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Coordinates: 47°20′N 13°20′E / 47.333°N 13.333°E / 47.333; 13.333

Republic
Republic
of Austria Republik Österreich  (German)

Flag

Coat of arms

Anthem: 

Land der Berge, Land am Strome  (German) Land of Mountains, Land by the River

Location of  Austria  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)  –  [Legend]

Capital and largest city Vienna 48°12′N 16°21′E / 48.200°N 16.350°E / 48.200; 16.350

Official languages German[a][b]

Ethnic groups (2012)

82.3% Austrians[1] 5.2% ex-Yugoslavs 2.7% Germans 2.2% Turks 7.6% Others

Demonym Austrian

Government Federal parliamentary republic

• President

Alexander Van der Bellen

• Chancellor

Sebastian Kurz

Legislature Parliament

• Upper house

Federal Council

• Lower house

National Council

Independence

• Margraviate of Austria

976

• Duchy of Austria

1156

• Archduchy of Austria

1453

• Austrian Empire

1804

• Austro-Hungarian Empire

1867

• First Republic

1918

• Federal State

1934

• Anschluss

1938

• Second Republic

since 1945

• State Treaty in effect

27 July 1955

• Joined the European Union

1 January 1995

Area

• Total

83,879 km2 (32,386 sq mi) (113th)

• Water (%)

1.7

Population

• January 2018 estimate

8,823,054[2] (96th)

• Density

104/km2 (269.4/sq mi) (106th)

GDP (PPP) 2017 estimate

• Total

$434.097 billion[3]

• Per capita

$49,247[3] (17th)

GDP (nominal) 2017 estimate

• Total

$409.316 billion[3] (29th)

• Per capita

$46,436[3] (14th)

Gini (2014)  27.6[4] low · 14th

HDI (2015)  0.893[5] very high · 24th

Currency Euro
Euro
(€)[c] (EUR)

Time zone CET (UTC+01)

• Summer (DST)

CEST (UTC+02)

Drives on the right

Calling code +43

ISO 3166 code AT

Internet TLD .at[d]

^ There is an official dictionary, the Österreichisches Wörterbuch (edited under the authority of the Austrian Federal Ministry of Education and Women's Affairs), compareable to the German Duden. ^ Croatian, Czech, Hungarian, Romani, Slovak, and Slovene are officially recognised by the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML). ^ Austrian schilling
Austrian schilling
before 1999; Virtual Euro
Euro
since 1 January 1999; Euro
Euro
since 1 January 2002. ^ The .eu
.eu
domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union member states.

Austria
Austria
(/ˈɒstriə/ ( listen);[7] German: Österreich [ˈøːstɐˌraɪç] ( listen)), officially the Republic
Republic
of Austria
Austria
(German: Republik Österreich,  listen (help·info)), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people[2] in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
and Germany
Germany
to the north, Hungary
Hungary
and Slovakia
Slovakia
to the east, Slovenia
Slovenia
and Italy
Italy
to the south, and Switzerland
Switzerland
and Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
to the west. The territory of Austria covers 83,879 km2 (32,386 sq mi). The terrain is highly mountainous, lying within the Alps; only 32% of the country is below 500 m (1,640 ft), and its highest point is 3,798 m (12,461 ft).[8] The majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects of German as their native language,[9] and German in its standard form is the country's official language.[10] Other local official languages are Hungarian, Burgenland
Burgenland
Croatian, and Slovene.[8] The origins of modern-day Austria
Austria
date back to the time of the Habsburg dynasty, when the vast majority of the country was a part of the Holy Roman Empire. From the time of the Reformation, many northern German princes, resenting the authority of the Emperor, used Protestantism
Protestantism
as a flag of rebellion. The Thirty Years' War, the influence of the Kingdom of Sweden
Sweden
and Kingdom of France, the rise of the Kingdom of Prussia, and the Napoleonic invasions all weakened the power of the Emperor in the north of Germany, but in the south, and in non-German areas of the Empire, the Emperor and Catholicism maintained control. During the 17th and 18th centuries, Austria
Austria
retained its position as one of the great powers of Europe[11][12] and, in response to the coronation of Napoleon
Napoleon
as the Emperor of the French, the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
was officially proclaimed in 1804. Following Napoleon's defeat, Prussia
Prussia
emerged as Austria's chief competitor for rule of a Greater Germany. Austria's defeat by Prussia
Prussia
at the Battle of Königgrätz, during the Austro-Prussian War
Austro-Prussian War
of 1866, cleared the way for Prussia
Prussia
to assert control over the rest of Germany. In 1867, the empire was reformed into Austria-Hungary. After the defeat of France
France
in the 1870-71 Franco-Prussian War, Austria
Austria
was excluded from the new German Empire, although in the following decades, its politics, and its foreign policy, increasingly converged with those of the Prussian-led Empire. During the 1914 July Crisis
July Crisis
that followed the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria
Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria
on 28 June, Austria-Hungary, emboldened by a pledge of German support, on 28 July declared war on Serbia
Serbia
because that country had not fully complied with an Austrian ultimatum. Austria
Austria
was thus the first to go to war in the July Crisis, which escalated into World War I. After the collapse of the Habsburg (Austro-Hungarian) Empire in 1918 at the end of World War I, Austria
Austria
adopted and used the name the Republic of German-Austria
Republic of German-Austria
(Deutschösterreich), in an attempt at union with Germany, but this was forbidden under the Treaty of Versailles and the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (1919). The name was changed to Austria
Austria
(Österreich) and shortly afterwards The First Austrian Republic
Republic
was established in 1919. In 1938 Nazi
Nazi
Germany annexed Austria
Austria
in the Anschluss.[13] This lasted until the end of World War II
World War II
in 1945, after which Germany
Germany
was occupied by the Allies and Austria's former democratic constitution was restored. In 1955, the Austrian State Treaty
Austrian State Treaty
re-established Austria
Austria
as a sovereign state, ending the occupation. In the same year, the Austrian Parliament created the Declaration of Neutrality
Declaration of Neutrality
which declared that the Second Austrian Republic
Republic
would become permanently neutral. Today, Austria
Austria
is a parliamentary representative democracy comprising nine federal states.[8][14] The capital and largest city, with a population exceeding 1.8 million, is Vienna.[8][15] Other major urban areas of Austria
Austria
include Graz, Linz, Salzburg
Salzburg
and Innsbruck. Austria
Austria
is consistently ranked as one of the richest countries in the world by per capita GDP terms. The country has developed a high standard of living and in 2014 was ranked 21st in the world for its Human Development Index. Austria
Austria
has been a member of the United Nations since 1955,[16] joined the European Union
European Union
in 1995,[8] and is a founder of the OECD.[17] Austria
Austria
also signed the Schengen Agreement
Schengen Agreement
in 1995,[18] and adopted the euro currency in 1999.[19]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Middle Ages 2.2 17th and 18th centuries 2.3 19th century 2.4 20th century 2.5 Interwar period and World War II 2.6 Contemporary era

3 Politics

3.1 Since 2006 3.2 Foreign relations 3.3 Military 3.4 Administrative divisions

4 Geography

4.1 Climate

5 Economy

5.1 Infrastructure

6 Demographics

6.1 Largest cities 6.2 Language 6.3 Ethnic groups 6.4 Religion 6.5 Education

7 Culture

7.1 Music 7.2 Art and architecture 7.3 Cinema and theatre 7.4 Science and philosophy 7.5 Literature 7.6 Food and beverages 7.7 Sports

8 See also 9 References

9.1 Bibliography

10 External links

Etymology[edit] Main article: Name of Austria

The first appearance of the word "Ostarrîchi", circled in red. Modern Austria
Austria
honours this document, dated 996, as the founding of the nation.

The German name for Austria, Österreich, meant "eastern realm" in Old High German, and is cognate with the word Ostarrîchi, which first appears in the " Ostarrîchi
Ostarrîchi
document" of 996.[20] This word is probably a translation of Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin
Marchia orientalis
Marchia orientalis
into a local (Bavarian) dialect. Austria
Austria
was a prefecture of Bavaria
Bavaria
created in 976. The word "Austria" is a Latinisation of the German name and was first recorded in the 12th century. At the time, the Danube
Danube
basin of Austria
Austria
(Upper and Lower Austria) was the easternmost extent of Bavaria, and in fact of all the Germans, as at the time the territory of the former East Germany
Germany
was populated by Slavic Sorbs
Sorbs
and Polabians. Friedrich Heer, a 20th-century Austrian historian, stated in his book Der Kampf um die österreichische Identität (The Struggle over an Austrian Identity),[21] that the Germanic form Ostarrîchi
Ostarrîchi
was not a translation of the Latin word, but both resulted from a much older term originating in the Celtic languages
Celtic languages
of ancient Austria: more than 2,500 years ago, the major part of the actual country was called Norig by the Celtic population ( Hallstatt
Hallstatt
culture); according to Heer, no- or nor- meant "east" or "easterns", whereas -rig is related to the modern German Reich, meaning "realm". Accordingly, Norig would essentially mean the same as Ostarrîchi
Ostarrîchi
and Österreich, thus Austria. The Celtic name was eventually Latinised to Noricum
Noricum
after the Romans conquered the area that encloses most of modern-day Austria, around 15 BC. Noricum
Noricum
later became a Roman province
Roman province
in the mid-first century AD.[22] Heer's hypothesis is not accepted by linguists. History[edit] Main article: History of Austria

Venus of Willendorf, 28,000 to 25,000 BC. Museum of Natural History Vienna

Settled in ancient times,[14] the Central European land that is now Austria
Austria
was occupied in pre-Roman times by various Celtic tribes. The Celtic kingdom of Noricum
Noricum
was later claimed by the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and made a province. Present-day Petronell- Carnuntum
Carnuntum
in eastern Austria was an important army camp turned capital city in what became known as the Upper Pannonia province. Carnuntum
Carnuntum
was home for 50,000 people for nearly 400 years.[23] After the fall of the Roman Empire, the area was invaded by Bavarians, Slavs, and Avars.[24] Charlemagne, King of the Franks, conquered the area in AD 788, encouraged colonization, and introduced Christianity.[24] As part of Eastern Francia, the core areas that now encompass Austria
Austria
were bequeathed to the house of Babenberg. The area was known as the marchia Orientalis and was given to Leopold of Babenberg
Babenberg
in 976.[25] The first record showing the name Austria
Austria
is from 996, where it is written as Ostarrîchi, referring to the territory of the Babenberg March.[25] In 1156, the Privilegium Minus elevated Austria
Austria
to the status of a duchy. In 1192, the Babenbergs also acquired the Duchy of Styria. With the death of Frederick II in 1246, the line of the Babenbergs was extinguished.[26] As a result, Ottokar II of Bohemia
Ottokar II of Bohemia
effectively assumed control of the duchies of Austria, Styria, and Carinthia.[26] His reign came to an end with his defeat at Dürnkrut
Dürnkrut
at the hands of Rudolph I of Germany in 1278.[27] Thereafter, until World War I, Austria's history was largely that of its ruling dynasty, the Habsburgs. Middle Ages[edit] In the 14th and 15th centuries, the Habsburgs
Habsburgs
began to accumulate other provinces in the vicinity of the Duchy of Austria. In 1438, Duke Albert V of Austria
Albert V of Austria
was chosen as the successor to his father-in-law, Emperor Sigismund. Although Albert himself only reigned for a year, henceforth every emperor of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
was a Habsburg, with only one exception.

