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Sign at Heinola, an unincorporated community in Otter_Tail_County,_Minnesota..html" ;"title="Minnesota.html" ;"title="Otter Tail County, Minnesota">Otter Tail County, Minnesota.">Minnesota.html" ;"title="Otter Tail County, Minnesota">Otter Tail County, Minnesota. An unincorporated area is a region not governed by a local municipal corporation. Similarly, an unincorporated community is a Human settlement, settlement not governed by its own local municipal corporation, but is administered as part of larger administrative divisions, such as a
township A township is a kind of human settlement or administrative subdivision, with its meaning varying in different countries. While the term is occasionally associated with an urban area, this tends to be an exception to the rule. In Australia, Canad ...

township
,
parish A parish is a territorial entity in many Christianity, Christian denominations, constituting a division within a diocese. A parish is under the pastoral care and clerical jurisdiction of a priest#Christianity, priest, often termed a parish priest, ...
,
borough A borough is an administrative division in various English language, English-speaking countries. In principle, the term ''borough'' designates a self-governing walled town, although in practice, official use of the term varies widely. History ...
,
county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and Robert Chambers (publisher bo ...
,
city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be defined as a permanent and s ...

city
,
canton Canton may refer to: Administrative division terminology * Canton (administrative division), territorial/administrative division in some countries, notably Switzerland * Township (Canada), known as ''canton'' in Canadian French Arts and entert ...
,
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...
,
province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are g ...

province
, or country. Occasionally, municipalities dissolve or disincorporate, which may happen if they become fiscally
insolventInsolvency is the state of being unable to pay the debts, by a person or company ( debtor), at maturity; those in a state of insolvency are said to be ''insolvent''. There are two forms: cash-flow insolvency and balance-sheet insolvency. Cash-flow i ...
, and services become the responsibility of a higher administration. Widespread unincorporated communities and areas are a distinguishing feature of the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country in . It consists of 50 , a , five major , 326 , and some . At , it is the world's . The United States shares significan ...

United States
and
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of . Its extend from the to the and northward into the , covering , making it the world's . Its southern and western , stretching , is the world's longest bi-national land border. Canada's capital ...

Canada
. Most other countries of the world have either no unincorporated areas at all, or these are very rare; typically remote, outlying, sparsely populated, or
uninhabited The list of uninhabited regions includes a number of places around the globe. The list changes year over year as human beings migrate into formerly uninhabited regions, or migrate out of formerly inhabited regions. List As a group, the list of ...
areas.


By country


Argentina

In Argentina, the provinces of
ChubutChubut may refer to: * Chubut Province, Argentina * Chubut River in the Chubut Province * Chubut steamer duck, a flightless duck endemic to Argentina {{Disambiguation, geo ...

Chubut
, Córdoba, Entre Ríos,
Formosa , t2 = , s2 = , l2 = beautiful island , bpmf2 = ㄈㄨˊ ㄦˇ ㄇㄛˊ ㄕㄚ , w2 = Fu²-êr³-mo²-sha¹ , p2 = Fúĕrmóshā , tp2 = Fúĕrmósha , mps2 = Fúĕrmóshā , gr2 = Fwu'eelmosha , poj = Tâi-oân , tl = Tâi-uân , h = Thòi-và ...

Formosa
,
Neuquén Neuquén (; arn, Nehuenken) is the capital city of the Argentina, Argentine Provinces of Argentina, province of Neuquén Province, Neuquén and of the Confluencia Department, located in the east of the province. It occupies a strip of land west ...
, Río Negro, ,
Santa Cruz Santa Cruz (or Santacruz) is a Spanish language, Spanish or Portuguese language, Portuguese term meaning "holy cross" and referring to the Christian cross, cross on which Crucifixion of Jesus, Jesus was crucified. Santa Cruz may also refer to: Pl ...
, ,
Tierra del Fuego #REDIRECT Tierra del Fuego#REDIRECT Tierra del Fuego Tierra del Fuego (, ; Spanish for "Land of Fire", formerly also Fireland in English) is an archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cl ...
, and Tucumán have areas that are outside any municipality or commune.


Australia

Unlike many other countries, Australia has only one level of local government immediately beneath state and territorial governments. A local government area (LGA) often contains several towns and even entire cities. Thus, aside from very sparsely populated areas and a few other special cases, almost all of Australia is part of an LGA. Unincorporated areas are often in remote locations, cover vast areas, or have very small populations. Postal addresses in unincorporated areas, as in other parts of Australia, normally use the suburb or locality names gazetted by the relevant state or territorial government. Thus, any ambiguity regarding addresses rarely exists in unincorporated areas.
Queensland Queensland ( ) is a state situated in northeastern Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the i ...

Queensland
,
Tasmania Tasmania (), abbreviated as TAS, is an island States and territories of Australia, state of Australia. It is located 240 km (150 mi) to the south of the Mainland Australia, Australian mainland, separated from it by Bass Strait. T ...
, and
Western Australia Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a States and territories of Australia, state occupying the western percent of the land area of Australia excluding external territories. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean to the north and west, and the S ...

