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Austria
Coordinates : 47°20′N 13°20′E / 47.333°N 13.333°E / 47.333; 13.333 Republic
Republic
of Austria Republik Österreich (German ) Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: * Land der Berge, Land am Strome (German ) * Land of Mountains, Land by the River * Location of <
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Gross Domestic Product
GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time . Nominal GDP estimates are commonly used to determine the economic performance of a whole country or region, and to make international comparisons. Nominal GDP per capita
GDP per capita
does not, however, reflect differences in the cost of living and the inflation rates of the countries; therefore using a basis of GDP per capita
GDP per capita
at purchasing power parity (PPP) is arguably more useful when comparing differences in living standards between different nations
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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Ethnic Groups
An ETHNIC GROUP, or an ETHNICITY, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry , language , society , culture or nation . Ethnicity is usually an inherited status based on the society in which one lives. Membership of an ethnic group tends to be defined by a shared cultural heritage , ancestry , origin myth , history , homeland , language or dialect , symbolic systems such as religion , mythology and ritual , cuisine , dressing style, art , and physical appearance . Ethnic groups, derived from the same historical founder population , often continue to speak related languages and share a similar gene pool . By way of language shift , acculturation , adoption and religious conversion , it is sometimes possible for individuals or groups to leave one ethnic group and become part of another (except for ethnic groups emphasizing racial purity as a key membership criterion)
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Österreich (surname)
ÖSTERREICH or OESTERREICH is the German name for Austria
Austria
(literally "eastern kingdom") and may also be a surname. Notable people with the surname include: * Rolf Österreich
Rolf Österreich
(born 1952), former East German figure skater * Romy Österreich (born 1956), former East German figure skater; partner and later wife of Rolf Österreich * Georg Österreich (1664–1735), German Baroque composer * Traugott Konstantin Oesterreich (1880–1949), German religious psychologist and philosopherSEE ALSO * Österreicher (surname) This page lists people with the surname ÖSTERREICH
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Lower House
A LOWER HOUSE is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature , the other chamber being the upper house . Inside the Australian House of Representatives Despite its official position "below" the upper house, in many legislatures worldwide, the lower house has come to wield more power. A legislature composed of only one house is described as unicameral
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Demonym
A DEMONYM (/ˈdɛmənɪm/ ; δῆμος dẽmos "people, tribe", ὄόνομα ónoma "name") is a word that identifies residents or natives of a particular place, which is derived from the name of that particular place. It is a neologism (i.e., a recently minted term); previously GENTILIC was recorded in English dictionaries, e.g., the Oxford
Oxford
English Dictionary and Chambers Twentieth Century Dictionary. Examples of demonyms include a Swahili for a person of the Swahili coast , the colloquial Kiwi for a person from New Zealand
New Zealand
, and a Cochabambino for a person from the city of Cochabamba
Cochabamba
. Demonyms do not always clearly distinguish place of origin or ethnicity from place of residence or citizenship, and many demonyms overlap with the ethnonym for the ethnically dominant group of a region
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Purchasing Power Parity
PURCHASING POWER PARITY (PPP) is an economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two currencies is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power . Theories that invoke purchasing power parity assume that in some circumstances (for example, as a long-run tendency) it would cost exactly the same number of, for example, US dollars to buy euros and then to use the difference in value to buy a market basket of goods as it would cost to directly purchase the market basket of goods with dollars. A fall in either currency's purchasing power would lead to a proportional decrease in that currency's valuation on the foreign exchange market . The concept of purchasing power parity allows one to estimate what the exchange rate between two currencies would have to be in order for the exchange to be at par with the purchasing power of the two countries' currencies
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Yugoslavs
YUGOSLAVS or YUGOSLAVIANS ( Serbo-Croatian : Jugoslaveni/Југославени, Jugosloveni/Југословени; Macedonian : Југословени; Slovene : Jugoslovani) is a designation that was originally designed to refer to a united South Slavic people. It has been used in two connotations, the first in an ethnic or supra-ethnic connotation, and the second as a term for citizens of the former Yugoslavia . Cultural and political advocates of Yugoslav identity have historically ascribed the identity to be applicable to all people of South Slav heritage, i.e. Bosniaks , Bulgarians , Croats , Macedonians , Montenegrins , Serbs and Slovenes and regional Bunjevci , Janjevci and Šokci
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List Of Countries And Dependencies By Population
