shaṭ’ (Shoot) Sūq (Stem) Zar‘ (Seed)

Fruits

Ḥabb dhul-‘aṣf (Corn of the husk) Rummān (Pomegranate) Ukul khamṭ (Bitter fruit or food of Sheba) In Paradise

Forbidden fruit of Adam

Bushes, trees or plants

Plants of Sheba

Athl (Tamarisk) Sidr (lote-tree)

Līnah (Tender palm tree) Nakhl (date palm) Rayḥān (Scented plant) Sidraṫ al-Munṫahā Zaqqūm

Texts

Al-Injîl (The Gospel
Gospel
of Jesus) Al-Qur’ân (The Book of Muhammad) Ṣuḥuf-i Ibrâhîm (Scroll(s) of Abraham) Aṫ-Ṫawrâṫ (The Torah)

Ṣuḥuf-i-Mûsâ (Scroll(s) of Moses) Tablets of Stone

Az-Zabûr (The Psalms
Psalms
of David) Umm al-Kiṫâb ("Mother of the Book(s)")

Objects of people or beings

Heavenly Food of Christian
Christian
Apostles Noah's Ark Staff of Musa Ṫābūṫ as-Sakīnah (Casket of Shekhinah) Throne of Bilqis Trumpet of Israfil

Mentioned idols (cult images)

'Ansāb Idols of Israelites:

Baal The ‘ijl (golden calf statue) of Israelites

Idols of Noah's people:

Nasr Suwā‘ Wadd Yaghūth Ya‘ūq

Idols of Quraysh:

Al-Lāṫ Al-‘Uzzá Manāṫ

Jibṫ and Ṭâghûṫ

Celestial bodies

Maṣābīḥ (literally 'lamps'):

Al-Qamar (The Moon) Kawâkib (Planets)

Al-Arḍ (The Earth)

Nujūm (Stars)

Ash-Shams (The Sun)

Liquids

Mā’ ( Water
Water
or fluid)

Nahr (River) Yamm ( River
River
or sea)

Sharâb (Drink)

Events

Battle of al-Aḥzāb ("the Confederates") Battle of Badr Battle of Hunayn Battle of Khaybar Battle of Tabouk Battle of Uhud Conquest of Mecca Incident of Ifk Laylat al-Mabit Mubahala Sayl al-‘Arim
Sayl al-‘Arim
(Flood of the Great Dam of Marib
Marib
in Sheba) The Farewell Pilgrimage
The Farewell Pilgrimage
(Hujja al-Wada') Treaty of Hudaybiyyah ‘Umrah al-Qaza Yawm ad-Dār

Implied

Event of Ghadir Khumm

Note: The names are sorted alphabetically. Standard form: Islamic name / Biblical name (title or relationship)

v t e

Saints of the Catholic Church

Virgin Mary

Mother of God
God
(Theotokos) Immaculate Conception Perpetual virginity Assumption Marian apparition

Guadalupe Laus Miraculous Medal Lourdes Fatima

Titles of Mary

Apostles

Andrew Barnabas Bartholomew James of Alphaeus James the Greater John Jude Matthew Matthias Paul Peter Philip Simon Thomas

Archangels

Gabriel Michael Raphael

Confessors

Anatolius Chariton the Confessor Edward the Confessor Maximus the Confessor Michael of Synnada Paphnutius the Confessor Paul I of Constantinople Salonius Theophanes the Confessor

Disciples

Apollos Mary Magdalene Priscilla and Aquila Silvanus Stephen Timothy Titus Seventy disciples

Doctors

Gregory the Great Ambrose Augustine of Hippo Jerome John Chrysostom Basil of Caesarea Gregory of Nazianzus Athanasius of Alexandria Cyril of Alexandria Cyril of Jerusalem John of Damascus Bede
Bede
the Venerable Ephrem the Syrian Thomas Aquinas Bonaventure Anselm of Canterbury Isidore of Seville Peter Chrysologus Leo the Great Peter Damian Bernard of Clairvaux Hilary of Poitiers Alphonsus Liguori Francis de Sales Peter Canisius John of the Cross Robert Bellarmine Albertus Magnus Anthony of Padua Lawrence of Brindisi Teresa of Ávila Catherine of Siena Thérèse of Lisieux John of Ávila Hildegard of Bingen Gregory of Narek