Western Australia
are entirely partitioned into LGAs and have no unincorporated areas.


Australian Capital Territory

The
Australian Capital Territory The Australian Capital Territory (ACT), known as the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) until 1938, is a of containing the Australian capital city of and some surrounding s. It is located in the south-east of the country and is an within the s ...
(ACT) has no municipalities. The territorial government is directly responsible for matters normally carried out by a local government. In some countries, this arrangement would be referred to as a
unitary authority A unitary authority is a for a place's which is responsible for all functions within its area or performs additional functions which elsewhere in the relevant country are usually performed by national government or a higher level of sub-nationa ...
, but the
Australian Bureau of Statistics The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) is the independent statutory agency of the Australian Government responsible for statistical collection and analysis, and for giving evidence-based advice to federal, state and territory government ...
refers to the whole of the ACT as an unincorporated area.


New South Wales

The far west and north of
New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a States and territories of Australia, state on the Eastern states of Australia, east coast of :Australia. It borders three other states, Queensland to the north, Victoria (Australia), Victoria to the sou ...
constitutes the
Unincorporated Far West Region The Unincorporated Far West Region is an unincorporated area File:Entering Heinola, Minnesota.jpg, Sign at Heinola, Minnesota, Heinola, an unincorporated community in Otter Tail County, Minnesota An unincorporated area is a region not governed ...
, which is sparsely populated and barely warrants an elected council. A civil servant in the state capital manages such matters as are necessary. The second unincorporated area of this state is
Lord Howe Island Lord Howe Island (; formerly Lord Howe's Island) is an irregularly crescent-shaped volcanic remnant in the Tasman Sea between Australia and New Zealand, part of the Australian state of New South Wales. It lies directly east of mainland Port Ma ...
.


Northern Territory

In the
Northern Territory The Northern Territory (NT; formally the Northern Territory of Australia) is an Australian territory in the central and central northern regions of Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, ...
, 1.45% of the total area and 4.0% of the population are in unincorporated areas, including the Unincorporated Top End Region (the largest), areas covered by the ''Northern Territory Rates Act'',
Nhulunbuy The old airport terminal at Gove Airport. Nhulunbuy is a township that is the sixth largest population centre in the Northern Territory The Northern Territory (NT; formally the Northern Territory of Australia) is an states and territor ...
, the community of
Alyangula Alyangula is the largest township on Groote Eylandt in the Northern Territory. History Groote Eylandt Mining Company (GEMCO) established Alyangula as the residence for the mining company workers in the late 1960s. The township was established u ...
on
Groote Eylandt Groote Eylandt () is the largest island in the Gulf of Carpentaria The Gulf of Carpentaria () is a large, shallow sea enclosed on three sides by northern Australia and bounded on the north by the eastern Arafura Sea (the body of water th ...
in the northern region, and
Yulara Yulara is a town in the Southern Region of the Northern Territory The Northern Territory (NT; formally the Northern Territory of Australia) is an states and territories of Australia, Australian territory in the central and central northern ...
in the southern region.


South Australia

In
South Australia South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a States and territories of Australia, state in the southern central part of Australia. It covers some of the most arid parts of the country. With a total land area of , it is the fourth-largest of Austral ...

South Australia
, 60% of the area is unincorporated and communities located within can receive municipal services provided by a state agency, the
Outback Communities Authority The Outback Communities Authority (OCA) is a statutory authority in South Australia South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a States and territories of Australia, state in the southern central part of Australia. It covers some of the most arid ...
.


Victoria

Victoria Victoria most commonly refers to: * Victoria (Australia), a state of the Commonwealth of Australia * Victoria, British Columbia, provincial capital of British Columbia, Canada * Victoria (mythology), Roman goddess of Victory * Victoria, Seychelles ...
has 10 small
unincorporated areas File:Entering Heinola, Minnesota.jpg, Sign at Heinola, Minnesota, Heinola, an unincorporated community in Otter Tail County, Minnesota An unincorporated area is a region not governed by a local municipal corporation. Similarly, an unincorporated ...
, which are either small islands directly administered by the state or
ski resort A ski resort is a resort developed for skiing, snowboarding, and other winter sports. In Europe, most ski resorts are towns or villages in or adjacent to a ski area – a mountainous area with pistes (ski trails) and a ski lift system. In North A ...

ski resort
s administered by state-appointed management boards.


Canada

In Canada, depending on the province, an unincorporated settlement is one that does not have a municipal council that governs solely over the settlement. It is usually, but not always, part of a larger municipal government. This can range from being a small
hamlet ''The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark'', often shortened to ''Hamlet'' (), is a tragedy written by William Shakespeare William Shakespeare (baptism, bapt. 26 April 1564 – 23 April 1616) was an English playwright, poet and acto ...
to being a large urbanized area that is similar in size to a town or city. For example, were they incorporated, the
urban service area Urban means "related to a city". In that sense, the term may refer to: * Urban area, geographical area distinct from rural areas * Urban culture, the culture of towns and cities. Urban may also refer to: General * Urban (name), a list of people ...
s of
Fort McMurray Fort McMurray ( ) is an urban service area in the Regional Municipality (RM) of Wood Buffalo in Alberta ("Strong and free") , image_map = Alberta in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , ...
in the
Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo The Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo (sometimes RMWB) is a specialized municipality located in northeastern Alberta ("Strong and free") , image_map = Alberta in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates ...
and
Sherwood Park Sherwood Park is a large hamlet ''The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark'', often shortened to ''Hamlet'' (), is a tragedy written by William Shakespeare sometime between 1599 and 1601. It is Shakespeare's longest play, with 29,551 wo ...

