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VIENNA (/viˈɛnə/ (_ listen ); German : Wien_, pronounced (_ listen )) is the capital and largest city of Austria
Austria
and one of the nine states of Austria
Austria
. Vienna
Vienna
is Austria's primary city , with a population of about 1.8 million (2.6 million within the metropolitan area , nearly one third of Austria's population), and its cultural , economic , and political centre. It is the 7th-largest city by population within city limits in the European Union
European Union
. Until the beginning of the 20th century, it was the largest German-speaking city in the world, and before the splitting of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in World War I
World War I
, the city had 2 million inhabitants. Today, it has the second largest number of German speakers after Berlin
Berlin
. Vienna is host to many major international organizations , including the United Nations
United Nations
and OPEC . The city is located in the eastern part of Austria
Austria
and is close to the borders of the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
, Slovakia
Slovakia
, and Hungary
Hungary
. These regions work together in a European Centrope border region. Along with nearby Bratislava
Bratislava
, Vienna
Vienna
forms a metropolitan region with 3 million inhabitants. In 2001, the city centre was designated a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
. In July 2017 it was moved to the list of World Heritage in Danger.

Apart from being regarded as the _City of Music_ because of its musical legacy, Vienna
Vienna
is also said to be "The City of Dreams" because it was home to the world's first psycho-analyst – Sigmund Freud . The city's roots lie in early Celtic and Roman settlements that transformed into a Medieval
Medieval
and Baroque
Baroque
city, and then the capital of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is well known for having played an essential role as a leading European music centre, from the great age of Viennese Classicism
Classicism
through the early part of the 20th century. The historic centre of Vienna
Vienna
is rich in architectural ensembles, including Baroque
Baroque
castles and gardens, and the late-19th-century Ringstraße lined with grand buildings, monuments and parks.

Vienna
Vienna
is known for its high quality of life. In a 2005 study of 127 world cities , the Economist Intelligence Unit
Economist Intelligence Unit
ranked the city first (in a tie with Vancouver, Canada
Canada
and San Francisco, USA ) for the world\'s most liveable cities . Between 2011 and 2015, Vienna
Vienna
was ranked second, behind Melbourne, Australia . For eight consecutive years (2009–2016), the human-resource-consulting firm Mercer ranked Vienna
Vienna
first in its annual "Quality of Living" survey of hundreds of cities around the world, a title the city still held in 2016. Monocle's 2015 "Quality of Life Survey" ranked Vienna second on a list of the top 25 cities in the world "to make a base within."

The UN-Habitat has classified Vienna
Vienna
as being the most prosperous city in the world in 2012/2013. The city was ranked 1st globally for its culture of innovation in 2007 and 2008, and sixth globally (out of 256 cities) in the 2014 Innovation Cities Index, which analyzed 162 indicators in covering three areas: culture, infrastructure, and markets. Vienna
Vienna
regularly hosts urban planning conferences and is often used as a case study by urban planners.

Between 2005 and 2010, Vienna
Vienna
was the world's number-one destination for international congresses and conventions. It attracts over 6.8 million tourists a year.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 History

* 2.1 Early history * 2.2 Austro-Hungarian Empire and the early 20th century * 2.3 Anschluss and World War II
World War II
* 2.4 Four-power Vienna
Vienna
* 2.5 Austrian State Treaty and afterwards

* 3 Demographics

* 3.1 Religion

* 4 Geography and climate * 5 Districts and enlargement

* 6 Politics

* 6.1 Political history * 6.2 Government

* 7 Economy

* 7.1 Research and development * 7.2 Information technologies * 7.3 Tourism and conferences

* 8 Rankings

* 9 Urban development

* 9.1 Central Railway Station * 9.2 Aspern * 9.3 Smart City

* 10 Culture

* 10.1 Music, theatre and opera * 10.2 Musicians from Vienna
Vienna
* 10.3 Famous Jewish cultural figures from Vienna
Vienna
* 10.4 Museums
Museums
* 10.5 Architecture * 10.6 Vienna
Vienna
balls

* 11 Education

* 11.1 Universities * 11.2 International schools

* 12 Leisure activities

* 12.1 Parks and gardens * 12.2 Sport

* 13 Culinary specialities

* 13.1 Food * 13.2 Drinks * 13.3 Viennese cafés

* 14 Tourist attractions * 15 Transportation

* 16 International relations

* 16.1 International organisations in Vienna
Vienna
* 16.2 Charitable organisations in Vienna
Vienna
* 16.3 International City Cooperations * 16.4 District to district partnerships

* 17 See also * 18 References * 19 Further reading

* 20 External links

* 20.1 Official websites * 20.2 History of Vienna * 20.3 Further information on Vienna
Vienna

ETYMOLOGY

See also Other names of Vienna
Vienna

The English name _Vienna_ is borrowed from the homonymous Italian version of the city's name or the French _Vienne_. The etymology of the city's name is still subject to scholarly dispute. Some claim that the name comes from _Vedunia_, meaning "forest stream", which subsequently produced the Old High German _Uuenia_ (_Wenia_ in modern writing), the New High German _Wien_ and its dialectal variant _Wean_.

Others believe that the name comes from the Roman settlement name of Celtic extraction _ Vindobona
Vindobona
_, probably meaning "fair village, white settlement" from the Celtic roots _vindo-_, meaning "bright" or "fair" – as in the Irish _fionn_ and the Welsh _gwyn_ –, and _-bona_ "village, settlement". A variant of this Celtic name could be preserved in the Czech and Slovak names of the city (_Vídeň_ and _Viedeň_ respectively) and in that of the city's district Wieden .

The name of the city in Hungarian (_Bécs_), Serbo-Croatian (_Beč_) and Ottoman Turkish (_Beç_) has a different, probably Slavonic origin, and originally referred to an Avar fort in the area. Slovene -speakers call the city _Dunaj_, which in other Central European Slavic languages means the Danube River
Danube River
, on which the city stands.

HISTORY

Main articles: History of Vienna and Timeline of Vienna

EARLY HISTORY

_ Depiction of Vienna
Vienna
in the Nuremberg Chronicle
Nuremberg Chronicle
_, 1493 1683 Allen (printed 1686)

Evidence has been found of continuous habitation since 500 BC, when the site of Vienna
Vienna
on the Danube River
Danube River
was settled by the Celts
Celts
. In 15 BC, the Romans fortified the frontier city they called Vindobona
Vindobona
to guard the empire against Germanic tribes to the north.

Close ties with other Celtic peoples continued through the ages. The Irish monk Saint Colman (or Koloman, Irish _Colmán_, derived from _colm_ "dove") is buried in Melk Abbey and Saint Fergil (Virgil the Geometer ) was Bishop of Salzburg
Salzburg
for forty years, and twelfth-century monastic settlements were founded by Irish Benedictines. Evidence of these ties is still evident in Vienna's great Schottenstift monastery, once home to many Irish monks. _ Vienna
Vienna
from Belvedere_ by Bernardo Bellotto , 1758

In 976, Leopold I of Babenberg became count of the Eastern March , a 60-mile district centering on the Danube
Danube
on the eastern frontier of Bavaria
Bavaria
. This initial district grew into the duchy of Austria
Austria
. Each succeeding Babenberg ruler expanded the march east along the Danube eventually encompassing Vienna
Vienna
and the lands immediately east. In 1145, Duke Henry II Jasomirgott moved the Babenberg family residence from Klosterneuburg to Vienna. Since that time, Vienna
Vienna
remained the center of the Babenberg dynasty.

In 1440, Vienna
Vienna
became the resident city of the Habsburg dynasty. It eventually grew to become the _de facto_ capital of the Holy Roman Empire (1483–1806) and a cultural centre for arts and science, music and fine cuisine. Hungary
Hungary
occupied the city between 1485–1490.