The Battle of Vienna
Vienna
in 1683 broke the advance of the Ottoman Empire into Europe.

The Habsburgs
Habsburgs
began also to accumulate territory far from the hereditary lands. In 1477, Archduke Maximilian, only son of Emperor Frederick III, married the heiress Maria of Burgundy, thus acquiring most of the Netherlands
Netherlands
for the family.[28][29] His son Philip the Fair married Joanna the Mad, the heiress of Castile and Aragon, thus acquired Spain
Spain
and its Italian, African, and New World
New World
appendages for the Habsburgs.[28][29] In 1526, following the Battle of Mohács, Bohemia
Bohemia
and the part of Hungary
Hungary
not occupied by the Ottomans came under Austrian rule.[30] Ottoman expansion into Hungary
Hungary
led to frequent conflicts between the two empires, particularly evident in the Long War of 1593 to 1606. The Turks made incursions into Styria
Styria
nearly 20 times,[31] of which some are cited as "burning, pillaging, and taking thousands of slaves".[32] In late September 1529 Suleiman the Magnificent launched the first Siege of Vienna, which unsuccessfully ended, according to Ottoman historians, with the snowfalls of an early beginning winter. 17th and 18th centuries[edit]

The Congress of Vienna
Vienna
met in 1814–15. The objective of the Congress was to settle the many issues arising from the French Revolutionary Wars, the Napoleonic Wars, and the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire.

During the long reign of Leopold I (1657–1705) and following the successful defence of Vienna
Vienna
in 1683 (under the command of the King of Poland, John III Sobieski),[33] a series of campaigns resulted in bringing most of Hungary
Hungary
to Austrian control by the Treaty of Karlowitz in 1699. Emperor Charles VI
Emperor Charles VI
relinquished many of the gains the empire made in the previous years, largely due to his apprehensions at the imminent extinction of the House of Habsburg. Charles was willing to offer concrete advantages in territory and authority in exchange for recognition of the Pragmatic Sanction that made his daughter Maria Theresa his heir. With the rise of Prussia, the Austrian–Prussian dualism began in Germany. Austria
Austria
participated, together with Prussia and Russia, in the first and the third of the three Partitions of Poland
Poland
(in 1772 and 1795). 19th century[edit]

A map showing the German Confederation
German Confederation
(1815-1836) with its 39 member states.

Austria
Austria
later became engaged in a war with Revolutionary France, at the beginning highly unsuccessfully, with successive defeats at the hands of Napoleon, meaning the end of the old Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
in 1806. Two years earlier,[34] the Empire of Austria
Austria
was founded. In 1814, Austria
Austria
was part of the Allied forces that invaded France
France
and brought to an end the Napoleonic Wars. It emerged from the Congress of Vienna
Vienna
in 1815 as one of the continent's four dominant powers and a recognised great power. The same year, the German Confederation
German Confederation
(Deutscher Bund) was founded under the presidency of Austria. Because of unsolved social, political, and national conflicts, the German lands were shaken by the 1848 revolution aiming to create a unified Germany.[35] The various different possibilities for a united Germany
Germany
were: a Greater Germany, or a Greater Austria
Austria
or just the German Confederation without Austria
Austria
at all. As Austria
Austria
was not willing to relinquish its German-speaking territories to what would become the German Empire
German Empire
of 1848, the crown of the newly formed empire was offered to the Prussian King Friedrich Wilhelm IV. In 1864, Austria
Austria
and Prussia
Prussia
fought together against Denmark
Denmark
and secured the independence from Denmark
Denmark
of the duchies of Schleswig
Schleswig
and Holstein. As they could not agree on how the two duchies should be administered, though, they fought the Austro-Prussian War
Austro-Prussian War
in 1866. Defeated by Prussia
Prussia
in the Battle of Königgrätz,[35] Austria
Austria
had to leave the German Confederation
German Confederation
and subsequently no longer took part in German politics.[36][37] The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, the Ausgleich, provided for a dual sovereignty, the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
and the Kingdom of Hungary, under Franz Joseph I.[38] The Austrian-Hungarian rule of this diverse empire included various Slavic groups, including Croats, Czechs, Poles, Rusyns, Serbs, Slovaks, Slovenes, and Ukrainians, as well as large Italian and Romanian communities.

An ethno-linguistic map of Austria–Hungary, 1910

As a result, ruling Austria– Hungary
Hungary
became increasingly difficult in an age of emerging nationalist movements, requiring considerable reliance on an expanded secret police. Yet, the government of Austria tried its best to be accommodating in some respects: The Reichsgesetzblatt, publishing the laws and ordinances of Cisleithania, was issued in eight languages; all national groups were entitled to schools in their own language and to the use of their mother tongue at state offices, for example.

A stamp which was used predominantly by the pan-German movements in the Austro-Hungarian Empire
Austro-Hungarian Empire
which reads: "And the German spirit will once heal the world."

Many Austrians
Austrians
of all different social circles such as Georg Ritter von Schönerer promoted strong pan-Germanism in hope of reinforcing an ethnic German identity and the annexation of Austria
Austria
to Germany.[39] Some Austrians
Austrians
such as Karl Lueger
Karl Lueger
also used pan-Germanism as a form of populism to further their own political goals. Although Bismarck's policies excluded Austria
Austria
and the German Austrians
Austrians
from Germany, many Austrian pan- Germans
Germans
idolized him and wore blue cornflowers, known to be the favourite flower of German Emperor William I, in their buttonholes, along with cockades in the German national colours (black, red, and yellow), although they were both temporarily banned in Austrian schools, as a way to show discontent towards the multi-ethnic empire.[40] Austria's exclusion from Germany
Germany
caused many Austrians
Austrians
a problem with their national identity and prompted the Social Democratic Leader Otto Bauer to state that it was "the conflict between our Austrian and German character."[41] The Austro-Hungarian Empire
Austro-Hungarian Empire
caused ethnic tension between the German Austrians
Austrians
and the other ethnic groups. Many Austrians, especially those involved with the pan-German movements, desired for the reinforcement of an ethnic German identity and hoped that the empire would collapse which would subsequently allow an annexation of Austria
Austria
with Germany.[42] A lot of Austrian pan-German nationalists protested passionately against minister-president Kasimir Count Badeni's language decree of 1897, which made German and Czech co-official languages in Bohemia
Bohemia
and required new government officials to be fluent in both languages. This meant in practice that the civil service would almost exclusively hire Czechs, because most middle-class Czechs spoke the German language, but not the other way around. The support of ultramontane Catholic politicians and clergy for this reform triggered the launch of the "Away from Rome" (German: Los-von-Rom) movement, which was initiated by supporters of Schönerer and called on "German" Christians to leave the Roman Catholic Church.[43] 20th century[edit] See also: Republic of German-Austria
Republic of German-Austria
and First Austrian Republic

Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
(right) with his family

As the Second Constitutional Era
Second Constitutional Era
began in the Ottoman Empire, Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
took the opportunity to annex Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1908.[44] The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
in Sarajevo in 1914 by Bosnian Serb Gavrilo Princip[45] was used by leading Austrian politicians and generals to persuade the emperor to declare war on Serbia, thereby risking and prompting the outbreak of World War I, but it was not the only cause of the war. which eventually led to the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Over one million Austro-Hungarian soldiers died in World War I.[46] On 21 October 1918, the elected German members of the Reichsrat (parliament of Imperial Austria) met in Vienna
Vienna
as the Provisional National Assembly for German Austria
German Austria
(Provisorische Nationalversammlung für Deutschösterreich). On 30 October the assembly founded the Republic of German Austria
Republic of German Austria
by appointing a government, called Staatsrat. This new government was invited by the Emperor to take part in the decision on the planned armistice with Italy, but refrained from this business.[citation needed] This left the responsibility for the end of the war, on 3 November 1918, solely to the emperor and his government. On 11 November, the emperor, advised by ministers of the old and the new governments, declared he would not take part in state business any more; on 12 November, German Austria, by law, declared itself to be a democratic republic and part of the new German republic. The constitution, renaming the Staatsrat as Bundesregierung (federal government) and Nationalversammlung as Nationalrat (national council) was passed on 10 November 1920.[citation needed]

German-speaking provinces claimed by German- Austria
Austria
in 1918: The border of the subsequent Second Republic
Republic
of Austria
Austria
is outlined in red