Sherwood Park
in
Strathcona County Strathcona County is a specialized municipality A specialized municipality is a unique type of municipal status in the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of Alberta. Alberta's specialized municipalities are unique local gov ...
would be the fifth- and sixth-largest cities in Alberta. In
British Columbia ( en, Splendour without diminishment) , image_map = British Columbia in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = None , Slogan = Beautiful British C ...

British Columbia
, unincorporated settlements lie outside municipal boundaries entirely, and are administered directly by regional/county-level governments similar to the American system. Unincorporated settlements with a population between 100 and 1,000 residents may have the status of
designated place A designated place (DPL) is a type of community A community is a social unitThe term "level of analysis" is used in the social sciences to point to the location, size, or scale of a research target. "Level of analysis" is distinct from the term ...
in Canadian census data.More information on Designated place
Statistics Canada Statistics Canada (StatCan; french: Statistique Canada), formed in 1971, is the agency Agency may refer to: * a governmental or other institution Institutions, according to Samuel P. Huntington, are "stable, valued, recurring patterns of ...
. 2009.
In some provinces, large tracts of undeveloped wilderness or rural country are unorganized areas that fall directly under the provincial jurisdiction. Some unincorporated settlements in such unorganized areas may have some types of municipal services provided to them by a quasigovernmental agency such as a local services board in Ontario. In New Brunswick, where a significant population lives in a
local service district A local service district is a type of designated placeA designated place (DPL) is a type of community A community is a social unit (a group of living things) with commonality such as norms, religion Religion is a social system, social-cult ...
, taxation and services may come directly from the province.


Czech Republic

The entire area of the
Czech Republic The Czech Republic, also known by its short-form name Czechia and formerly known as Bohemia, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It ...
is divided into municipalities (, sg. ''obec''), with the only exception being four military areas. These are parts of the
regions In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and planets. The first person to use the wor ...
and do not form self-governing municipalities, but are rather governed by military offices (''újezdní úřad''), which are subordinate to the
Ministry of DefenceMinistry of Defence or Ministry of Defense may refer to: * Ministry of defence, a type of government department responsible for matters of defence Current ministries * Ministry of Defense (Afghanistan) * Ministry of Defence (Albania) * Ministry ...
. :† Brdy Military Area was abandoned by the
army An army (from Latin ''arma'' "arms, weapons" via Old French ''armée'', "armed" eminine, ground force or land force is a fighting force that fights primarily on land. In the broadest sense, it is the land-based military branch, service branc ...
in 2015 and converted into Landscape park, with its area being incorporated either into existing municipalities or municipalities newly established from the existing settlements. The other four Military Areas were reduced in size in 2015 too. The decisions on whether the settlements join existing municipalities or form new ones are decided in plebiscites.


Denmark

Ertholmene Ertholmene (formerly spelled ''Ærtholmene)'' is a small archipelago in Denmark Denmark ( da, Danmark, ), officially the Kingdom of Denmark, da, Kongeriget Danmark, . See also: The unity of the Realm is a Nordic countries, Nordic countr ...

Ertholmene
, named so because they are small as a
pea The pea is most commonly the small spherical seed A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering. The formation of the seed is part of the process of reproduction Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is ...

pea
( ''Danish'', ert, (modern) ært) form the easternmost part of
Denmark Denmark ( da, Danmark, ) is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics ( physical geography), hu ...

Denmark
. This small
archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as ...

archipelago
lies 20
kilometers The kilometre ( SI symbol: km; or ), spelt kilometer in American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to ...

kilometers
northeast of
Bornholm Bornholm (; non, Burgundaholmr) is a Danish Danish may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Denmark * A national or citizen of Denmark, also called a "Dane", see Demographics of Denmark * Danish people or Danes, people ...

Bornholm
. Population of less than 100.
Statistics Denmark Statistics Denmark ( da, Danmarks Statistik) is a Danish Danish may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Denmark * A national or citizen of Denmark, also called a "Dane", see Demographics of Denmark * Danish people or Danes, ...
groups them with Bornholm in Landsdel Bornholm.


Germany

Since
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the and by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inhabitants, as of 31 December 2019 makes it the , according to population within city l ...

