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Gothenburg
Gothenburg
(/ˈɡɒθənbɜːrɡ/ ( listen);[5] abbreviated Gbg;[6][7] Swedish: Göteborg [jœtɛˈbɔrj] ( listen))[8] is the second-largest city in Sweden
Sweden
and the fifth-largest in the Nordic countries. It is situated by Kattegat, on the west coast of Sweden, and has a population of approximately 580,000 in the urban area and about 1 million inhabitants in the metropolitan area.[1] Gothenburg
Gothenburg
was founded as a heavily fortified, primarily Dutch, trading colony, by royal charter in 1621 by King Gustavus Adolphus. In addition to the generous privileges (e.g. tax relaxation) given to his Dutch allies from the then-ongoing Thirty Years' War, the king also attracted significant numbers of his German and Scottish allies to populate his only town on the western coast. At a key strategic location at the mouth of the Göta älv, where Scandinavia's largest drainage basin enters the sea, the Port of Gothenburg
Port of Gothenburg
is now the largest port in the Nordic countries.[9] Gothenburg
Gothenburg
is home to many students, as the city includes the University of Gothenburg
University of Gothenburg
and Chalmers University of Technology. Volvo was founded in Gothenburg
Gothenburg
in 1927.[10] The original parent Volvo
Volvo
Group and the now separate Volvo
Volvo
Car Corporation are still headquartered on the island of Hisingen
Hisingen
in the city. Other key companies are SKF
SKF
and Astra Zeneca. Gothenburg
Gothenburg
is served by Göteborg Landvetter Airport
Göteborg Landvetter Airport
30 km (19 mi) southeast of the city center. The smaller Göteborg City Airport, 15 km (9.3 mi) from the city center, was closed to regular airline traffic in 2015. The city hosts some of the largest annual events in Scandinavia. The Gothenburg
Gothenburg
Film Festival, held in January since 1979, is the leading Scandinavian film festival with over 155,000 visitors each year.[11] In summer, a wide variety of music festivals are held in the city, such as Way Out West and Metaltown.

Contents

1 Name 2 History 3 Geography

3.1 Climate 3.2 Parks and nature

4 Architecture

4.1 Characteristic buildings

5 Culture

5.1 Museums 5.2 Leisure and entertainment 5.3 Festivals and fairs 5.4 Music 5.5 Sports

6 Economy 7 Government 8 Proportion of foreign born 9 Education 10 Transport

10.1 Public transport 10.2 Rail and intercity bus 10.3 Air 10.4 Sea 10.5 Freight

11 Notable people 12 International relations

12.1 Twin towns and sister cities

13 See also 14 References 15 External links

Name[edit] The city was named Göteborg (originally Götheborg) in the city's charter in 1621[12] and simultaneously given the German and English name Gothenburg.[13] The Swedish name was given after the Göta älv, called Göta River
Göta River
in English,[14] and other cities ending in -borg.[15][16][17] Both the Swedish and German/English names were in use before 1621 and had already been used for the previous city founded in 1604 and burned down in 1611.[18] Many European cities have exonyms (e.g. Copenhagen or Vienna), but Gothenburg
Gothenburg
is the only Swedish city to have one. The city council of 1641 consisted of four Swedish, three Dutch, three German, and two Scottish members. In Dutch, Scots, English, and German, all languages with a long history in this trade and maritime-oriented city, the name Gothenburg
Gothenburg
is or was (in the case of German) used for the city. Variations of the official German/English name Gothenburg
Gothenburg
in the city's 1621 charter existed or exist in many languages. The French form of the city name is Gothembourg, but in French texts, the Swedish name Göteborg is more frequent. "Gothenburg" can also be seen in some older English texts. In Spanish and Portuguese the city is called Gotemburgo. These traditional forms are sometimes replaced with the use of the Swedish Göteborg, for example by The Göteborg Opera
The Göteborg Opera
and the Göteborg Ballet. However, Göteborgs universitet, previously designated as the Göteborg University in English, changed its name to the University of Gothenburg
Gothenburg
in 2008.[19] The Gothenburg municipality
Gothenburg municipality
has also reverted to the use of the English name in international contexts.[20] In 2009, the city council launched a new logotype for Gothenburg. Since the name "Göteborg" contains the Swedish letter "ö" the idea was to make the name more international and up to date by "turning" the "ö" sideways. As of 2015[update], the name is spelled "Go:teborg" on a large number of signs in the city.[21] History[edit] Further information: History of Gothenburg
History of Gothenburg
and Timeline of Gothenburg In the early modern period, the configuration of Sweden's borders made Gothenburg
Gothenburg
strategically critical as the only Swedish gateway to the North Sea
North Sea
and Atlantic, situated on the west coast in a very narrow strip of Swedish territory between Danish Halland
Halland
in the south and Norwegian Bohuslän
Bohuslän
in the north. After several failed attempts, Gothenburg
Gothenburg
was successfully founded in 1621 by King Gustavus Adolphus (Gustaf II Adolf).[22] The site of the first church built in Gothenburg, subsequently destroyed by Danish invaders, is marked by a stone near the north end of the Älvsborg Bridge
Älvsborg Bridge
in the Färjenäs Park. The church was built in 1603 and destroyed in 1611.[23] The city was heavily influenced by the Dutch, Germans, and Scots, and Dutch planners and engineers were contracted to construct the city as they had the skills needed to drain and build in the marshy areas chosen for the city. The town was designed like Dutch cities such as Amsterdam, Batavia (Jakarta) and New Amsterdam
Amsterdam
(Manhattan).[22] The planning of the streets and canals of Gothenburg
Gothenburg
closely resembled that of Jakarta, which was built by the Dutch around the same time.[24] The Dutchmen initially won political power, and it was not until 1652, when the last Dutch politician in the city's council died, that Swedes acquired political power over Gothenburg.[25] During the Dutch period, the town followed Dutch town laws and Dutch was proposed as the official language in the town. Robust city walls were built during the 17th century. In 1807, a decision was made to tear down most of the city's wall. The work started in 1810, and was carried out by 150 soldiers from the Bohus regiment.[26] Along with the Dutch, the town also was heavily influenced by Scots who settled down in Gothenburg. Many became people of high-profile.[27] William Chalmers, the son of a Scottish immigrant, donated his fortunes to set up what later became the Chalmers University of Technology.[28] In 1841, the Scotsman Alexander Keiller founded the Götaverken
Götaverken
shipbuilding company that was in business until 1989.[29] His son James Keiller donated Keiller Park to the city in 1906.[30] The Gothenburg
Gothenburg
coat of arms was based on the lion of the coat of arms of Sweden, symbolically holding a shield with the national emblem, the Three Crowns, to defend the city against its enemies.[31] In the Treaty of Roskilde
Treaty of Roskilde
(1658), Denmark–Norway
Denmark–Norway
ceded the then Danish province Halland, in the south, and the Norwegian province of Bohus County or Bohuslän
Bohuslän
in the north, leaving Gothenburg
Gothenburg
less exposed. Gothenburg
Gothenburg
was able to grow into a significant port and trade centre on the west coast, because it was the only city on the west coast that, along with Marstrand, was granted the rights to trade with merchants from other countries.[25] In the 18th century, fishing was the most important industry. However, in 1731, the Swedish East India Company
Swedish East India Company
was founded, and the city flourished due to its foreign trade with highly profitable commercial expeditions to China.[32] The harbour developed into Sweden's main harbour for trade towards the west, and when Swedish emigration to the United States
United States
increased, Gothenburg
Gothenburg
became Sweden's main point of departure for these travelers. The impact of Gothenburg
Gothenburg
as a main port of embarkation for Swedish emigrants is reflected by Gothenburg, Nebraska, a small Swedish settlement in the United States.[33] With the 19th century, Gothenburg
Gothenburg
evolved into a modern industrial city that continued on into the 20th century. The population increased tenfold in the century, from 13,000 (1800) to 130,000 (1900).,[34][35][36] In the 20th century, major companies that developed included SKF
SKF
(1907)[37] and Volvo
Volvo
(1927).[38]