The Treaty of Saint-Germain
Treaty of Saint-Germain
of 1919 (for Hungary
Hungary
the Treaty of Trianon of 1920) confirmed and consolidated the new order of Central Europe which to a great extent had been established in November 1918, creating new states and altering others. The German-speaking parts of Austria
Austria
which had been part of Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
were reduced to a rump state named The Republic of German-Austria
Republic of German-Austria
(German: Republik Deutschösterreich).[47][48] The desire for Anschluss
Anschluss
(annexation of Austria
Austria
to Germany) was a popular opinion shared by all social circles in both Austria
Austria
and Germany.[49] On 12 November, German- Austria
Austria
was declared a republic, and named Social Democrat Karl Renner
Karl Renner
as provisional chancellor. On the same day it drafted a provisional constitution that stated that "German- Austria
Austria
is a democratic republic" (Article 1) and "German- Austria
Austria
is an integral part of the German reich" (Article 2).[50] The Treaty of Saint Germain and the Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles
explicitly forbid union between Austria
Austria
and Germany.[51][52] The treaties also forced German- Austria
Austria
to rename itself as " Republic
Republic
of Austria" which consequently led to the first Austrian Republic.[53][54] Over 3 million German-speaking Austrians
Austrians
found themselves living outside the new Austrian Republic
Republic
as minorities in the newly formed or enlarged states of Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Hungary, and Italy.[55] These included the provinces of South Tyrol
South Tyrol
(which became part of Italy) and German Bohemia
Bohemia
(Czechoslovakia). The status of German Bohemia
Bohemia
(Sudetenland) later played a role in sparking the Second World War.[56] The status of South Tyrol
South Tyrol
was a lingering problem between Austria
Austria
and Italy
Italy
until it was officially settled by the 1980s with a great degree of autonomy being granted to it by the Italian national government. Between 1918 and 1919, Austria
Austria
was known as the State of German Austria
Austria
(Staat Deutschösterreich). Not only did the Entente powers forbid German Austria
German Austria
to unite with Germany, but they also rejected the name German Austria
German Austria
in the peace treaty to be signed; it was, therefore, changed to Republic
Republic
of Austria
Austria
in late 1919.[56] The border between Austria
Austria
and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes
Slovenes
(later Yugoslavia) was settled with the Carinthian Plebiscite in October 1920 and allocated the major part of the territory of the former Austro-Hungarian Crownland of Carinthia
Carinthia
to Austria. This set the border on the Karawanken mountain range, with many Slovenes remaining in Austria. Interwar period and World War II[edit] See also: First Austrian Republic, Federal State of Austria, Anchluss, Austria
Austria
in the time of National Socialism, and History of the Jews in Austria
Austria
§ The Holocaust in Austria After the war, inflation began to devalue the Krone, which was still Austria's currency. In autumn 1922, Austria
Austria
was granted an international loan supervised by the League of Nations.[57] The purpose of the loan was to avert bankruptcy, stabilise the currency, and improve Austria's general economic condition. The loan meant that Austria
Austria
passed from an independent state to the control exercised by the League of Nations. In 1925, the Schilling was introduced, replacing the Krone at a rate of 10,000:1. Later, it was nicknamed the "Alpine dollar" due to its stability. From 1925 to 1929, the economy enjoyed a short high before nearly crashing[clarification needed] after Black Tuesday. The First Austrian Republic
First Austrian Republic
lasted until 1933, when Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss, using what he called "self-switch-off of Parliament", established an autocratic regime tending towards Italian fascism.[58][59] The two big parties at this time, the Social Democrats and the Conservatives, had paramilitary armies;[60] the Social Democrats' Schutzbund was now declared illegal, but was still operative[60] as civil war broke out.[58][59][61] In February 1934, several members of the Schutzbund were executed,[62] the Social Democratic party was outlawed, and many of its members were imprisoned or emigrated.[61] On 1 May 1934, the Austrofascists imposed a new constitution ("Maiverfassung") which cemented Dollfuss's power, but on 25 July he was assassinated in a Nazi
Nazi
coup attempt.[63][64]

Hitler speaking at Heldenplatz, Vienna, 1938

His successor Kurt Schuschnigg
Kurt Schuschnigg
acknowledged Austria
Austria
as a "German state" and that Austrians
Austrians
were "better Germans" but wished for Austria to remain independent.[65] He announced a referendum on 9 March 1938, to be held on 13 March, concerning Austria's independence from Germany. On 12 March 1938, Austrian Nazis took over government, while German troops occupied the country, which prevented Schuschnigg's referendum from taking place.[66] On 13 March 1938, the Anschluss
Anschluss
of Austria
Austria
was officially declared. Two days later, Austrian-born Hitler announced what he called the "reunification" of his home country with the "rest of the German Reich" on Vienna's Heldenplatz. He established a plebiscite confirming the union with Germany
Germany
in April 1938. Parliamentary elections were held in Germany
Germany
(including recently annexed Austria) on 10 April 1938. They were the final elections to the Reichstag during Nazi
Nazi
rule, and took the form of a single-question referendum asking whether voters approved of a single Nazi-party list for the 813-member Reichstag, as well as the recent annexation of Austria
Austria
(the Anschluss). Jews and Gypsies were not allowed to vote.[67] Turnout in the election was officially 99.5%, with 98.9% voting "yes". In the case of Austria, Adolf Hitler's native soil, 99.71% of an electorate of 4,484,475 officially went to the ballots, with a positive tally of 99.73%.[68] Although most Austrians
Austrians
favoured the Anschluss, in certain parts of Austria
Austria
the German soldiers were not always welcomed with flowers and joy, especially in Vienna
Vienna
which had Austria's largest Jewish
Jewish
population.[69] Nevertheless, despite the propaganda and the manipulation and rigging which surrounded the ballot box result, there was massive genuine support for Hitler for fulfilling the Anschluss,[70] since many Germans
Germans
from both Austria
Austria
and Germany
Germany
saw it as completing the long overdue German unification of all Germans
Germans
united into one-state.[71]

The liberation of Mauthausen concentration camp, 1945

On 12 March, Austria
Austria
was annexed to the Third Reich
Third Reich
and ceased to exist as an independent country. The Aryanisation of the wealth of Jewish
Jewish
Austrians
Austrians
started immediately in mid-March, with a so-called "wild" (i.e. extra-legal) phase, but was soon structured legally and bureaucratically to strip Jewish
Jewish
citizens of any assets they possessed. The Nazis renamed Austria
Austria
in 1938 as "Ostmark"[66] until 1942, when it was again renamed and called "Alpine and Danubian Gaue" (Alpen-und Donau-Reichsgaue).[72][73]

Austria
Austria
in 1941 when it was known as the "Ostmark".

Though Austrians
Austrians
made up only 8% of the population of the Third Reich,[74] some of the most prominent Nazis were native Austrians, including Adolf Hitler, Ernst Kaltenbrunner, Arthur Seyss-Inquart, Franz Stangl, and Odilo Globocnik,[75] as were over 13% of the SS and 40% of the staff at the Nazi
Nazi
extermination camps.[74] Vienna
Vienna
fell on 13 April 1945, during the Soviet Vienna
Vienna
Offensive, just before the total collapse of the Third Reich. The invading Allied powers, in particular the Americans, planned for the supposed "Alpine Fortress Operation" of a national redoubt, that was largely to have taken place on Austrian soil in the mountains of the eastern Alps. However, it never materialised because of the rapid collapse of the Reich. Karl Renner
Karl Renner
and Adolf Schärf
Adolf Schärf
(Socialist Party of Austria
Austria
[Social Democrats and Revolutionary Socialists]), Leopold Kunschak (Austria's People's Party [former Christian Social People's Party]), and Johann Koplenig (Communist Party of Austria) declared Austria's secession from the Third Reich
Third Reich
by the Declaration of Independence on 27 April 1945 and set up a provisional government in Vienna
Vienna
under state Chancellor Renner the same day, with the approval of the victorious Red Army
Red Army
and backed by Joseph Stalin.[76] (The date is officially named the birthday of the second republic.) At the end of April, most of western and southern Austria
Austria
were still under Nazi
Nazi
rule. On 1 May 1945, the federal constitution of 1929, which had been terminated by dictator Dollfuss on 1 May 1934, was declared valid again. Total military deaths from 1939 to 1945 are estimated at 260,000.[77] Jewish
Jewish
Holocaust victims totalled 65,000.[78] About 140,000 Jewish Austrians
Austrians
had fled the country in 1938–39. Thousands of Austrians had taken part in serious Nazi
Nazi
crimes (hundreds of thousands died in Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp
Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp
alone), a fact officially recognised by Chancellor Franz Vranitzky
Franz Vranitzky
in 1992. Contemporary era[edit]

The United Nations Office in Vienna
Vienna
is one of the four major UN office sites worldwide.

Much like Germany, Austria
Austria
was divided into American, British, French, and Soviet zones and governed by the Allied Commission for Austria.[79] As forecast in the Moscow Declaration
Moscow Declaration
in 1943, a subtle difference was seen in the treatment of Austria
Austria
by the Allies.[76] The Austrian government, consisting of Social Democrats, Conservatives, and Communists (until 1947), and residing in Vienna, which was surrounded by the Soviet zone, was recognised by the Western Allies in October 1945 after some doubts that Renner could be Stalin's puppet. Thus, the creation of a separate Western Austrian government and the division of the country was avoidable. Austria, in general, was treated as though it had been originally invaded by Germany
Germany
and liberated by the Allies.[80] On 15 May 1955, after talks which lasted for years and were influenced by the Cold War, Austria
Austria
regained full independence by concluding the Austrian State Treaty
Austrian State Treaty
with the Four Occupying Powers. On 26 October 1955, after all occupation troops had left, Austria
Austria
declared its "permanent neutrality" by an act of parliament.[81]

Austria
Austria
joined the European Union
European Union
in 1995 and signed the Lisbon Treaty in 2007.

The political system of the Second Republic
Republic
is based on the constitution of 1920 and 1929, which was reintroduced in 1945. The system came to be characterised by Proporz, meaning that most posts of political importance were split evenly between members of the Social Democratic Party of Austria
Austria
(SPÖ) and the Austrian People's Party (ÖVP).[82] Interest group "chambers" with mandatory membership (e.g. for workers, business people, farmers) grew to considerable importance and were usually consulted in the legislative process, so hardly any legislation was passed that did not reflect widespread consensus.[83] Since 1945, governing via a single-party government has occurred twice: 1966–1970 (ÖVP) and 1970–1983 (SPÖ). During all other legislative periods, either a grand coalition of SPÖ and ÖVP or a "small coalition" (one of these two and a smaller party) ruled the country. Kurt Waldheim, an SA officer in the Second World War accused of war crimes, was elected President of Austria
President of Austria
from 1986 to 1992[citation needed]. Following a referendum in 1994, at which consent reached a majority of two-thirds, the country became a member of the European Union
European Union
on 1 January 1995.[84] The major parties SPÖ and ÖVP have contrary opinions about the future status of Austria's military nonalignment: While the SPÖ in public supports a neutral role, the ÖVP argues for stronger integration into the EU's security policy; even a future NATO membership is not ruled out by some ÖVP politicians (ex. Dr Werner Fasslabend (OVP) in 1997). In reality, Austria
Austria
is taking part in the EU's Common Foreign and Security Policy, participates in peacekeeping and peace creating tasks, and has become a member of NATO's "Partnership for Peace"; the constitution has been amended accordingly. Since Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
joined the Schengen Area
Schengen Area
in 2011, none of Austria's neighbouring countries performs border controls towards it anymore. Politics[edit] Main article: Politics of Austria

The Austrian Parliament
Austrian Parliament
Building in Vienna.

The Leopoldine Wing of Hofburg Imperial Palace
Hofburg Imperial Palace
in Vienna, home to the offices of the Austrian president.