Germany
has no administrative level comparable to the townships of other countries, the vast majority of the country, close to 99%, is organized in
municipalities A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, ...
(German: ''Gemeinde'', plural ''Gemeinden''), often consisting of multiple settlements that are not considered to be unincorporated. Because these settlements lack a council of their own, usually an ''Ortsvorsteher'' or ''Ortsvorsteherin'' (village chairman / chairwoman) is appointed by the municipal council, except in the very smallest villages. In 2000, the number of unincorporated areas in Germany, called ''gemeindefreie Gebiete'' (municipality-free areas) or singular ''gemeindefreies Gebiet'', was 295 with a total area of 4,890.33 km2 and around 1.4% of its territory. However, these are mostly unpopulated areas such as forests, lakes and their surroundings, military training areas, and the like. , Germany had 248 uninhabited unincorporated areas (of which 214 are located in
Bavaria Bavaria (; German language, German and Bavarian language, Bavarian: ''Bayern'' ), officially the Free State of Bavaria (German and Bavarian: ''Freistaat Bayern''; ), is a Landlocked country, landlocked Federated state, state (''States of Germany ...

Bavaria
), not belonging to any municipality, consisting mostly of forested areas, lakes, and larger rivers. Also, three inhabited unincorporated areas existed, all of which served as
military training area A proving ground (US), training area (Australia, Ireland, UK) or training centre (Canada) is a military installation or reservation in which weapons or other military technology are experimented with or are tested, or military tactics Military ta ...
s:
Osterheide Osterheide is an unincorporated area File:Entering Heinola, Minnesota.jpg, Sign at Heinola, Minnesota, Heinola, an unincorporated community in Otter Tail County, Minnesota An unincorporated area is a region not governed by a local municipal corp ...
and
Lohheide Lohheide is an unincorporated area in the Celle (district), district of Celle, in Lower Saxony, Germany. It covers an area of and has 764 inhabitants (as at 31 December 2006). Together with administrative area of Osterheide it is part of the Berg ...
in Lower Saxony, and Gutsbezirk Münsingen in
Baden-Württemberg Baden-Württemberg (; ) is a state (''Land'') in southwest Germany Southern Germany () as a region has no exact boundary but is generally taken to include the areas in which Upper German dialects are spoken. This corresponds roughly to the h ...
. They had fewer than 2,000 inhabitants in total. After losing its inhabited parts to adjacent municipalities on 1 January 2011, Gutsbezirk Münsingen is now uninhabited.


Largest

The following shows the largest unincorporated areas in Germany (including all inhabited areas, but excluding lakes) with an area of more than 50 km2: † No inhabitants since 1 January 2011 as a result of reduction in area. In Bavaria, there are other contiguous unincorporated areas covering more than 50 km2; these are however composed of several adjacent unincorporated areas combined, each of which is however under 50 km2 in area.


Israel

In Israel, almost all land is subdivided into 393 municipalities which are further classified, normally by population, as
city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be defined as a ...
,
local councilLocal council may refer to: Political subdivision * Local council (Israel) * Local council (Jordan) * Local councils of Malta * An elected authority in the local government in the United Kingdom * An elected authority in the local government in Aus ...
, or regional council. All three types of municipality provide services including zoning and planning. However, a few unincorporated areas exist, whether because of omissions and ambiguities left in official maps dating from the
British Mandate for Palestine The Mandate for Palestine was a League of Nations mandate A League of Nations mandate was a legal status for certain territories transferred from the control of one country to another following World War I World War I or the First Wo ...
, or due to deliberate policy of ensuring facilities of national importance, such as
Ben Gurion Airport Ben Gurion Airport ( he, נמל התעופה בן-גוריון; ar, مطار بن غوريون الدولي) , commonly known by its Hebrew acronym as ''Natbag'' (), is the main international airport of Israel Israel (; he, יִשְ ...
,
Mikveh Israel Mikveh or mikvah (,  ''mikva'ot'', ''mikvoth'', ''mikvot'', or (Yiddish) ''mikves'', lit., "a collection") is a bath used for the purpose of ritual washing in Judaism#Full-body immersion, ritual immersion in Judaism to achieve Tumah and tah ...
boarding school, or the BAZAN Group oil refineries, would not have their operation affected by local considerations. The largest unincorporated area in Israel is the so-called "Reservation area", a triangular region whose vertexes are
Beersheba Beersheba (; he, בְּאֵר שֶׁבַע ' , ar, بئر السبع, lit. ''Well of the Oath'') is the largest city in the Negev desert of southern Israel. Often referred to as the "Capital of the Negev", it is the center of the fourth-most po ...

Beersheba
,
Dimona Dimona ( he, דִּימוֹנָה) is an Israeli city in the Negev desert, to the south-east of Beersheba and west of the Dead Sea above the Arabah, Arava valley in the Southern District (Israel), Southern District of Israel. In its population ...

Dimona
and Arad, in which all Negev Bedouins were concentrated in the 1950s. As no municipal services are provided within unincorporated area, this effectively makes all Bedouin settlements in the area unrecognized, with the sole exception of those included within the
Abu Basma Regional Council Abu Basma Regional Council ( he, מועצה אזורית אבו בסמה, ''Moatza Ezorit Abu Basma'', ar, مجلس إقليمي أبو بسمة, ''Majlis Iqlimi Abu Basma'') was a regional council operating in 2003-2012 and covering several B ...
.