In the 16th and 17th centuries, the Ottoman armies were stopped twice outside Vienna
Vienna
(see Siege of Vienna
Siege of Vienna
, 1529 and Battle of Vienna
Battle of Vienna
, 1683). A plague epidemic ravaged Vienna
Vienna
in 1679, killing nearly a third of its population.

AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN EMPIRE AND THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY

_ Vienna
Vienna
Ringstraße_ and State Opera around 1870 Color photo lithograph of Vienna, 1900 Bond of the city of Vienna, issued 23. June 1908

In 1804, during the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
, Vienna
Vienna
became the capital of the Austrian Empire and continued to play a major role in European and world politics, including hosting the Congress of Vienna in 1814/15. After the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 , Vienna
Vienna
remained the capital of what was then the Austro-Hungarian Empire . The city was a centre of classical music, for which the title of the First Viennese School is sometimes applied.

During the latter half of the 19th century, the city developed what had previously been the bastions and glacis into the Ringstraße , a new boulevard surrounding the historical town and a major prestige project. Former suburbs were incorporated, and the city of Vienna
Vienna
grew dramatically. In 1918, after World War I, Vienna
Vienna
became capital of the Republic of German- Austria
Austria
, and then in 1919 of the First Republic of Austria
Austria
.

From the late 19th century to 1938, the city remained a centre of high culture and modernism . A world capital of music, the city played host to composers such as Brahms
Brahms
, Bruckner
Bruckner
, Mahler
Mahler
and Richard Strauss . The city's cultural contributions in the first half of the 20th century included, among many, the Vienna Secession movement, psychoanalysis , the Second Viennese School , the architecture of Adolf Loos and the philosophy of Ludwig Wittgenstein and the Vienna Circle . In 1913, Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
, Leon Trotsky
Leon Trotsky
, Joseph Tito , Sigmund Freud and Joseph Stalin all lived within a few miles of each other in central Vienna, some of them being regulars at the same coffeehouses . Within Austria, Vienna
Vienna
was seen as a centre of socialist politics, for which it was sometimes referred to as " Red Vienna ". The city was a stage to the Austrian Civil War of 1934, when Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss sent the Austrian Army to shell civilian housing occupied by the socialist militia .

ANSCHLUSS AND WORLD WAR II

Main article: Anschluss

In 1938, after a triumphant entry into Austria, Austrian-born Adolf Hitler spoke to the Austrian Germans from the balcony of the Neue Burg, a part of the Hofburg
Hofburg
at the Heldenplatz . Viennese Jews were looted and deported. Between 1938 (after the Anschluss ) and the end of the Second World War
Second World War
, Vienna
Vienna
lost its status as a capital to Berlin
Berlin
as Austria
Austria
ceased to exist and became a part of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
. It was not until 1955 that Austria
Austria
regained full sovereignty.

On 2 April 1945, the Soviets launched the Vienna Offensive against the Germans holding the city and besieged it. British and American air raids and artillery duels between the SS and Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
and the Red Army crippled infrastructure, such as tram services and water and power distribution, and destroyed or damaged thousands of public and private buildings. Vienna
Vienna
fell eleven days later. Austria
Austria
was separated from Germany, and Vienna
Vienna
was restored as the republic's capital city, but the Soviet hold on the city remained until 1955.

FOUR-POWER VIENNA

Occupation zones in Vienna, 1945–55 Further information: Allied-occupied Austria
Austria

After the war, Vienna
Vienna
was part of Soviet-occupied Eastern Austria until September 1945. As in Berlin, Vienna
Vienna
in September 1945 was divided into sectors by the four powers: the US, the UK, France
France
and the Soviet Union and supervised by an Allied Commission . The four-power occupation of Vienna
Vienna
differed in one key respect from that of Berlin: the central area of the city, known as the first district, constituted an international zone in which the four powers alternated control on a monthly basis. The control was policed by the four powers on a _de facto_ day-to-day basis, the famous "four soldiers in a jeep" method. The Berlin
Berlin
Blockade of 1948 raised Western concerns that the Soviets might repeat the blockade in Vienna. The matter was raised in the UK House of Commons :

What plans have the Government for dealing with a similar situation in Vienna? Vienna
Vienna
is in exactly a similar position to Berlin. It is surrounded by a Soviet Zone of occupation and we have our sector of responsibility in Vienna
Vienna
the same as the Americans and the French. What plans have the Government to deal with a similar situation arising in Vienna
Vienna
in the near future? I hope we shall have an answer, because this is of vital importance. – Sir Anthony Nutting , Honourable Member for Melton , 30 June 1948, House of Commons, London.

There was a lack of airfields in the Western sectors, and authorities drafted contingency plans to deal with such a blockade. Plans included the laying down of metal landing mats at Schönbrunn. The Soviets did not blockade the city. The Potsdam Agreement
Potsdam Agreement
included written rights of land access to the western sectors, whereas no such written guarantees had covered the western sectors of Berlin. During the 10 years of the four-power occupation, Vienna
Vienna
became a hot-bed for international espionage between the Western and Eastern blocs . In the wake of the Berlin
Berlin
Blockade, the Cold War
Cold War
in Vienna
Vienna
took on a different dynamic. While accepting that Germany
Germany
and Berlin
Berlin
would be divided, the Soviets had decided against allowing the same state of affairs to arise in Austria
Austria
and Vienna. Here, the Soviet forces controlled districts 2, 4, 10, 20, 21 and 22 and all areas incorporated into Vienna
Vienna
in 1938.

They put up barbed wire fences around the perimeter of West Berlin
Berlin
in 1953, but not in Vienna. By 1955, the Soviets, by signing the Austrian State Treaty , agreed to relinquish their occupation zones in Eastern Austria
Austria
as well as their sector in Vienna. In exchange they required that Austria
Austria
declare its permanent neutrality after the allied powers had left the country. Thus they ensured that Austria
Austria
would not be a member of NATO
NATO
and that NATO
NATO
forces would therefore not have direct communications between Italy
Italy
and West Germany .

The atmosphere of four-power Vienna
Vienna
is the background for Graham Greene 's screenplay for the film _ The Third Man _ (1949). Later he adapted the screenplay as a novel and published it. Occupied Vienna
Vienna
is also depicted in the Philip Kerr novel, _A German Requiem _.

AUSTRIAN STATE TREATY AND AFTERWARDS

The four-power control of Vienna
Vienna
lasted until the Austrian State Treaty was signed in May 1955. That year, after years of reconstruction and restoration, the State Opera and the Burgtheater, both on the Ringstraße, reopened to the public. The Soviet Union signed the State Treaty only after having been provided with the political guarantee by the federal government to declare Austria's neutrality after the withdrawal of the allied troops. This law of neutrality, passed in late October 1955 (and not the State Treaty itself), ensured that modern Austria
Austria
would align with neither NATO
NATO
nor the Soviet bloc , and is considered one of the reasons for Austria's late entry into the European Union.

In the 1970s, Austrian Chancellor Bruno Kreisky inaugurated the Vienna International Centre , a new area of the city created to host international institutions. Vienna
Vienna
has regained much of its former international stature by hosting international organizations, such as the United Nations
United Nations
( United Nations
United Nations
Industrial Development Organization , United Nations
United Nations
Office at Vienna
Vienna
and United Nations
United Nations
Office on Drugs and Crime ), the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization , the International Atomic Energy Agency , the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries , and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe .

DEMOGRAPHICS

Population of Vienna
Vienna
1590 to 2013

HISTORICAL POPULATION

YEAR POP. ±%

1754 175,460 —

1800 271,800 +54.9%

1850 551,300 +102.8%

1900 1,769,137 +220.9%

1910 2,083,630 +17.8%

1923 1,918,720 −7.9%

1939 1,770,938 −7.7%

1951 1,616,125 −8.7%

1961 1,627,566 +0.7%

1971 1,619,885 −0.5%

YEAR POP. ±%

1981 1,535,145 −5.2%

1985 1,494,874 −2.6%

1990 1,492,636 −0.1%

1995 1,542,667 +3.4%

2000 1,548,537 +0.4%

2005 1,632,569 +5.4%

2010 1,689,995 +3.5%

2015 1,797,337 +6.4%

2016 1,840,226 +2.4%

2017 1,867,960 +1.5%

SIGNIFICANT MINORITY GROUPS

NATIONALITY POPULATION (2015)

Serbia
Serbia
97,219

Turkey
Turkey
76,063

Germany
Germany
53,232

Poland
Poland
49,702

Bosnia approximately 130,000 fled.

By 2001, 16% of people living in Austria
Austria
had nationalities other than Austrian, nearly half of whom were from former Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
; the next most numerous nationalities in Vienna
Vienna
were Turks (39,000; 2.5%), Poles (13,600; 0.9%) and Germans (12,700; 0.8%).

As of 2012 , an official report from Statistics Austria
Austria
showed that more than 660,000 (38.8%) of the Viennese population have full or partial migrant background, mostly from Ex-Yugoslavia, Turkey, Germany, Poland, Romania
Romania
and Hungary.

From 2005 to 2015 the city's population grew by 10.1%. According to UN-Habitat , Vienna
Vienna
could be the fastest growing city out of 17 European metropolitan areas until 2025 with an increase of 4.65% of its population, compared to 2010.

RELIGION

Karlskirche located on the south side of Karlsplatz in the 1st city district Vienna Islamic Centre in the 21st city district Floridsdorf

According to the 2001 census, 49.2% of Viennese were Roman Catholics, while 25.7% were of no religion, 7.8% were Muslim, 6.0% were members of an Orthodox denomination, 4.7% were Protestant (mostly Lutheran), 0.5% were Jewish and 6.3% were either of other religions or did not reply. By 2011 the shares of religious bodies had significantly changed:

* 41.3% Catholics * 31.6% no religion * 11.6% Muslim * 8.4% Orthodox * 4.2% Protestant * 2.9% others

Vienna
Vienna
is the seat of the Metropolitan Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Vienna
Vienna
, in which is also vested the exempt Ordinariate
Ordinariate
for Byzantine-rite Catholics in Austria; its current Archbishop
Archbishop
is Cardinal Christoph Schönborn
Christoph Schönborn
. Many Roman Catholic churches in central Vienna
Vienna
feature performances of religious or other music, including masses sung to classical music and organ. Some of Vienna's most significant historical buildings are Roman Catholic churches, including the St. Stephen\'s Cathedral (_Stephansdom_), Karlskirche , Peterskirche
Peterskirche
and the Votivkirche .

The proportion of Viennese who identify as Roman Catholic has dropped over the last fifty years, from 90% in 1961 to 39.8% in 2010.

On the banks of the Danube, there is a Buddhist Peace Pagoda
Peace Pagoda
, built in 1983 by the monks and nuns of Nipponzan Myohoji .

GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE

Satellite image of Vienna
Vienna
(2002)

Vienna
Vienna
is located in northeastern Austria, at the easternmost extension of the Alps
Alps
in the Vienna Basin
Vienna Basin
. The earliest settlement, at the location of today's inner city , was south of the meandering Danube
Danube
while the city now spans both sides of the river. Elevation ranges from 151 to 542 m (495 to 1,778 ft). The city has a total area of 414.65 square kilometres (160.1 sq mi), making it the largest city in Austria
Austria
by area.

Vienna
Vienna
lies within a transition of oceanic climate and humid subtropical climate (hovering just below 22 °C in July and August), and features, according to the Köppen classification , a Cfb (oceanic) -climate. The city has warm summers with average high temperatures of 24 to 33 °C (75 to 91 °F), with maximum exceeding 38 °C (100 °F) and lows of around 17 °C (63 °F). Winters are relatively dry and cold with average temperatures at about freezing point. Spring and autumn are mild. Precipitation
Precipitation
is generally moderate throughout the year, averaging 550 mm (21.7 in) annually, with considerable local variations, the Vienna Woods region in the west being the wettest part (700 to 800 mm (28 to 31 in) annually) and the flat plains in the east being the driest part (500 to 550 mm (20 to 22 in) annually). Snow in the winter is not uncommon, but rare compared to Western and Southern regions in Austria.

CLIMATE DATA FOR VIENNA (INNERE STADT)

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 16.8 (62.2) 20.3 (68.5) 25.4 (77.7) 27.4 (81.3) 31.5 (88.7) 36.5 (97.7) 36.1 (97) 39.5 (103.1) 31.8 (89.2) 24.8 (76.6) 21.3 (70.3) 16.4 (61.5) 37.0 (98.6)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 3.8 (38.8) 6.1 (43) 11.5 (52.7) 16.1 (61) 21.3 (70.3) 24.0 (75.2) 26.7 (80.1) 26.6 (79.9) 21.1 (70) 15.3 (59.5) 8.1 (46.6) 4.6 (40.3) 15.3 (59.5)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 1.2 (34.2) 2.9 (37.2) 6.4 (43.5) 11.5 (52.7) 16.5 (61.7) 19.1 (66.4) 21.7 (71.1) 21.6 (70.9) 16.8 (62.2) 11.6 (52.9) 5.5 (41.9) 2.4 (36.3) 11.4 (52.5)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) −0.8 (30.6) 0.3 (32.5) 3.5 (38.3) 7.8 (46) 12.5 (54.5) 15.1 (59.2) 17.4 (63.3) 17.5 (63.5) 13.6 (56.5) 8.8 (47.8) 3.6 (38.5) 0.5 (32.9) 8.3 (46.9)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) −17.6 (0.3) −16.4 (2.5) −10.4 (13.3) −2.1 (28.2) 4.9 (40.8) 6.8 (44.2) 10.9 (51.6) 10.1 (50.2) 5.6 (42.1) −1.8 (28.8) −7.0 (19.4) −15.4 (4.3) −17.6 (0.3)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 21.3 (0.839) 29.3 (1.154) 39.1 (1.539) 39.2 (1.543) 60.9 (2.398) 63.3 (2.492) 66.6 (2.622) 66.5 (2.618) 50.4 (1.984) 32.8 (1.291) 43.9 (1.728) 34.6 (1.362) 547.9 (21.57)

AVERAGE SNOWFALL CM (INCHES) 18.6 (7.32) 15.6 (6.14) 8.3 (3.27) 1.5 (0.59) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 7.9 (3.11) 16.4 (6.46) 68.3 (26.89)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 1.0 MM) 5.3 6.0 8.1 6.3 8.3 9.3 8.2 8.5 6.9 6.0 7.5 7.6 88

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 70.1 101.6 142.9 197.5 238.5 237.9 263.1 251.6 181.6 132.3 66.7 51.8 1,935.5

PERCENT POSSIBLE SUNSHINE 25.6 35.5 40.1 48.2 50.6 49.6 54.4 56.8 53.8 40.6 23.9 19.8 41.58

Source: Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics

DISTRICTS AND ENLARGEMENT

Main article: Districts of Vienna Map of the districts of Vienna
Vienna
with numbers

Vienna
Vienna
is composed of 23 districts (_Bezirke_). Administrative district offices in Vienna
Vienna
(called Magistratische Bezirksämter) serve functions similar to those in the other Austrian states (called Bezirkshauptmannschaften), the officers being subject to the mayor of Vienna; with the notable exception of the police, which is under federal supervision.