Evangelists

Matthew Mark Luke John

Church Fathers

Alexander of Alexandria Alexander of Jerusalem Ambrose
Ambrose
of Milan Anatolius Athanasius of Alexandria Augustine of Hippo Caesarius of Arles Caius Cappadocian Fathers Clement of Alexandria Clement of Rome Cyprian
Cyprian
of Carthage Cyril of Alexandria Cyril of Jerusalem Damasus I Desert Fathers Desert Mothers Dionysius of Alexandria Dionysius of Corinth Dionysius Ephrem the Syrian Epiphanius of Salamis Fulgentius of Ruspe Gregory the Great Gregory of Nazianzus Gregory of Nyssa Hilary of Poitiers Hippolytus of Rome Ignatius of Antioch Irenaeus
Irenaeus
of Lyons Isidore of Seville Jerome
Jerome
of Stridonium John Chrysostom John of Damascus Maximus the Confessor Melito of Sardis Quadratus of Athens Papias of Hierapolis Peter Chrysologus Polycarp
Polycarp
of Smyrna Theophilus of Antioch Victorinus of Pettau Vincent of Lérins Zephyrinus

Martyrs

Canadian Martyrs Carthusian Martyrs Forty Martyrs of England and Wales Four Crowned Martyrs Great Martyr The Holy Innocents Irish Martyrs Joan of Arc Lübeck martyrs Korean Martyrs Martyrology Martyrs of Albania Martyrs of China Martyrs of Japan Martyrs of Laos Martyrs of Natal Martyrs of Otranto Martyrs of the Spanish Civil War Maximilian Kolbe Perpetua and Felicity Saints of the Cristero War Stephen Three Martyrs of Chimbote Uganda Martyrs Vietnamese Martyrs

Patriarchs

Adam Abel Abraham Isaac Jacob Joseph Joseph
Joseph
(father of Jesus) David Noah Solomon Matriarchs

Popes

Adeodatus I Adeodatus II Adrian III Agapetus I Agatho Alexander I Anacletus Anastasius I Anicetus Anterus Benedict II Boniface I Boniface IV Caius Callixtus I Celestine I Celestine V Clement I Cornelius Damasus I Dionysius Eleuterus Eugene I Eusebius Eutychian Evaristus Fabian Felix I Felix III Felix IV Gelasius I Gregory I Gregory II Gregory III Gregory VII Hilarius Hormisdas Hyginus Innocent I John I John XXIII John Paul II Julius I Leo I Leo II Leo III Leo IV Leo IX Linus Lucius I Marcellinus Marcellus I Mark Martin I Miltiades Nicholas I Paschal I Paul I Peter Pius I Pius V Pius X Pontian Sergius I Silverius Simplicius Siricius Sixtus I Sixtus II Sixtus III Soter Stephen I Stephen IV Sylvester I Symmachus Telesphorus Urban I Victor I Vitalian Zachary Zephyrinus Zosimus

Prophets

Agabus Amos Anna Baruch ben Neriah David Dalua Elijah Ezekiel Habakkuk Haggai Hosea Isaiah Jeremiah Job Joel John the Baptist Jonah Judas Barsabbas Malachi Melchizedek Micah Moses Nahum Obadiah Samuel Seven Maccabees and their mother Simeon Zechariah (prophet) Zechariah (NT) Zephaniah

Virgins

Agatha of Sicily Agnes of Rome Bernadette Soubirous Brigid of Kildare Cecilia Clare of Assisi Eulalia of Mérida Euphemia Genevieve Kateri Tekakwitha Lucy of Syracuse Maria Goretti Mother Teresa Narcisa de Jesús Rose of Lima

See also

Military saints Virtuous pagan

Catholicism portal Saints portal

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 6271152 LCCN: n82025275 SN