Panoramic view of Gothenburg's downtown coast line

Geography[edit]

View from Älvsborg Bridge

Gothenburg
Gothenburg
is located on the west coast, in southwestern Sweden, about halfway between the capitals Copenhagen, Denmark, and Oslo, Norway. The location at the mouth of the Göta älv, which feeds into Kattegatt, an arm of the North Sea, has helped the city grow in significance as a trading city. The archipelago of Gothenburg
Gothenburg
consists of rough, barren rocks and cliffs, which also is typical for the coast of Bohuslän.[39] Due to the Gulf Stream, the city has a mild climate and moderately heavy precipitation.[40] It is the second-largest city in Sweden
Sweden
after capital Stockholm.[41] The Gothenburg
Gothenburg
Metropolitan Area (Stor-Göteborg) has 982,360 inhabitants and extends to the municipalities of Ale, Alingsås, Göteborg, Härryda, Kungälv, Lerum, Lilla Edet, Mölndal, Partille, Stenungsund, Tjörn, Öckerö
Öckerö
within Västra Götaland
Götaland
County, and Kungsbacka
Kungsbacka
within Halland
Halland
County.[42] Angered, a suburb outside Gothenburg, consists of Hjällbo, Eriksbo, Rannebergen, Hammarkullen, Gårdsten, and Lövgärdet.[43] It is a Million Programme
Million Programme
part of Gothenburg, like Rosengård
Rosengård
in Malmö
Malmö
and Botkyrka in Stockholm.[44] Angered
Angered
had about 50,000 inhabitants in 2015.[45][?] It lies north of Gothenburg
Gothenburg
and is isolated from the rest of the city. Bergsjön
Bergsjön
is another Million Programme
Million Programme
suburb north of Gothenburg, it has 14,000 inhabitants. Biskopsgården is the biggest multicultural suburb on the island of Hisingen, which is a part of Gothenburg
Gothenburg
but separated from the city by the river.

A panorama of central Gothenburg
Gothenburg
taken from Keillers park, facing south – from left to right: Göta älvbron, Lilla Bommen, Viking, The Göteborg Opera
The Göteborg Opera
in front of Göteborgshjulet, Skansen Kronan, Oscar Fredrik Church, Masthugg Church, and Älvsborg Bridge

Climate[edit] Gothenburg
Gothenburg
has an oceanic climate[46] according to Köppen climate classification. Despite its northern latitude, temperatures are quite mild throughout the year and warmer than places in similar latitude, for example Stockholm, or even somewhat further south, mainly because of the moderating influence of the warm Gulf Stream.[40] During the summer, daylight extends 18 hours and 5 minutes, but lasts 6 hours and 32 minutes in late December. The climate has become significantly milder in later decades, particularly in summer and winter; July temperatures used to be below Stockholm's 1961–1990 averages, but have since been warmer than that benchmark. Summers are warm and pleasant with average high temperatures of 19 to 20 °C (66 to 68 °F) and lows of 10 to 12 °C (50 to 54 °F), but temperatures of 25–30 °C (77–86 °F) occur on many days during the summer. Winters are cold and windy with temperatures of around −3 to 3 °C (27 to 37 °F), though it rarely drops below −20 °C (−4 °F). Precipitation
Precipitation
is regular but generally moderate throughout the year. Snow mainly occurs from December to March, but is not unusual in November and April and can sometimes occur even in October and May, in extreme cases even in September.[47]

Climate data for Gothenburg, 1981-2010; sunshine 1961-1990; extremes since 1901

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 10.8 (51.4) 11.2 (52.2) 18.9 (66) 28.5 (83.3) 29.8 (85.6) 32.0 (89.6) 33.8 (92.8) 33.5 (92.3) 28.5 (83.3) 20.7 (69.3) 14.5 (58.1) 12.7 (54.9) 33.8 (92.8)

Average high °C (°F) 2.0 (35.6) 2.2 (36) 5.2 (41.4) 10.6 (51.1) 16.0 (60.8) 18.6 (65.5) 21.1 (70) 20.4 (68.7) 16.4 (61.5) 11.5 (52.7) 6.4 (43.5) 3.2 (37.8) 11.2 (52.2)

Daily mean °C (°F) −0.5 (31.1) −0.5 (31.1) 1.9 (35.4) 6.3 (43.3) 11.2 (52.2) 14.3 (57.7) 16.8 (62.2) 16.4 (61.5) 12.6 (54.7) 8.3 (46.9) 3.8 (38.8) 0.6 (33.1) 7.7 (45.9)

Average low °C (°F) −3.0 (26.6) −3.2 (26.2) −1.4 (29.5) 2.0 (35.6) 6.4 (43.5) 10.1 (50.2) 12.6 (54.7) 12.3 (54.1) 8.8 (47.8) 5.1 (41.2) 1.2 (34.2) −2.0 (28.4) 4.1 (39.4)

Record low °C (°F) −26.0 (−14.8) −22.8 (−9) −19.2 (−2.6) −11.0 (12.2) −4.3 (24.3) 1.8 (35.2) 5.3 (41.5) 3.5 (38.3) −2.5 (27.5) −8.5 (16.7) −13.5 (7.7) −21.9 (−7.4) −26.0 (−14.8)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 84.2 (3.315) 57.1 (2.248) 58.5 (2.303) 48.6 (1.913) 54.0 (2.126) 73.1 (2.878) 75.2 (2.961) 83.7 (3.295) 73.2 (2.882) 95.9 (3.776) 84.8 (3.339) 86.5 (3.406) 874.8 (34.442)

Average precipitation days 12 9 9 8 8 10 9 11 10 12 12 12 122

Mean monthly sunshine hours 44 69 167 211 239 256 234 196 168 99 47 32 1,762

Source #1: [48]

Source #2: [49]

Parks and nature[edit]

A view in the Gothenburg
Gothenburg
Botanical Garden

Gothenburg
Gothenburg
has several parks and nature reserves ranging in size from tens of square metres to hundreds of hectares. It also has many green areas that are not designated as parks or reserves. Selection of parks:

Kungsparken, 13 ha (32 acres), built between 1839 and 1861, surrounds the canal that circles the city centre.[50] Garden Society of Gothenburg, a park and horticultural garden, is located next to Kungsportsavenyen. Founded in 1842 by the Swedish king Carl XIV Johan and on initiative of the amateur botanist Henric Elof von Normann, the park has a noted rose garden with some 4,000 roses of 1,900 cultivars.[51] Slottsskogen, Gothenburg's largest park, 137 ha (340 acres), was created in 1874 by August Kobb. It has a free "open" zoo that includes harbor seals, penguins, horses, pigs, deer, moose, goats, and many birds. The Natural History Museum (Naturhistoriska Museet) and the city's oldest observatory are located in the park.[51] The annual Way Out West festival is held in the park.[52] Änggårdsbergens naturreservat, 320 ha (790 acres), was bought in 1840 by pharmacist Arvid Gren, and donated in 1963 to the city by Sven and Carl Gren Broberg, who stated the area must remain a nature and bird reserve. It lies partly in Mölndal.[53] Delsjöområdets naturreservat, about 760 ha (1,900 acres),[54] has been in use since the 17th century as a farming area; significant forest management was carried out in the late 19th century. Skatås gym and motionscentrum is situated here. Rya Skogs Naturreservat, 17 ha (42 acres), became a protected area in 1928. It contains remnants of a defensive wall built in the mid- to late-17th century.[55] Keillers park was donated by James Keiller in 1906. He was the son of Scottish Alexander Keiller, who founded the Götaverken
Götaverken
shipbuilding company.[30][43] S A Hedlunds park: Sven Adolf Hedlund, newspaper publisher and politician, bought the 15 ha (37 acres) Bjurslätt farm in 1857, and in 1928 it was given to the city. Hisingsparken is Gothenburg's biggest park.[56] Flunsåsparken, built in 1950, has many free activities during the summer such as concerts and theatre.[57] Gothenburg
Gothenburg
Botanical Garden, 175 ha (430 acres), opened in 1923.[58] It won an award in 2003, and in 2006 was third in "The most beautiful garden in Europe" competition. It has around 16,000 species of plants and trees. The greenhouses contain around 4,500 species including 1,600 orchids.[51] It is considered to be one of the most important botanical gardens in Europe with three stars in the French Guide Rouge.

