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Ascomycetes
ASCOMYCOTA is a division or phylum of the kingdom Fungi
Fungi
that, together with the Basidiomycota
Basidiomycota
, form the subkingdom Dikarya . Its members are commonly known as the SAC FUNGI or ASCOMYCETES. They are the largest phylum of Fungi, with over 64,000 species . The defining feature of this fungal group is the "ascus " (from Greek : ἀσκός (askos), meaning "sac" or "wineskin"), a microscopic sexual structure in which nonmotile spores , called ascospores , are formed
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Sexual Reproduction
SEXUAL REPRODUCTION is a form of reproduction where two morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called gametes fuse together, involving a female's large ovum (or egg) and a male's smaller sperm . Each gamete contains half the number of chromosomes of normal cells. They are created by a specialized type of cell division , which only occurs in eukaryotic cells, known as meiosis . The two gametes fuse during fertilization to produce DNA replication and the creation of a single-celled zygote which includes genetic material from both gametes. In a process called genetic recombination , genetic material ( DNA
DNA
) joins up so that homologous chromosome sequences are aligned with each other, and this is followed by exchange of genetic information
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Teleomorph, Anamorph And Holomorph
In mycology , the terms TELEOMORPH, ANAMORPH, and HOLOMORPH apply to portions of the life cycles of fungi in the phyla Ascomycota
Ascomycota
and Basidiomycota
Basidiomycota
: * TELEOMORPH: the sexual reproductive stage (morph), typically
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Deuteromycota
See below . The FUNGI IMPERFECTI or IMPERFECT FUNGI, also known as DEUTEROMYCOTA, are fungi which do not fit into the commonly established taxonomic classifications of fungi that are based on biological species concepts or morphological characteristics of sexual structures because their sexual form of reproduction has never been observed; hence the name "imperfect fungi." The phylogenetic line can be traced back to the point where these species hoard some of the rudimentary characteristics that could imply information sufficient to redirect them into the known and confirmed taxon. Only their asexual form of reproduction is known, meaning that this group of fungi produce their spores asexually, in the process called sporogenesis
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Morphology (biology)
MORPHOLOGY is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features. This includes aspects of the outward appearance (shape , structure , colour , pattern , size ), i.e. EXTERNAL MORPHOLOGY (or eidonomy ), as well as the form and structure of the internal parts like bones and organs , i.e. INTERNAL MORPHOLOGY (or anatomy ). This is in contrast to physiology , which deals primarily with function. Morphology is a branch of life science dealing with the study of gross structure of an organism or taxon and its component parts. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Divisions of morphology * 3 Morphology and classification * 4 3D cell morphology:classification * 5 See also * 6 References HISTORYThe word "morphology" is from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
μορφή, morphé, meaning "form", and λόγος, lógos, meaning "word, study, research"
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Greek Language
GREEK ( Modern Greek : ελληνικά , elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα ( listen ), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean . It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary , were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin
Latin
, Cyrillic
Cyrillic
, Armenian , Coptic , Gothic and many other writing systems
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Ascus
An ASCUS (plural ASCI; from Greek ἀσκός ảskós 'skin bag' ) is the sexual spore-bearing cell produced in ascomycete fungi . Asci usually contain eight ascospores , produced by meiosis followed, in most species, by a mitotic cell division. However, asci in some genera or species can occur in numbers of one (e.g. Monosporascus cannonballus ), two, four, or multiples of four. In a few cases, the ascospores can bud off conidia that may fill the asci (e.g. Tympanis ) with hundreds of conidia, or the ascospores may fragment, e.g. some Cordyceps
Cordyceps
, also filling the asci with smaller cells. Ascospores are nonmotile, usually single celled, but not infrequently may be coenocytic (lacking a septum ), and in some cases coenocytic in multiple planes. Mitotic divisions within the developing spores populate each resulting cell in septate ascospores with nuclei
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Pneumocystis
The PNEUMOCYSTIDOMYCETES are a class of ascomycete fungi . It includes the single order PNEUMOCYSTIDALES, which contains the single monotypic family PNEUMOCYSTIDACEAE, which in turn contains the genus PNEUMOCYSTIS, causative agent of Pneumocystis pneumonia
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Taphrinomycetes
Protomycetaceae Taphrinaceae The TAPHRINOMYCETES are a class of ascomycete fungi belonging to the subdivision Taphrinomycotina . It includes the single order TAPHRINALES, which includes 2 families , 8 genera and 140 species . REFERENCES * ^ Kirk PM, Cannon PF, Minter DW, Stalpers JA (2008). Dictionary of the Fungi
Fungi
(10th ed.). Wallingford, UK: CABI. p. 678. ISBN 978-0-85199-826-8 . TAXON IDENTIFIERS * Wd : Q135200 * EoL : 5991 * GBIF : 184 * iNaturalist : 152035 * Index Fungorum : 90366 * ITIS : 610634 * MycoBank : 90366 * NCBI : 147555 This Ascomycota -related article is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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Species
