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Public transport (also known as public transportation, public transit, mass transit, or simply transit) is a system of
transport Transport (in British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a language variety that has undergone substantial codification of grammar and ...

transport
for
passenger A passenger (also abbreviated as pax) is a person who travels in a vehicle but bears little or no responsibility for the tasks required for that vehicle to arrive at its destination or otherwise operate the vehicle. The vehicles may be bicycl ...

passenger
s by group travel systems available for use by the general public unlike
private transport Private transport (as opposed to public transport) is the personal or individual use of transportation Transport (in British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West G ...
, typically managed on a schedule, operated on established routes, and that charge a posted fee for each trip. There is no rigid definition; the ''
Encyclopædia Britannica The (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia") is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia which is now published exclusively as an online encyclopedia, online encyclopaedia. It was formerly published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., ...
'' specifies that public transportation is within urban areas, and air travel is often not thought of when discussing public transport—dictionaries use wording like "buses, trains, etc.", and UK government
COVID-19 Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a contagious disease A contagious disease is a disease A disease is a particular abnormal condition that negatively affects the structure A structure is an arrangement and organization o ...

COVID-19
guidance lists operators with no mention of air travel. Examples of public transport include city buses,
trolleybus A trolleybus (also known as trolley bus, trolley coach, trackless trolley, trackless tramin the 1910s and 1920sJoyce, J.; King, J. S.; and Newman, A. G. (1986). ''British Trolleybus Systems'', pp. 9, 12. London: Ian Allan Publishing Ian Alla ...

trolleybus
es,
tram A tram (also known as a streetcar or trolley in North America) is a train that runs on tramway track Tramway track is used on tramways or light rail operations. Groove (engineering), Grooved rails (or Rail profile#Grooved rail, girder ...

tram
s (or
light rail Light rail transit (LRT) is a form of passenger urban rail transit Urban rail transit is an all-encompassing term for various types of local rail Rail or rails may refer to: Rail transport *Rail transport and related matters *Rail (rail t ...

light rail
) and
passenger trains pulling passenger cars in Nevada Nevada (, ) is a U.S. state, state in the Western United States, Western region of the United States. It is bordered by Oregon to the northwest, Idaho to the northeast, California to the west, Arizona to ...
,
rapid transit Rapid transit or mass rapid transit (MRT), also known as heavy rail, metro, subway, tube, U-Bahn Rapid transit in Germany consists of four U-Bahn systems and fourteen S-Bahn systems. The U-Bahn or Untergrundbahn (''underground railway'') ...
(metro/subway/underground, etc.) and
ferries at Samothrace island, Northern Aegean, Aegean Sea. File:Spirit of America - Staten Island Ferry.jpg, The commuters between Manhattan and Staten Island">commuting">commuters between Manhattan and Staten Island in New York City. A ferry is a ...

ferries
. Public transport between cities is dominated by
airline An airline is a company that provides air transport services for traveling passenger A passenger (also abbreviated as pax) is a person who travels in a vehicle but bears little or no responsibility for the tasks required for that vehicle ...
s,
coaches Coach may refer to: Guidance/instruction * Coach (sport), a director of athletes' training and activities ** Coach (basketball) * Coaching, the practice of guiding an individual through a process ** Acting coach, a teacher who trains performers T ...
, and
intercity rail Inter-city rail services are express passenger train services that cover longer distances than commuter or regional trains. There is no precise definition of inter-city rail; its meaning may vary from country to country. Most broadly, it can ...
.
High-speed rail High-speed rail (HSR) is a type of rail transport that runs significantly faster than traditional rail traffic, using an integrated system of specialised rolling stock The term rolling stock in the rail transport Rail transport (also k ...
networks are being developed in many parts of the world. Most public transport systems run along fixed routes with set embarkation/disembarkation points to a prearranged timetable, with the most frequent services running to a
headway Headway is the distance or duration between vehicles in a transit system measured in space or time. The ''minimum headway'' is the shortest such distance or time achievable by a system without a reduction in the speed of vehicles. The precise defin ...
(e.g.: "every 15 minutes" as opposed to being scheduled for any specific time of the day). However, most public transport trips include other modes of travel, such as passengers walking or catching bus services to access train stations.
Share taxi A share taxi (also called shared taxi) is a mode of transport Mode of transport is a term used to distinguish between different ways of transportation or transporting people or goods. The different modes of transport are aviation, air, ship tra ...
s offer on-demand services in many parts of the world, which may compete with fixed public transport lines, or complement them, by bringing passengers to interchanges.
Paratransit buses engaged in paratransit services. One is picking up a person who uses a wheelchair A wheelchair is a chair with wheels, used when walking is difficult or impossible due to illness, injury, problems related to old age, or disability. These c ...
is sometimes used in areas of low demand and for people who need a door-to-door service.
/ref> Urban public transit differs distinctly among Asia, North America, and Europe. In Asia, profit-driven, privately owned and publicly traded mass transit and
real estate Real estate is property consisting of land and the buildings on it, along with its natural resources such as crops, minerals or water; immovable property of this nature; an interest vested in this (also) an item of real property, (more genera ...