The Parliament of Austria
Parliament of Austria
is located in Vienna, the country's largest city and capital. Austria
Austria
became a federal, representative democratic republic through the Federal Constitution of 1920. The political system of the Second Republic
Republic
with its nine states is based on the constitution of 1920, amended in 1929, which was reenacted on 1 May 1945.[85] The head of state is the Federal President (Bundespräsident), who is directly elected by popular vote. The chairman of the Federal Government is the Federal Chancellor, who is appointed by the President. The government can be removed from office by either a presidential decree or by vote of no confidence in the lower chamber of parliament, the Nationalrat. Voting for the Federal President and for the Parliament used to be compulsory in Austria, but this was abolished in steps from 1982 to 2004.[86] The Parliament of Austria
Parliament of Austria
consists of two chambers. The composition of the Nationalrat (183 seats) is determined every five years (or whenever the Nationalrat has been dissolved by the federal president on a motion by the federal chancellor, or by Nationalrat itself) by a general election in which every citizen over 16 years (since 2007) has voting rights. While there is a general threshold of 4% for all parties at federal elections (Nationalratswahlen), there remains the possibility to gain a direct seat, or Direktmandat, in one of the 43 regional election districts. The Nationalrat is the dominant chamber in the formation of legislation in Austria. However, the upper house of parliament, the Bundesrat, has a limited right of veto (the Nationalrat can—in almost all cases—ultimately pass the respective bill by voting a second time. This is referred to as 'Beharrungsbeschluss, lit. "vote of persistence"). A convention, called the Österreich -Konvent[87] was convened on 30 June 2003 to decide upon suggestions to reform the constitution, but failed to produce a proposal that would receive the two-thirds of votes in the Nationalrat necessary for constitutional amendments and/or reform. With legislative and executive, the courts are the third column of Austrian state powers. Notably the Constitutional Court (Verfassungsgerichtshof) may exert considerable influence on the political system by ruling out laws and ordinances not in compliance with the constitution. Since 1995, the European Court of Justice
European Court of Justice
may overrule Austrian decisions in all matters defined in laws of the European Union. Austria
Austria
also implements the decisions of the European Court of Human Rights, since the European Convention on Human Rights is part of the Austrian constitution. Since 2006[edit]

Federal Chancellery on Ballhausplatz.

After general elections held in October 2006, the Social Democratic Party (SPÖ) emerged as the strongest party, and the Austrian People's Party (ÖVP) came in second, having lost about 8% of its previous polling.[88][89] Political realities prohibited any of the two major parties from forming a coalition with smaller parties. In January 2007 the People's Party and SPÖ formed a grand coalition with the social democrat Alfred Gusenbauer
Alfred Gusenbauer
as Chancellor. This coalition broke up in June 2008. Elections in September 2008 further weakened both major parties (SPÖ and ÖVP) but together they still held 70% of the votes, with the Social Democrats holding slightly more than the other party. They formed a coalition with Werner Faymann
Werner Faymann
from the Social Democrats as Chancellor. The Green Party came in third with 11% of the vote. The FPÖ and the deceased Jörg Haider's new party Alliance for the Future of Austria, both on the political right, were strengthened during the election but taken together received less than 20% of the vote. In the legislative elections of 2013, the Social Democratic Party received 27% of the vote and 52 seats; People's Party 24% and 47 seats, thus controlling together the majority of the seats. The Freedom Party received 40 seats and 21% of the votes, while the Greens received 12% and 24 seats. Two new parties, Stronach and the NEOS, received less than 10% of the vote, and 11 and nine seats respectively. After the Grand Coalition broke in Spring 2017 a snap election was proclaimed for October 2017. The Austrian People's Party
Austrian People's Party
(ÖVP) with its new young leader Sebastian Kurz
Sebastian Kurz
emerged as the largest party in the National Council, winning 31.5% of votes and 62 of the 183 seats. The Social Democratic Party (SPÖ) finished second with 52 seats and 26.9% votes, slightly ahead of the Freedom Party of Austria
Austria
(FPÖ), which received 51 seats and 26%. NEOS finished fourth with 10 seats (5.3 percent of votes), and PILZ (which split from the Green Party at the start of the campaign) entered parliament for the first time and came in fifth place with 8 seats and 4.4% The Green Party failed with 3.8% to cross the 4% threshold and was ejected from parliament, losing all of its 24 seats. The ÖVP has decided to form a coalation with the FPÖ, the new government between the center-right wing and the right-wing populist party under the new chancellor Sebastian Kurz
Sebastian Kurz
was sworn in on 18 December. 2017. Foreign relations[edit] Main article: Foreign relations of Austria

The European Parliament: Austria
Austria
is one of the 28 EU members.

The 1955 Austrian State Treaty
Austrian State Treaty
ended the occupation of Austria following World War II
World War II
and recognised Austria
Austria
as an independent and sovereign state. On 26 October 1955, the Federal Assembly passed a constitutional article in which " Austria
Austria
declares of her own free will her perpetual neutrality". The second section of this law stated that "in all future times Austria
Austria
will not join any military alliances and will not permit the establishment of any foreign military bases on her territory". Since then, Austria
Austria
has shaped its foreign policy on the basis of neutrality, but rather different from the neutrality of Switzerland. Austria
Austria
began to reassess its definition of neutrality following the fall of the Soviet Union, granting overflight rights for the UN-sanctioned action against Iraq
Iraq
in 1991, and since 1995, it has developed participation in the EU's Common Foreign and Security Policy. Also in 1995, it joined NATO's Partnership for Peace
Partnership for Peace
and subsequently participated in peacekeeping missions in Bosnia. Meanwhile, the only part of the Constitutional Law on Neutrality of 1955 still fully valid is not to allow foreign military bases in Austria.[citation needed] Austria
Austria
attaches great importance to participation in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and other international economic organisations, and it has played an active role in the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe
Europe
(OSCE). As an OSCE-participating State, Austria's international commitments are subject to monitoring under the mandate of the U.S. Helsinki Commission. Military[edit] Main article: Austrian Armed Forces The manpower of the Austrian Armed Forces
Austrian Armed Forces
(German: Bundesheer) mainly relies on conscription.[citation needed] All males who have reached the age of eighteen and are found fit have to serve a six months compulsory military service, followed by an eight-year reserve obligation.[citation needed] Both males and females at the age of sixteen are eligible for voluntary service.[8] Conscientious objection is legally acceptable and those who claim this right are obliged to serve an institutionalised nine months civilian service instead. Since 1998, women volunteers have been allowed to become professional soldiers. The main sectors of the Bundesheer are Joint Forces (Streitkräfteführungskommando, SKFüKdo) which consist of Land Forces (Landstreitkräfte), Air Forces (Luftstreitkräfte), International Missions (Internationale Einsätze) and Special
Special
Forces (Spezialeinsatzkräfte), next to Joint Mission Support Command (Kommando Einsatzunterstützung; KdoEU) and Joint Command Support Centre (Führungsunterstützungszentrum; FüUZ). Austria
Austria
is a landlocked country and has no navy.

Branches of the Austrian Armed Forces

Austrian Army Leopard 2
Leopard 2
main battle tank

Austrian Air Force Eurofighter Typhoon
Eurofighter Typhoon
fighter aircraft

In 2012, Austria's defence expenditures corresponded to approximately 0.8% of its GDP. The Army currently has about 26,000[90] soldiers, of whom about 12,000 are conscripts. As head of state, Austrian President is nominally the Commander-in-Chief of the Bundesheer. Command of the Austrian Armed Forces
Austrian Armed Forces
is exercised by the Minister of Defence, currently Hans Peter Doskozil. Since the end of the Cold War, and more importantly the removal of the former heavily guarded "Iron Curtain" separating Austria
Austria
and its Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
neighbours ( Hungary
Hungary
and former Czechoslovakia), the Austrian military has been assisting Austrian border guards in trying to prevent border crossings by illegal immigrants. This assistance came to an end when Hungary
Hungary
and Slovakia
Slovakia
joined the EU Schengen Area in 2008, for all intents and purposes abolishing "internal" border controls between treaty states. Some politicians have called for a prolongation of this mission, but the legality of this is heavily disputed. In accordance with the Austrian constitution, armed forces may only be deployed in a limited number of cases, mainly to defend the country and aid in cases of national emergency, such as in the wake of natural disasters.[91] They may generally not be used as auxiliary police forces. Within its self-declared status of permanent neutrality, Austria
Austria
has a long and proud tradition of engaging in UN-led peacekeeping and other humanitarian missions. The Austrian Forces Disaster Relief Unit (AFDRU), in particular, an all-volunteer unit with close ties to civilian specialists (e.g. rescue dog handlers) enjoys a reputation as a quick (standard deployment time is 10 hours) and efficient SAR unit. Currently, larger contingents of Austrian forces are deployed in Bosnia and Kosovo. Administrative divisions[edit] Main article: States of Austria As a federal republic, Austria
Austria
is divided into nine states (German: Bundesländer).[8] These states are then divided into districts (Bezirke) and statutory cities (Statutarstädte). Districts are subdivided into municipalities (Gemeinden). Statutory Cities have the competencies otherwise granted to both districts and municipalities. The states are not mere administrative divisions but have some legislative authority distinct from the federal government, e.g. in matters of culture, social care, youth and nature protection, hunting, building, and zoning ordinances. In recent years, it has been discussed whether today it is appropriate for a small country to maintain ten parliaments.

Burgenland Carinthia

Lower Austria

Upper Austria

Salzburg Styria Tyrol Tyrol

Vorarlberg Vienna

State Capital Area (sq km) Population (1 April. 2015) GDP (euro) (2012 Eurostat) GDP per capita

Burgenland Eisenstadt 3,965 288,472 7.311 bn 25,600

Carinthia Klagenfurt 9,536 557,754 17.62 bn 31,700

Lower Austria Sankt Pölten 19,178 1,638,618 49.75 bn 30,800

Salzburg Salzburg 7,154 539,612 23.585 bn 44,500

Styria Graz 16,401 1,222,326 40.696 bn 33,600

Tyrol Innsbruck 12,648 730,444 28.052 bn 39,400

Upper Austria Linz 11,982 1,439,592 53.863 bn 38,000

Vienna 415 1,805,681 81.772 bn 47,300

Vorarlberg Bregenz 2,601 379,613 14.463 bn 38,900

[92] Geography[edit] Main article: Geography of Austria Austria
Austria
is a largely mountainous country due to its location in the Alps.[93] The Central Eastern Alps, Northern Limestone Alps
Alps
and Southern Limestone Alps
Alps
are all partly in Austria. Of the total area of Austria
Austria
(84,000 km2 or 32,433 sq mi), only about a quarter can be considered low lying, and only 32% of the country is below 500 metres (1,640 ft). The Alps
Alps
of western Austria
Austria
give way somewhat into low lands and plains in the eastern part of the country. Austria
Austria
lies between latitudes 46° and 49° N, and longitudes 9° and 18° E. It can be divided into five areas, the biggest being the Eastern Alps, which constitute 62% of the nation's total area. The Austrian foothills at the base of the Alps
Alps
and the Carpathians account for around 12% and the foothills in the east and areas surrounding the periphery of the Pannoni low country amount to about 12% of the total landmass. The second greater mountain area (much lower than the Alps) is situated in the north. Known as the Austrian granite plateau, it is located in the central area of the Bohemian Mass and accounts for 10% of Austria. The Austrian portion of the Vienna
Vienna
basin comprises the remaining 4%.

