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Anglicization
ANGLICISATION (or ANGLICIZATION, see English spelling differences ), occasionally ANGLIFICATION, ANGLIFYING, ENGLISHING, in this article refers to modifications made to foreign words, names and phrases to make them easier to spell, pronounce, or understand in English. It commonly refers to the respelling of foreign words, often to a more drastic degree than romanisation . One example is the word "dandelion", modified from the French dent-de-lion (“lion’s tooth”, because of the sharply indented leaves). Anglicising non-English words for use in English is just one case of the widespread domestication of foreign words that is common to many languages, sometimes involving shifts in meaning. One example is the German word Felleisen (a backpack), a germanization of the French word valise (small suitcase). This article does not cover the unmodified adoption of foreign words into English (kindergarten); the unmodified adoption of English words into foreign languages (internet, computer, web), or the voluntary or enforced adoption of the English language or of British or American customs and culture in other countries or ethnic groups, also known as social and economic anglicisation
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Anglicism
An ANGLICISM may refer to * a word or construction peculiar to the English language * a word or construction borrowed from English into another language * English syntax, grammar, or meaning transposed in another language resulting in incorrect language use or incorrect translation. * a word or phrase that is peculiar to the English language spoken in England.With the rise in Anglophone media and global spread of British and American cultures in the 20th and 21st centuries, many English terms have entered popular usage in other tongues. Technology-related English words like internet and computer are particularly common across the globe, as there are no pre-existing words for them. English words are sometimes imported verbatim, and sometimes adapted to the importing language in a process similar to anglicisation. In languages with non-Latin alphabets , these borrowed words can be written in the Latin alphabet anyway, resulting in a text made up of a mixture of scripts; other times they are transliterated . Transliteration of English and other foreign words into Japanese generally uses the katakana script. In some countries such anglicisation is seen as relatively benign, and the use of English words may even take on a chic aspect. In Japan , marketing products for the domestic market often involves using English or pseudo-English brand names and slogans
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Romanisation
ROMANIZATION (also spelled ROMANISATION: see spelling differences ), in linguistics , is the conversion of writing from a different writing system to the Roman (Latin) script , or a system for doing so. Methods of romanization include transliteration , for representing written text, and transcription , for representing the spoken word, and combinations of both. Transcription methods can be subdivided into phonemic transcription, which records the phonemes or units of semantic meaning in speech, and more strict phonetic transcription, which records speech sounds with precision
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Loanword
A LOANWORD (also LOAN WORD or LOAN-WORD) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation . This is in contrast to cognates , which are words in two or more languages that are similar because they share an etymological origin, and calques , which involve translation. CONTENTS * 1 Examples and related terms * 2 From the arts * 3 Linguistic classification * 4 Popular and learned loanwords * 5 In English * 6 In languages other than English * 6.1 Transmission in the Ottoman Empire * 6.2 Dutch words in Indonesian * 6.3 Loan words in Japanese * 7 Cultural aspects * 8 Changes in meaning and pronunciation * 9 See also * 10 Notes * 11 References * 12 External links EXAMPLES AND RELATED TERMSA loanword is distinguished from a calque (loan translation), which is a word or phrase whose meaning or idiom is adopted from another language by translation into existing words or word-forming roots of the recipient language. Examples of loanwords in the English language include _café _ (from French _café_, which literally means "coffee"), bazaar (from Persian _bāzār_, which means "market"), and kindergarten (from German _Kindergarten_, which literally means "children's garden")
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South African Wars (1879–1915)
Ethnic, political and social tensions among European colonial powers , indigenous Africans, and English and Dutch settlers led to open conflict in a series of wars and revolts between 1879 and 1915 that would have lasting repercussions on the entire region of southern Africa. Pursuit of commercial empire as well as individual aspirations, especially after the discovery of diamonds (1867) and gold (1886), were key factors driving these developments. The various wars of this era are usually studied separately, as independent conflicts. They include the first and second Anglo-Boer War , the Anglo-Zulu War , the Basotho Gun War , the 9th Frontier War and others. However it is instructive also to see them as outbreaks in a far larger wave of change and conflict effecting the subcontinent - beginning with the "Confederation Wars" of the 1870s and 80s; escalating with the rise of Cecil Rhodes and the struggle for control of gold and diamond resources; and leading up to the Second Anglo-Boer War and the Union of South Africa in 1910
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Old French