real estate
conglomerates predominantly operate public transit systems. In North America, municipal transit authorities most commonly run mass transit operations. In Europe, both state-owned and private companies predominantly operate mass transit systems. Public transport services can be profit-driven by use of pay-by-the-distance
fare A fare is the fee paid by a passenger for use of a public transport system: Rail transport, rail, bus, Taxicab, taxi, etc. In the case of airline, air transport, the term airfare is often used. Fare structure is the system set up to determine how ...

fare
s or funded by government subsidies in which flat rate fares are charged to each passenger. Services can be fully profitable through high usership numbers and high
farebox recovery ratio The farebox A fare is the fee paid by a passenger for use of a public transport system: Rail transport, rail, bus, Taxicab, taxi, etc. In the case of airline, air transport, the term airfare is often used. Fare structure is the system set up to ...
s, or can be regulated and possibly from local or national tax revenue. Fully subsidised,
free of charge File:Galuel RMS - free as free speech, not as free beer (cropped).png, upRichard Stallman illustrating his famous sentence "Think free as in free speech, not free beer" with a beer glass. Brussels, Libre Software Meeting, RMLL, 9 July 2013 Th ...
services operate in some towns and cities. For geographical, historical and economic reasons, differences exist internationally regarding use and extent of public transport. While countries in the
Old World The Old World consists of Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous , after in both cases. At about 30.3 million km2 (11.7 million square miles) including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of 's total su ...
tend to have extensive and frequent systems serving their old and dense cities, many cities of the
New World The "New World" is a term for the majority of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. The re ...
have more sprawl and much less comprehensive public transport. The
International Association of Public Transport The International Association of Public Transport (UITP, from the french: L’Union internationale des transports publics) is a non-profit advocacy organization for public transport authorities and operators, policy decision-makers, scientific inst ...
(UITP) is the international network for public transport authorities and operators, policy decision-makers, scientific institutes and the public transport supply and service industry. It has 3,400 members from 92 countries from all over the globe.


History

Conveyances designed for public hire are as old as the first
ferries at Samothrace island, Northern Aegean, Aegean Sea. File:Spirit of America - Staten Island Ferry.jpg, The commuters between Manhattan and Staten Island">commuting">commuters between Manhattan and Staten Island in New York City. A ferry is a ...

ferries
, and the earliest public transport was
water transport Maritime transport (or ocean transport) and hydrolyc effluvial transport, or more generally waterborne transport, is the transport Transport (in British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English lang ...

water transport
: on land people walked (sometimes in groups and on
pilgrimage A pilgrimage is a journey, often into an unknown or foreign place, where a person goes in search of new or expanded meaning about their self, others, nature, or a higher good, through the experience. It can lead to a personal transformation, aft ...
s, as noted in sources such as the Bible and ''
The Canterbury Tales ''The Canterbury Tales'' ( enm, Tales of Caunterbury) is a collection of 24 stories that runs to over 17,000 lines written in Middle English by Geoffrey Chaucer between 1387 and 1400. It is near-unanimously seen as Chaucer's ''Masterpiece, mag ...

The Canterbury Tales
'') or (at least in
Eurasia Eurasia () is the largest continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a ...

Eurasia
and
Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', ...