Netherlands

The Netherlands has had regular periods with unincorporated land when newly reclaimed land
polder A polder () is a low-lying tract of land that forms an artificial hydrological Hydrology (from Greek: ὕδωρ, "hýdōr" meaning "water" and λόγος, "lógos" meaning "study") is the scientific study of the movement, distribution, and ...

polder
s fall dry. Unincorporated land is since medieval times administered by an appointed officer with the name ''Landdrost'' or ''Drossaart''. Also,
EltenElten is a Germany, German village located in North Rhine-Westphalia. It has a population of around 4,500. Since 1975, it has been part of the town of Emmerich am Rhein. Between 1949 and 1963, Elten was part of the Netherlands (see Dutch annexation o ...
and Tudderen, both annexed from Germany after World War II, were governed by a ''Landdrost ''until they were ceded to Germany in 1963. The most recent period with unincorporated land started in 1967, when the dyke around Flevoland, Southern Flevoland was closed, but several years are required before the polder is genuinely accessible for cultivation, and construction of roads and homes can start, as in the first years, the soil is equivalent to quicksand. During the initial period of inhabitation, a special, government-appointed officer was installed, the ''Landdrost''. During the administrative office of a'' Landdrost'', no municipal council forms. In 1975, the first homes in what is now the city of Almere were built, and from 1976 to 1984, the area was governed by the ''Landdrost'' as the executive of the ''Openbaar Lichaam Zuidelijke IJsselmeerpolders'' (Southern IJsselmeerpolders Public Body). In 1984, the ''Landdrost'' became the first mayor of the new city Almere. Since that date, the Netherlands does not have any unincorporated land areas. The ''Openbaar Lichaam'' remained, however, only governing the water body of the Markermeer. After the municipal division of the Wadden Sea (1985), the territorial waters in the North Sea (1991) and the IJsselmeer (1994), all water bodies are now also part of a municipality and no unincorporated areas exist in the Netherlands anymore. The ''Openbaar Lichaam Zuidelijke IJsselmeerpolders'' was dissolved in 1996.


Norway

In Norway, Bouvet Island, Jan Mayen, and Svalbard are outside of any of the country's counties of Norway, counties and list of municipalities of Norway, municipalities. They are ruled directly by national authorities without any local democracy. An exception is the Longyearbyen Community Council, which since 2004 in reality acts partly like a Norwegian municipality. Svalbard has a Governor of Svalbard, governor appointed by the government of Norway, ruling the area. Jan Mayen has no population, only radio and weather stations with staff, whose manager has the responsibility for the activities. Bouvet Island has only occasional visitors.


United States

In local government in the United States, an unincorporated area generally refers to the part of a County (United States), county that is outside any municipality. An unincorporated community is one general term for a geographic area having a common social identity without municipal organization or official political designation (i.e., incorporation as a city or town). The two main types of unincorporated communities are: * a neighborhood or other community existing within one or across multiple existing incorporated areas (i.e., cities or towns). In this sense, a community is part of a municipal government, but not ''separately'' incorporated from it. For example, Hyannis, Massachusetts, is an unincorporated village within the town of Barnstable, Massachusetts, Barnstable, and Intervale, New Hampshire, is an unincorporated community on the border of the towns of Bartlett, New Hampshire, Bartlett and Conway, New Hampshire, Conway. * a neighborhood or other community existing outside an incorporated municipal government. In this sense, the community is outside any municipal government, and entirely unincorporated. Examples include Hovland, Minnesota; Nutbush, Tennessee; and Yucca, Arizona; all are small rural settlements of low population. Most states have granted some form of Home rule in the United States, home rule, so that county commissions (or Board of Supervisors, boards or councils) have the same powers in these areas as city councils or town councils have in their respective incorporated areas. Some states, instead, put these powers in the hands of townships, which are minor civil divisions of each county, and are called "towns" in some states. Due to differences in state laws regarding the incorporation of communities, a great variation exists in the distribution and nature of unincorporated areas. Unincorporated regions are essentially nonexistent in eight of the northeastern states. All of the land in New Jersey, Connecticut, Massachusetts, New York (state), New York, and Rhode Island, and nearly all of the land in New Hampshire, Local government in Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania, and Vermont municipality, Vermont, is part of an incorporated area of some type. In these areas, types (and official names) of local government entities can vary. In New England (which includes five of those eight states, plus the less fully incorporated state of Maine), local municipalities are known as New England town, towns or cities, and most towns are administered by a form of direct democracy, such as the open town meeting or representative town meeting. Larger towns in New England may be incorporated as cities, with some form of mayor-council government. In New Jersey, multiple types exist, as well, such as City (New Jersey), city, Township (New Jersey), township, Town (New Jersey), town, Borough (New Jersey), borough, or Village (New Jersey), village, but these differences are in the structure of the legislative branches, not in the powers or functions of the entities themselves. On the opposite end of the spectrum is the Virginia "strong county" model. Virginia and other states with this model, such as Alabama, Maryland, and Tennessee, set strict requirements on incorporation or grant counties broad powers that in other states are carried out by cities, creating a disincentive to incorporate, and thus have large, urbanized areas which have no municipal government below the county level. Meanwhile, in other mid-Atlantic states, such as New York (state), New York and Pennsylvania, a hybrid model that tries to balance the two approaches is prevalent, with differing allocations of power between municipalities and counties existing. Throughout the U.S., some large cities have annexed all surrounding unincorporated areas within their counties, creating what are known as consolidated city–county forms of government (e.g., Jacksonville, Florida and Nashville, Tennessee). In these cases, unincorporated areas continue to exist in other counties of their respective metropolitan areas. Conversely, there are a number of "county islands" that exist, where an unincorporated area is surrounded on most or all sides by municipalities. In areas of sparse population the majority of the land in any given state may be unincorporated. Some states, including North Carolina, grant extraterritorial jurisdiction to cities and towns (but rarely villages), so that they may control zoning for a limited distance into adjacent unincorporated areas, often as a precursor (and sometimes as a legal requirement) to later Municipal annexation, annexation of those areas. This is especially useful in rural counties that have no zoning at all, or only spot zoning for unincorporated communities. In California, all counties except the City and County of San Francisco have unincorporated areas. Even in highly populated counties, the unincorporated portions may contain a large number of inhabitants. In Los Angeles County, California, Los Angeles County, the county government estimates the population of its unincorporated areas to exceed one million people. Despite having 88 incorporated cities and towns, including the state's most populous, 65% of the land in Los Angeles County is unincorporated, this mostly consisting of Angeles National Forest and sparsely populated regions to its north. California law makes no distinction between "city" and "town", and municipalities may use either term in their official names.California Government Code Sections 34502 and 56722.