District residents in Vienna
Vienna
( Austrians as well as EU citizens with permanent residence here) elect a District Assembly (Bezirksvertretung). City hall has delegated maintenance budgets, e.g., for schools and parks, so that the districts are able to set priorities autonomously. Any decision of a district can be overridden by the city assembly (Gemeinderat) or the responsible city councillor (amtsführender Stadrat). Albertina Terrace in the Innere Stadt The Ring Road (Ringstraße) with a historical tram

The heart and historical city of Vienna, a large part of today's Innere Stadt , was a fortress surrounded by fields in order to defend itself from potential attackers. In 1850, Vienna
Vienna
with the consent of the emperor annexed 34 surrounding villages, called Vorstädte, into the city limits (districts no. 2 to 8, after 1861 with the separation of Margareten from Wieden no. 2 to 9). Consequently, the walls were razed after 1857, making it possible for the city centre to expand.

In their place, a broad boulevard called the Ringstraße was built, along which imposing public and private buildings, monuments, and parks were created by the start of the 20th century. These buildings include the Rathaus (town hall), the Burgtheater
Burgtheater
, the University , the Parliament , the twin museums of natural history and fine art , and the Staatsoper . It is also the location of New Wing of the Hofburg
Hofburg
, the former imperial palace, and the Imperial and Royal War Ministry finished in 1913. The mainly Gothic Stephansdom is located at the centre of the city, on Stephansplatz . The Imperial-Royal Government set up the Vienna
Vienna
City Renovation Fund (Wiener Stadterneuerungsfonds) and sold many building lots to private investors, thereby partly financing public construction works. Urania at sunset Skyline of Donaustadt

From 1850 to 1890, city limits in the West and the South mainly followed another wall called _ Linienwall _ at which a road toll called the _ Liniengeld _ was charged. Outside this wall from 1873 onwards a ring road called Gürtel was built. In 1890 it was decided to integrate 33 suburbs (called Vororte) beyond that wall into Vienna
Vienna
by 1 January 1892 and transform them into districts no. 11 to 19 (district no. 10 had been constituted in 1874); hence the Linienwall was torn down beginning in 1894. In 1900, district no. 20, Brigittenau, was created by separating the area from the 2nd district.

From 1850 to 1904, Vienna
Vienna
had expanded only on the right bank of the Danube, following the main branch before the regulation of 1868–1875, i.e., the Old Danube
Danube
of today. In 1904, the 21st district was created by integrating Floridsdorf, Kagran, Stadlau, Hirschstetten, Aspern and other villages on the left bank of the Danube
Danube
into Vienna, in 1910 Strebersdorf followed. On 15 October 1938 the Nazis created Great Vienna
Vienna
with 26 districts by merging 97 towns and villages into Vienna, 80 of which were returned to surrounding Lower Austria
Austria
in 1954. Since then Vienna
Vienna
has 23 districts.

Industries are located mostly in the southern and eastern districts. The Innere Stadt is situated away from the main flow of the Danube
Danube
, but is bounded by the _ Donaukanal _ (" Danube
Danube
canal"). Vienna's second and twentieth districts are located between the Donaukanal and the Danube
Danube
River. Across the Danube, where the Vienna
Vienna
International Centre is located (districts 21–22), and in the southern areas (district 23) are the newest parts of the city.

POLITICS

POLITICAL HISTORY

Austrian Parliament Buildings Debating Chamber of the former House of Deputies of Austria
Austria
House of Deputies

In the twenty years before the First World War and until 1918, Viennese politics were shaped by the Christian Social Party , in particular long-term mayor Karl Lueger
Karl Lueger
; he was able to not apply the general voting rights for men introduced by and for the parliament of imperial Austria, the _Reichsrat_, in 1907, thereby excluding most of the working class from taking part in decisions. For Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
, who spent some years in Vienna, Lueger was a remarkable teacher of how to use antisemitism in politics.

Vienna
Vienna
is today considered the center of the Social Democratic Party . During the period of the First Republic (1918–1934), the Vienna Social Democrats undertook many social reforms. At that time, Vienna's municipal policy was admired by Socialists throughout Europe, who therefore referred to the city as " Red Vienna " (_Rotes Wien_). In February 1934 troops of the Austrian federal government under Engelbert Dollfuss
Engelbert Dollfuss
, who had closed down the first chamber of the federal parliament, the _Nationalrat_, in 1933, and paramilitary socialist organisations were engaged in the Austrian Civil War, which led to the ban of the Social Democratic party.

For most of the time since after the First World War, the city has been governed by the Social Democratic Party (SPÖ) with absolute majorities in the city parliament. Only between 1934 and 1945, when the Social Democratic Party was illegal, mayors were appointed by the austro-fascist and later by the Nazi authorities. The current mayor of Vienna
Vienna
is Michael Häupl of the SPÖ. As rural Austria
Austria
is dominated by conservative citizens, if the Social Democrats would not maintain their nearly unbreakable hold on Vienna, the rival Austrian People\'s Party (ÖVP) would dominate Austrian politics.

The city has enacted many social democratic policies. The _Gemeindebauten _ are social housing assets that are well integrated into the city architecture outside the first or "inner" district. The low rents enable comfortable accommodation and good access to the city amenities. Many of the projects were built after the Second World War on vacant lots that were destroyed by bombing during the war. The city took particular pride in building them to a high standard.

GOVERNMENT

Main article: Gemeinderat and Landtag of Vienna

Since Vienna
Vienna
obtained federal state (_Bundesland_) status of its own by the federal constitution of 1920, the city council is also the state parliament ( Landtag
Landtag
), and the mayor (except 1934–1945) also holds the function of the state governor (_Landeshauptmann_). The Rathaus accommodates the offices of the mayor (_Magistrat der Stadt Wien_) and the state government (_Landesregierung_). The city is administered by a multitude of departments (_Magistratsabteilungen_), politically supervised by _amtsführende Stadträte_ (members of the city government leading offices; according to the Vienna
Vienna
constitution opposition parties have the right to designate members of the city government not leading offices).

In the 1996 City Council election, the SPÖ lost its overall majority in the 100-seat chamber, winning 43 seats and 39.15% of the vote. In 1996 the Freedom Party of Austria
Austria
(FPÖ), which won 29 seats (up from 21 in 1991), beat the ÖVP into third place for the second time running. From 1996–2001, the SPÖ governed Vienna
Vienna
in a coalition with the ÖVP. In 2001 the SPÖ regained the overall majority with 52 seats and 46.91% of the vote; in October 2005 this majority was increased further to 55 seats (49.09%). In course of the 2010 city council elections the SPÖ lost their overall majority again and consequently forged a coalition with the Green Party – the first SPÖ/Green coalition in Austria. This coalition was maintained following the 2015 election.

ECONOMY

High-rise buildings in the outer district Messe Wien Congress Center Austria
Austria
Center Vienna
Vienna
(ACV)

Vienna
Vienna
is one of the wealthiest regions in the European Union: Its gross regional product of EUR 47,200 per capita constituted 25.7% of Austria's GDP in 2013. It amounts to 159% of the EU average. The city improved its position from 2012 on the ranking of the most economically powerful cities reaching number nine on the listing in 2015.

With a share of 85.5% in gross value added, the service sector is Vienna’s most important economic sector. Industry and commerce have a share of 14.5% in gross value added, the primary sector (agriculture) has a share of 0.07% and therefore plays a minor role in the local added value. However, the cultivation and production of wines within the city borders have a high socio-cultural value. The most important business sectors are trade (14.7% of added value in Vienna), scientific and technological services, real estate and housing activities as well as manufacturing of goods. In 2012, Vienna’s contribution in Austria’s outgoing and incoming foreign direct investments was of about 60%, which demonstrates Vienna’s role as an international hub for domestic and foreign companies.

