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Session musicians, studio musicians, or backing musicians are musicians hired to perform in
recording sessionThe term studio recording means any recording A record, recording or records may refer to: An item or collection of data Computing * Record (computer science), a data structure ** Record, or row (database), a set of fields in a database related to ...
s or live performances. The term
sideman A sideman is a professional musician who is hired to perform live with a solo artist, or with a group in which they are not a regular band member. The term is usually used to describe musicians that play with jazz or rock artists, whether solo or ...
is also used in the case of live performances, such as accompanying a recording artist on a tour. Session musicians are usually not permanent or official members of a
musical ensemble A musical ensemble, also known as a music group or musical group, is a group of people who perform instrumental An instrumental is a recording normally without any vocals, although it might include some inarticulate vocal The human voi ...
or band. They work behind the scenes and rarely achieve individual fame in their own right as soloists or
bandleader A bandleader is the leader of a music group such as a rock or pop band or jazz quartet. The term is most commonly used with a group that plays popular music as a small combo or a big band, such as one which plays jazz Jazz is a music genre ...
s. However, top session musicians are well known within the
music industry The music industry consists of the individuals and organizations that earn money by s and s, creating and selling and , presenting , as well as the organizations that aid, train, represent and supply creators. Among the many individuals and ...
, and some have become publicly recognized, such as the Wrecking Crew, the
Muscle Shoals Rhythm Section The Muscle Shoals Rhythm Section is a group of American session musicians based in the northern Alabama town of Muscle Shoals. One of the most prominent American studio house bands from the 1960s to the 1980s, these musicians, individually or as a ...
and
The Funk Brothers The Funk Brothers were a group of Detroit-based session musicians who performed the backing to most Motown recordings from 1959 until the company moved to Los Angeles in 1972. Its members are considered among the most successful groups of stud ...

The Funk Brothers
who worked with
Motown Records Motown Records is an American record label owned by the Universal Music Group. It was founded by Berry Gordy, Berry Gordy Jr. as Tamla Records on January 12, 1959, and incorporated as Motown Record Corporation on April 14, 1960. Its name, a po ...
. Many session musicians specialize in playing common
rhythm section A rhythm section is a group of musicians within a music ensemble or band (music), band that provides the underlying rhythm, harmony and Pulse (music), pulse of the accompaniment, providing a rhythmic and harmonic reference and "beat" for the rest ...
instruments such as
guitar The guitar is a fret (in the background, coloured white) and first four frets A fret is a space between two fretbars on the neck (music), neck of a stringed instrument. Frets usually extend across the full width of the neck. On most modern ...

guitar
,
piano The piano is an acoustic Acoustic may refer to: Music Albums * Acoustic (Bayside EP), ''Acoustic'' (Bayside EP) * Acoustic (Britt Nicole EP), ''Acoustic'' (Britt Nicole EP) * Acoustic (Joey Cape and Tony Sly album), ''Acoustic'' (Joey Cape a ...

piano
,
bass Bass or Basses may refer to: Fish * Bass (fish) Bass () is a name shared by many species of fish Fish are Aquatic animal, aquatic, craniate, gill-bearing animals that lack Limb (anatomy), limbs with Digit (anatomy), digits. Included in thi ...

bass
, or
drums The drum is a member of the percussion A percussion instrument is a musical instrument A musical instrument is a device created or adapted to make Music, musical sounds. In principle, any object that produces sound can be consid ...

drums
. Others are specialists, and play
brass Brass is an alloy An alloy is an admixture of metal A metal (from Ancient Greek, Greek μέταλλον ''métallon'', "mine, quarry, metal") is a material that, when freshly prepared, polished, or fractured, shows a lustrous appear ...
, woodwinds, and
strings String or strings may refer to: *String (structure), a long flexible structure made from threads twisted together, which is used to tie, bind, or hang other objects Arts, entertainment, and media Films * Strings (1991 film), ''Strings'' (1991 fil ...

strings
. Many session musicians play multiple instruments, which lets them play in a wider range of musical situations, genres and styles. Examples of "doubling" include
double bass The double bass, also known simply as the bass (or by other names), is the largest and lowest-pitched bowed (or plucked) string instrument String instruments, stringed instruments, or chordophones are musical instruments that produce so ...