Insular areas

In the context of the insular areas of the United States, the word "Unincorporated territories of the United States, unincorporated" refers to territories in which the United States Congress has determined that only selected parts of the United States Constitution apply, and which have not been formally incorporated into the United States by Congress. Currently, the five major unincorporated U.S. insular areas are American Samoa, Puerto Rico, Guam, the United States Virgin Islands, U.S. Virgin Islands, and the Northern Mariana Islands. Unincorporated insular areas can be Cession, ceded to another nation or be granted independence. The U.S. has one incorporated insular area, Palmyra Atoll. Incorporation is regarded as Perpetual Union, perpetual by the U.S. federal government; once incorporated, the Territory cannot be disincorporated. (''See: United States territory.'') The U.S. Minor Outlying Islands without a permanent civilian population are "unorganized" in the sense that they do not have a local government and they are administered by the Office of Insular Affairs directly. The populated American Samoa is also "unorganized" in the sense that Congress has not passed an organic act but it does have a constitution and locally elected territorial legislature and executive.


U.S. Census Bureau

An unincorporated community may be part of a census-designated place (CDP). A CDP is an area defined by the United States Census Bureau for statistical purposes only. It is a populated area that generally includes one officially designated, but currently unincorporated community, for which the CDP is named, plus surrounding inhabited countryside of varying dimensions, and occasionally, other, smaller unincorporated communities, as well. Otherwise, it has no legal status. The Census Bureau designates some unincorporated areas as "unorganized territories", as defined by the U.S. Census Bureau where portions of County (United States), counties are not included in any legally established minor civil division (MCD) or independent incorporated place. These occur in 10 MCD states: Arkansas, Indiana, Iowa, Louisiana, Maine, Minnesota, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, and South Dakota. The Census recognizes such separate pieces of territory as one or more separate county subdivisions for statistical purposes. It assigns each unorganized territory a descriptive name, followed by the designation "unorganized territory". Unorganized territories were first used for statistical purposes in conjunction with the 1960 census. At the United States Census, 2000, 2000 census there were 305 of these territories within the United States. Their total land area was 85,392 square miles (221,165 km2) and they had a total population of 247,331. South Dakota had the most unorganized territories, 102, as well as the largest amount of land under that status: 39,785 square miles (103,042 km2), or 52.4% of the state's land area. North Dakota followed with 86 territories, 20,358 square miles (52,728 km2), or 29.5% of its land area. Maine was next with 36 territories, 14,052 square miles (36,396 km2), or 45.5% of its land area. Minnesota had 71 territories, 10,552 square miles (27,330 km2), or 13% of its land area. Several other states had small amounts of unorganized territory. The unorganized territory with the largest population was Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, Camp Lejeune, North Carolina, a United States Marine Corps base with a census population of 34,452 inhabitants. In the 2010 United States census, 2010 census, unorganized territory areas were identified in nine U.S. states: Arkansas, Indiana, Iowa, Maine, Minnesota, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, and South Dakota.


USGS definition of "populated place"

Unincorporated areas with permanent populations in the United States are defined by the US government scientific agency United States Geological Survey (USGS) as "populated places", a "place or area with clustered or scattered buildings, and a permanent human population (city, settlement, town, village)." No legal boundaries exist, although a corresponding "civil" record may occur, the boundaries of which may or may not match the perceived populated place.


