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Anglicization
ANGLICISATION (or ANGLICIZATION, see English spelling differences ), occasionally ANGLIFICATION, ANGLIFYING, ENGLISHING, in this article refers to modifications made to foreign words, names and phrases to make them easier to spell, pronounce, or understand in English. It commonly refers to the respelling of foreign words, often to a more drastic degree than romanisation . One example is the word "dandelion", modified from the French dent-de-lion (“lion’s tooth”, because of the sharply indented leaves). Anglicising non-English words for use in English is just one case of the widespread domestication of foreign words that is common to many languages, sometimes involving shifts in meaning. One example is the German word Felleisen (a backpack), a germanization of the French word valise (small suitcase)
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Shijiazhuang
SHIJIAZHUANG ( ; Chinese : 石家庄), formerly romanized SHIHKIACHWANG, is the capital and largest city of North China
China
's Hebei Province . Administratively a prefecture-level city , it is about 263 kilometres (163 mi) southwest of Beijing
Beijing
, and it administers eight districts , two county-level cities , and 12 counties . As of 2015 it had a total population of 10,701,600 with 4,303,700 in the central (or metro) area comprising the seven districts and the county of Zhengding
Zhengding
largely conurbated with the Shijiazhuang metropolitan area as urbanization continues to proliferate. Shijiazhuang's total population ranked twelfth in mainland China. Shijiazhuang
Shijiazhuang
experienced dramatic growth after the founding of the People\'s Republic of China
China
in 1949
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Chongqing
CHONGQING (Chinese : 重庆), formerly transliterated as CHUNGKING , is a major city in southwest China
China
. Administratively, it is one of China's four direct-controlled municipalities (the other three are Beijing, Shanghai
Shanghai
and Tianjin
Tianjin
), and the only such municipality in China
China
located far away from the coast. The municipality was created on 14 March 1997 to help the Three Gorges Dam migration, succeeding the sub-provincial city administration that was part of Sichuan
Sichuan
Province . Chongqing's population as of 2015 is just over 30 million with an urban population of 18.38 million
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China
CHINA, officially the PEOPLE\'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA (PRC), is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia
East Asia
and the world\'s most populous country , with a population of around 1.404 billion . Covering approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area, depending on the source consulted. China
China
also has the most neighbor countries in the world. Governed by the Communist Party of China
Communist Party of China
, it exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces , five autonomous regions , four direct-controlled municipalities ( Beijing
Beijing
, Tianjin
Tianjin
, Shanghai
Shanghai
, and Chongqing
Chongqing
), and the special administrative regions of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and Macau
Macau