OLD FRENCH (_franceis_, _françois_, _romanz_; Modern French _ancien français_) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century. In the 14th century, these dialects came to be collectively known as the _langue d\'oïl _, contrasting with the _langue d\'oc _ or Occitan language in the south of France. The mid-14th century is taken as the transitional period to Middle French , the language of the French Renaissance , specifically based on the dialect of the Île-de-France region. The place and area where Old French was spoken natively roughly extended to the historical Kingdom of France and its vassals (including parts of the Angevin Empire , which during the 12th century remained under Anglo-Norman rule), and Burgundy , Lorraine and Savoy to the east (corresponding to modern north-central France , Belgian Wallonia , western Switzerland and northwestern Italy ), but the influence of Old French was much wider, as it was carried to England , Sicily and the Crusader states as the language of a feudal elite and of commerce
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Article (grammar)
An ARTICLE (with the linguistic glossing abbreviation ART) is a word that is used alongside a noun (as a standalone word or a prefix or suffix ) to specify grammatical definiteness of the noun, and in some languages extending to volume or numerical scope. The articles in English grammar are the and a/an, and in certain contexts some. "An" and "a" are modern forms of the Old English "an", which in Anglian dialects was the number "one" (compare "on" in Saxon dialects ) and survived into Modern Scots as the number "owan". Both "on" (respelled "one" by the Norman language
Norman language
) and "an" survived into Modern English , with "one" used as the number and "an" ("a", before nouns that begin with a consonant sound) as an indefinite article. In many languages, articles are a special part of speech which cannot easily be combined with other parts of speech. In English grammar, articles are frequently considered part of a broader category called determiners , which contains articles, demonstratives (such as "this" and "that"), possessive determiners (such as "my" and "his"), and quantifiers (such as "all" and "few"). Articles and other determiners are also sometimes counted as a type of adjective , since they describe the words that they come before
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Jinn
JINN (Arabic : الجن‎‎, _al-jinn_), also romanized as DJINN or anglicized as GENIES (with the more broad meaning of DEMONS ), are supernatural creatures in early Arabian and later Islamic mythology and theology . An individual member of the jinn is known as a JINNI, DJINNI, or GENIE (الجني, _al-jinnī_). They are mentioned frequently in the Quran
Quran
(the 72nd sura is titled _Sūrat al- Jinn
Jinn
_) and other Islamic texts. The Quran
Quran
says that the _jinn_ were created from "mārijin min nar" (_smokeless fire_ or _a mixture of fire_; scholars explained, this is the part of the flame, which mixed with _the blakeness of fire_). They are not purely spiritual and also physical in nature, being able to interact in a tactile manner with people and objects and likewise be acted upon. The _jinn_, humans, and angels make up the three known sapient creations of God . Like human beings, the _jinn_ can be good, evil, or neutrally benevolent and hence have free will like humans
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Arabic Language
THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS ARABIC TEXT . Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols .ARABIC ( Arabic
Arabic
: العَرَبِيَّة‎‎, _al-ʻarabiyyah_ (_ listen ) or Arabic
Arabic
: عَرَبِيّ‎‎ ʻarabī_ (_ listen ) or ) is a Central Semitic language complex that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca _ of the Arab world . It is named after the Arabs
Arabs
, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the east to the Anti- Lebanon
Lebanon
mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. The modern written language ( Modern Standard Arabic ) is derived from Classical Arabic . It is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic
Arabic
(_fuṣḥā_), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam
Islam
. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary
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English Exonyms
An ENGLISH EXONYM is a name in the English language
English language
for a place (a toponym ), or occasionally other terms, which does not follow the local usage (the endonym ). Exonyms and endonyms are features of all languages and other languages may have their own exonym for the English endonym, for example Llundain is the Welsh exonym for the English endonym "London". An English exonym is typically a place name given by an English-speaking linguistic community to a topographic feature situated in a territory where English has no official status. British English traditionally uses the term "conventional name ", but the more internationally accepted term is "exonym". "For a toponym to be defined as an exonym, there must exist a minimum degree of difference between it and the corresponding endonym. ... Ĉkalovsk is not an exonym of the Russian city Чкаловск but simply the endonym written in a different script. The omission of diacritical marks usually does not turn an endonym into an exonym: Sao Paulo (for São Paulo
São Paulo
); Malaga (for Málaga
Málaga
) or Amman
Amman
(for 'Ammān) are not considered exonyms. However, in certain languages, diacritics enable names that are otherwise identical to be distinguished; in such cases, the omission of these diacritics could be regarded as generating exonyms
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Denmark