Africa
) rode an animal. Ferries appear in
Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myth Myth is a folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the tradition A tradition is a belief A belief is an Attitude (psyc ...
—corpses in ancient Greece were buried with a coin underneath their tongue to pay the ferryman
Charon In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of s originally told by the , and a of . These stories concern the and , the lives and activities of , , and , and the origins and significance of the ancient Greeks' own and practices. M ...
to take them to
Hades Hades (; grc-gre, ᾍδης, Háidēs; ), in the ancient Greek religion Ancient Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs, rituals, and Greek mythology, mythology originating in ancient Greece in the form of both popular public ...

Hades
. Some historical forms of public transport include the
stagecoach A stagecoach is a four-wheeled public transport Public transport (also known as public transportation, public transit, mass transit, or simply transit) is a system of transport Transport (commonly used in the U.K.), or transportation ...

stagecoach
, traveling a fixed route between
coaching inn The coaching inn (also coaching house or staging inn) was a vital part of Europe's inland transport infrastructure until the History of rail transport, development of the railway, providing a resting point (layover) for people and horses. The inn ...
s, and the
horse-drawn boat A horse-drawn boat or tow-boat is a historic boat operating on a canal, pulled by a horse walking beside the canal on a towpath. United Kingdom The Romans are known to have used mules to haul boats on their waterways in the UK. Boat horses were t ...
carrying paying passengers, which was a feature of European
canal Canals are waterways channels Channel, channels, channeling, etc., may refer to: Geography * Channel (geography), in physical geography, a landform consisting of the outline (banks) of the path of a narrow body of water. Australia * ...

canal
s from their 17th-century origins. The canal itself as a form of infrastructure dates back to antiquity –
ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization  A civilization (or civilisation) is a that is characterized by , , a form of government, and systems of communication (such as ). Civilizations are intimately associated with additional char ...

ancient Egypt
ians certainly used a canal for freight transportation to bypass the
Aswan Aswan (, also ; ar, أسوان, ʾAswān ; cop, Ⲥⲟⲩⲁⲛ, Souan ) is a city in the south of Egypt Egypt ( ; ar, مِصر ), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the North Africa, northeast ...

Aswan
cataract – and the Chinese also built canals for water transportation as far back as the
Warring States period The Warring States period () was an era in ancient Chinese history characterized by warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation. It followed the Spring and Autumn period#REDIRECT Spring and Autumn period The Spri ...
which began in the 5th century BCE. Whether or not those canals were used for-hire public transport remains unknown; the
Grand CanalGrand Canal can refer to multiple waterways: * Grand Canal (China) in eastern China * Grand Canal (Ireland), between the River Shannon and Dublin in Ireland * Grand Canal (Venice) in Venice, Italy * Grand Canal d'Alsace in eastern France *Grand Cana ...
in China (begun in 486 BCE) served primarily for shipping grain. The
omnibus Omnibus may refer to: Film and television * Omnibus (film), ''Omnibus'' (film) * Omnibus (broadcast), a compilation of TV episodes * Omnibus (UK TV series), ''Omnibus'' (UK TV series), an arts-based documentary programme * Omnibus (U.S. TV series ...

omnibus
, the first organized public transit system within a city, appears to have originated in
Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 residents , in an area of more than . Since the 17th century, Paris ha ...

Paris
, France, in 1662, although the service in question, Carrosses à cinq sols, failed a few months after its founder,
Blaise Pascal Blaise Pascal ( , , ; ; 19 June 1623 – 19 August 1662) was a French mathematician, physicist, inventor, philosopher, writer and Catholic Church, Catholic theologian. He was a child prodigy who was educated by his father, a tax collector i ...

Blaise Pascal
, died in August 1662; omnibuses are next known to have appeared in
Nantes Nantes (, , ; Gallo language, Gallo: ''Naunnt'' or ''Nantt'' ; ) is a city in Loire-Atlantique on the Loire, from the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic coast. The city is the List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, sixth largest in F ...

Nantes
, France, in 1826. The omnibus was introduced to
London London is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowerc ...