Architecture[edit]

Many buildings in the old part of the city were built along canals.

Very few houses are left from the 17th century when the city was founded, since all but the military and royal houses were built of wood.[59] A rare exception is the Skansen Kronan.[60] The first major architecturally interesting period is the 18th century when the East India Company made Gothenburg
Gothenburg
an important trade city. Imposing stone houses in Neo-Classical style were erected around the canals. One example from this period is the East India House, which today houses the Göteborg City Museum.[61] In the 19th century, the wealthy bourgeoisie began to move outside the city walls which had protected the city. The style now was an eclectic, academic, somewhat overdecorated style which the middle-class favoured. The working class lived in the overcrowded city district Haga in wooden houses.[62] In the 19th century, the first comprehensive town plan after the founding of city was created, which led to the construction of the main street, Kungsportsavenyen.[63] Perhaps the most significant type of houses of the city, Landshövdingehusen, were built in the end of the 19th century – three-storey houses with the first floor in stone and the other two in wood.[64] The early 20th century, characterized by the National Romantic style, was rich in architectural achievements.[62] Masthugg Church
Masthugg Church
is a noted example of the style of this period.[65][66] In the early 1920s, on the city's 300th anniversary, the Götaplatsen
Götaplatsen
square with its Neoclassical look was built.[62] After this, the predominant style in Gothenburg
Gothenburg
and rest of Sweden
Sweden
was Functionalism which especially dominated the suburbs such as Västra Frölunda and Bergsjön. The Swedish functionalist architect Uno Åhrén served as city planner from 1932 through 1943.[62] In the 1950s, the big stadium Ullevi
Ullevi
was built when Sweden
Sweden
hosted the 1958 FIFA World Cup.[67] The modern architecture of the city has been formed by such architects as Gert Wingårdh,[68] who started as a Post-modernist in the 1980s.[69] Gustaf Adolf Square is a town square located in central Gothenburg. Noted buildings on the square include Gothenburg
Gothenburg
City Hall (formerly the stock exchange, opened in 1849) and the Nordic Classicism
Nordic Classicism
law court. The main canal of Gothenburg
Gothenburg
also flanks the square.[62] Characteristic buildings[edit]

Skanskaskrapan

The Gothenburg Central Station
Gothenburg Central Station
is in the centre of the city, next to Nordstan
Nordstan
and Drottningtorget.[70] The building has been renovated and expanded numerous times since the grand opening in October 1858. In 2003, a major reconstruction was finished which brought the 19th-century building into the 21st century expanding the capacity for trains, travellers, and shopping.[71] Not far from the central station is the Skanskaskrapan, or more commonly known as "The Lipstick". It is 86 m (282 ft) high with 22 floors and coloured in red-white stripes. The skyscraper was designed by Ralph Erskine and built by Skanska
Skanska
in the late 1980s as the headquarters for the company.[72] By the shore of the Göta Älv at Lilla Bommen
Lilla Bommen
is The Göteborg Opera. It was completed in 1994. The architect Jan Izikowitz was inspired by the landscape and described his vision as "Something that makes your mind float over the squiggling landscape like the wings of a seagull."[73]

Feskekörka

Feskekörka, or Fiskhallen, is an indoor fishmarket by the Rosenlundskanalen in central Gothenburg. Feskekörkan was opened on 1 November 1874 and its name from the building's resemblance to a Gothic church.[74] The Gothenburg city hall
Gothenburg city hall
is in the Beaux-Arts architectural style. The Gothenburg Synagogue
Gothenburg Synagogue
at Stora Nygatan, near Drottningtorget, was built in 1855 according to the designs of the German architect August Krüger.[75] The Gunnebo House
Gunnebo House
is a country house located to the south of Gothenburg, in Mölndal. It was built in a neoclassical architecture towards the end of the 18th century.[76] Created in the early 1900s was the Vasa Church. It is located in Vasastan and is built of granite in a neo-Romanesque style.[77] Another noted construction is Brudaremossen TV Tower, one of the few partially guyed towers in the world.[78] Culture[edit]

The Poseidon Statue at Götaplatsen, a well-known cultural symbol and landmark

The sea, trade, and industrial history of the city is evident in the cultural life of Gothenburg. It is also a popular destination for tourists on the Swedish west coast. Museums[edit] Many of the cultural institutions, as well as hospitals and the university, were created by donations from rich merchants and industrialists, for example the Röhsska Museum.[79] On 29 December 2004, the Museum of World Culture
Museum of World Culture
opened near Korsvägen.[80][81] Museums include the Gothenburg
Gothenburg
Museum of Art, and several museums of sea and navigation history, natural history, the sciences, and East India.[82] Aeroseum, close to the Göteborg City Airport, is an aircraft museum in a former military underground air force base.[83] The Volvo
Volvo
museum has exhibits of the history of Volvo and the development from 1927 until today. Products shown include cars, trucks, marine engines, and buses.[84] Universeum
Universeum
is a public science centre that opened in 2001, the largest of its kind in Scandinavia. It is divided into six sections, each containing experimental workshops and a collection of reptiles, fish, and insects.[85] Universeum
Universeum
occasionally host debates between Swedish secondary-school students and Nobel Prize laureates or other scholars.[86] Leisure and entertainment[edit]

Liseberg
Liseberg
amusement park

The most noted attraction is the amusement park Liseberg, located in the central part of the city. It is the largest amusement park in Scandinavia
Scandinavia
by number of rides,[87] and was chosen as one of the top ten amusement parks in the world (2005) by Forbes.[88] It is the most popular attraction in Sweden
Sweden
by number of visitors per year (more than 3 million).[89] There are a number of independent theatre ensembles in the city, besides institutions such as Gothenburg
Gothenburg
City Theatre, Backa Theatre (youth theatre), and Folkteatern.[90] The main boulevard is called Kungsportsavenyn (commonly known as Avenyn, "The Avenue"). It is about 1 km (0.6 mi) long and starts at Götaplatsen – which is the location of the Gothenburg
Gothenburg
Museum of Art, the city's theatre, and the city library, as well as the concert hall – and stretches all the way to Kungsportsplatsen
Kungsportsplatsen
in the old city centre of Gothenburg, crossing a canal and a small park.[91] The Avenyn was created in the 1860s and 1870s as a result of an international architecture contest, and is the product of a period of extensive town planning and remodelling.[92] Avenyn has Gothenburg's highest concentration of pubs and clubs. Gothenburg's largest shopping centre (8th largest in Sweden), Nordstan, is located in central Gothenburg.[93]

The Haga district

Gothenburg's Haga district is known for its picturesque wooden houses[89] and its cafés serving the well-known Haga bulle – a large cinnamon roll similar to the kanelbulle.[94] Five Gothenburg
Gothenburg
restaurants have a star in the 2008 Michelin Guide: 28 +, Basement, Fond, Kock & Vin, Fiskekrogen, and Sjömagasinet.[95] The city has a number of star chefs – over the past decade, seven of the Swedish Chef of the Year awards have been won by people from Gothenburg.[96] The Gustavus Adolphus
Gustavus Adolphus
pastry, eaten every 6 November in Sweden, Gustavus Adolphus
Gustavus Adolphus
Day, is especially connected to, and appreciated in, Gothenburg
Gothenburg
because the city was founded by King Gustavus Adolphus.[97] One of Gothenburg's most popular natural tourist attractions is the Southern Gothenburg
Gothenburg
Archipelago, which is a set of several islands that can be reached by ferry boats mainly operating from Saltholmen. Within the archipelago are the Älvsborg fortress, Vinga and Styrsö islands.[89] Festivals and fairs[edit]