double bass
and
electric bass The bass guitar, electric bass or simply bass, is the lowest-pitched member of the guitar The guitar is a fret (in the background, coloured white) and first four frets A fret is a space between two fretbars on the neck (music), neck of ...

electric bass
,
acoustic guitar
acoustic guitar
and
mandolin A mandolin ( it, mandolino ; literally "small mandola The mandola (US and Canada) or tenor mandola (Ireland and UK) is a fretted, stringed musical instrument A musical instrument is a device created or adapted to make Music, musical sounds ...

mandolin
,
piano The piano is an acoustic Acoustic may refer to: Music Albums * Acoustic (Bayside EP), ''Acoustic'' (Bayside EP) * Acoustic (Britt Nicole EP), ''Acoustic'' (Britt Nicole EP) * Acoustic (Joey Cape and Tony Sly album), ''Acoustic'' (Joey Cape a ...

piano
and
accordion Accordions (from 19th-century German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality l ...

accordion
, and saxophone and other woodwind instruments. Session musicians are used when musical skills are needed on a short-term basis. Typically session musicians are used by recording studios to provide
backing track A backing track is an audio recording on audiotape, CD or a digital recording medium or a MIDI recording of synthesizer, synthesized instruments, sometimes of purely rhythmic accompaniment, often of a rhythm section or other accompaniment parts tha ...
s for other musicians for recording sessions and live performances; recording music for
advertising Advertising is a marketing Marketing is the process of intentionally stimulating demand for and purchases of goods and services; potentially including selection of a target audience; selection of certain attributes or themes to emphasize ...

advertising
, film, television, and
theatre Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of performing art that uses live performers, usually actors or actresses, to present the experience of a real or imagined event before a live audience in a specific place, often a stage. The performe ...

theatre
. In the 2000s, the terms "session musician" and "studio musician" are synonymous, though in past decades, "studio musician" meant a musician associated with a single record company,
recording studio A recording studio is a specialized facility for sound recording Sound recording and reproduction is an electrical, Mechanical system, mechanical, electronic, or digital inscription and re-creation of sound waves, such as spoken voice, ...

recording studio
or entertainment agency.McDonald, H. (2019). What is a session musician? The balance careers. https://www.thebalancecareers.com/what-is-a-session-musician-2460709


Approaches

Session musicians may play in a wide range of genres or specialize in a specific genre (e.g.
country music Country (also called country and western) is a genre of popular music Popular music is music with wide appeal that is typically distributed to large audiences through the music industry. These forms and styles can be enjoyed and performed by ...

country music
or
jazz Jazz is a music genre A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music Music is the art of arranging sounds in time to produce a composition through the elements of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. ...
). Some session musicians with a Classical music background may focus on
film score A film score is original music written specifically to accompany a film. The score comprises a number of orchestral, instrumental, or choral pieces called cue (theatrical), cues, which are timed to begin and end at specific points during the fi ...
recordings. Even within a specific genre specialization, there may be even more focused sub-specializations. For example, a sub-specialization within trumpet session players is "high note specialist". The working schedule for session musicians often depends on the terms set out by musicians' unions or associations, as these organizations typically set out rules on performance schedules (e.g. regarding length of session and breaks). The length of employment may be as short as a single day, in the case of a recording a brief demo song, or as long as several weeks, if an album or film score is being recorded. The remuneration terms are often set out by musicians' associations and unions. Some musicians may get the minimum scale rate set out by the union. Heavily in-demand session musicians may earn much more. The union rates may vary based on whether it is a music recording versus film/television recording. While the film/television rates may be lower, there may also be residual payments to compensate them for reruns, DVD sales, streaming usage, and so on. Session musicians often have to bring their own instruments, such as in the case of guitar, bass, woodwinds, and brass. It is expected that studio musicians will have professional-tier instruments that are well-maintained. In some cases, larger or heavier instruments may be provided by the recording studio, such as a
grand piano The piano is an acoustic Acoustic may refer to: Music Albums * Acoustic (Bayside EP), ''Acoustic'' (Bayside EP) * Acoustic (Britt Nicole EP), ''Acoustic'' (Britt Nicole EP) * Acoustic (Joey Cape and Tony Sly album), ''Acoustic'' (Joey Cape a ...

grand piano
or
Hammond organ The Hammond organ is an electric organ invented by Laurens Hammond and John M. Hanert and first manufactured in 1935. Multiple models have been produced, most of which use sliding drawbars to vary sounds. Until 1975, Hammond organs generated ...
and
Leslie speaker The Leslie speaker is a combined amplifier and loudspeaker that projects the signal from an electric or electronic instrument and modifies the sound by rotating a baffle chamber ("drum") in front of the loudspeakers. A similar effect is provided b ...