A topographic map of Austria
Austria
showing cities with over 100,000 inhabitants.

The six highest mountains in Austria
Austria
are:

Name Height Range

7000100000000000000♠1 Grossglockner !Großglockner 3,798 m Tauern, High !High Tauern

7000200000000000000♠2 Wildspitze 3,772 m Otztal Alps
Alps
!Ötztal Alps

7000300000000000000♠3 Kleinglockner 3,770 m Tauern, High !High Tauern

7000400000000000000♠4 Weisskugel !Weißkugel 3,739 m Otztal Alps
Alps
!Ötztal Alps

7000500000000000000♠5 Poschlturm !Pöschlturm 3,721 m Tauern, High !High Tauern

7000600000000000000♠6 Hortnagelturm !Hörtnagelturm 3,719 m Tauern, High !High Tauern

Phytogeographically, Austria
Austria
belongs to the Central European province of the Circumboreal Region
Circumboreal Region
within the Boreal Kingdom. According to the WWF, the territory of Austria
Austria
can be subdivided into four ecoregions: the Central European mixed forests, Pannonian mixed forests, Alps conifer and mixed forests and Western European broadleaf forests.

View of Hallstatt

View of Krems at the end of Wachau
Wachau
valley

Austrian rural area of Schoppernau
Schoppernau
in summer

View of the Großglockner
Großglockner
from Heiligenblut

Climate[edit] The greater part of Austria
Austria
lies in the cool/temperate climate zone, where humid westerly winds predominate. With nearly three-quarters of the country dominated by the Alps, the alpine climate is predominant. In the east—in the Pannonian Plain
Pannonian Plain
and along the Danube
Danube
valley—the climate shows continental features with less rain than the alpine areas. Although Austria
Austria
is cold in the winter (−10 to 0 °C), summer temperatures can be relatively high,[94] with average temperatures in the mid-20s and a highest temperature of 40.5 °C (105 °F) in August 2013.[95] According to the Köppen Climate Classification Austria
Austria
has the following climate types: Oceanic (Cfb), Cool/Warm-summer humid continental (Dfb), Subarctic/Subalpine (Dfc), Tundra/Alpine (ET) and Ice-Cap (EF). Its important to note though that Austria
Austria
in general does not get very cold in winter but rather cool in summer at higher altitudes. The subarctic and tundra climates seen around the Alps
Alps
are much warmer in winter than what is normal elsewhere due in part to the Oceanic influence on this part of Europe.[95][96][97]

Climate data for Lech, Vorarlberg
Vorarlberg
(1440 m; average temperatures 1982 – 2012) Dfc, bordering on Dfb.

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) −0.7 (30.7) 0.3 (32.5) 3.5 (38.3) 7.1 (44.8) 11.8 (53.2) 17.4 (63.3) 16.8 (62.2) 14.3 (57.7) 15.1 (59.2) 9.7 (49.5) 3.7 (38.7) 0.1 (32.2) 8.26 (46.86)

Daily mean °C (°F) −4.5 (23.9) −3.7 (25.3) −0.6 (30.9) 2.9 (37.2) 7.3 (45.1) 10.6 (51.1) 12.7 (54.9) 12.2 (54) 9.9 (49.8) 5.6 (42.1) 0.4 (32.7) −3.3 (26.1) 4.13 (39.43)

Average low °C (°F) −8.2 (17.2) −7.6 (18.3) −4.7 (23.5) −1.3 (29.7) 2.8 (37) 6.0 (42.8) 8.0 (46.4) 7.7 (45.9) 5.6 (42.1) 1.6 (34.9) −2.9 (26.8) −6.6 (20.1) 0.03 (32.06)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 59 (2.32) 54 (2.13) 56 (2.2) 70 (2.76) 103 (4.06) 113 (4.45) 133 (5.24) 136 (5.35) 95 (3.74) 67 (2.64) 78 (3.07) 66 (2.6) 1,030 (40.56)

Source #1: [95]

Source #2: "Lech climate data". 

Climate data for Kühtai, Tyrol(2060 m; average temperatures 1982 – 2012) ET, somewhat close to Dfc.

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) −3.3 (26.1) −3.2 (26.2) −0.9 (30.4) 2.3 (36.1) 7.0 (44.6) 10.4 (50.7) 12.7 (54.9) 12.3 (54.1) 9.6 (49.3) 6.3 (43.3) 0.5 (32.9) −2.4 (27.7) 4.27 (39.69)

Daily mean °C (°F) −6.6 (20.1) −6.5 (20.3) −4.2 (24.4) −1.1 (30) 3.4 (38.1) 6.6 (43.9) 8.8 (47.8) 8.6 (47.5) 6.4 (43.5) 2.9 (37.2) −2.4 (27.7) −5.4 (22.3) 0.87 (33.57)

Average low °C (°F) −9.9 (14.2) −9.8 (14.4) −7.5 (18.5) −4.4 (24.1) −0.2 (31.6) 2.9 (37.2) 4.9 (40.8) 4.9 (40.8) 3.3 (37.9) −0.5 (31.1) −5.2 (22.6) −8.4 (16.9) −2.49 (27.51)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 73 (2.87) 66 (2.6) 80 (3.15) 87 (3.43) 115 (4.53) 126 (4.96) 148 (5.83) 138 (5.43) 96 (3.78) 74 (2.91) 83 (3.27) 72 (2.83) 1,158 (45.59)

Source #1: [95]

Source #2: "Kühtai climate data". 

Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of Austria See also: List of Austrian companies

Modern Vienna, Vienna
Vienna
International Centre with the United Nations Office at Vienna
Vienna
and the DC Tower 1.

Austria
Austria
consistently ranks high in terms of GDP per capita,[98] due to its highly industrialized economy, and well-developed social market economy. Until the 1980s, many of Austria's largest industry firms were nationalised; in recent years, however, privatisation has reduced state holdings to a level comparable to other European economies. Labour movements are particularly influential, exercising large influence on labour politics and decisions related to the expansion of the economy. Next to a highly developed industry, international tourism is the most important part of the national economy. Germany
Germany
has historically been the main trading partner of Austria, making it vulnerable to rapid changes in the German economy. Since Austria
Austria
became a member state of the European Union, it has gained closer ties to other EU economies, reducing its economic dependence on Germany. In addition, membership of the EU has drawn an influx of foreign investors attracted by Austria's access to the single European market and proximity to the aspiring economies of the European Union. Growth in GDP reached 3.3% in 2006.[99] At least 67% of Austria's imports come from other European Union
European Union
member states.[100]

Austria
Austria
is part of a monetary union, the eurozone (dark blue), and of the EU single market.

Austria
Austria
indicated on 16 November 2010 that it would withhold the December installment of its contribution to the EU bailout of Greece, citing the material worsening of the Greek debt situation and the apparent inability of Greece
Greece
to collect the level of tax receipts it had previously promised.[101] The Financial crisis of 2007–2008
Financial crisis of 2007–2008
dented the economy of Austria
Austria
in other ways as well. It caused, for example, the Hypo Alpe-Adria-Bank International to be purchased in December 2009 by the government for 1 euro owing to credit difficulties, thus wiping out the €1.63bn of BayernLB. As of February 2014, the HGAA situation was unresolved,[102] causing Chancellor Werner Faymann
Werner Faymann
to warn that its failure would be comparable to the 1931 Creditanstalt
Creditanstalt
event.[103] Since the fall of communism, Austrian companies have been quite active players and consolidators in Eastern Europe. Between 1995 and 2010, 4,868 mergers and acquisitions with a total known value of 163 bil. EUR with the involvement of Austrian firms have been announced.[104] The largest transactions with involvement of Austrian companies[105] have been: the acquisition of Bank Austria by Bayerische Hypo- und Vereinsbank for 7.8 billion EUR in 2000, the acquisition of Porsche Holding Salzburg
Salzburg
by Volkswagen Group
Volkswagen Group
for 3.6 billion EUR in 2009,[106] and the acquisition of Banca Comercială Română
Banca Comercială Română
by Erste Group
Erste Group
for 3.7 bil. EUR in 2005.[107] Tourism accounts for almost 9% of the Austrian gross domestic product.[108] In 2007, Austria
Austria
ranked 9th worldwide in international tourism receipts, with 18.9 billion US$.[109] In international tourist arrivals, Austria
Austria
ranked 12th with 20.8 million tourists.[109] Infrastructure[edit] Main articles: Transport in Austria, Wind power
Wind power
in Austria, and Renewable energy
Renewable energy
in the European Union In 1972, the country began construction of a nuclear-powered electricity-generation station at Zwentendorf
Zwentendorf
on the River Danube, following a unanimous vote in parliament. However, in 1978, a referendum voted approximately 50.5% against nuclear power, 49.5% for,[110] and parliament subsequently unanimously passed a law forbidding the use of nuclear power to generate electricity although the nuclear power plant was already finished. Austria
Austria
currently produces more than half of its electricity by hydropower.[111] Together with other renewable energy sources such as wind, solar and biomass powerplants, the electricity supply from renewable energy amounts to 62.89%[112] of total use in Austria, with the rest being produced by gas and oil power plants.