DENMARK (/ˈdɛnmɑːrk/ (_ listen ); Danish : Danmark_ ( listen )), officially the KINGDOM OF DENMARK, is a Scandinavian country in Europe and a sovereign state . The southernmost of the Nordic countries , it is south-west of Sweden and south of Norway , and bordered to the south by Germany . The Kingdom of Denmark also comprises two autonomous constituent countries in the North Atlantic Ocean : the Faroe Islands and Greenland . Denmark itself has a total area of 42,924 square kilometres (16,573 sq mi),; total area including Greenland and the Faroe Islands is 2,210,579 square kilometres (853,509 sq mi), and a population of 5.75 million. European Denmark consists of a peninsula, Jutland , and an archipelago of 443 named islands , with the largest being Zealand , Funen and the North Jutlandic Island . The islands are characterised by flat, arable land and sandy coasts, low elevation and a temperate climate. The unified kingdom of Denmark emerged in the 10th century as a proficient seafaring nation in the struggle for control of the Baltic Sea
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Copenhagen
COPENHAGEN (Danish : _København_ (_ listen ); Latin : Hafnia_) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark . The city has a population of 763,908 (as of December 2016 ), of whom 601,448 live in the Municipality of Copenhagen . The larger urban area has a population of 1,280,371 (as of 1 January 2016 ), while the Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants. Copenhagen is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand ; another small portion of the city is located on Amager , and is separated from Malmö , Sweden, by the strait of Øresund . The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road. Originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a regional centre of power with its institutions, defences and armed forces. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century, the city underwent a period of redevelopment. This included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts
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Russia
Coordinates : 60°N 90°E / 60°N 90°E / 60; 90 Russian Federation Российская Федерация (Russian ) _Rossiyskaya Federatsiya_ Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: " "_Gosudarstvenny gimn Rossiyskoy Federatsii _" (transliteration ) "State Anthem of the Russian Federation" Location of Russia (green) Russian-administered Crimea (disputed ; light green)a Capital and largest city Moscow 55°45′N 37°37′E / 55.750°N 37.617°E / 55.750; 37.617 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES Russian RECOGNISED NATIONAL LANGUAGES See Languages of Russia ETHNIC GROUPS (2010 ) * 81.0% Russian * 3.7% Tatar * 1.4% Ukrainian * 1.1% Bashkir * 1.0% Chuvash * 0.8% Chechen * 11.0% others / unspecified RELIGION See _Religion in Russia_ DEMONYM Russian GOVERNMENT Federal semi-presidential constitutional republic
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Moscow
MOSCOW (/ˈmɒskoʊ/ or /ˈmɒskaʊ/ ; Russian : Москва́, tr. _Moskva_; IPA: ( listen )) is the capital and most populous city of Russia , with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.8 million within the urban area . Moscow has the status of a Russian federal city . Moscow is a major political, economic, cultural, and scientific centre of Russia and Eastern Europe , as well as the largest city entirely on the European continent . By broader definitions Moscow is among the world\'s largest cities , being the 14th largest metro area , the 18th largest agglomeration , the 15th largest urban area , and the 11th largest by population within city limits worldwide. According to Forbes 2013 , Moscow has been ranked as the ninth most expensive city in the world by Mercer and has one of the world's largest urban economies , being ranked as an alpha global city according to the Globalization and World Cities Research Network , and is also one of the fastest growing tourist destinations in the world according to the MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index . Moscow is the northernmost and coldest megacity and metropolis on Earth
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Sweden
Coordinates : 63°N 16°E / 63°N 16°E / 63; 16 Kingdom of Sweden Konungariket Sverige Flag Greater coat of arms MOTTO: (royal) "För Sverige – i tiden" "For Sweden – With the Times" ANTHEM: _ Du gamla, Du fria _ _Thou ancient, thou free_ ROYAL ANTHEM : _ Kungssången _ _Song of the King_ Location of Sweden (dark green) – in Europe (green "> (green) – Capital and largest city Stockholm 59°21′N 18°4′E / 59.350°N 18.067°E / 59.350; 18.067 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES Swedish ETHNIC GROUPS no official statistics DEMONYM
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Gothenburg
GOTHENBURG (English: /ˈɡɒθənbɜːrɡ/ (_ listen ); Swedish : Göteborg_, pronounced ( listen )) is the second-largest city in Sweden and the fifth-largest in the Nordic countries . Situated by Kattegat , on the west coast of Sweden, the city has a population of approximately 580,000 in the urban area and about 1 million inhabitants in the metropolitan area . Gothenburg was founded as a heavily fortified, primarily Dutch, trading colony, by royal charter in 1621 by King Gustavus Adolphus . In addition to the generous privileges (e.g. tax relaxation) given to his Dutch allies from the then-ongoing Thirty Years\' War , the king also attracted significant numbers of his German and Scottish allies to populate his only town on the western coast. At a key strategic location at the mouth of the Göta älv , where Scandinavia's largest drainage basin enters the sea, the Port of Gothenburg is now the largest port in the Nordic countries. Gothenburg is home to many students, as the city includes the University of Gothenburg and Chalmers University of Technology . Volvo was founded in Gothenburg in 1927. The original, parent Volvo Group and the now separate Volvo Car Corporation are still headquartered on the island of Hisingen in the city
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