Leslie speaker
. In certain cases, a session musicians may bring some instruments or musical gear and use them with larger instruments that are provided by the studio, such as a synthesizer player, who might bring rack-mounted
synth module Image:Triton rack adjusted.jpg, 330px, Korg Triton rack-mountable sound module. A sound module is an electronic musical instrument without a human-playable interface such as a piano-style musical keyboard. Sound modules have to be operated using ...
s and connect them to the studio's
MIDI controller A MIDI controller is any hardware or software that generates and transmits Musical Instrument Digital Interface ( MIDI) data to MIDI-enabled devices, typically to trigger sounds and control parameters of an electronic music performance. Feature ...
stage piano - a digital stage piano. This piano is unusual in that it contains built-in powered speakers A stage piano is an electronic musical instrument An electronic musical instrument or electrophone is a musical instrument A musical instrument is ...
. Similarly, if the studio has a selection of well-known
bass amplifier A bass amplifier or "bass amp" is a musical instrument electronic device that uses electrical power to make lower-pitched instrument Instrument may refer to: Science and technology * Flight instruments two-seat light airplane. The flight i ...
s and speaker cabinets, a bass player may only have to bring basses and
effect unit An effects unit or effects pedal is an electronic device that alters the sound of a musical instrument or other audio source through audio signal processing. Common effects include distortion (music), distortion/overdrive, often used with ele ...
s. The requirement to read different types of music notation, improvise and/or " play by ear" varies according to the type of recording session and the genres of music being performed. Classical musicians and many jazz and popular music musicians are expected to read music notation and do
sight-reading Caravaggio's ''Rest on the Flight into Egypt'' (1594–96) In music Music is the art of arranging sounds in time to produce a composition through the elements of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the universal cultural ...
. In jazz, rock, and many popular music genres, performers may be expected to read chord charts and improvise accompaniment and solos. In country music, performers may be expected to read
Nashville Number System The Nashville Number System is a method of transcribing music by denoting the scale degree on which a Chord (music), chord is built. It was developed by Neal Matthews in the late 1950s as a simplified system for the Jordanaires to use in the studi ...
charts and improvise accompaniment and solos. In many traditional and folk music styles, performers are expected to be able to play by ear. Session musicians need a nuanced sense of the playing styles and idioms used in different genres. For example, a sax player who mainly plays jazz needs to know the
R&B Rhythm and blues, often abbreviated as R&B, is a genre of popular music that originated in African-American communities in the 1940s. The term was originally used by record companies to describe recordings marketed predominantly to urban African ...
style if they are asked to improvise a solo in an R&B song. Similarly, a bass player asked to improvise a walking bassline in a
rockabilly Rockabilly is one of the earliest styles of rock and roll Rock and roll (often written as rock & roll, rock 'n' roll, or rock 'n roll) is a genre of popular music Popular music is music with wide appeal that is typically distributed to la ...
song needs to know the stock lines and cliches used in this genre. Regardless of the styles of music session musicians play, some qualities are universal: punctuality in arriving at the session; rhythmic and intonation precision; ability to play with good ensemble and excellent blending with the other performers; willingness to take direction from
bandleader A bandleader is the leader of a music group such as a rock or pop band or jazz quartet. The term is most commonly used with a group that plays popular music as a small combo or a big band, such as one which plays jazz Jazz is a music genre ...
s,
music directorA music(al) director or director of music is the person responsible for the musical aspects of a performance, production, or organization. This would include the artistic director and usually chief conductor of an orchestra An orchestra (; ) is ...

music director
s, and
music producer
music producer
s; and having good musical taste in regards to choices with musical ornaments and
musical phrasing Image:Haydn - Feldpartita period.png, 300px, Period (two five-bar phrases) in Haydn's ''Feldpartita''. The second phrase is distinguished by an authentic cadence answering the half cadence at the end of the first phrase.White, John D. (1976). ''T ...
.