U.S. mail delivery

Many unincorporated communities are also recognized as acceptable place names for use in mailing addresses by the United States Postal Service (USPS) (indeed, some have their own post offices), and the United States Census Bureau uses the names of some widely recognized unincorporated communities for its CDPs for which it tabulates census data. In some instances, unincorporated areas have a mailing address indicating the name of an incorporated city, as well as those where residents of one incorporated city have mailing addresses indicating another incorporated city. Mailing addresses do not necessarily change whether an area becomes a part of an incorporated place, changes to another incorporated place, or disincorporates. For example, places in Kingwood, Houston, Kingwood, Texas, previously unincorporated, retained "Kingwood, TX" mailing addresses after the 1996 annexation of Kingwood into the City of Houston. The Houston city government stated on its website, "The U.S. Postal Service establishes ZIP codes and mailing addresses to maximize the efficiency of their system, not to recognize jurisdictional boundaries." The USPS is very conservative about recognizing new place names for use in mailing addresses and typically only does so when a place incorporates. The original place name associated with a ZIP Code is still maintained as the default place name, even though the name of the newly incorporated place is more accurate. As an example, Sandy Springs, Georgia, Sandy Springs is one of the most populated places in Georgia (U.S. state), Georgia, but is served by a branch of the Atlanta post office. Only after the city was incorporated in 2005 has "Sandy Springs" been approved by the USPS for use in mailing addresses, though "Atlanta" remains the default name. Accordingly, "Atlanta" is the only accepted place name for mailing addresses in the nearby unincorporated town of Vinings, Georgia, Vinings, also served by a branch of the Atlanta post office, even though Vinings is in Cobb County, Georgia, Cobb County and Atlanta is in Fulton County, Georgia, Fulton and DeKalb County, Georgia, DeKalb counties. In contrast, neighboring Mableton, Georgia, Mableton has not been incorporated in nearly a century, but has its own post office and thus "Mableton" is the only acceptable place name for mailing addresses in the town. The areas of Dulah, California, Dulah and Faria, California, Faria, California, which are unincorporated areas in Ventura County, California, Ventura County between Ventura, California, Ventura and Carpinteria, California, Carpinteria, have the ZIP Code of 93001, which is assigned to the post office at 675 E. Santa Clara St. in Ventura; thus, all mail to those two areas is addressed to Ventura. If an unincorporated area becomes incorporated, it may be split among ZIP codes, and its new name may be recognized as acceptable for use with some or all of them in mailing addresses, as has been the case in Johns Creek, Georgia, Johns Creek and Milton, Georgia. If an incorporated area disincorporates, though, this has no effect on whether a place name is "acceptable" in a mailing address or not, as is the case with Lithia Springs, Georgia. ZIP code boundaries often ignore political boundaries, so the appearance of a place name in a mailing address alone does not indicate whether the place is incorporated or unincorporated.


Other nations

Some nations have some exceptional unincorporated areas: * The Danish Realm, Kingdom of Denmark has three unincorporated areas: ** In Denmark, Denmark proper, the former naval fortress
Ertholmene Ertholmene (formerly spelled ''Ærtholmene)'' is a small archipelago in Denmark Denmark ( da, Danmark, ), officially the Kingdom of Denmark, da, Kongeriget Danmark, . See also: The unity of the Realm is a Nordic countries, Nordic countr ...

Ertholmene
east of
Bornholm Bornholm (; non, Burgundaholmr) is a Danish Danish may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Denmark * A national or citizen of Denmark, also called a "Dane", see Demographics of Denmark * Danish people or Danes, people ...

Bornholm
with less than 100 inhabitants is still governed directly by the Ministry of Defence. ** In Greenland, all land is incorporated except for the Northeast Greenland National Park and the Thule Air Base. * In France, all land is incorporated except for Clipperton Island, a small overseas island possession held as an overseas state private property under the direct authority of the French government, administered by France's Minister of the Overseas (France), Overseas Minister. * Hong Kong (except for the Lok Ma Chau Loop) is divided into districts of Hong Kong, districts. * In India, there are several union territory, union territories ('centrally administered province'). Unlike the states and union territories of India, states of India, which have their own governments, union territories are federal territories governed, in part or in whole, by the Central Government of India. Many of these were created at the time of India's independence or after being acquired from non-British colonial powers or princely states. * Azad Kashmir has no official status in Pakistani law, but is nonetheless ''de facto'' governed by Pakistan. * Slovakia is divided into municipality, municipalities. There are two types of municipalities: towns (''mesto'', pl. ''mestá'') and villages (''obec'', pl. ''obce''), with minor differences between them. Additionally, there are several military areas which are not part of any municipality. Each military area is a municipality of its own right. However, the military areas hold no elections and have no mayors or other elected representatives. Instead, they are administered directly by the Slovak Ministry of Defence. * Switzerland also has a few exceptions: 22 lakes and a forest, as described by the Swiss federal statistical office (See: :de:Gemeindefreies Gebiet#Schweiz, Gemeindefreie Gebiete ). * In Ukraine, all land is divided into amalgamated hromada, hromadas except for the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. The latter contains parts of Kyiv Oblast and Zhytomyr Oblast and is directly administered by a designated government agency.