Discussion by Nanna Ullman (1957) in front of the Swedish Exhibition and Congress Centre

The annual Gothenburg
Gothenburg
Film Festival, is the largest film festival in Scandinavia.[98] The Gothenburg
Gothenburg
Book Fair, held each year in September.[99] The International Science Festival in Gothenburg
International Science Festival in Gothenburg
is an annual festival since April 1997, in central Gothenburg
Gothenburg
with thought-provoking science activities for the public. The festival is visited by about 100,000 people each year.[100] This makes it the largest popular-science event in Sweden[101] and one of the leading popular-science events in Europe.[102] Citing the financial crisis, the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions moved the 2010 World Library and Information Congress, previously to be held in Brisbane, Australia, to Gothenburg. The event took place on 10–15 August 2010.[103] Music[edit] Further information: List of bands from Gothenburg

Entrance to the Way Out West Festival

Gothenburg
Gothenburg
has a diverse music community—the Gothenburg
Gothenburg
Symphony Orchestra is the best-known in classical music.[104] Gothenburg
Gothenburg
also was the birthplace of the Swedish composer Kurt Atterberg.[105] The first internationally successfully Swedish group, instrumental rock group The Spotnicks
The Spotnicks
came from Gothenburg.[106] Bands such as The Soundtrack of Our Lives[107] and Ace of Base
Ace of Base
are well-known pop representatives of the city. During the 1970s, Gothenburg
Gothenburg
had strong roots in the Swedish progressive movement (progg) with such groups as Nationalteatern, Nynningen,[108] and Motvind. The record company Nacksving and the editorial office for the magazine Musikens Makt which also were part of the progg movement was located in Gothenburg during this time as well.[109] There is also an active indie scene in Gothenburg. For example, the musician Jens Lekman
Jens Lekman
was born in the suburb of Angered[110] and named his 2007 release Night Falls Over Kortedala
Kortedala
after another suburb, Kortedala.[111] Other internationally acclaimed indie artists include the electro pop duos Studio,[112] The Knife,[113] Air France,[114] The Tough Alliance,[115] songwriter José González,[116] and pop singer El Perro del Mar,[117] as well as genre-bending quartet Little Dragon
Little Dragon
fronted by vocalist Yukimi Nagano.[118] Another son of the city is one of Sweden's most popular singers, Håkan Hellström, who often includes many places from the city in his songs.[119][120] The glam rock group Supergroupies derives from Gothenburg.[121] Gothenburg's own commercially successful At the Gates, In Flames, and Dark Tranquillity
Dark Tranquillity
are credited with pioneering melodic death metal.[122] Other well-known bands of the Gothenburg
Gothenburg
scene are thrash metal band The Haunted,[123] progressive power metal band Evergrey,[124] and power metal bands HammerFall
HammerFall
and Dream Evil.[125] Many music festivals take place in the city every year. The Metaltown Festival is a two-day festival featuring heavy metal music bands, held in Gothenburg. It has been arranged annually since 2004, taking place at the Frihamnen venue.[126] In June 2012, the festival included bands such as In Flames, Marilyn Manson, Slayer, Lamb of God, and Mastodon.[127] Another popular festival, Way Out West, focuses more on rock, electronic, and hip-hop genres.[128][129] The 3D-animated anthropomorphic blue frog known as Crazy Frog originally hails from Gothenburg. The eurodance act marketed to children gained some brief success on several international music charts in the mid-2000s.[130] Sports[edit]

Fireworks at the opening ceremony of Gothia Cup

As in all of Sweden, a variety of sports are followed, including football, ice hockey, basketball, handball, baseball, and figure skating. A varied amateur and professional sports clubs scene exists.[131] Gothenburg
Gothenburg
is the birthplace of football in Sweden
Sweden
as the first football match in Sweden
Sweden
was played there in 1892.[132] The city's three major football clubs, IFK Göteborg, Örgryte IS, and GAIS[133] share a total of 34 Swedish championships between them.[134] IFK has also won the UEFA Cup
UEFA Cup
twice.[135] Other notable clubs include BK Häcken (football),[136] Pixbo Wallenstam IBK (floorball),[137] multiple national handball champion Redbergslids IK,[138] and four-time national ice hockey champion Frölunda HC,[139] Gothenburg had a professional basketball team, Gothia Basket, until 2010 when it ceased.[140] The bandy department of GAIS, GAIS
GAIS
Bandy, played the first season in the highest division Elitserien last season. The group stage match between the main rivals Sweden
Sweden
and Russia
Russia
in the 2013 Bandy
Bandy
World Championship was played at Arena Heden
Heden
in central Gothenburg.[141] The city's most notable sports venues are Scandinavium,[142] and Ullevi
Ullevi
(multisport) and the newly built Gamla Ullevi[143] (football). The 2003 World Allround Speed Skating Championships
2003 World Allround Speed Skating Championships
were held in Rudhallen, Sweden's only indoor speed-skating arena.[144] It is a part of Ruddalens IP, which also has a bandy field and several football fields.[145] The only Swedish heavyweight champion of the world in boxing, Ingemar Johansson, who took the title from Floyd Paterson in 1959, was from Gothenburg.[146]

Boats at Saltholmen in the Gothenburg
Gothenburg
Archipelago

Gothenburg
Gothenburg
has hosted a number of international sporting events including the 1958 FIFA World Cup,[67] the 1983 European Cup Winners' Cup Final,[147] an NFL preseason game on 14 August 1988 between the Chicago Bears
Chicago Bears
and the Minnesota Vikings,[148] the 1992 European Football Championship, the 1993[149] and the 2002 World Men's Handball Championship,[150] the 1995 World Championships in Athletics,[151] the 1997 World Championships in Swimming (short track),[152] the 2002 Ice Hockey World Championships,[150] the 2004 UEFA Cup
UEFA Cup
final,[153] the 2006 European Championships in Athletics,[154] and the 2008 World Figure Skating Championships.[155] Annual events held in the city are the Gothia Cup[156] and the Göteborgsvarvet.[157] The annual Gothia Cup, is the world's largest football tournament with regards to the number of participants: in 2011, a total of 35,200 players from 1,567 teams and 72 nations participated. Gothenburg
Gothenburg
hosted the XIII  FINA World Masters Championships
FINA World Masters Championships
in 2010.[158] Diving, swimming, synchronized swimming and open-water competitions were held on 28 July to 7 August. The water polo events were played on the neighboring city of Borås.[159] Gothenburg
Gothenburg
is also home to the Gothenburg
Gothenburg
Sharks, a professional baseball team in the Elitserien division of baseball in Sweden.[160] With around 25,000 sailboats and yachts scattered about the city, sailing is a popular sports activity in the region, particularly because of the nearby Gothenburg
Gothenburg
Archipelago.[161] In June 2015, the Volvo
Volvo
Ocean Race, professional sailing's leading crewed offshore race, concluded in Gothenburg,[162] as well as an event in the 2015–2016 America's Cup World Series
America's Cup World Series
in August 2015.[163] Economy[edit]