Since the fall of the Iron Curtain in 1989, Vienna
Vienna
has expanded its position as gateway to Eastern Europe: 300 international companies have their Eastern European headquarters in Vienna
Vienna
and its environs. Among them are Hewlett Packard
Hewlett Packard
, Henkel
Henkel
, Baxalta and Siemens
Siemens
. Companies in Vienna
Vienna
have extensive contacts and competences in business with Eastern Europe due to the city’s historical role as centre of the Habsburg Empire . The number of international businesses in Vienna
Vienna
is still growing: In 2014 159 and in 2015 175 international firms established offices in Vienna.

Altogether, approximately 8,300 new companies have been founded in Vienna
Vienna
every year since 2004. The majority of these companies are operating in fields of industry-oriented services, wholesale trade as well as information and communications technologies and new media. Vienna
Vienna
makes effort to establish itself as a start-up hub. Since 2012, the city hosts the annual Pioneers Festival, the largest start-up event in Central Europe
Central Europe
with 2,500 international participants taking place at Hofburg Palace . Tech Cocktail, an online portal for the start-up scene, has ranked Vienna
Vienna
sixth among the top ten start-up cities worldwide.

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

The city of Vienna
Vienna
attaches major importance to science and research and focuses on creating a positive environment for research and development. In 2014, Vienna
Vienna
has accommodated 1,329 research facilities; 40,400 persons are employed in the R&D sector and 35% of Austria’s R&D expenses are invested in the city. With a research quota of 3.4% Vienna
Vienna
exceeds the Austrian average of 2.77% and has already met the EU target of 3.0% by 2020. A major R&D sector in Vienna
Vienna
are life sciences with 378 biotech, pharma and medtech companies such as Johnson font-style: normal;"> (de).

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES

The Viennese sector for information and communication technologies is comparable in size with the sector in Helsinki
Helsinki
or Munich
Munich
and thus among Europe’s largest IT locations. In 2012 8,962 IT businesses with a workforce of 64,223 were located in the Vienna
Vienna
Region. The main products are instruments and appliances for measuring, testing and navigation as well as electronic components. More than ⅔ of the enterprises provide IT services. Among the biggest IT firms in Vienna are Kapsch , Beko
Beko
Engineering & Informatics, air traffic control experts Frequentis , Cisco Systems Austria, Hewlett-Packard , Microsoft
Microsoft
Austria, IBM
IBM
Austria
Austria
and Samsung Electronics Austria.

The US technology corporation Cisco runs its _Entrepreneurs in Residence_ program for Europe in Vienna
Vienna
in cooperation with the Vienna Business Agency.

The British company UBM has rated Vienna
Vienna
one of the _Top 10 Internet Cities_ worldwide, by analysing criteria like connection speed, WiFi availability, innovation spirit and open government data.

In 2011 74.3% of Viennese households were connected with broadband, 79% were in possession of a computer. According to the broadband strategy of the City, full broadband coverage will be reached by 2020.

TOURISM AND CONFERENCES

6.2 million tourists visited Vienna
Vienna
in 2014 amounting to 13,524,266 overnight stays. The main markets for tourists are Germany
Germany
, the United States
United States
, Italy
Italy
and Russia
Russia
. Between 2005 and 2013, Vienna
Vienna
was the world's number one destination for international congresses and conventions. In 2014, 202 international conferences were held in Vienna, making it the second most popular congress location worldwide according to the statistics of the International Congress and Convention Association . Its largest conference centre, the Austria Center Vienna
Vienna
(ACV) has a total capacity for around 20,000 people and is situated next to the United Nations
United Nations
Headquarters in Vienna
Vienna
. Other centres are the Messe Wien Exhibition "> Monument of Johann Strauss II at Stadtpark, Vienna

Musical luminaries including Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart , Joseph Haydn
Joseph Haydn
, Ludwig van Beethoven , Ferdinand Ries
Ferdinand Ries
, Franz Schubert , Johannes Brahms
Brahms
, Gustav Mahler
Mahler
, Robert Stolz , and Arnold Schoenberg have worked there.

Art and culture had a long tradition in Vienna, including theatre, opera, classical music and fine arts. The Burgtheater
Burgtheater
is considered one of the best theatres in the German-speaking world alongside its branch, the Akademietheater. The Volkstheater Wien and the Theater in der Josefstadt also enjoy good reputations. There is also a multitude of smaller theatres, in many cases devoted to less mainstream forms of the performing arts, such as modern, experimental plays or cabaret . _ State Opera (Staatsoper_)

Vienna
Vienna
is also home to a number of opera houses, including the Theater an der Wien , the Staatsoper and the Volksoper , the latter being devoted to the typical Viennese operetta . Classical concerts are performed at world-famous venues such as the Wiener Musikverein , home of the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra known across the world for the annual widely broadcast "New Year's Day Concert", as well as the Wiener Konzerthaus , home of the internationally renowned Vienna Symphony . Many concert venues offer concerts aimed at tourists, featuring popular highlights of Viennese music, particularly the works of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart , Johann Strauss I , and Johann Strauss II . Hofburg Palace Musikverein Vienna
Vienna

Up until 2005, the Theater an der Wien has hosted premieres of musicals, although with the year of the Mozart celebrations 2006 it has devoted itself to the opera again and has since become a stagione opera house offering one new production each month, thus quickly becoming one of Europe's most interesting and advanced opera houses. Since 2012 Theater an der Wien has taken over the Wiener Kammeroper, a historical small theatre in the first district of Vienna
Vienna
seating 300 spectators, turning it into its second venue for smaller sized productions and chamber operas created by the young ensemble of Theater an der Wien (JET). Before 2005 the most successful musical was _Elisabeth _, which was later translated into several languages and performed all over the world. The Wiener Taschenoper is dedicated to stage music of the 20th and 21st century. The Haus der Musik ("house of music") opened in the year 2000.

The Wienerlied is a unique song genre from Vienna. There are approximately 60,000 – 70,000 Wienerlieder.

In 1981 the popular British new romantic group Ultravox paid a tribute to Vienna
Vienna
on an album and an artful music video recording called _Vienna_. The inspiration for this work arose from the cinema production called _ The Third Man _ with the title Zither music of Anton Karas
Anton Karas
.

The Vienna\'s English Theatre (VET) is an English theater in Vienna. It was founded in 1963 and is located in the 8th Vienna's district. It is the oldest English-language theater in Europe outside the UK.

In May 2015, Vienna
Vienna
hosted the Eurovision Song Contest
Eurovision Song Contest
following Austria\'s victory in the 2014 contest .

MUSICIANS FROM VIENNA

Notable musicians were born in Vienna, including: Franz Schubert , Joseph Lanner , Johann Strauss I , Johann Strauss II , Arnold Schönberg , Fritz Kreisler , Alban Berg , Anton Webern , Louie Austen , Falco and Joe Zawinul .

Famous musicians who came here to work from other parts of Austria and Germany
Germany
were Johann Joseph Fux
Johann Joseph Fux
, Joseph Haydn
Joseph Haydn
, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart , Ludwig van Beethoven , Ferdinand Ries
Ferdinand Ries
, Johann Sedlatzek , Antonio Salieri , Carl Czerny , Johann Nepomuk Hummel , Franz Liszt
Franz Liszt
, Franz von Suppé , Anton Bruckner
Bruckner
, Johannes Brahms
Brahms
, Gustav Mahler and Rainhard Fendrich .

FAMOUS JEWISH CULTURAL FIGURES FROM VIENNA

Among the most notable Viennese Jews, some of whom left Austria before and during Nazi persecution, are the following figures: Alfred Adler (who eventually converted to Christianity), Rudolf Dreikurs , Viktor Frankl , Sigmund Freud , Fritz Lang
Fritz Lang
, Fred Zinnemann
Fred Zinnemann
(both of whose parents died in the Holocaust), Stefan Zweig , Erich von Stroheim , Hedy Lamarr , Billy Wilder , Franz Werfel , Arnold Schoenberg and Fritz Kreisler .