In biology , a SPECIES is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank , as well as a unit of biodiversity , but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition. Scientists and conservationists need a species definition which allows them to work, regardless of the theoretical difficulties. If as Linnaeus
Linnaeus
thought, species were fixed, there would be no problem, but evolutionary processes cause species to change continually, and to grade into one another. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which two individuals can produce fertile offspring , typically by sexual reproduction . While this definition is often adequate, when looked at more closely it is problematic . For example, with hybridisation , in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies , or in a ring species , the boundaries between closely related species become unclear
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Physiological
PHYSIOLOGY (/ˌfɪziˈɒlədʒi/ ; from Ancient Greek φύσις (physis), meaning 'nature, origin', and -λογία (-logia), meaning 'study of' ) is the scientific study of normal mechanisms , and their interactions, which works within a living system . A sub-discipline of biology , its focus is in how organisms, organ systems, organs , cells , and biomolecules carry out the chemical or physical functions that exist in a living system. Given the size of the field, it is divided into, among others, animal physiology (including that of humans ), plant physiology , cellular physiology , microbial physiology (microbial metabolism ), bacterial physiology, and viral physiology. Central to an understanding of physiological functioning is its integrated nature with other disciplines such as chemistry and physics, coordinated homeostatic control mechanisms, and continuous communication between cells
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Taxon
In biology , a TAXON (plural TAXA; back-formation from taxonomy ) is a group of one or more populations of an organism or organisms seen by taxonomists to form a unit. Although neither is required, a taxon is usually known by a particular name and given a particular ranking , especially if and when it is accepted or becomes established. It is not uncommon, however, for taxonomists to remain at odds over what belongs to a taxon and the criteria used for inclusion. If a taxon is given a formal scientific name , its use is then governed by one of the nomenclature codes specifying which scientific name is correct for a particular grouping
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Truffle
A TRUFFLE is the fruiting body of a subterranean Ascomycete fungus, predominantly one of the many species of the genus Tuber . Truffles are ectomycorrhizal fungi and are therefore usually found in close association with tree roots. Spore
Spore
dispersal is accomplished through fungivores , animals that eat fungi. Some of the truffle species are highly prized as food. French gourmet Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin called truffles "the diamond of the kitchen". Edible truffles are held in high esteem in French , Croatian , Georgian , Bulgarian , Greek , Italian , Middle Eastern , and Spanish cuisine , as well as in international haute cuisine
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Baker's Yeast
BAKER\'S YEAST is the common name for the strains of yeast commonly used as a leavening agent in baking bread and bakery products, where it converts the fermentable sugars present in the dough into carbon dioxide and ethanol . Baker's yeast
Baker's yeast
is of the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae , which is the same species (but a different strain ) commonly used in alcoholic fermentation, which is called brewer\'s yeast . Baker's yeast
Baker's yeast
is also a single-cell microorganism found on and around the human body. The use of steamed or boiled potatoes , water from potato boiling, or sugar in a bread dough provides food for the growth of yeasts; however, too much sugar will dehydrate them. Yeast
Yeast
growth is inhibited by both salt and sugar, but more so with salt than sugar
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Xylaria
See text XYLARIA is a genus of ascomycetous fungi commonly found growing on dead wood . The name comes from the Greek xýlon meaning wood (see xylem ). Two of the common species of the genus are Xylaria hypoxylon and Xylaria polymorpha . Xylaria hypoxylon , known by the common names STAG\'S HORN and CANDLE-SNUFF FUNGUS, is the most conspicuous because of its erect, 3–7 cm tall, antler-like ascocarps (fruitbodies) which are black at the base (where the perithecia are embedded) but white and branched towards the top, where the fruiting bodies produce white conidia (asexual spores). Xylaria polymorpha , DEAD MAN\'S FINGERS, often grows in finger-like clusters from the base of a tree or from wood just below ground level. This is a primary fungus utilized in the spalting of sugar maple and other hardwoods. Xylaria longipes , known by the common names DEAD MOLL\'S FINGERS and PéNIS DE BOIS MORT, allegedly improves the quality of the wood used in string instruments
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Pezizaceae
See text The PEZIZACEAE (commonly referred to as CUP FUNGI) are a family of fungi in the Ascomycota which produce mushrooms that tends to grow in the shape of a "cup". Spores are formed on the inner surface of the fruit body (mushroom). The cup shape typically serves to focus raindrops into splashing spores out of the cup. Additionally, the curvature enables wind currents to blow the spores out in a different manner than in most agarics and boletes . Cup fungi grow in peculiar shapes, frequently resembling cups or saucers. For example, the orange peel fungus (Aleuria aurantia ) resembles a discarded orange rind. They may be vividly colored, like the scarlet cup (Sarcoscypha coccinea), which is often one of the first signs of spring where it grows. According to one 2008 estimate, the family contains 31 genera and 230 species
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