SKF
SKF
Wingquist self-aligning bearing

Due to Gothenburg's advantageous location in the centre of Scandinavia, trade and shipping have always played a major role in the city's economic history, and they continue to do so. Gothenburg
Gothenburg
port has come to be the largest harbour in Scandinavia.[9] Apart from trade, the second pillar of Gothenburg
Gothenburg
has traditionally been manufacturing and industry, which significantly contributes to the city's wealth.[164] Major companies operating plants in the area include SKF, Volvo
Volvo
(both cars and trucks), and Ericsson. Volvo
Volvo
Cars is the largest employer in Gothenburg, not including jobs in supply companies. The blue-collar industries which have dominated the city for long are still important factors in the city's economy, but they are being gradually replaced by high-tech industries.[165][166] Banking and finance are also important, as well as the event and tourist industry.[9] Gothenburg
Gothenburg
is the terminus of the Valdemar-Göteborg gas pipeline, which brings natural gas from the North Sea
North Sea
fields to Sweden, through Denmark.[167] Historically, Gothenburg
Gothenburg
was home base from the 18th century of the Swedish East India Company.[168] From its founding until the late 1970s, the city was a world leader in shipbuilding, with such shipyards as Eriksbergs Mekaniska Verkstad, Götaverken, Arendalsvarvet, and Lindholmens varv.[169] Gothenburg
Gothenburg
is classified as a global city by GaWC, with a ranking of Gamma−.[170] The city has been ranked as the 12th-most inventive city in the world by Forbes.[171] Government[edit] Main article: Gothenburg
Gothenburg
Municipality Gothenburg
Gothenburg
became a city municipality with an elected city council when the first Swedish local government acts were implemented in 1863.[172] The municipality has an assembly consisting of 81 members,[173] elected every fourth year.[174] Political decisions depend on citizens considering them legitimate. Political legitimacy can be based on various factors: legality, due process, and equality before the law, as well as the efficiency and effectiveness of public policy. One method used to achieve greater legitimacy for controversial policy reforms such as congestion charges is to allow citizens to decide or advise on the issue in public referendums. In December 2010 a petition for a local referendum on the congestion tax, signed by 28,000 citizens, was submitted to the City Council. This right to submit so-called “people's initiatives” was inscribed in the Local Government Act, which obliged local governments to hold a local referendum if petitioned by 5% of the citizens unless the issue was deemed to be outside their area of jurisdiction or if a majority in the City Council voted against holding such a referendum.[175] A second petition for a referendum, signed by 57,000 citizens, was submitted to the local government in February 2013. This petition followed a campaign organised by a local newspaper – Göteborgs Tidningen – whose editor-in-chief argued that the paper's involvement was justified by the large public response to a series of articles on the congestion tax, as well as out of concern for the local democracy.[176][175]

View over Gustav Adolfs torg, square named after Gustavus Adolphus, the founding father of Gothenburg

Proportion of foreign born[edit]

Largest groups of foreign residents[177]

Nationality Population (2014)

 Iraq 11,872

 Iran 11,706

 Somalia 6,912

 Bosnia and Herzegovina 6,863

 Finland 6,793

 Turkey 3,441

 Syria 3,361

 China 3,266

 Poland 3,057

 Germany 2,832

Gothenburg
Gothenburg
has a population of people born in Sweden
Sweden
of around 75%.[178] Like most Swedish metropolitan areas, the city has a sizeable immigrant population.[179] According to Statistics Sweden
Sweden
in 2016, 140,093 foreign born people resided in Gothenburg
Gothenburg
municipality, which is about 25% of the population.[180] Education[edit] Gothenburg
Gothenburg
has two universities, both of which started as colleges founded by private donations in the 19th century. The University of Gothenburg
Gothenburg
has about 25,000 students and is one of the largest universities in Scandinavia,[181] and one of the most versatile in Sweden. Chalmers University of Technology
Chalmers University of Technology
is a well-known university located in Johanneberg 2 km (1 mi) south of the inner city, lately also established at Lindholmen in Norra Älvstranden, Hisingen.[182] In 2015, there were ten folk high schools in Gothenburg: Agnesbergs folkhögskola, Arbetarrörelsens folkhögskola i Göteborg, Finska folkhögskolan, Folkhögskolan i Angered, Göteborgs folkhögskola, Kvinnofolkhögskolan, Mo Gård folkhögskola, S:ta Birgittas folkhögskola, Västra Götalands folkhögskolor and Wendelsbergs folkhögskola.[183] In 2015, there were 49 high schools Gothenburg. Some of the more notable schools are Sigrid Rudebecks gymnasium, Hvitfeldtska gymnasiet, Göteborgs Högre Samskola, Mikael Elias Teoretiska Gymnasium, Polhemsgymnasiet, Donnergymnasiet and IHGR. Some high-schools are also connected to big Swedish companies. One is SKF Technical high-school (belonging to SKF) and Gothenburg's technical high-school (belonging to Volvo). An international school with campuses in Guldheden and central Gothenburg
Gothenburg
is called the International School of the Gothenburg
Gothenburg
Region.[184] Transport[edit] Public transport[edit]

Gothenburg's trams

With over 80 km (50 mi) of double track, the Gothenburg
Gothenburg
tram network covers most of the city and it is the largest tram/light rail network in Scandinavia. The bus network, however, is almost as important. There are also some boat and ferry services. The lack of a subway is due to the soft ground on which Gothenburg
Gothenburg
is situated. Tunneling is very expensive in such conditions.[185] The Gothenburg commuter rail with three lines services some nearby cities and towns.[186] Rail and intercity bus[edit] Other major transportation hubs are Centralstationen (Gothenburg Central Station) and the Nils Ericson Terminal
Nils Ericson Terminal
with trains and buses to various destinations in Sweden, as well as connections to Oslo
Oslo
and Copenhagen
Copenhagen
(via Malmö).[187]

GOT

GSE

Map showing the locations of airports around Gothenburg

Air[edit] Gothenburg
Gothenburg
is served by Göteborg Landvetter Airport
Göteborg Landvetter Airport
(IATA: GOT, ICAO: ESGG), located about 20km (12 mi) east of the city centre. It is named after the nearby town of Landvetter, and there are frequent bus connections to and from Gothenburg
Gothenburg
via Flygbussarna
Flygbussarna
taking about 20-30 minutes. Swebus, Flixbus
Flixbus
and Nettbuss
Nettbuss
serves the airport with several daily departures to both Gothenburg
Gothenburg
and Borås
Borås
and other destinations along European route E4
European route E4
north of Jönköping
Jönköping
on towards Stockholm
Stockholm
and Uppsala. Västtrafik, the local public transport provider in the area, also operates connections to Landvetter.[188] The international airport is operated by the Swedish national airport operator Swedavia
Swedavia
and with 6.8 million passengers served 2017, it is the second-largest airport in Sweden
Sweden
after Stockholm
Stockholm
Arlanda Airport.[189] It serves as a base for several domestic and international airlines, where Scandinavian Airlines, Norwegian Air Shuttle and Ryanair
Ryanair
are the major carriers operating bases. Göteborg Landvetter
Landvetter
Airport does however not serve as an airline hub for any airlines. In total, there are about 50 destinations with scheduled direct flights to and from Gothenburg
Gothenburg
Landvetter
Landvetter
Airport, most of which European destinations. An additional 40 destinations are served via charter.[190] The second airport in the area, Göteborg City Airport
Göteborg City Airport
(IATA: GSE, ICAO: ESGP), is closed. On 13 January 2015, Swedish airport operator Swedavia
Swedavia
announced that Göteborg City Airport
Göteborg City Airport
will not reopen for commercial services following an extensive rebuild of the airport started in November 2014, citing that the cost of making the airport viable for commercial operations again was too high, at 250 million kronor ($31 million). Commercial operations will be gradually wound down.[191] The airport was located 10 km (6 mi) northwest of the city centre. It was formerly known as Säve Flygplats. It is located within the borders of Gothenburg Municipality. In addition to commercial airlines, the airport was also operated by a number of rescue services, including the Swedish Coast Guard, and was used for other general aviation.[192] Most civil air traffic to Göteborg City Airport
Göteborg City Airport
was via low-cost airlines such as Ryanair
Ryanair
and Wizz Air. Those companies have now been relocated to Landvetter
Landvetter
Airport.[193] Sea[edit]

Gothenburg
Gothenburg
harbour seen from the Älvsborg bridge, seen to the left is the ship HSS Stena Carisma and to the right MS Stena Scandinavica (1983).