The Kölnbrein Dam
Kölnbrein Dam
in Carinthia

The eight-lane A2 Süd Autobahn motorway, between the exits Wiener Neudorf and Mödling/SCS

High-speed train of the Austrian Federal Railways
Austrian Federal Railways
(ÖBB)

Vienna
Vienna
International Airport

Passenger ship on Danube
Danube
River

Demographics[edit] Main article: Demographics of Austria

Children in Austria, near Au, Vorarlberg

Austria's population was estimated to be 8.72 million in April 2016 by the Statistik Austria.[113] The population of the capital, Vienna, exceeds 1.8 million[15] (2.6 million, including the suburbs), representing about a quarter of the country's population. It is known for its cultural offerings and high standard of living. Vienna
Vienna
is by far the country's largest city. Graz
Graz
is second in size, with 265,778 inhabitants, followed by Linz
Linz
(191,501), Salzburg (145,871), and Innsbruck
Innsbruck
(122,458). All other cities have fewer than 100,000 inhabitants. According to Eurostat, in 2010 there were 1.27 million foreign-born residents in Austria, corresponding to 15.2% of the total population. Of these, 764,000 (9.1%) were born outside the EU and 512,000 (6.1%) were born in another EU Member State.[114] Statistik Austria estimated in 2011 that 81% or 6.75 million residents[1] had no migration background and more than 19% or 1.6 million inhabitants[1] had at least one or more parents of migration background. There are more than 415,000 descendants of foreign-born immigrants[1] residing in Austria, the great majority of whom have been naturalised. 185,592 Turks[1] (including a minority of Turkish Kurds) make up the second biggest single ethnic minority in Austria
Austria
after Germans
Germans
(2.5%), representing 2.2% of the total population. 13,000 Turks were naturalised in 2003 and an unknown number have arrived in Austria
Austria
at the same time. While 2,000 Turks left Austria
Austria
in the same year, 10,000 immigrated to the country, confirming a strong trend of growth.[115] Together, Serbs, Croats, Bosniaks
Bosniaks
and Slovenes
Slovenes
make up about 5.1% of Austria's total population. The total fertility rate (TFR) in 2013 was estimated at 1.42 children born per woman,[116] which is lower than the replacement rate of 2.1. In 2015, 42.1% of births were to unmarried women.[117] The life expectancy in 2016 was estimated at 81.5 years (78.9 years male, 84.3 years female).[118] Foreign-born population – top 15 countries:[119]

The birthplaces of foreign-born naturalised residents of Austria

Rank Nationality Population (1 January 2014)

1 Germany 210,735

2 Turkey 159,958

3 Bosnia and Herzegovina 155,050

4 Serbia 132,553

5 Romania 79,264

6 Poland 66,802

7 Hungary 55,038

8 Czech Republic 40,833

9 Croatia 39,782

10 Slovakia 32,633

11 Russia 30,249

12 Italy 27,720

13 Macedonia 22,430

14 Slovenia 19,663

15 Bulgaria 18,481

Largest cities[edit] Main article: List of cities and towns in Austria

 

v t e

Largest cities or towns in Austria Statistik Austria 1 January 2014

Rank Name State Pop. Rank Name State Pop.

Vienna

Graz 1 Vienna Vienna 1,812,605 11 Wiener Neustadt Lower Austria 42,273

Linz

Salzburg

2 Graz Styria 269,997 12 Steyr Upper Austria 38,120

3 Linz Upper Austria 193,814 13 Feldkirch Vorarlberg 31,428

4 Salzburg Salzburg 146,631 14 Bregenz Vorarlberg 28,412

5 Innsbruck Tyrol 124,579 15 Leonding Upper Austria 26,174

6 Klagenfurt Carinthia 96,640 16 Klosterneuburg Lower Austria 26,395

7 Villach Carinthia 60,004 17 Baden Lower Austria 25,229

8 Wels Upper Austria 59,339 18 Wolfsberg Carinthia 24,993

9 Sankt Pölten Lower Austria 52,145 19 Leoben Styria 24,466

10 Dornbirn Vorarlberg 46,883 20 Krems Lower Austria 24,085

Language[edit] Main article: Languages of Austria Austrian German
Austrian German
is Austria's official language and used in education, publications, announcements and websites. It is mostly identical to the German used in Germany
Germany
but with some vocabulary differences. The German language
German language
is standardised between countries of German mother tongue, i.e., Germany, Austria, Switzerland
Switzerland
and Liechtenstein, as well as those with significant German speaking minorities: Italy, Belgium and Denmark. (The German dialect speaking population in Alsace-Lorraine in France
France
has no minority rights.) Many local dialects are spoken in Austria, and though their base is Austrian German, their corresponding speakers have certain degrees of difficulty when trying to understand each other. According to the 2001 census, Austrian German
Austrian German
is spoken natively by 88.6% of the population (including the 2.5% Germans
Germans
who reside in Austria) — followed by Turkish (2.28%), Serbian (2.21%), Croatian (1.63%), English (0.73%), Hungarian (0.51%), Bosnian (0.43%), Polish (0.35%), Albanian (0.35%), Slovenian (0.31%), Czech (0.22%), Arabic (0.22%), Romanian (0.21%), etc.[9]

The national and regional standard varieties of the German language

The Austrian federal states of Carinthia
Carinthia
and Styria
Styria
are home to a significant indigenous Slovene-speaking minority while in the easternmost state, Burgenland
Burgenland
(formerly part of the Hungarian portion of Austria–Hungary), there are significant Hungarian- and Croatian-speaking minorities. Of the remaining number of Austria's people that are of non-Austrian descent, many come from surrounding countries, especially from the former East Bloc nations. Guest workers (Gastarbeiter) and their descendants, as well as refugees from the Yugoslav wars
Yugoslav wars
and other conflicts, also form an important minority group in Austria. Since 1994 the Roma– Sinti
Sinti
(gypsies) have been an officially recognised ethnic minority in Austria. According to census information published by Statistik Austria for 2001[9] there were a total of 710,926 foreign nationals living in Austria. Of these, the largest by far are 283,334 foreign nationals from the former Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
(of whom 135,336 speak Serbian; 105,487 Croatian; 31,591 Bosnian – i.e. 272,414 Austrian resident native speakers in total, plus 6,902 Slovenian and 4,018 Macedonian speakers). The second largest population of linguistic and ethnic groups are the Turks (including minority of Kurds) with a number of 200,000 to 300,000 who currently live in Austria. The Turks and the Kurds
Kurds
are the largest single immigrant group in Austria,[120] closely followed by the Serbs.[121] The next largest population of linguistic and ethnic groups are the 124,392 who speak German as their mother tongue even though they hail from outside of Austria
Austria
(mainly immigrants from Germany, some from Switzerland, South Tyrol
South Tyrol
in Italy, Romania, or the former Soviet Union); 123,417 English; 24,446 Albanian; 17,899 Polish; 14,699 Hungarian; 12,216 Romanian; 10,000 Malayali; 7,982 Arabic; 6,891 Slovak; 6,707 Czech; 5,916 Persian; 5,677 Italian; 5,466 Russian; 5,213 French; 4,938 Chinese; 4,264 Spanish; 3,503 Bulgarian. The numbers for other languages fall off sharply below 3,000. In 2006, some of the Austrian states introduced standardised tests for new citizens, to assure their language ability, cultural knowledge and accordingly their ability to integrate into the Austrian society.[122] For the national rules, see Austrian nationality law – Naturalisation. Ethnic groups[edit]

Bilingual sign of Oberwart
Oberwart
(in Hungarian Felsőőr) in Burgenland.

Historically Austrians
Austrians
were regarded as ethnic Germans
Germans
and viewed themselves as such, although this national identity was challenged by Austrian nationalism
Austrian nationalism
in the decades after the end of World War I
World War I
and even more so after World War II.[123][124][125] Austria
Austria
was part of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
of the German Nation until its ending in 1806 and had been part of the German Confederation, a loose association of 39 separate German-speaking countries, until the Austro-Prussian war in 1866, which resulted in the exclusion of Austria
Austria
from the German Confederation and the creation of the North German Confederation
German Confederation
led by Prussia. In 1871, Germany
Germany
was founded as a nation-state, Austria was not a part of it. After World War I
World War I
and the breakup of the Austrian monarchy, politicians of the new republic declared its name to be "Deutschösterreich" ( Republic
Republic
of German-Austria) and that it was part of the German Republic. A unification of the two countries was forbidden by the treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye as one of the conditions imposed by the victorious Allies of World War I
World War I
upon the vanquished nation, to prevent the creation of a territorially extensive German state. After the events of World War II
World War II
and Nazism, Austria
Austria
as a country has made efforts to develop an Austrian national identity among its populace[citation needed], and nowadays most do not consider themselves Germans.[126] However, a minority of Austrians still consider themselves to be Germans
Germans
and advocate for a "Greater Germany", arguing that the historic boundaries of the German people goes beyond the boundaries of modern-day countries, especially Austria and Germany. Austrians
Austrians
may be described either as a nationality or as a homogeneous Germanic ethnic group,[127] that is closely related to neighboring Germans, Liechtensteiners and German-speaking Swiss.[128] Today 91.1% of the population are regarded as ethnic Austrians.[129] Serbs
Serbs
form one of the largest ethnic groups in Austria, numbering around 300,000 people.[130][131][132] Historically, Serbian immigrants moved to Austria
Austria
during the time of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, when Vojvodina
Vojvodina
was under Imperial control. Following World War II
World War II
the number of Serbs
Serbs
expanded again, and today the community is very large. The Austrian Serbian Society was founded in 1936. Today, Serbs
Serbs
in Austria
Austria
are mainly found in Vienna, Salzburg, and Graz. An estimated 13,000 to 40,000 Slovenes
Slovenes
in the Austrian state of Carinthia
Carinthia
(the Carinthian Slovenes) as well as Croats
Croats
(around 30,000)[133] and Hungarians
Hungarians
in Burgenland
Burgenland
were recognised as a minority and have had special rights following the Austrian State Treaty (Staatsvertrag) of 1955.[81] The Slovenes
Slovenes
in the Austrian state of Styria
Styria
(estimated at a number between 1,600 and 5,000) are not recognised as a minority and do not have special rights, although some believe the State Treaty of 27 July 1955 states otherwise.[citation needed] The right for bilingual topographic signs for the regions where Slovene and Croat Austrians
Austrians
live alongside the German-speaking population (as required by the 1955 State Treaty) is still to be fully implemented in the view of some, while others believe that the treaty-derived obligations have been met (see below). Many Carinthians are afraid of Slovenian territorial claims,[citation needed] pointing to the fact that Yugoslav troops entered the state after each of the two World Wars and considering that some official Slovenian atlases show parts of Carinthia
Carinthia
as Slovene cultural territory. The recently deceased governor, Jörg Haider, has made this fact a matter of public argument in autumn 2005 by refusing to increase the number of bilingual topographic signs in Carinthia. A poll by the Kärntner Humaninstitut conducted in January 2006 states that 65% of Carinthians are not in favour of an increase of bilingual topographic signs, since the original requirements set by the State Treaty of 1955 have already been fulfilled according to their point of view. Another interesting phenomenon is the so-called "Windischen-Theorie" stating that the Slovenes
Slovenes
can be split in two groups: actual Slovenes and Windische (a traditional German name for Slavs), based on differences in language between Austrian Slovenes, who were taught Slovene standard language in school and those Slovenes
Slovenes
who spoke their local Slovene dialect but went to German schools. The term Windische was applied to the latter group as a means of distinction. This politically influenced theory, dividing Slovene Austrians
Austrians
into the "loyal Windische" and the "national Slovenes", was never generally accepted and fell out of use some decades ago. Religion[edit] Main article: Religion in Austria