London
in July 1829. The first passenger horse-drawn railway opened in 1806: it ran between
Swansea Swansea (; cy, Abertawe ) is a coastal City status in the United Kingdom, city and the List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, second-largest city of Wales. It forms a Principal areas of Wales, principal area, officially known as the City ...
and
Mumbles Mumbles ( cy, Mwmbwls) is a headland sited on the western edge of Swansea Bay on the southern coast of Wales. The name Mumbles (district), Mumbles is also applied to the district encompassing the electoral wards of Oystermouth, Newton, Swansea, ...
in
southwest The points of the compass are the vectors by which planet A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or Stellar evolution#Stellar remnants, stellar remnant that is massive enough to be Hydrostatic equilibrium, rounded by its own gravity ...

southwest
Wales in the United Kingdom. In 1825
George Stephenson George Stephenson (9 June 1781 – 12 August 1848) was an English civil engineer A civil engineer is a person who practices civil engineering Civil engineering is a Regulation and licensure in engineering, professional engineering disci ...

George Stephenson
built the ''
Locomotion Locomotion means the act or ability of an entity or person to transport or move oneself from place to place. Locomotion or Loco-Motion may refer to: Motion * Motion (physics) *Specific types of motion ** Animal locomotion *** Terrestrial locomoti ...
'' for the
Stockton and Darlington Railway The Stockton and Darlington Railway (S&DR) was a railway company that operated in north-east England from 1825 to 1863. The world's first public railway to use steam locomotive A steam locomotive is a rail vehicle A railroad car, ...
in
northeast The points of the compass are the vectors by which planet A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or Stellar evolution#Stellar remnants, stellar remnant that is massive enough to be Hydrostatic equilibrium, rounded by its own gravity ...
England, the first public steam railway in the world. The first successful electric
streetcar A tram (also known as a streetcar or trolley in North America) is a train that runs on tramway track Tramway track is used on tramways or light rail operations. Groove (engineering), Grooved rails (or Rail profile#Grooved rail, girder ...

streetcar
was built for 12 miles of track for the Union Passenger Railway in Richmond, Virginia in 1888. Electric streetcars could carry heavier passenger loads than predecessors, which reduced fares and stimulated greater transit use. Two years after the Richmond success, over thirty two thousand electric streetcars were operating in America. Electric streetcars also paved the way for the first subway system in America. Before electric streetcars, steam powered subways were considered. However, most people believed that riders would avoid the smoke filled subway tunnels from the steam engines. In 1894, Boston built the first subway in the United States, an electric streetcar line in a 1.5-mile tunnel under Tremont Street's retail district. Other cities such as New York quickly followed, constructing hundreds of miles of subway in the following decades.


Types

*
Aerial lift Aerial may refer to: Music * ''Aerial'' (album), by Kate Bush *Aerials (song), ''Aerials'' (song), from the album ''Toxicity'' by System of a Down Bands *Aerial (Canadian band) *Aerial (Scottish band) *Aerial (Swedish band) Performance art ...
**
Aerial tramway Aerial may refer to: Music * ''Aerial'' (album), by Kate Bush * ''Aerials'' (song), from the album ''Toxicity'' by System of a Down Bands *Aerial (Canadian band) Aerial was a Canadians, Canadian pop and rock band from Toronto, active dur ...
*** Funifor **
Chairlift An elevated passenger ropeway, or chairlift, is a type of aerial lift, which consists of a continuously circulating steel Steel is an alloy of iron with typically a few tenths of a percent of carbon to improve its strength of materials, ...

Chairlift
***
Detachable chairlift Boarding, riding and maintenance of various detachable chairlifts from Doppelmayr in Vorarlberg, Austria A detachable chairlift or high-speed chairlift is a type of passenger aerial lift Aerial may refer to: Music * ''Aerial'' (album), by Ka ...
**
Funitel A funitel is a type of cableway Cable transport is a broad class of transport Transport (commonly used in the U.K.), or transportation (used in the U.S.), is the Motion, movement of humans, animals and cargo, goods from one location to ano ...
**
Gondola lift 's Air Line An air line is a Tube (fluid conveyance), tube, or hose, that contains and carries a compressed air supply. In industrial usage, this may be used to inflate car or bicycle tire, tyres or power tools worked by compressed air, for br ...
*
Maritime transport Maritime transport (or ocean transport) and hydrolyc effluvial transport, or more generally waterborne transport, is the transport of people (passengers) or goods (cargo) via waterways. Freight transport by sea has been widely used througho ...
**
Ferry A ferry is a vessel used to carry passengers, and sometimes vehicles and cargo, across a body of water. A passenger ferry with many stops, such as in Venice Venice ( ; it, Venezia ; vec, Venesia or ) is a city in northeastern It ...