The Swedish company Stena Line
Stena Line
operates between Gothenburg/ Frederikshavn
Frederikshavn
in Denmark
Denmark
and Gothenburg/ Kiel
Kiel
in Germany.[194] The "England ferry" (Englandsfärjan) to Newcastle over Kristiansand (run by the Danish company DFDS
DFDS
Seaways) ceased at the end of October 2006,[195] after being a Gothenburg
Gothenburg
institution since the 19th century.[196] DFDS
DFDS
Seaways' sister company, DFDS
DFDS
Tor Line, continues to run scheduled cargo ships between Gothenburg
Gothenburg
and several English ports, and these used to have limited capacity for passengers and their private vehicles. Also freight ships to North America and East Asia leave from the port.[197] Freight[edit] Gothenburg
Gothenburg
is an intermodal logistics hub and Gothenburg
Gothenburg
harbour has access to Sweden
Sweden
and Norway
Norway
via rail and trucks. Gothenburg
Gothenburg
harbour is the largest port in Scandinavia
Scandinavia
with a cargo turnover of 36.9 million tonnes per year in 2004.[198] Notable people[edit] Main article: List of people connected to Gothenburg

Kal and Ada at Liseberg

Two of the noted people from Gothenburg
Gothenburg
are fictional, but have become synonymous with "people from Gothenburg". They are a working class couple called Kal and Ada, featured in " Gothenburg
Gothenburg
jokes" (göteborgsvitsar), songs, plays and names of events.[199][200] Each year two persons who have significantly contributed to culture in the city are given the honorary titles of "Kal and Ada".[201] A bronze statue of the couple made by Svenrobert Lundquist, was placed outside the entrance to Liseberg
Liseberg
in 1995.[202] Some of the noted people from Gothenburg
Gothenburg
are Academy Award Winning actress Alicia Vikander, cookbook author Sofia von Porat, footballer Gunnar Gren, artist Evert Taube, golfer Helen Alfredsson, industrialist Victor Hasselblad, singer-songwriter Björn Ulvaeus, diplomat Jan Eliasson, British Open Winner and professional golfer Henrik Stenson, and YouTuber PewDiePie, who is the most subscribed user on YouTube. International relations[edit] The Gothenburg
Gothenburg
Award is the city's international prize that recognises and supports work to achieve sustainable development – in the Gothenburg
Gothenburg
region and from a global perspective.[203] The award, which is one million Swedish crowns, is administrated and funded by a coalition of the City of Gothenburg
Gothenburg
and 12 companies.[204] Past winners of the award have included Kofi Annan, Al Gore, and Michael Biddle.[205] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Sweden Twin towns and sister cities[edit] Gothenburg
Gothenburg
is twinned with:[206]

Oslo, Norway Aarhus, Denmark, 1946 Chicago, United States Turku, Finland, 1946 Shanghai, China Tallinn, Estonia St. Petersburg, Russia, 1962 Bergen, Norway, 1946 Kraków, Poland, 1990[207] Rostock, Germany, 1965 Nelson Mandela Bay Metropolitan Municipality
Nelson Mandela Bay Metropolitan Municipality
(Port Elizabeth), South Africa

With Lyon
Lyon
(France) there is no formal partnership, but "a joint willingness to cooperate".[208] See also[edit]

Sweden
Sweden
portal

Archipelago
Archipelago
of Gothenburg Gothenburg
Gothenburg
Protocol (on acidification, eutrophication and ground-level ozone) Gothenburg
Gothenburg
quadricentennial jubilee Largest cities of the European Union by population within city limits List of metropolitan areas in Europe Metropolitan Gothenburg

References[edit]