History


1950s–1960s

During the 1950s and 1960s, session players were usually active in local recording scenes concentrated in places such as
Los Angeles Los Angeles ( ; xgf, Tovaangar; es, Los Ángeles, , ), commonly referred to by the L.A., is the in . With a 2020 population of 3,898,747, it is the in the , following . Los Angeles is known for its , ethnic and cultural diversity, a ...

Los Angeles
,
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from , or NYC for short, is the in the United States. With a 2020 population of 8,804,190 distributed over , New York City is also the major city in the United States. Located at the s ...

New York City
,
Nashville Nashville is the Capital city, capital and List of municipalities in Tennessee, most populous city of the U.S. state of Tennessee. The city is the county seat of Davidson County, Tennessee, Davidson County and is located on the Cumberland River. ...

Nashville
,
Memphis Memphis is the name of: *Memphis, Egypt , alternate_name = , image = , alt = , caption = Ruins of the pillared hall of Ramesses IIat Mit Rahina , map_type = Egypt , map_alt = , map_size = , reli ...
,
Detroit (strait) , nicknames = The Motor City, Motown, Renaissance City, Techno City, City of the Straits, The D, D-Town, Hockeytown, The Automotive Capital of the World, Rock City, The 313, The Arsenal of Democracy, The Town Th ...

Detroit
, and
Muscle Shoals Muscle Shoals is the largest city in Colbert County, Alabama, Colbert County, Alabama, United States. It is located along the Tennessee River in the northern part of the state and, as of the 2010 United States Census, 2010 census, the populatio ...
.Source A: Source B:Source C: Each local scene had its circle of "A-list" session musicians, such as
The Nashville A-Team The Nashville A-Team was a nickname given to a group of session musician Session musicians, studio musicians, or backing musicians are musicians hired to perform in recording sessions or live performances. The term sideman is also used in the c ...
that played on numerous country and rock hits of the era, the two groups of musicians in Memphis, both the Memphis Boys and the musicians who backed
Stax/Volt
Stax/Volt
recordings, and
the Funk Brothers The Funk Brothers were a group of Detroit-based session musicians who performed the backing to most Motown recordings from 1959 until the company moved to Los Angeles in 1972. Its members are considered among the most successful groups of stud ...

the Funk Brothers
in Detroit, who played on many
Motown Motown Records is an American record label owned by the Universal Music Group Universal Music Group B.V. (often abbreviated as UMG) is a global Music industry, music corporation that is majority owned by the French media conglomerate Vive ...
recordings. At the time, multi-tracking equipment, though common, was less elaborate, and instrumental backing tracks were often recorded "hot" with an ensemble playing live in the studio. Musicians had to be available "on call" when producers needed a part to fill a last-minute time slot. In the 1960s, Los Angeles was considered the top recording destination in the United States — consequently studios were constantly booked around the clock, and session time was highly sought after and expensive. Songs had to be recorded quickly in the fewest possible takes. In this environment, Los Angeles producers and record executives had little patience for needless expense or wasted time and depended on the service of reliable standby musicians who could be counted on to record in a variety of styles with minimal practice or takes, and deliver hits on short order.


Studio band

A ''studio band'' is a
musical ensemble A musical ensemble, also known as a music group or musical group, is a group of people who perform instrumental An instrumental is a recording normally without any vocals, although it might include some inarticulate vocal The human voi ...
that is in the employ of a
recording studio A recording studio is a specialized facility for sound recording Sound recording and reproduction is an electrical, Mechanical system, mechanical, electronic, or digital inscription and re-creation of sound waves, such as spoken voice, ...

recording studio
for the purpose of accompanying recording artists who are customers of the studio. The use of studio bands was more common during the 1960s with groups such Booker T. & the M.G.'s. The benefit of having a regular group, an approach which typified
Southern soul Southern soul is a type of soul music Soul music (often referred to simply as soul) is a popular music genre A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music Music is the art of arranging sounds in ti ...
, is that the group has much more experience playing together, which enables them to get a better sense of ensemble.


Notable groups

*
The Nashville A-Team The Nashville A-Team was a nickname given to a group of session musician Session musicians, studio musicians, or backing musicians are musicians hired to perform in recording sessions or live performances. The term sideman is also used in the c ...
(Nashville, 1950s–1960s) : Studio musicians who recorded during the
Nashville sound The Nashville sound originated during the mid 1950s as a subgenre of American country music Country music is a blend of popular musical forms originally found in the Southern United States and the Appalachian Mountains. The term also includes Weste ...
era. Their contributions began in the 1950s with artists such as
Elvis Presley Elvis Aaron Presley (January 8, 1935 – August 16, 1977) was an American singer and actor. Dubbed the "Honorific nicknames in popular music, King of Rock and Roll", he is regarded as Cultural impact of Elvis Presley, one of the most si ...