MUSEUMS

See also: List of museums in Vienna _ Courtyard of the Museumsquartier with Enzi_ seating furniture

The Hofburg
Hofburg
is the location of the Imperial Treasury (_Schatzkammer_), holding the imperial jewels of the Habsburg dynasty. The Sisi Museum (a museum devoted to Empress Elisabeth of Austria
Austria
) allows visitors to view the imperial apartments as well as the silver cabinet. Directly opposite the Hofburg
Hofburg
are the Kunsthistorisches Museum , which houses many paintings by old masters , ancient and classical artifacts, and the Naturhistorisches Museum
Naturhistorisches Museum
. Liechtenstein Museum

A number of museums are located in the Museumsquartier (museum quarter), the former Imperial Stalls which were converted into a museum complex in the 1990s. It houses the Museum of Modern Art, commonly known as the MUMOK (Ludwig Foundation), the Leopold Museum (featuring the largest collection of paintings in the world by Egon Schiele , as well as works by the Vienna Secession , Viennese Modernism
Modernism
and Austrian Expressionism), the AzW (museum of architecture), additional halls with feature exhibitions, and the Tanzquartier. The Liechtenstein Palace contains much of one of the world's largest private art collections , especially strong in the Baroque
Baroque
. Castle Belvedere , built under Prince Eugene , has a gallery containing paintings by Gustav Klimt
Gustav Klimt
(The Kiss), Egon Schiele, and other painters of the early 20th century, also sculptures by Franz Xaver Messerschmidt , and changing exhibitions too.

There are a multitude of other museums in Vienna, including the Albertina , the Military History Museum , the Technical Museum , the Burial Museum, the Museum of Art Fakes , the KunstHausWien , Museum of Applied Arts , the Sigmund Freud Museum , and the Mozarthaus Vienna . The museums on the history of the city, including the former Historical Museum of the City of Vienna
Vienna
on Karlsplatz , the Hermesvilla , the residences and birthplaces of various composers, the Museum of the Romans , and the Vienna
Vienna
Clock Museum , are now gathered together under the group umbrella Vienna Museum . In addition there are museums dedicated to Vienna's individual districts. They provide a record of individual struggles, achievements and tragedy as the city grew and survived two world wars. For readers seeking family histories these are good sources of information.

ARCHITECTURE

See also: Category:Buildings and structures in Austria
Austria
Palais Ferstel Hotel Sacher
Hotel Sacher
at night

A variety of architectural styles can be found in Vienna, such as the Romanesque Ruprechtskirche and the Baroque
Baroque
Karlskirche . Styles range from classicist buildings to modern architecture . Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
left many architectural traces in Vienna. The Secession , Karlsplatz Stadtbahn Station , and the Kirche am Steinhof by Otto Wagner
Otto Wagner
rank among the best known examples of Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
in the world. Wagner's prominent student Jože Plečnik from Slovenia
Slovenia
also left important traces in Vienna. His works include the Langer House (1900) and the Zacherlhaus (1903–1905). Plečnik's 1910–1913 _Church of the Holy Spirit_ (Heilig-Geist-Kirche (de)) in Vienna
Vienna
is remarkable for its innovative use of poured-in-place concrete as both structure and exterior surface, and also for its abstracted classical form language. Most radical is the church's crypt, with its slender concrete columns and angular, cubist capitals and bases.

Concurrent to the Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
movement was the Wiener Moderne , during which some architects shunned the use of extraneous adornment. A key architect of this period was Adolf Loos , whose works include the Looshaus (1909), the Kärntner Bar or American Bar (1908) and the Steiner House (1910).

The Hundertwasserhaus by Friedensreich Hundertwasser , designed to counter the clinical look of modern architecture, is one of Vienna's most popular tourist attractions . Another example of unique architecture is the Wotrubakirche by sculptor Fritz Wotruba . In the 1990s, a number of quarters were adapted and extensive building projects were implemented in the areas around Donaustadt (north of the Danube) and Wienerberg (in southern Vienna). View of the city from Stephansdom

The 220-meter high DC Tower 1 located on the Northern bank of the Danube, completed in 2013, is the tallest skyscraper in Vienna. In recent years, Vienna
Vienna
has seen numerous architecture projects completed which combine modern architectural elements with old buildings, such as the remodelling and revitalisation of the old Gasometer in 2001. Most buildings in Vienna
Vienna
are relatively low; in early 2006 there were around 100 buildings higher than 40 metres (130 feet). The number of high-rise buildings is kept low by building legislation aimed at preserving green areas and districts designated as world cultural heritage . Strong rules apply to the planning, authorisation and construction of high-rise buildings. Consequently, much of the inner city is a high-rise free zone.

VIENNA BALLS

Vienna
Vienna
is the last great capital of the 19th-century ball . There are over 450 balls per year, some featuring as many as nine live orchestras. Balls are held in the many beautiful palaces in Vienna, with the principal venue being the Hofburg Palace in Heldenplatz . While the Opera Ball is the best known internationally of all the Austrian balls, other balls such as the Kaffeesiederball (Cafe Owners Ball), the Jägerball (Hunter's Ball) and the Life Ball ( AIDS
AIDS
charity event) are almost as well known within Austria
Austria
and even better appreciated for their cordial atmosphere. Viennese of at least middle class may visit a number of balls in their lifetime.

Dancers and opera singers from the Vienna State Opera often perform at the openings of the larger balls.

A Vienna
Vienna
ball is an all-night cultural attraction. Major Viennese balls generally begin at 9 pm and last until 5 am, although many guests carry on the celebrations into the next day. The Viennese balls are being exported with the support of the City of Vienna
Vienna
in around 30 cities worldwide such as New York, Barcelona, Hong Kong, Kuala Lumpur, Rome, Prague, Bucharest, Berlin
Berlin
and Moscow.

EDUCATION

Vienna
Vienna
is Austria's main centre of education and home to many universities, professional colleges and gymnasiums (high schools) . Friedrich Schiller statue in front of the Academy of Fine Arts
Academy of Fine Arts
The Medical University of Vienna
University of Vienna
The University of Vienna
University of Vienna
's main building Vienna University of Technology Schönbrunn Gardens in autumn

UNIVERSITIES

* Academy of Fine Arts
Academy of Fine Arts
Vienna
Vienna
* Diplomatic Academy of Vienna * Medical University of Vienna
University of Vienna
* PEF Private University of Management Vienna * University of Applied Arts Vienna
University of Applied Arts Vienna
* University of Music and Performing Arts, Vienna
University of Music and Performing Arts, Vienna
* University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna * University of Vienna
University of Vienna
* Vienna University of Economics and Business * University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna * Vienna University of Technology * Webster University Vienna * Sigmund Freud University Vienna
Vienna
* International Anti-Corruption Academy (in Laxenburg, 24 km (15 mi) south of Vienna)

INTERNATIONAL SCHOOLS

* Danube
Danube
International School * International University Vienna * SAE Vienna
Vienna
* Lauder Business School * Lycée Français de Vienne * Vienna Christian School * Vienna International School * American International School * _ Japanische Schule in Wien _ (Japanese school) * Amadeus International School

LEISURE ACTIVITIES

PARKS AND GARDENS

Vienna
Vienna
city park

Vienna
Vienna
possesses many parks, including the _Stadtpark _, the _Burggarten_, the _Volksgarten_ (part of the _Hofburg_), the _Schlosspark_ at Schloss Belvedere (home to the Vienna
Vienna
Botanic Gardens ), the _Donaupark_, the _Schönbrunner Schlosspark_, the _ Prater
Prater
_, the _Augarten_, the _Rathauspark_, the _ Lainzer Tiergarten _, the _Dehnepark_, the _Resselpark_, the _Votivpark_, the _Kurpark Oberlaa_, the _Auer-Welsbach-Park_ and the _Türkenschanzpark_. Green areas include _Laaer-Berg_ (including the Bohemian Prater) and the foothills of the _Wienerwald _, which reaches into the outer areas of the city. Small parks, known by the Viennese as _Beserlparks_, are everywhere in the inner city areas.