Countries without unincorporated areas

Many countries, especially those with many centuries of history using multiple tiers of local government, do not use the concept of an unincorporated area. * The whole of the territories of Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Finland, France, Greece, Italy, Japan, Lithuania, Montenegro, the Netherlands, the Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Serbia, Slovenia, Sweden, and Turkey are divided into municipalities. * In Brazil, Chile, Colombia, and Mexico, all land must belong to a municipality. Even large uninhabited areas, such as forests or grasslands, are, by law, part of the nearest "city". This is because in Latin America, a "municipality" is the equivalent of what in the United States and Canada is called a "county". * In Mainland China, every piece of land belongs to a administrative divisions of China, county-level (third level) administrative division (equivalent to a municipality), either a district (China), district (区 qū) in an urban area, or a county-level city, county-level city (县级市 xiànjíshì), counties of China, county (县 xiàn) or banners of Inner Mongolia, banner (旗 qí). There is also a township-level (fourth level) administrative division, which may be a subdistricts of China, subdistrict (街道 jiēdào), towns of China, town (镇 zhèn), townships of China, township (乡 xiāng), or sum (country subdivision), sumu (苏木 sūmù). * In Croatia, every piece of land belongs either to a city (''grad'') or to a municipality (''općina''). * In Estonia, the entire territory is divided into 79 Municipalities of Estonia, municipalities, of which 14 are municipal towns and 65 are parishes. The entire territory of the country is divided into settlements of four types: towns, boroughs, small boroughs and villages. * In France, the territory is subdivided into 36,685 ''Communes of France, communes'' (municipalities). An elected council and a mayor form the governing body of a municipality. * In Indonesia, every piece of land belongs to a City status in Indonesia, municipality (''kotamadya'') or a Regency (Indonesia), regency (''kabupaten''). * In Japan, every piece of land belongs to a Municipalities of Japan, municipality, of which there are four types: Cities of Japan, cities (市 ''shi''); Special wards of Tokyo, the special wards (特別区 ''tokubetsu-ku'') of Tokyo; List of towns in Japan, towns (町 ''chō'' or ''machi''); List of villages in Japan, villages (村 ''mura'' or ''son''). * In Peru, the whole territory is divided into districts ("distritos"), which form provinces ("provincias"), which form regions ("regiones"). Some districts, especially in the Amazon rainforest, Amazon, are vast portions of territory, but they're governed from a district capital (which can be anywhere from a city to a small village). * In the Philippines, all land belongs to either a Cities of the Philippines, city or a Municipalities of the Philippines, municipality, which are further subdivided into barangays. * In Portugal, the constitution defines territorial divisions as parishes, municipalities, and administrative regions. It has no official definition of city limits, so a city may include several parishes, or a parish may cover several villages or townships, but a municipality is usually administered from the city or town that bears its name. * In South Africa, the constitution gives every place in the country democratically elected third-tier government. * In South Korea, every piece of land belongs to a Administrative divisions of South Korea, municipality, either a List of districts in South Korea, district (구/區 gu) in a List of cities in South Korea, city (시/市 shi) or a Eup (administrative division), town (읍/邑 eub) or Myeon (administrative division), township (면/面 myeon) in a List of counties in South Korea, county (군/郡 gun). * In Spain, the Constitution of Spain, Spanish Constitution of 1978 says that the land is divided into Autonomous communities of Spain, Autonomous Communities, Provinces of Spain, provinces and Municipalities of Spain, municipalities. Each of these have certain powers determined by law. Autonomous Communities and municipalities are enabled to appeal to the Constitutional Court of Spain, Constitutional Court any public decision that violates their autonomy by other entities (State or Autonomous Community power). Nevertheless, some regions, like Navarre, have some unincorporated areas. The largest of these, the Bardenas Reales has a surface of 418 km2 and is governed by a board of representatives of 20 bordering municipalities, a valley in the Pyrenees, and a monastery, all of which have rights to use the area. The plazas de soberanía also functions as ''de facto'' unincorporated areas under the administration of the Ministry of Defence (Spain), Spanish Ministry of Defence. * In Sweden, all territory is divided into municipalities. Sweden has post-glacial rebound, so the land area is increasing, but municipal boundaries extend into the sea, so new land is not unincorporated. * In the free area of the Republic of China (Taiwan Island, Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu, and some minor islands), every piece of land belongs to either a Township (Taiwan), township or a county-administered city in County (Taiwan), county, or District (Taiwan), district in Provincial city (Taiwan), provincial city. There are, in total, 368 townships, county-administered cities and districts in Taiwan. See also: administrative divisions of Taiwan. * In the United Kingdom: ** In England, all land is within a ceremonial counties of England, county or districts of England, local government district, both of which exercise power over their jurisdictions. ** In Northern Ireland, all land is within one of 11 districts. ** In Scotland, all land is within one of 32 unitary authority, unitary authorities designated as councils. ** In Wales, all land is within one of 22 unitary authority, single-tier principal areas.Local Government (Wales) Act 1994


See also

* County island * Main road town * Unorganized Borough, Alaska, an area without county-level government. * Unparished area, areas of England outside any civil parish


References

{{DEFAULTSORT:Unincorporated Area Unincorporated areas Unincorporated communities in the United States, Urban studies and planning terminology