Elvis Presley
. The original A-Team includes bassist
Bob Moore Bob Loyce Moore (born November 30, 1932) is an American session musician Session musicians, studio musicians, or backing musicians are musicians hired to perform in recording sessions or live performances. The term sideman is also used in th ...

Bob Moore
; guitarists
Grady Martin Thomas Grady Martin (January 17, 1929 – December 3, 2001) was an American session guitarist in country music Country music is a blend of popular musical forms originally found in the Southern United States and the Appalachian Mountains. The t ...
,
Hank Garland Walter Louis Garland (11 November 1930 – 27 December 2004), professionally Hank Garland, was an American guitarist and songwriter. He started as a country musician, played rock and roll as it became popular in the 1950s, and released a jazz alb ...
, Ray Edenton, and
Harold Bradley Harold Ray Bradley (January 2, 1926 – January 31, 2019) was an American guitarist and entrepreneur, who played on many country, rock and pop recordings and produced numerous TV variety shows and movie soundtracks. Having started as a session m ...
; drummer
Buddy Harman Murrey Mizell "Buddy" Harman, Jr. (December 23, 1928 – August 21, 2008) was an United States, American country music session musician. Career Born in Nashville, Tennessee, Harman played Drum kit, drums on over 18,000 sessions for artists such as ...
; pianists
Floyd Cramer Floyd Cramer (October 27, 1933 – December 31, 1997) was an American pianist who was inducted into both the Country Music Hall of Fame and the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. His signature playing style was a cornerstone of the pop-oriented "Nashvi ...
and
Hargus "Pig" Robbins Hargus Melvin "Pig" Robbins (born January 18, 1938, in Spring City, Tennessee) is an American session keyboard player. Having played on records for many artists, including John Stewart (musician), John Stewart, Dolly Parton, Connie Smith, Patti Pag ...
; fiddler Tommy Jackson; steel guitarist
Pete Drake Roddis Franklin Drake (October 8, 1932 – July 29, 1988), professionally known as Pete Drake, was a Nashville-based American record producer and pedal steel guitar player. One of the most sought-after backup musician A musician is a perso ...
; harmonicist
Charlie McCoy Charles Ray McCoy (born March 28, 1941) is a Grammy The Grammy Award (stylized as GRAMMY, originally called Gramophone Award), or just Grammy, is an award presented by the Recording Academy The Recording Academy (formally the National ...

Charlie McCoy
; saxophonist
Boots Randolph Homer Louis "Boots" Randolph III (June 3, 1927 – July 3, 2007) was an American musician best known for his 1963 saxophone hit " Yakety Sax" (which became Benny Hill's signature tune). Randolph was a major part of the " Nashville sound" for most ...
; and vocal groups
The Jordanaires The Jordanaires were an vocal quartet that formed as a group in 1948. Over the years, they recorded both sacred and secular music as a solo act for various record companies, including , , , , , Stop Records, and many other smaller independent ...
and The
Anita Kerr Singers Anita Jean Grilli (born October 13, 1927), known professionally as Anita Kerr, is an American singer, arranger, composer, conductor, pianist, and music producer. She recorded and performed with her vocal harmony groups in Nashville Nashville ...
. Cramer, McCoy and Randolph, along with later A-Teamer and producer
Chet Atkins Chester Burton "Chet" Atkins (June 20, 1924 – June 30, 2001), known as "Mr. Guitar" and "The Country Gentleman", was an American musician, occasional vocalist, songwriter, and record producer who, along with Owen Bradley William Owen ...

Chet Atkins
, would later emerge as part of ''
Hee Haw ''Hee Haw'' is an American television Television, sometimes shortened to TV or telly, is a telecommunication Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over wire A wire is a single ...
's'' Million Dollar Band in the 1980s. * Booker T. & the M.G.'s (Memphis, 1960s–1970s) : The house band at
Stax records Stax Records is an American record label A record label, or record company, is a brand A brand is a name, term, design, symbol or any other feature that identifies one seller's good or service as distinct from those of other sellers. Bra ...