Many of Vienna's famous parks include monuments, such as the Stadtpark with its statue of Johann Strauss II , and the gardens of the baroque palace , where the State Treaty was signed. Vienna's principal park is the Prater
Prater
which is home to the Riesenrad , a Ferris wheel , and Kugelmugel , a micronation the shape of a sphere. The imperial Schönbrunn 's grounds contain an 18th-century park which includes the world\'s oldest zoo , founded in 1752. The Donauinsel , part of Vienna's flood defences, is a 21.1 km (13.1 mi) long artificial island between the Danube
Danube
and Neue Donau dedicated to leisure activities.

SPORT

Ernst-Happel-Stadion in the Prater
Prater

Austria's capital is home to numerous football teams. The best known are the local football clubs include FK Austria
Austria
Wien (21 Austrian Bundesliga titles and record 27-time cup winners), SK Rapid Wien (record 32 Austrian Bundesliga titles), and the oldest team, First Vienna
Vienna
FC . Other important sports clubs include the Raiffeisen Vikings Vienna (American Football ), who won the Eurobowl title between 2004 and 2007 4 times in a row and had a perfect season in 2013, the Aon hotVolleys Vienna , one of Europe's premier Volleyball organisations, the Vienna
Vienna
Wanderers (baseball) who won the 2012 and 2013 Championship of the Austrian Baseball League, and the Vienna Capitals (Ice Hockey ). Vienna
Vienna
was also where the European Handball Federation (EHF) was founded. There are also three rugby clubs; Vienna Celtic , the oldest rugby club in Austria, RC Donau , and Stade Viennois

Vienna
Vienna
hosts many different sporting events including the Vienna
Vienna
City Marathon , which attracts more than 10,000 participants every year and normally takes place in May. In 2005 the Ice Hockey World Championships took place in Austria
Austria
and the final was played in Vienna. Vienna's Ernst Happel Stadium was the venue of four Champions League and European Champion Clubs' Cup finals (1964, 1987, 1990 and 1995) and on 29 June it hosted the final of Euro 2008 which saw a Spanish 1–0 victory over Germany. Tennis
Tennis
tournament Vienna Open also takes place in the city since 1974. The matches are played in the Wiener Stadthalle .

CULINARY SPECIALITIES

FOOD

See also: Austrian cuisine _ Wiener Schnitzel _ _ Sachertorte _

Vienna
Vienna
is well known for _ Wiener Schnitzel _, a cutlet of veal _(Kalbsschnitzel)_ or pork _(Schweinsschnitzel)_ that is pounded flat, coated in flour, egg and breadcrumbs, and fried in clarified butter . It is available in almost every restaurant that serves Viennese cuisine and can be eaten hot or cold. The traditional 'Wiener Schnitzel' though is a cutlet of veal. Other examples of Viennese cuisine include _ Tafelspitz
Tafelspitz
_ (very lean boiled beef), which is traditionally served with _Geröstete Erdäpfel_ (boiled potatoes mashed with a fork and subsequently fried) and horseradish sauce, _Apfelkren_ (a mixture of horseradish, cream and apple) and _Schnittlauchsauce_ (a chives sauce made with mayonnaise and stale bread).

Vienna
Vienna
has a long tradition of producing cakes and desserts. These include _Apfelstrudel _ (hot apple strudel), _ Milchrahmstrudel _ (milk-cream strudel), _ Palatschinken
Palatschinken
_ (sweet pancakes), and _Knödel_ (dumplings) often filled with fruit such as apricots (_Marillenknödel _). Sachertorte , a delicately moist chocolate cake with apricot jam created by the Sacher Hotel , is world-famous.

In winter, small street stands sell traditional _Maroni _ (hot chestnuts) and potato fritters.

Sausages are popular and available from street vendors (_ Würstelstand
Würstelstand
_) throughout the day and into the night. The sausage known as _Wiener _ (German for Viennese) in the U.S. and in Germany, is called a _Frankfurter_ in Vienna. Other popular sausages are _Burenwurst_ (a coarse beef and pork sausage, generally boiled), _Käsekrainer _ (spicy pork with small chunks of cheese), and _ Bratwurst _ (a white pork sausage). Most can be ordered "mit Brot" (with bread) or as a "hot dog" (stuffed inside a long roll). Mustard is the traditional condiment and usually offered in two varieties: "süß" (sweet) or "scharf" (spicy).

Kebab, pizza and noodles are, increasingly, the snack foods most widely available from small stands.

The _ Naschmarkt
Naschmarkt
_ is a permanent market for fruit, vegetables, spices, fish, meat, etc., from around the world. The city has many coffee and breakfast stores.

DRINKS

Vienna, along with Paris
Paris
, Santiago
Santiago
, Cape Town
Cape Town
, Prague
Prague
, Canberra
Canberra
, Bratislava
Bratislava
and Warsaw
Warsaw
, is one of the few remaining world capital cities with its own vineyards. The wine is served in small Viennese pubs known as Heuriger , which are especially numerous in the wine growing areas of Döbling ( Grinzing , Neustift am Walde , Nußdorf , Salmannsdorf , Sievering ), Floridsdorf (Stammersdorf, Strebersdorf), Liesing (Mauer ) and Favoriten
Favoriten
(Oberlaa). The wine is often drunk as a Spritzer ("G'spritzter") with sparkling water. The Grüner Veltliner , a dry white wine, is the most widely cultivated wine in Austria.

Beer is next in importance to wine. Vienna
Vienna
has a single large brewery, Ottakringer , and more than ten microbreweries . A "Beisl" is a typical small Austrian pub, of which Vienna
Vienna
has many.

Also, local soft drinks such as Almdudler are very popular around the country as an alternative to alcoholic beverages, placing it on the top spots along American counterparts such as Coca-Cola
Coca-Cola
in terms of market share. Another popular drink is the so-called " Spezi ", a mix between Coca-Cola
Coca-Cola
and the original formula of Orange Fanta or the more locally renowned Frucade .

VIENNESE CAFéS

_ Demel Café_

Viennese cafés have an extremely long and distinguished history that dates back centuries, and the caffeine addictions of some famous historical patrons of the oldest are something of a local legend. These coffee houses are unique to Vienna
Vienna
and many cities have unsuccessfully sought to copy them. Some people consider cafés as their extended living room where nobody will be bothered if they spend hours reading a newspaper while enjoying their coffee. Traditionally, the coffee comes with a glass of water. Viennese cafés claim to have invented the process of filtering coffee from booty captured after the second Turkish siege in 1683. Viennese cafés claim that when the invading Turks left Vienna, they abandoned hundreds of sacks of coffee beans. The Polish King John III Sobieski
John III Sobieski
, the commander of the anti-Turkish coalition of Poles, Germans, and Austrians, gave Franz George Kolschitzky (Polish – Franciszek Jerzy Kulczycki ) some of this coffee as a reward for providing information that allowed him to defeat the Turks. Kolschitzky then opened Vienna's first coffee shop . Julius Meinl set up a modern roasting plant in the same premises where the coffee sacks were found, in 1891.