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Kyoto
KYOTO (京都市, Kyōto-shi, pronounced ( listen ), pronounced ( listen ); UK : /kɪˈoʊtoʊ/ , US : /kiˈoʊ-/ , or /ˈkjoʊ-/ ) is a city located in the central part of the island of Honshu
Honshu
, Japan
Japan
. It has a population close to 1.5 million. Formerly the Imperial capital of Japan
Japan
for more than one thousand years, it is now the capital city of Kyoto Prefecture
Kyoto Prefecture
located in the Kansai region , as well as a major part of the Kyoto-Osaka- Kobe
Kobe
metropolitan area
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Japan
Coordinates : 35°N 136°E / 35°N 136°E / 35; 136 Japan 日本国 Nippon-koku or Nihon-koku Flag Imperial Seal ANTHEM: * " Kimigayo " * 君が代 "His Imperial Majesty's Reign" GOVERNMENT SEAL OF JAPAN * * Go-Shichi no Kiri (五七桐) Area controlled by Japan
Japan
shown in green—claimed, but uncontrolled shown in light green Capital and largest city
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Pīnyīn
PINYIN, or HàNYǔ PīNYīN, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
in mainland China
China
, Malaysia
Malaysia
, Singapore
Singapore
, and Taiwan . It is often used to teach Standard Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters
Chinese characters
. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones . Pinyin
Pinyin
without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet , and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters. The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang , based on earlier forms of romanization of Chinese . It was published by the Chinese government
Chinese government
in 1958 and revised several times
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Standard Chinese
STANDARD CHINESE, also known as MODERN STANDARD MANDARIN, STANDARD MANDARIN, or simply MANDARIN, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China
China
and Taiwan
Taiwan
, and also one of the four official languages of Singapore
Singapore
. Its pronunciation is based on the Beijing dialect , its vocabulary on the Mandarin dialects , and its grammar is based on written vernacular Chinese . Like other varieties of Chinese, Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
is a tonal language with topic-prominent organization and subject–verb–object word order. It has more initial consonants but fewer vowels, final consonants and tones than southern varieties. Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
is an analytic language , though with many compound words
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Hangul
HANGUL (/ˈhɑːnˌɡuːl/ HAHN-gool ; from Korean hangeul 한글 ) is the Korean alphabet, which has been used to write the Korean language since its creation in the 15th century by Sejong the Great . It is the official writing system of South Korea
South Korea
and North Korea
North Korea
. It is a co-official writing system in the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture and Changbai Korean Autonomous County in Jilin
Jilin
Province , China
China
. It is also sometimes used to write the Cia-Cia language spoken near the town of Bau-Bau , Indonesia
Indonesia
. The alphabet consists of 19 consonants and 21 vowels . Instead of being written sequentially, like the letters of the Latin alphabet , Hangul
Hangul
letters are grouped into syllabic blocks
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Transliteration
TRANSLITERATION is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping letters (thus trans- + liter-) in predictable ways (such as α → a , д → d , χ → ch , or æ → e ). For instance, for the Greek term "Ελληνική Δημοκρατία", which is usually translated as "Hellenic Republic ", the usual transliteration to Latin script
Latin script
is "Ellēnikḗ Dēmokratía", and the name for Russia
Russia
in Cyrillic script
Cyrillic script
, "Россия", is usually transliterated as "Rossiya". Transliteration
Transliteration
is not primarily concerned with representing the sounds of the original but rather with representing the characters, ideally accurately and unambiguously
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Japanese Language
JAPANESE (日本語, Nihongo, or ( listen )) is an East Asian language spoken by about 126 million people, primarily in Japan
Japan
, where it is the national language . It is a member of the Japonic (or Japanese-Ryukyuan ) language family, and its relation to other languages, such as Korean , is debated. Japanese has been grouped with language families such as Ainu , Austroasiatic , and the now-discredited Altaic , but none of these proposals has gained widespread acceptance. Little is known of the language's prehistory, or when it first appeared in Japan. Chinese documents from the 3rd century recorded a few Japanese words, but substantial texts did not appear until the 8th century. During the Heian period (794–1185), Chinese had considerable influence on the vocabulary and phonology of Old Japanese
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Rōmaji
The ROMANIZATION OF JAPANESE is the application of the Latin script to write the Japanese language
Japanese language
. This method of writing is sometimes referred to in English as RōMAJI (ローマ字, literally, "roman letters") (Japanese pronunciation: listen (help ·info )), sometimes incorrectly transliterated with an n as rōmaNji. There are several different romanization systems. The three main ones are Hepburn romanization
Hepburn romanization
, Kunrei-shiki romanization (ISO 3602), and Nihon-shiki romanization ( ISO 3602 Strict). Variants of the Hepburn system are the most widely used. Japanese is normally written in a combination of logographic characters borrowed from Chinese (kanji ) and syllabic scripts (kana ) which also ultimately derive from Chinese characters
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Cologne
COLOGNE (English: /kəˈloʊn/ ; German : Köln, pronounced ( listen ), Ripuarian : Kölle ( listen )) is the largest city in the German federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine-Westphalia
and the fourth most populated city in Germany
Germany
(after Berlin
Berlin
, Hamburg
Hamburg
, and Munich
Munich
). It is located within the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region which is Germany\'s largest and one of Europe\'s major metropolitan areas . Cologne
Cologne
is about 45 kilometres (28 mi) southwest of North Rhine-Westphalia's capital of Dusseldorf and 25 kilometres (16 mi) northwest of Bonn
Bonn

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Rome
ROME (/roʊm/ ROHM ; Italian : Roma ( listen ), Latin
Latin
: Rōma) is the capital of Italy
Italy
and a special comune (named Comune
Comune
di Roma Capitale). Rome
Rome
also serves as the capital of the Lazio region . With 2,876,051 residents in 1,285 km2 (496.1 sq mi), it is also the country's most populated comune. It is the fourth-most populous city in the European Union
European Union
by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome , which has a population of 4.3 million residents. Rome
Rome
is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
, within Lazio (Latium), along the shores of the Tiber
Tiber

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Tudor Conquest Of Ireland
Gaels
Gaels
: * Aodh Mór Ó Néill * Aodh Ruadh Ó Domhnaill * Aodh Mag Uidhir * Fiach Mac Aodha Ó Broin * Fínghin Mac Cárthaigh * Domhnall Cam Ó Súileabháin Bhéara * Domhnall Ó Briain * Somhairle Buidhe Mac Domhnaill * Brian Óg na Samhthach Ó Ruairc * Gráinne Ní Mháille FitzGeralds: * James FitzMaurice
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Colonialism
COLONIALISM is the policy of a nation seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories. Colonialism
Colonialism
involves unequal relationships between the colonial power and the colony and often between the colonists and the indigenous peoples . The European colonial period was the era from the 16th century to the mid-20th century when several European powers established colonies in Asia
Asia
, Africa
Africa
, and the Americas
Americas
. At first the countries followed a policy of mercantilism , designed to strengthen the home economy at the expense of rivals, so the colonies were usually allowed to trade only with the mother country. By the mid-19th century, however, the powerful British Empire
British Empire
gave up mercantilism and trade restrictions and introduced the principle of free trade , with few restrictions or tariffs
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