Stax records
in
Memphis Memphis is the name of: *Memphis, Egypt , alternate_name = , image = , alt = , caption = Ruins of the pillared hall of Ramesses IIat Mit Rahina , map_type = Egypt , map_alt = , map_size = , reli ...
during the 1960s and 1970s, playing behind
Otis Redding Otis Ray Redding Jr. (September 9, 1941 – December 10, 1967) was an American singer and songwriter. He is considered one of the greatest singers in the history of American popular music and a seminal artist in soul music and rhythm and blues. N ...

Otis Redding
,
Eddie Floyd Edward Lee Floyd (born June 25, 1937) is an American soul- R&B singer and songwriter, best known for his work on the Stax record label in the 1960s and 1970s including the No. 1 R&B hit song " Knock on Wood". Biography Floyd was born in Montg ...
,
Sam and Dave Sam & Dave were an American soul and R&B duo who performed together from 1961 until 1981. The tenor (higher) voice was Sam Moore Samuel David Moore (born October 12, 1935) is an American vocalist who was a member of the soul and R&B group Sa ...
,
Isaac Hayes Isaac Lee Hayes Jr. (August 20, 1942 – August 10, 2008) was an American singer, songwriter, actor, composer and producer. He was one of the creative forces behind the Southern soul music label Stax Records, where he served both as an in-house ...

Isaac Hayes
,
The Staple Singers The Staple Singers were an American Gospel music, gospel, soul music, soul, and R&B singing group. Pops Staples, Roebuck "Pops" Staples (December 28, 1914 – December 19, 2000), the patriarch of the family, formed the group with his children Cleo ...
, and others. MGs guitarist
Steve Cropper Steven Lee Cropper (born October 21, 1941), sometimes known as "The Colonel", is an American guitarist, songwriter and record producer. He is the guitarist of the Stax Records house band, Booker T. & the M.G.'s, which backed artists such as ...
co-wrote many of Redding's hits and the MGs produced albums and hit singles such as "
Green Onions "Green Onions" is an instrumental An instrumental is a recording normally without any vocals, although it might include some inarticulate vocals, such as shouted backup vocals in a big band setting. Through semantic widening, a broader sens ...

Green Onions
" in their own right while being the house band at Stax. * The Wrecking Crew (Los Angeles, 1960s–1970s) : Prolific, established studio musicians based in Los Angeles. They have recorded many songs and albums since the 1960s.
The Ron Hicklin Singers The Ron Hicklin Singers were a group of Los Angeles studio singers contracted and organized by Ron Hicklin. They are mostly known as the real singers behind the background vocals on The Partridge Family ''The Partridge Family'' is an American m ...
(also billed as the Charles Fox Singers) was a vocal session group closely associated with the Wrecking Crew and appeared as backing vocalists on many of the Crew's recordings. *
The Funk Brothers The Funk Brothers were a group of Detroit-based session musicians who performed the backing to most Motown recordings from 1959 until the company moved to Los Angeles in 1972. Its members are considered among the most successful groups of stud ...

The Funk Brothers
(Detroit, 1960s–1970s) : Session musicians who backed many
Motown Records Motown Records is an American record label owned by the Universal Music Group. It was founded by Berry Gordy, Berry Gordy Jr. as Tamla Records on January 12, 1959, and incorporated as Motown Record Corporation on April 14, 1960. Its name, a po ...
recordings from the late 1950s to the early 1970s, as well as a few non-Motown recordings, notably on
Jackie Wilson Jack Leroy Wilson Jr. (June 9, 1934 – January 21, 1984) was an American soul In many religious, philosophical, and myth Myth is a folklore genre consisting of narratives that play a fundamental role in a society, such as foundationa ...