This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population . It includes sovereign states , inhabited dependent territories and, in some cases, constituent countries of sovereign states, with inclusion within the list being primarily based on the ISO standard ISO 3166-1 . For instance, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is considered as a single entity while the constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands are considered separately. In addition, this list includes certain states with limited recognition not found in ISO 3166-1. The population figures do not reflect the practice of countries that report significantly different populations of citizens domestically and overall. Some countries, notably Thailand
Thailand
, do not report total population, exclusively counting citizens; for total populations an international agency must issue an estimate
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List Of Countries And Dependencies By Area
This is a list of the world 's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area . Entries in this list, include, but are not limited to, those in the ISO standard 3166-1 , which includes sovereign states and dependent territories. Largely unrecognised states not in ISO 3166-1 are included in the list in ranked order, but are not given a rank number. The areas of such largely unrecognised states are in most cases also included in the areas of the more widely recognised states that claim the same territory; see the notes in the "Notes" column for each country for clarification
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Upper House
An UPPER HOUSE, sometimes called a senate , is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature (or one of three chambers of a tricameral legislature ), the other chamber being the lower house . The house formally designated as the upper house is usually smaller and often has more restricted power than the lower house. Examples of upper houses in countries include the United Kingdom's House of Lords
House of Lords
, India's Rajya Sabha , Russia's Federation Council , Ireland's Seanad
Seanad
, Malaysia's Dewan Negara , Germany's Bundesrat and the United States Senate
Senate

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Federal Republic
A FEDERAL REPUBLIC is a federation of states with a republican form of government. At its core, the literal meaning of the word republic when used to reference a form of government means: "a country that is governed by elected representatives and by an elected leader (such as a president) rather than by a king or queen". In a federal republic, there is a division of powers between the federal government, and the government of the individual subdivisions. While each federal republic manages this division of powers differently, common matters relating to security and defense, and monetary policy are usually handled at the federal level, while matters such as infrastructure maintenance and education policy are usually handled at the regional or local level. However, views differ on what issues should be a federal competence, and subdivisions usually have sovereignty in some matters where the federal government does not have jurisdiction
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List Of Countries And Territories By Population Density
This is a LIST OF COUNTRIES AND DEPENDENCIES RANKED BY HUMAN POPULATION DENSITY and measured by the number of human inhabitants per square kilometer or square mile . CONTENTS * 1 Methodology * 2 Main table * 3 Density amongst the most populous * 4 See also * 5 Notes METHODOLOGYThe list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories based upon the ISO standard ISO 3166-1 . The list also includes but does not rank unrecognized but de facto independent countries. The figures in the following table are based on areas including inland water bodies (lakes, reservoirs, rivers). Figures used in this article are mainly based on the latest censuses and official estimates (or projections). Where there is not such updated national data available, figures are based on the 2015 estimates provided by the Population Division of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs
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Parliamentary System
A PARLIAMENTARY SYSTEM is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament , and is also held accountable to that parliament. In a parliamentary system, the head of state is usually a different person from the head of government . This is in contrast to a presidential system , where the head of state often is also the head of government and, most importantly, the executive branch does not derive its democratic legitimacy from the legislature
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1995 Enlargement Of The European Union
The 1995 ENLARGEMENT OF THE EUROPEAN UNION saw Austria
Austria
, Finland
Finland
and Sweden
Sweden
accede to the European Union
European Union
(EU). This was the EU's fourth enlargement and came into effect on the 1 January of that year. All these states were previous members of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) and had traditionally been less interested in joining the EU than other European countries. Norway
Norway
had negotiated to join alongside the other three but following the signing of the treaty, membership was turned down by the Norwegian electorate in the 1994 national referendum . Switzerland
Switzerland
also applied for membership on 26 May 1992, but withdrew it after a negative referendum result on 6 December 1992 (and that was not changed after a second negative referendum result on 4 March 2001)
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