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Sweden. Forbes (2005) ^ "Forbes.com". Forbes.com. 25 May 2005. Retrieved 12 March 2013.  ^ a b c Olesen, Elisabet (March 2005). Adventure Guide to Sweden. 2005: Hunter Publishing, Inc,. ISBN 1588435067.  ^ "Theatre, Meet Gothenburgs rich theatre scene". www.goteborg.com. Gothenburg
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Tourist Centre. Retrieved 1 September 2015.  ^ Guide till Sveriges arkitektur, red. Waern, Caldenby, Arkitektur förlag ^ "12 Största köpcentrumen Fastighetsvärlden". Fastighetsvärlden (in Swedish). 2012-10-12. Retrieved 2017-11-19.  ^ Ohlson, Gunnar (4 October 2013). "De serverar världens största kanelbulle" [They serve the world's largest cinnamon rolls]. www.expressen.se. Expressen. Retrieved 1 September 2015.  ^ Information from the tourist company Göteborg & Co, website www.goteborg.com ^ " Sweden
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Unzipped". New York Times 23 September 2007 ^ "Gustav Adolfs-bakelsens historia" (in Swedish). Danska wienerbageriet. Retrieved 1 September 2015.  ^ "Göteborg International Film Festival 2008: Göteborg International Film Festival". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 24 January 2008. Retrieved 25 July 2009.  ^ "Göteborg Book Fair". www.svenskamassan.se. Swedish Exhibition and Congress Centre. Retrieved 1 September 2015. [dead link] ^ vartgoteborg.se – Världsrekordförsök inleder Göteborgs tolfte vetenskapsfestival, Vårt Göteborg, 11 April 2008 ^ "goteborg.com – Festivalens hemsida". Archived from the original on 1 November 2006. Retrieved 6 September 2012. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ "The International Science Festival Gothenburg". www.gu.se. University of Gothenburg. Retrieved 1 September 2015.  ^ "Gothenburg, Sweden
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Sound Festival, Trädgårn, lördag". Göteborgs-Posten. Retrieved 3 September 2015.  ^ " Dream Evil
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HammerFall
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Gothenburg
30 years on". www.dailymail.co.uk. Daily Mail. Retrieved 11 September 2015.  ^ Lohr, Steve (15 August 1988). "Sunday in Sweden: Vikings Beat Bears". www.nytimes.com. The New York Times. Retrieved 11 September 2015.  ^ Krastev, Todor. "Men Handball
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University of Gothenburg
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Volvo
Ocean Race". www.dn.se. Dagens Nyheter. Retrieved 11 September 2015.  ^ "Louis Vuitton America's Cup World Series
America's Cup World Series
Goteborg". www.gkss.se. Royal Gothenburg
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Gothenburg
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Denmark
Pipelines map – Crude Oil (petroleum) pipelines – Natural Gas pipelines – Products pipelines". Retrieved 30 July 2011.  ^ "Om Ostindiska kompaniet". http://ostindiska.nordiskamuseet.se/. Nordic Museum. Retrieved 31 August 2015.  External link in website= (help) ^ "Varvshistoria". www.varvshistoriska.se. Varvshistoriska Föreningen i Göteborg. Archived from the original on 4 October 2015. Retrieved 31 August 2015.  ^ " GaWC
GaWC
– The World According to GaWC
GaWC
2010". lboro.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 10 October 2013.  ^ Pentland, William (9 July 2013). "World's 15 Most Inventive Cities – Forbes". Forbes. Retrieved 15 July 2013.  ^ Wimarson, Nils (1923). "Göteborg. En översikt vid trehundraårsjubileet 1923 över stadens kommunala, kulturella och sociala förhållanden samt viktigaste näringsgrenar". www.runeberg.org. Stadsfullmäktiges jubeleumsberedning. p. 647. Retrieved 31 August 2015.  ^ "Kommunfullmäktige". www.goteborg.se. Gothenburg
Gothenburg
Municipality. Retrieved 31 August 2015.  ^ "Vad gör Valmyndigheten "mellan valen"?". www.val.se. Election Authority (Sweden). Retrieved 31 August 2015.  ^ a b Hysing, Erik (2015-04-01). "Citizen participation or representative government – Building legitimacy for the Gothenburg congestion tax". Transport Policy. 39: 1–8. doi:10.1016/j.tranpol.2015.01.002.  ^ "Scopus – Welcome to Scopus". www.scopus.com. Retrieved 2016-11-14.  ^ "Utrikes födda efter födelseland samt utländsk bakgrund 2014". www.goteborg.se. Göteborgs Stad. Retrieved 25 May 2017.  ^ Statistics Sweden ^ "Statistics Sweden" (PDF).  ^ "Kommuner i siffror". www.scb.se. Statistics Sweden. Retrieved 25 May 2017.  ^ "About the university". University of Gothenburg. Retrieved 8 July 2009.  ^ Premises and campus Archived 24 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine. Chalmers University of Technology ^ "Göteborg, search". www.folkhogskola.nu. Folkhögskolornas informationstjänst. Retrieved 30 August 2015.  ^ "Gymnasieskolor". www.goteborg.se. Gothenburg
Gothenburg
Municipality. Retrieved 30 August 2015.  ^ Rudolphi, Martin. "Allélänken" (PDF). www.chalmers.se. Chalmers University of Technology. Retrieved 30 August 2015.  ^ "Tilldelningsbeslut fattat för upphandlingen "Region- och pendeltåg i Väst 2010"". www.mynewsdesk.com. Västtrafik. 28 August 2009. Retrieved 30 August 2015.  ^ " Nils Ericson Terminal
Nils Ericson Terminal
(Gothenburg)". www.vasttrafik.se. Västtrafik. Retrieved 30 August 2015.  ^ "Buses". www.swedavia.com. Retrieved 2018-03-09.  ^ "Statistik inom Swedavia". www.swedavia.se (in Swedish). Retrieved 2018-03-09.  ^ "Om flygplatsen Göteborg Landvetter
Landvetter
Airport". www.swedavia.se (in Swedish). Retrieved 2018-03-09.  ^ " Gothenburg
Gothenburg
City Airport stops commercial flights". thelocal.se.  ^ Carlsson, Anders. " Ryanair
Ryanair
och Wizz till Landvetter
Landvetter
men Sparrow lägger ner". www.flygtorget.se. Flygtorget. Retrieved 30 August 2015.  ^ Pavlica, Adrianna; Berg, Kalle (28 November 2014). "Flygplan får inte landa på flygplatsen i Säve". www.expressen.se. Expressen. Retrieved 30 August 2015.  ^ "Stena LIne". www.goteborgshamn.se. Port of Gothenburg. Retrieved 30 August 2015.  ^ " DFDS
DFDS
scraps Newcastle- Gothenburg
Gothenburg
line" Archived 28 August 2007 at the Wayback Machine., The Local, 7 September 2006: "Danish shipping company DFDS
DFDS
Seaways is to scrap the only passenger ferry route between Sweden
Sweden
and Britain, with the axing of the Gothenburg-Newcastle route at the end of October." ^ "1800-talet". www.goteborgshamn.se. Port of Gothenburg. Archived from the original on 10 August 2015. Retrieved 30 August 2015.  ^ "Linjeutbud". www.goteborgshamn.se. Port of Gothenburg. Retrieved 30 August 2015.  ^ Statistics from the homepage of the Port of Göteborg Archived 20 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Radarparet nummer ett". www.gp.se. Göteborgs-Posten. 4 May 2013. Retrieved 31 August 2015.  ^ Drakos, Georg (1986). Kal-å-Ada-vitsarna: en studie i folklore och lokal identitet : uppsats för påbyggnadskurs etnologi. Stockholm: institutionen för etnologi. LIBRIS 598554.  ^ Bernhardsson, Brittmo; Clarin, Björn (2014). Alla tiders Kal och Ada. Johanneshov: MTM. LIBRIS 14978311.  ^ "Kal & Ada". www.liseberg.se. Liseberg. Retrieved 31 August 2015.  ^ " Gothenburg
Gothenburg
Award". Archived from the original on 21 July 2013.  ^ "Dr Mike Biddle to receive Gothenburg
Gothenburg
Sustainable Development Award". electronic-recycling.ie.  ^ "Award Winners". gothenburgaward.com.  ^ "GÖTEBORGS STAD: RIKTLINJER FÖR INTERNATIONELLT SAMARBETE" (PDF). p. 5(10): 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 May 2014. Retrieved 15 May 2014.  ^ " Kraków
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– Miasta Partnerskie" [ Kraków
Kraków
-Partnership Cities]. Miejska Platforma Internetowa Magiczny Kraków
Kraków
(in Polish). Archived from the original on 2 July 2013. Retrieved 10 August 2013.  ^ See: Les villes partenaires en Europe, Göteborg Archived 25 June 2014 at the Wayback Machine.. Accessed on 15 May 2014.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Göteborg.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
article Gothenburg.

goteborg.se – Official site for city of Gothenburg
Gothenburg
(in Swedish) goteborg.se/english – Official web page for short English description of the content in city of Gothenburg
Gothenburg
site (in English) international.goteborg.se – Official international site for city of Gothenburg Göteborg travel guide from Wikivoyage Goteborg.com – Gothenburg
Gothenburg
tourism portal (in English) VisitSweden – VisitSweden's profile of Gothenburg
Gothenburg
(in English) Virtual Tour Panoramas of Goteborg

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Gothenburg

Geography

Metropolitan Gothenburg Gothenburg Hisingen Partille Mölndal Gothenburg
Gothenburg
Municipality Inom Vallgraven Archipelago West coast Boroughs and districts Port South River Bank Lilla Bommen Bohuslän Västergötland Västra Götaland
Götaland
County West Sweden Götaland Kammarrätten i Göteborg

History

Timeline Bragebacken William Chalmers Discothèque fire Eriksberg Fortifications Channels Gothenburg
Gothenburg
Riots Hisingsbron Gothenburg
Gothenburg
Exhibition Kungsporten Älvsborg fortress Götheborg Sjukhusspionaffären East India Company Säröbanan Old airfield Gothenburg

Transport and communications

Angeredsbron Fattighusån Central Station Göta älvbron Kungsportsplatsen Götatunneln Chalmerstunneln Lundbytunneln Tingstadstunneln Gothenburg
Gothenburg
tram network Västtrafik Västtågen Landvetter City Airport Denmark
Denmark
ferry Public transport West Link Commuter rail Gårdatunneln Lisebergslinjen Stombussarna Nils Ericson Terminal Styr & Ställ Marieholmstunneln Älvsborg Bridge Älvsnabben

Locations (squares, streets and parks)

Allum Avenyn Backaplan Eriksberg Frölunda Torg Heden Nordstan Gustaf Adolfs torg Järntorget Kungstorget Kungsgatan Linnégatan Drottningtorget Götaplatsen Korsvägen Kungsportsplatsen Brunnsparken Bältesspännarparken Botanical Garden Ramberget Slottsskogen Feskekôrka Vinga Lighthouse Wieselgrensplatsen Garden Society Delsjön

Buildings

Hotel Eggers Sahlgrenska University Hospital Skansen Kronan Skansen Lejonet Gothia Towers Cathedral Haga Church Oscar Fredrik Church Lilla Bommen Kronhuset County Governor's Residence Gasklockan Synagogue Nasir Mosque Gunnebo House

Facilities (sport, culture and entertainment)

Barken Viking Bergakungen Draken Palladium Göteborgs Konsthall Museum of Art Röhsska Museum Gamla Ullevi Ullevi Scandinavium Frihamnen Liseberg The Göteborg Opera Stora teatern City Theatre City Museum Röda sten Universeum Museum of World Culture