TOURIST ATTRACTIONS

Further information: Tourist attractions in Vienna

Major tourist attractions include the imperial palaces of the Hofburg and Schönbrunn (also home to the world's oldest zoo, Tiergarten Schönbrunn ) and the Riesenrad in the Prater. Cultural highlights include the Burgtheater
Burgtheater
, the Wiener Staatsoper , the Lipizzaner horses at the spanische Hofreitschule , and the Vienna
Vienna
Boys\' Choir , as well as excursions to Vienna's Heurigen district Döbling. Schönbrunn Palace Gloriette at the Schönbrunn Palace

There are also more than 100 art museums, which together attract over eight million visitors per year. The most popular ones are Albertina , Belvedere , Leopold Museum in the Museumsquartier , KunstHausWien , Bank Austria
Austria
Kunstforum , the twin _ Kunsthistorisches Museum
Kunsthistorisches Museum
_ and _ Naturhistorisches Museum
Naturhistorisches Museum
_, and the Technisches Museum Wien , each of which receives over a quarter of a million visitors per year.

There are many popular sites associated with composers who lived in Vienna
Vienna
including Beethoven\'s various residences and grave at Zentralfriedhof (Central Cemetery) which is the largest cemetery in Vienna
Vienna
and the burial site of many famous people . Mozart has a memorial grave at the Habsburg gardens and at St. Marx cemetery (where his grave was lost). Vienna's many churches also draw large crowds, famous of which are St. Stephen\'s Cathedral , the Deutschordenskirche , the Jesuitenkirche , the Karlskirche , the Peterskirche
Peterskirche
, Maria am Gestade , the Minoritenkirche , the Ruprechtskirche , the Schottenkirche , St. Ulrich and the Votivkirche .

Modern attractions include the Hundertwasserhaus , the United Nations headquarters and the view from the Donauturm .

*

Albertina *

Austrian Parliament Building *

Belvedere Palace *

Burgtheater
Burgtheater
*

Graben *

Hundertwasserhaus *

Karlskirche at dusk *

Kunsthistorisches Museum
Kunsthistorisches Museum
*

Naturhistorisches Museum
Naturhistorisches Museum
*

Palais Augarten *

Rathaus *

Schönbrunn Zoo *

Spanish Riding School *

Stephansplatz *

St. Stephen\'s Cathedral *

Prince Eugene Monument *

View of Hofburg
Hofburg
*

Vienna Secession building *

Vienna State Opera *

Wiener Riesenrad

TRANSPORTATION

Main article: Transportation in Vienna Stephansplatz metro station Vienna
Vienna
Airport terminal 3 arrivals lounge

Vienna
Vienna
has an extensive transportation network with a unified fare system that integrates municipal, regional and railway systems under the umbrella of the Verkehrsverbund Ost-Region (VOR). Public transport is provided by buses, trams and 5 underground metro lines (U-Bahn ), most operated by the Wiener Linien . There are also more than 50 S-train stations within the city limits. Suburban trains are operated by the ÖBB . The city forms the hub of the Austrian railway system, with services to all parts of the country and abroad. The railway system connects Vienna
Vienna
with other European cities, like Munich
Munich
, Venice
Venice
, Budapest
Budapest
, Prague
Prague
, Bratislava
Bratislava
and Zürich .

Vienna
Vienna
has multiple road connections including motorways.

Vienna
Vienna
is served by Vienna International Airport , located 18 km (11 mi) southeast of the city centre next to the town of Schwechat . The airport handled approximately 22 million passengers in 2014. Following lengthy negotiations with surrounding communities, the airport will be expanded to increase its capacity by adding a third runway. The airport is currently undergoing a major expansion, including a new terminal building opened in 2012 to prepare for an expected increase in passengers.

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS IN VIENNA

UN complex in Vienna, with the Austria
Austria
Center Vienna
Vienna
in front, taken from the Danube
Danube
Tower in the nearby Donaupark before the extensive building work Many international organisations and offices are located in Donaustadt

Vienna
Vienna
is the seat of a number of United Nations
United Nations
offices and various international institutions and companies, including the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the United Nations
United Nations
Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), the United Nations
United Nations
Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), the United Nations
United Nations
Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA) and the European Union
European Union
Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA). Currently Vienna
Vienna
is the world's third "UN city", next to New York , Geneva
Geneva
, and Nairobi
Nairobi
. Additionally, Vienna
Vienna
is the seat of the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law 's secretariat (UNCITRAL ). In conjunction, the University of Vienna
University of Vienna
annually hosts the prestigious Willem C. Vis Moot , an international commercial arbitration competition for students of law from around the world.

Various special diplomatic meetings have been held in Vienna
Vienna
in the latter half of the 20th century, resulting in various documents bearing the name Vienna
Vienna
Convention or Vienna
Vienna
Document. Among the more important documents negotiated in Vienna
Vienna
are the 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties , as well as the 1990 Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe . Vienna
Vienna
also hosted the negotiations leading to the 2015 Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action on Iran's nuclear program as well as the Vienna
Vienna
peace talks for Syria
Syria
.

Vienna
Vienna
also headquartered the International Taekwon-Do Federation (ITF).

CHARITABLE ORGANISATIONS IN VIENNA

Alongside international and intergovernmental organisations, there are dozens of charitable organisations based in Vienna.. One such organisation is the network of SOS Children\'s Villages , founded by Hermann Gmeiner in 1949. Today, SOS Children's Villages are active in 132 countries and territories worldwide. Others include HASCO .

Another extremely popular international event is the annual Life Ball , which supports people with HIV
HIV
or AIDS
AIDS
. Guests such as Bill Clinton and Whoopi Goldberg
Whoopi Goldberg
were recent attendees.

INTERNATIONAL CITY COOPERATIONS

The general policy of the City of Vienna
Vienna
is not to sign any twin or sister city agreements with other cities. Instead Vienna
Vienna
has only cooperation agreements in which specific cooperation areas are defined.

* Brasilia
Brasilia
, Brazil * Bratislava
Bratislava
, Slovakia * Brno
Brno
, Czech Republic * Budapest
Budapest
, Hungary * Chengdu
Chengdu
, China * Kiev
Kiev
, Ukraine * Kraków , Poland * Ljubljana
Ljubljana
, Slovenia * Moscow
Moscow
, Russia * Paris
Paris
, France * Tehran
Tehran
, Iran * Trieste
Trieste
, Italy

DISTRICT TO DISTRICT PARTNERSHIPS

In addition, individual Viennese districts have international partnerships all over the world. A detailed list can be found on the following webpage of the City of Vienna.

SEE ALSO

* Donauinselfest * List of honorary citizens of Vienna * List of mayors of Vienna * List of restaurants in Vienna * List of Viennese * List of World Heritage Sites in Austria
Austria
* Soviet War Memorial (Vienna) * Vienna Biennale * Vienna Porcelain Manufactory * Vienna (Billy Joel song) * Vienna
Vienna
( Ultravox song) * Viennese German

* Europe portal * Vienna
Vienna
portal * Austria
Austria
portal * European Union
European Union
portal

REFERENCES

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Vienna
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FURTHER READING

* Pippal, M. : _A short History of Art in Vienna_, Munich: C.H. Beck 2000, ISBN 978-3-406-46789-9 , provides a concise overview. * Dassanowsky, Robert ed, : "World Film Locations: Vienna", London: Intellect/Chicago: U of Chicago Press, 2012, ISBN 978-1-84150-569-5 . International films about Vienna
Vienna
or Austria
Austria
shot on location throughout cinema history.

EXTERNAL LINKS

Find more aboutVIENNAat's sister projects

* Definitions from Wiktionary * Media from Commons * News from Wikinews * Quotations from Wikiquote * Texts from Wikisource * Textbooks from Wikibooks * Travel guide from Wikivoyage

OFFICIAL

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