Religion in Austria
Religion in Austria
(2016)[134][135]    Catholic Church
Catholic Church
(58.8%)    Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
(6%)    Protestantism
Protestantism
(3.4%)    Islam
Islam
(7%)    Judaism
Judaism
(0.1%)    Buddhism
Buddhism
(0.2%)   None or other (24.5%)

In 2001, about 74% of Austria's population were registered as Roman Catholic,[136] while about 5% considered themselves Protestants.[136] Austrian Christians, both Catholic and Protestant,[137] are obliged to pay a mandatory membership fee (calculated by income—about 1%) to their church; this payment is called "Kirchenbeitrag" ("Ecclesiastical/Church contribution"). Since the second half of the 20th century, the number of adherents and churchgoers has declined. Data for the end of 2016 from the Austrian Roman Catholic church lists 5,162,622 members, or 58.8% of the total Austrian population. Sunday church attendance was 605,828 or 7% of the total Austrian population in 2015.[138] The Lutheran church also recorded a loss of 74,421 adherents between 2001 and 2016. The 2001 census report indicated that about 12% of the population declared that they have no religion[136]; according to ecclesiastical information this share had grown to 20% by 2015.[139] Of the remaining people, around 340,000 were registered as members of various Muslim communities in 2001, mainly due to the influx from Turkey, Bosnia-Herzegovina
Bosnia-Herzegovina
and Kosovo.[136] The number of Muslims has doubled in 15 years to 700,000 in 2016.[140] About 180,000 are members of Orthodox Churches (mostly Serbs), about 21,000 people are active Jehovah's Witnesses[141] and about 8,100 are Jewish.[136]

The Basilica of Mariazell
Mariazell
is Austria's most popular pilgrimage site

According to the most recent Eurobarometer Poll 2010,[142]

44% of Austrian citizens responded that "they believe there is a God". 38% answered that "they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force". 12% answered that "they do not believe there is any sort of spirit, God, or life force".

Education[edit] Main article: Education in Austria

Stiftsgymnasium Melk
Stiftsgymnasium Melk
is the oldest Austrian school

Education in Austria
Education in Austria
is entrusted partly to the Austrian states (Bundesländer) and partly to the federal government. School attendance is compulsory for nine years, i.e. usually to the age of fifteen. Pre-school
Pre-school
education (called Kindergarten in German), free in most states, is provided for all children between the ages of three and six years and, whilst optional, is considered a normal part of a child's education due to its high takeup rate. Maximum class size is around 30, each class normally being cared for by one qualified teacher and one assistant. Primary education, or Volksschule, lasts for four years, starting at age six. The maximum class size is 30, but may be as low as 15. It is generally expected that a class will be taught by one teacher for the entire four years and the stable bond between teacher and pupil is considered important for a child's well-being. The 3Rs (Reading, wRiting and aRithmetic) dominate lesson time, with less time allotted to project work than in the UK. Children work individually and all members of a class follow the same plan of work. There is no streaming. Standard attendance times are 8 am to 12 pm or 1 pm, with hourly five- or ten-minute breaks. Children are given homework daily from the first year. Historically there has been no lunch hour, with children returning home to eat. However, due to a rise in the number of mothers in work, primary schools are increasingly offering pre-lesson and afternoon care. As in Germany, secondary education consists of two main types of schools, attendance at which is based on a pupil's ability as determined by grades from the primary school. The Gymnasium caters for the more able children, in the final year of which the Matura examination is taken, which is a requirement for access to university. The Hauptschule
Hauptschule
prepares pupils for vocational education but also for various types of further education ( Höhere Technische Lehranstalt
Höhere Technische Lehranstalt
HTL = institution of higher technical education; HAK = commercial academy; HBLA = institution of higher education for economic business; etc.). Attendance at one of these further education institutes also leads to the Matura. Some schools aim to combine the education available at the Gymnasium and the Hauptschule, and are known as Gesamtschulen. In addition, a recognition of the importance of learning English has led some Gymnasiums to offer a bilingual stream, in which pupils deemed able in languages follow a modified curriculum, a portion of the lesson time being conducted in English.

The University of Vienna

The campus of the Vienna
Vienna
University of Economics and Business

As at primary school, lessons at Gymnasium begin at 8 am and continue with short intervals until lunchtime or early afternoon, with children returning home to a late lunch. Older pupils often attend further lessons after a break for lunch, generally eaten at school. As at primary level, all pupils follow the same plan of work. Great emphasis is placed on homework and frequent testing. Satisfactory marks in the end-of-the-year report ("Zeugnis") are a prerequisite for moving up ("aufsteigen") to the next class. Pupils who do not meet the required standard re-sit their tests at the end of the summer holidays; those whose marks are still not satisfactory are required to re-sit the year ("sitzenbleiben"). It is not uncommon for a pupil to re-sit more than one year of school. After completing the first two years, pupils choose between one of two strands, known as "Gymnasium" (slightly more emphasis on arts) or "Realgymnasium" (slightly more emphasis on science). Whilst many schools offer both strands, some do not, and as a result, some children move schools for a second time at age 12. At age 14, pupils may choose to remain in one of these two strands, or to change to a vocational course, possibly with a further change of school. The Austrian university system had been open to any student who passed the Matura
Matura
examination until recently. A 2006 bill allowed the introduction of entrance exams for studies such as Medicine. In 2001, an obligatory tuition fee ("Studienbeitrag") of €363.36 per term was introduced for all public universities. There are some non-state exceptions to this, where students can still study for a subsidized education, for example within the campus system of the English Teacher Training College. Since 2008, for all EU students the studies have been free of charge, as long as a certain time-limit is not exceeded (the expected duration of the study plus usually two terms tolerance).[143] When the time-limit is exceeded, the fee of around €363.36 per term is charged. Some further exceptions to the fee apply, e.g. for students with a year's salary of more than about €5000. In all cases, an obligatory fee of €17 is charged for the student union and insurance. Culture[edit] Main article: Culture of Austria Music[edit] Main article: Music of Austria

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
(1756–1791)

Austria's past as a European power and its cultural environment generated a broad contribution to various forms of art, most notably among them music. Austria
Austria
was the birthplace of many famous composers such as Joseph Haydn, Michael Haydn, Franz Liszt, Franz Schubert, Anton Bruckner, Johann Strauss, Sr.
Johann Strauss, Sr.
and Johann Strauss, Jr.
Johann Strauss, Jr.
as well as members of the Second Viennese School
Second Viennese School
such as Arnold Schoenberg, Anton Webern and Alban Berg. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
was born in Salzburg, then an independent Church Principality of the Holy Roman Empire, which later became part of Austria, and much of Mozart's career was spent in Vienna.

World-famous Vienna
Vienna
State Opera

Vienna
Vienna
was for a long time an important centre of musical innovation. 18th- and 19th-century composers were drawn to the city due to the patronage of the Habsburgs, and made Vienna
Vienna
the European capital of classical music. During the Baroque
Baroque
period, Slavic and Hungarian folk forms influenced Austrian music. Vienna's status began its rise as a cultural centre in the early 16th century, and was focused around instruments, including the lute. Ludwig van Beethoven
Ludwig van Beethoven
spent the better part of his life in Vienna. Austria's current national anthem, attributed to Mozart, was chosen after World War II
World War II
to replace the traditional Austrian anthem by Joseph Haydn. Austrian Herbert von Karajan
Herbert von Karajan
was principal conductor of the Berlin Philharmonic for 35 years. He is generally regarded as one of the greatest conductors of the 20th century, and he was a dominant figure in European classical music from the 1960s until his death.[144] International pop super star Johann Hölzel, also known by his stage name Falco was born in Vienna, Austria
Austria
19 February 1957. Art and architecture[edit] Further information: List of Austrian artists and architects

The Belvedere Palace, an example of Baroque
Baroque
architecture

Among Austrian Artists and architects one can find the painters Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller, Rudolf von Alt, Hans Makart, Gustav Klimt, Oskar Kokoschka, Egon Schiele, Carl Moll, and Friedensreich Hundertwasser, the photographers Inge Morath
Inge Morath
and Ernst Haas, and architects like Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach, Otto Wagner, Adolf Loos, and Hans Hollein
Hans Hollein
(recipient of the 1985 Pritzker Architecture Prize). Contemporary artist Herbert Brandl. Cinema and theatre[edit] Sascha Kolowrat
Sascha Kolowrat
was an Austrian pioneer of filmmaking. Billy Wilder, Fritz Lang, Josef von Sternberg, and Fred Zinnemann
Fred Zinnemann
originally came from Austria
Austria
before establishing themselves as internationally relevant movie makers. Willi Forst, Ernst Marischka, or Franz Antel enriched the popular cinema in German language
German language
speaking countries. Michael Haneke
Michael Haneke
became internationally known for his disturbing cinematic studies, before receiving a Golden Globe
Golden Globe
for his critically acclaimed film The White Ribbon
The White Ribbon
in 2010. The first Austrian film director to receive an Academy Award
Academy Award
was Stefan Ruzowitzky. A number of Austrian actors were able to pursue a career, the impact of which was sensed beyond national borders. Among them were Peter Lorre, Helmut Berger, Curd Jürgens, Senta Berger, Oskar Werner, and Klaus Maria Brandauer. Hedy Lamarr
Hedy Lamarr
and Arnold Schwarzenegger became American as well as international movie stars. The latter also became the 38th Governor of California. Christoph Waltz rose to international fame with his performance in Inglourious Basterds, earning the Best Actor Award at Cannes
Cannes
in 2009, and the Academy Award
Academy Award
for Best Supporting Actor in 2010 and finally two Oscars. Max Reinhardt
Max Reinhardt
was a master of spectacular and astute theatre productions. Otto Schenk
Otto Schenk
not only excelled as a stage actor, but also as an opera director. Science and philosophy[edit] Further information: Austrian School, Vienna
Vienna
circle, and List of Austrian scientists