Sports and cultural events

Gothia Cup Culture Festival Gothenburg
Gothenburg
Book Fair Partille
Partille
Cup Gothenburg
Gothenburg
Film Festival Hammarkullekarnevalen Göteborg Basketball Festival Swedish Exhibition and Congress Centre

Main category Gothenburg
Gothenburg
portal

v t e

Municipalities and seats of Västra Götaland
Götaland
County

Municipalities

Ale Alingsås Åmål Bengtsfors Bollebygd Borås Dals-Ed Essunga Falköping Färgelanda Götene Gothenburg Grästorp Gullspång Härryda Herrljunga Hjo Karlsborg Kungälv Lerum Lidköping Lilla Edet Lysekil Mariestad Mark Mellerud Mölndal Munkedal Öckerö Orust Partille Skara Skövde Sotenäs Stenungsund Strömstad Svenljunga Tanum Tibro Tidaholm Tjörn Töreboda Tranemo Trollhättan Uddevalla Ulricehamn Vänersborg Vara Vårgårda

Municipal seats

Alingsås Åmål Bengtsfors Bollebygd Borås Ed Falköping Färgelanda Götene Gothenburg Grästorp Gullspång
Gullspång
and Hova Henån Herrljunga Hjo Karlsborg Kinna Kungälv Kungshamn Lerum Lidköping Lilla Edet Lysekil Mariestad Mellerud Mölndal Mölnlycke Munkedal Nödinge-Nol Nossebro Öckerö Partille Skara Skärhamn Skövde Stenungsund Strömstad Svenljunga Tanumshede Tibro Tidaholm Töreboda Tranemo Trollhättan Uddevalla Ulricehamn Vänersborg Vara Vårgårda

Counties of Sweden Sweden

v t e

Localities in Göteborg Municipality, Västra Götaland
Götaland
County, Sweden

Localities

Andalen Angered Asperö Billdal
Billdal
(part of) Björlanda Brännö Donsö Göteborg (part of) (seat) Gundal och Högås
Gundal och Högås
(part of) Hjuvik Kvisljungeby Låssby Mysterna Nolvik Olofstorp Rödbo Säve Stenared Styrsö Trulsegården Tumlehed Vrångö

v t e

Localities in Härryda
Härryda
Municipality, Västra Götaland
Götaland
County, Sweden

Localities

Benareby Eskilsby och Snugga Gothenburg
Gothenburg
(part of) Hällingsjö Härryda Hindås Landvetter Mölnlycke
Mölnlycke
(part of) (seat) Nya Långenäs Rävlanda Rya Stora Bugärde Tahult

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Localities in Mölndal
Mölndal
Municipality, Västra Götaland
Götaland
County, Sweden

Localities

Gothenburg
Gothenburg
(part of) Gundal och Högås
Gundal och Högås
(part of) Hällesåker Kållered Lindome Mölnlycke
Mölnlycke
(part of) Tulebo

v t e

Localities in Partille
Partille
Municipality, Västra Götaland
Götaland
County, Sweden

Localities

Gothenburg
Gothenburg
(part of) Jonsered Kåhög Öjersjö

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Administrative seats of Swedish counties (län)

Falun (Dalarna) Gävle (Gävleborg) Gothenburg (Västra Götaland) Halmstad (Halland) Härnösand (Västernorrland) Jönköping (Jönköping) Kalmar (Kalmar) Karlskrona (Blekinge) Karlstad (Värmland) Linköping (Östergötland) Luleå (Norrbotten) Malmö (Skåne) Nyköping (Södermanland) Örebro (Örebro) Östersund (Jämtland) Stockholm (Stockholm) Umeå (Västerbotten) Uppsala (Uppsala) Västerås (Västmanland) Växjö (Kronoberg) Visby (Gotland)

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Eurovision
Eurovision
Song Contest

History Host cities Languages Presenters Rules Voting Winners Winners discography

Contests

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Countries

Active

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Inactive

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Former

Lebanon Serbia and Montenegro Yugoslavia

Relations

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National selections

Current

Albania Armenia Belarus Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Hungary Iceland Israel Italy Latvia Lithuania Malta Moldova Montenegro Norway Poland Portugal Romania Serbia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Ukraine United Kingdom

Former

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Ellinikós Telikós Eurosong - A MAD Show

Ireland

The Late Late Show You're a Star

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Other awards

Marcel Bezençon Awards OGAE

OGAE
OGAE
Video Contest OGAE
OGAE
Second Chance Contest

Barbara Dex Award

Television and concerts

Eurovision Song Contest
Eurovision Song Contest
Previews Songs of Europe Kvalifikacija za Millstreet Congratulations: 50 Years of the Eurovision
Eurovision
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Song Contest's Greatest Hits

Category Portal

v t e

Host cities of the IAAF World Championships in Athletics

1983: Helsinki 1987: Rome 1991: Tokyo 1993: Stuttgart 1995: Gothenburg 1997: Athens 1999: Seville 2001: Edmonton 2003: Saint-Denis 2005: Helsinki 2007: Osaka 2009: Berlin 2011: Daegu 2013: Moscow 2015: Beijing 2017: London 2019: Doha 2021: Eugene

v t e

30 most populous cities of Sweden

as of 2010, according to Statistics Sweden
Sweden
[4]

1. Stockholm 1,372,565

2. Gothenburg 549,839

3. Malmö 280,415

4. Uppsala 140,454

5. Västerås 110,877

6. Örebro 107,038

7. Linköping 104,232

8. Helsingborg 97,122

9. Jönköping 89,396

10. Norrköping 87,247

11. Lund 82,800

12. Umeå 79,594

13. Gävle 71,033

14. Borås 66,273

15. Eskilstuna 64,679

16. Södertälje 64,619

17. Karlstad 61,685

18. Täby 61,272

19. Växjö 60,887

20. Halmstad 58,577

21. Sundsvall 50,712

22. Luleå 46,607

23. Trollhättan 46,457

24. Östersund 44,327

25. Borlänge 41,734

26. Tumba 37,852

27. Upplands Väsby 37,594

28. Falun 37,291

29. Kalmar 36,392

30. Kristianstad 35,711

v t e

50 most populous urban areas in the Nordic countries

 Denmark  Finland  Iceland  Norway  Sweden

1. Stockholm 1,372,565

2. Copenhagen 1,263,698

3. Helsinki 1,214,210

4. Oslo 958,378

5. Gothenburg 549,839

6. Tampere 325,025

7. Malmö 280,415

8. Aarhus 261,570

9. Turku 260,367

10. Bergen 250,420

11. Stavanger 210,874

12. Reykjavík 209,510

13. Oulu 193,817

14. Trondheim 175,068

15. Odense 173,814

16. Uppsala 140,454

17. Aalborg 132,578

18. Jyväskylä 120,306

19. Lahti 117,424

20. Drammen 113,534

21. Västerås 110,877

22. Fredrikstad-Sarpsborg 108,636

23. Örebro 107,038

24. Linköping 104,232

25. Helsingborg 97,122

26. Porsgrunn-Skien 91,737

27. Jönköping 89,396

28. Norrköping 87,247

29. Kuopio 86,034

30. Pori 84,509

31. Lund 82,800

32. Umeå 79,594

33. Esbjerg 72,060

34. Gävle 71,033

35. Vaasa 66,911

36. Borås 66,273

37. Joensuu 65,686

38. Eskilstuna 64,679

39. Södertälje 64,619

40. Karlstad 61,685

41. Randers 61,664

42. Täby 61,272

43. Växjö 60,887

44. Kristiansand 60,583

45. Kolding 58,757

46. Halmstad 58,577

47. Horsens 56,536

48. Lappeenranta 55,429

49. Vejle 53,975

50. Kotka 52,600

Preceded by Berlin, Germany
Germany
(1995) World Gymnaestrada
World Gymnaestrada
host city 1999 Succeeded by Lisbon, Portugal
Portugal
(2003)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 146717301 GND: 4021453-9 BNF: cb11960200n (data)

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