Jackie Wilson
's "
(Your Love Keeps Lifting Me) Higher and Higher "(Your Love Keeps Lifting Me) Higher and Higher" is an R&B song written by Gary Jackson, Raynard Miner, and Carl Smith. It was covered by Jackie Wilson Jack Leroy Wilson Jr. (June 9, 1934 – January 21, 1984) was an American soul singer ...
". *
The Andantes The Andantes were an American female session group for the Motown record label during the 1960s. Composed of Jackie Hicks, Marlene Barrow, and Louvain Demps, the group sang background vocals on numerous Motown recordings, including songs by Ma ...
(Detroit, 1960s) * The Memphis Boys (Memphis, 1960s) *
The Section The Section were a US instrumental rock/jazz fusion band formed in the early 1970s by guitarist Danny Kortchmar, keyboardist Craig Doerge, bassist Leland Sklar, and drummer Russ Kunkel. Other musicians associated with the group include multi-inst ...
(Los Angeles, 1960s–1970s) : A Los Angeles singer/songwriter scene associated with the
Troubadour A troubadour (, ; oc, trobador ) was a composer and performer of Old Occitan Old Occitan ( Modern Occitan: ', ca, occità antic), also called Old Provençal, was the earliest form of the Occitano-Romance languages The Occitano-Romance or ...
nightclub and
Laurel Canyon Laurel Canyon is a mountainous neighborhood in the Hollywood Hills Hollywood Hills is a residential neighborhood in the central region of Los Angeles, California. __TOC__ Geography The Hollywood Hills straddle the Cahuenga Pass within the ...
in the late 1960s to mid-1970s was supported by musicians
Russ Kunkel Russell Kunkel (born September 27, 1948) is an American drummer and producer who has worked as a session musician with many popular artists, including Jackson Browne, Jimmy Buffett, Harry Chapin, Rita Coolidge, Neil Diamond, Bob Dylan, Dan Fogelb ...
,
Danny Kortchmar Daniel Kortchmar (born April 6, 1946) is an American guitarist, session musician Session musicians, studio musicians, or backing musicians are musicians hired to perform in recording sessions or live performances. The term sideman is also use ...
, Leland Sklar and Craig Doerge. This session combo, nicknamed "the Section" or "the Mafia", backed many musicians, among others: Carole King, James Taylor, Jackson Browne, Warren Zevon, Kris Kristofferson and David Crosby. * The
Muscle Shoals Rhythm Section The Muscle Shoals Rhythm Section is a group of American session musicians based in the northern Alabama town of Muscle Shoals. One of the most prominent American studio house bands from the 1960s to the 1980s, these musicians, individually or as a ...
(Memphis, 1960s) :A group comprising Barry Beckett, Roger Hawkins (drummer), Roger Hawkins, David Hood, and Jimmy Johnson (session guitarist), Jimmy Johnson, also known as the Swampers, became known for the "Muscle Shoals Sound". Many of the recordings done in the
Memphis Memphis is the name of: *Memphis, Egypt , alternate_name = , image = , alt = , caption = Ruins of the pillared hall of Ramesses IIat Mit Rahina , map_type = Egypt , map_alt = , map_size = , reli ...
area, which included Muscle Shoals, Alabama, used The Memphis Horns in their arrangements. * MFSB (Philadelphia, 1970s) :MFSB ("Mother Father Sister Brother") was a group of soul music studio musicians based in Philadelphia at the Sigma Sound Studios; they later went on to become a name-brand instrumental group, and their best known hit was "TSOP (The Sound of Philadelphia)", better known as the theme from ''Soul Train''. * The Hillside Singers (1970s) : A vocal group commissioned to provide vocals for Mayoham Music, formed by husband and wife Al Ham and Mary Mayo (the latter of whom was also a member of the group). The group is best known for their jingles and television news themes. "I'd Like to Teach the World to Sing (In Perfect Harmony)", originally composed as a jingle for Coca-Cola, became a surprise hit and the source of the group's recording name, as the Coca-Cola commercial featured singers on a hillside. The New Seekers would have an even larger hit with the same song. Their best-known news theme was "Move Closer to Your World", associated with Capital Cities Communications' ''Action News'' local news format. * Salsoul Orchestra (New York, 1970s–1980s) *Paulinho da Costa, Paulinho Da Costa (Los Angeles, 1970s-2010s) * Compass Point All Stars (1970s–1980s) * SM Rookies (Seoul, 2010s) : A project group composed of trainees selected by entertainment company SM Entertainment, active from 2013 to 2018. The trainees selected for the group promoted by project activities, recorded and covered songs of the label's artists from 2013 to 2017, and has occasionally performed in SM Town concerts in the period of 2013-2015. Most members of the group eventually debuted and became members of the K-pop groups Red Velvet (group), Red Velvet, NCT (group), NCT and NCT (group)#Members, its subunits, and Aespa (group), Aespa.


See also

*Offstage musicians and singers in popular music


References

{{Music industry Session musicians, Occupations in music Temporary employment Popular music