Sigmund Freud
Sigmund Freud
was the founder of psychoanalysis

Austria
Austria
was the cradle of numerous scientists with international reputation. Among them are Ludwig Boltzmann, Ernst Mach, Victor Franz Hess and Christian Doppler, prominent scientists in the 19th century. In the 20th century, contributions by Lise Meitner, Erwin Schrödinger and Wolfgang Pauli
Wolfgang Pauli
to nuclear research and quantum mechanics were key to these areas' development during the 1920s and 1930s. A present-day quantum physicist is Anton Zeilinger, noted as the first scientist to demonstrate quantum teleportation. In addition to physicists, Austria
Austria
was the birthplace of two of the most noteworthy philosophers of the 20th century, Ludwig Wittgenstein and Karl Popper. In addition to them, biologists Gregor Mendel
Gregor Mendel
and Konrad Lorenz
Konrad Lorenz
as well as mathematician Kurt Gödel
Kurt Gödel
and engineers such as Ferdinand Porsche
Porsche
and Siegfried Marcus
Siegfried Marcus
were Austrians. A focus of Austrian science has always been medicine and psychology, starting in medieval times with Paracelsus. Eminent physicians like Theodore Billroth, Clemens von Pirquet, and Anton von Eiselsberg have built upon the achievements of the 19th century Vienna
Vienna
School of Medicine. Austria
Austria
was home to Sigmund Freud, founder of psychoanalysis, Alfred Adler, founder of Individual psychology, psychologists Paul Watzlawick and Hans Asperger, and psychiatrist Viktor Frankl. The Austrian School
Austrian School
of Economics, which is prominent as one of the main competitive directions for economic theory, is related to Austrian economists Carl Menger, Joseph Schumpeter, Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk, Ludwig von Mises, and Friedrich Hayek. Other noteworthy Austrian-born émigrés include the management thinker Peter Drucker, sociologist Paul Felix Lazarsfeld
Paul Felix Lazarsfeld
and scientist Sir Gustav Nossal. Literature[edit] See also: List of Austrian writers and Austrian literature Complementing its status as a land of artists and scientists, Austria has always been a country of poets, writers, and novelists. It was the home of novelists Arthur Schnitzler, Stefan Zweig, Thomas Bernhard, and Robert Musil, of poets Georg Trakl, Franz Werfel, Franz Grillparzer, Rainer Maria Rilke, Adalbert Stifter, Karl Kraus and children's author Eva Ibbotson. Famous contemporary playwrights and novelists are Nobel prize winner Elfriede Jelinek, Peter Handke
Peter Handke
and Daniel Kehlmann. Food and beverages[edit] Main article: Austrian cuisine Austria's cuisine is derived from that of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Austrian cuisine
Austrian cuisine
is mainly the tradition of Royal-Cuisine ("Hofküche") delivered over centuries. It is famous for its well-balanced variations of beef and pork and countless variations of vegetables. There is also the "Mehlspeisen" Bakery, which created particular delicacies such as Sachertorte, "Krapfen" which are doughnuts usually filled with apricot jam or custard, and "Strudel" such as "Apfelstrudel" filled with apple, "Topfenstrudel" filled with a type of cheese curd called "topfen", and "Millirahmstrudel" (milk-cream strudel). In addition to native regional traditions, the cuisine has been influenced by Hungarian, Bohemia
Bohemia
Czech, Jewish, Italian, Balkan
Balkan
and French cuisine, from which both dishes and methods of food preparation have often been borrowed. The Austrian cuisine
Austrian cuisine
is therefore one of the most multicultural and transcultural in Europe.

Wiener Schnitzel

Typical Austrian dishes include Wiener Schnitzel, Schweinsbraten, Kaiserschmarren, Knödel, Sachertorte
Sachertorte
and Tafelspitz. There are also Kärntner Kasnudeln, which are pockets of dough filled with Topfen, potatoes, herbs and peppermint which are boiled and served with a butter sauce. Kasnudeln are traditionally served with a salad. Eierschwammerl dishes are also popular. The sugar block dispenser Pez was invented in Austria, as well as Mannerschnitten. Austria
Austria
is also famous for its Mozartkugeln and its coffee tradition. Beer is sold in 0.2 litre (a Pfiff), 0.3 litre (a Seidel, kleines Bier or Glas Bier) and 0.5 litre (a Krügerl or großes Bier or Halbe) measures. At festivals one litre Maß and two litre Doppelmaß in the Bavarian style are also dispensed. The most popular types of beer are lager (known as Märzen in Austria), naturally cloudy Zwicklbier and wheat beer. At holidays like Christmas and Easter bock beer is also available. The most important wine-producing areas are in Lower Austria, Burgenland, Styria
Styria
and Vienna. The Grüner Veltliner
Grüner Veltliner
grape provides some of Austria's most notable white wines[145] and Zweigelt
Zweigelt
is the most widely planted red wine grape.[146] In Upper Austria, Lower Austria, Styria
Styria
and Carinthia, Most, a type of cider or perry is widely produced. Schnapps
Schnapps
of typically up to 60% alcohol or fruit brandy is drunk, which in Austria
Austria
is made from a variety of fruits, for example apricots and rowanberries. The produce of small private schnapps distilleries, of which there are around 20,000 in Austria, is known as Selbstgebrannter or Hausbrand. Local soft drinks such as Almdudler
Almdudler
are very popular around the country as an alternative to alcoholic beverages. Another popular drink is the so-called "Spetzi", a mix between Coca-Cola and the original formula of Orange Fanta
Fanta
or the more locally renowned Frucade. Red Bull, the highest-selling energy drink in the world, was invented in Austria.[citation needed] Sports[edit] Main article: Sport in Austria

Innsbruck
Innsbruck
hosted the 1964 and 1976 Winter Olympics, as well as the 2012 Winter Youth Olympics, the first in history

Due to the mountainous terrain, alpine skiing is a prominent sport in Austria
Austria
and is extremely valuable in the promotion and economic growth of the country.[147] Similar sports such as snowboarding or ski-jumping are also widely popular. Austrian athletes such as Annemarie Moser-Pröll, Franz Klammer, Hermann Maier, Toni Sailer, Benjamin Raich, Marlies Schild
Marlies Schild
& Marcel Hirscher
Marcel Hirscher
are widely regarded as some of the greatest alpine skiers of all time, Armin Kogler, Andreas Felder, Ernst Vettori, Andreas Goldberger, Andreas Widhölzl, Thomas Morgenstern
Thomas Morgenstern
& Gregor Schlierenzauer
Gregor Schlierenzauer
as some of the greatest ski jumpers of all time. Bobsleigh, luge, and skeleton are also popular events with a permanent track located in Igls, which hosted bobsleigh and luge competitions for the 1964 and 1976 Winter Olympics held in Innsbruck. The first Winter Youth Olympics in 2012 were held in Innsbruck
Innsbruck
as well.[148]

Ski racer Franz Klammer
Franz Klammer
won a gold medal at the 1976 Winter Olympics in Innsbruck

A popular team sport in Austria
Austria
is football, which is governed by the Austrian Football Association.[149] Austria
Austria
was among the most successful football playing nations on the European continent placing 4th at the 1934 FIFA World Cup, 3rd at the 1954 FIFA World Cup
1954 FIFA World Cup
and 7th at the 1978 FIFA World Cup. However, recently Austrian football has not been internationally successful. It also co-hosted the 2008 UEFA European Football Championship with Switzerland. The national Austrian football league is the Austrian Bundesliga, which includes teams such as record-champions SK Rapid Wien, FK Austria
Austria
Wien, Red Bull
Red Bull
Salzburg and Sturm Graz. Besides football, Austria
Austria
also has professional national leagues for most major team sports, including the Austrian Hockey League
Austrian Hockey League
for ice hockey, and the Österreichische Basketball Bundesliga for basketball. Horseback riding is also popular; the famed Spanish Riding School of Vienna
Vienna
is located in Vienna. Niki Lauda
Niki Lauda
is a former Formula One
Formula One
driver who was three times F1 World Champion, winning in 1975, 1977 and 1984. He is currently the only driver to have been champion for both Ferrari and McLaren, the sport's two most successful constructors. Other known Austrian F1 drivers are for example Gerhard Berger
Gerhard Berger
and Jochen Rindt. Austria
Austria
also hosts F1 races (Austrian Grand Prix); now held at Red Bull
Red Bull
Ring, in the past also at Österreichring
Österreichring
and Zeltweg Airfield. Thomas Muster
Thomas Muster
is a former tennis player and one of the greatest clay courters of all time. He won the 1995 French Open
1995 French Open
and in 1996 he was ranked number 1 in the ATP Ranking. Other known Austrian tennis players are for example Horst Skoff, Jürgen Melzer
Jürgen Melzer
and Dominic Thiem. Sport played a significant role in developing national consciousness and boosting national self-confidence in the early years of the Second Republic
Republic
after World War II, through events such as the Tour of Austria
Austria
cycle race and through sporting successes such as the national football team's run to third at the 1954 World Cup and the performances of Toni Sailer
Toni Sailer
and the rest of the "Kitzbühel Miracle Team" in the 1950s.[150][151] See also[edit]

Austria
Austria
portal Tyrol portal Vienna
Vienna
portal

Book: Austria

Index of Austria-related articles Outline of Austria

References[edit]

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Austria
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Austria
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Austria
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Austria
and the euro". European Commission - European Commission.  ^ "University of Klagenfurt".  ^ Friedrich Heer: Der Kampf um die österreichische Identität. Böhlau, Wien/Köln/ Graz
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Bibliography[edit]

Brook-Shepherd, Gordon (1998). The Austrians: a thousand-year odyssey. New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc. ISBN 0-7867-0520-5.  Jelavich, Barbara (1987). Modern Austria: empire and republic 1815–1986. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-31625-1.  Johnson, Lonnie (1989). Introducing Austria: a short history. Riverside, Calif.: Ariadne Press. ISBN 0-929497-03-1.  Rathkolb, Oliver. The Paradoxical Republic: Austria, 1945–2005 (Berghahn Books; 2010, 301 pages). Translation of 2005 study of paradoxical aspects of Austria's political culture and society. Schulze, Hagen (1996). States, nations, and nationalism: from the Middle Ages to the present. Cambridge, Mass.: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-20933-6. 

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