Ferry
***
Cable ferry A cable ferry (including the terms chain ferry, swing ferry, floating bridge, or punt) is a ferry at Samothrace island, Northern Aegean, Aegean Sea. File:Spirit of America - Staten Island Ferry.jpg, The Staten Island Ferry in the United ...

Cable ferry
****
Reaction ferry A reaction ferry is a cable ferry that uses the Reaction (physics), reaction of the Current (stream), current of a river against a fixed tether to propel the vessel across the water. Such ferries operate faster and more effectively in rivers with s ...

Reaction ferry
**
Water taxi A water taxi or a water bus is a watercraft used to provide public transport, public or private transport, usually, but not always, in an Urban area, urban environment. Service may be scheduled with multiple stops, operating in a sim ...
*
Land transport Land transport is the transport Transport (commonly used in the U.K.), or transportation (used in the U.S.), is the Motion, movement of humans, animals and cargo, goods from one location to another. In other words, the action of transport is ...
** Personal public transport ***
Bicycle-sharing system A bicycle-sharing system, public bicycle scheme, or public bike share (PBS) scheme, is a shared transport service in which bicycles are made available for shared use to individuals on a short term basis for a price or free. Many bike share sy ...
***
Carsharing Carsharing or car sharing (AU, NZ, CA, TH, & US) or car clubs (UK) is a model of car rental A car rental, hire car, or car hire agency is a company that s for short periods of time, generally ranging from a few hours to a few weeks. It is o ...

Carsharing
*** Personal rapid transit **
Rail transport Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a means of transferring passengers and goods on wheeled vehicle A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine that transports people or cargo. Vehicles include wagons, bicycles, motor veh ...

Rail transport
***
Inter-city rail Inter-city rail services are express passenger train services that cover longer distances than or trains. There is no precise definition of inter-city rail; its meaning may vary from country to country. Most broadly, it can include any s tha ...
****
High-speed rail High-speed rail (HSR) is a type of rail transport that runs significantly faster than traditional rail traffic, using an integrated system of specialised rolling stock The term rolling stock in the rail transport Rail transport (also k ...
*****
Maglev Maglev (from ''magnetic levitation Magnetic levitation (maglev) or magnetic suspension is a method by which an object is levitation, suspended with no support other than magnetic fields. Lorentz force, Magnetic force is used to counteract ...

Maglev
***
Urban rail transit Urban rail transit is an all-encompassing term for various types of local rail Rail or rails may refer to: Rail transport *Rail transport and related matters *Rail (rail transport) or railway lines, the running surface of a railway Film *Rail ...
****
Airport rail link An airport rail link is a service providing passenger rail transport Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a means of transferring passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, which are located on tracks. In c ...
****
Atmospheric railway An atmospheric railway uses differential air pressure Atmospheric pressure, also known as barometric pressure (after the barometer), is the pressure within the atmosphere of Earth File:Atmosphere gas proportions.svg, Composition of Earth ...
****
Automated guideway transit'' AGT, Odaiba Tokyo, Japan The automated guideway transit (AGT) is a fully automated, driverless transit system in which vehicles are automatically guided along a guideway. The vehicles are often rubber tired or steel wheeled, but other system ...
**** Cable car ****
Cable railway A cable railway is a railway that uses a Wire rope, cable, rope or chain to haul trains. It is a specific type of cable transportation. The most common use for a cable railway is to move vehicles on a Grade (slope), steeply graded line that is to ...
****
Commuter rail Commuter rail, or suburban rail, is a service that primarily operates within a , connecting to a from adjacent s or s. Generally commuter rail systems are considered , using electrified or diesel trains. Distance charges or may be use ...
****
Elevated railway An elevated railway or elevated train (also known as an el train for short) is a rapid transit Rapid transit or mass rapid transit (MRT), also known as heavy rail, metro, subway, tube, U-Bahn, metropolitana or underground, is a type of ...
****
Funicular A funicular (, , ) is a type of cable railway A cable railway is a railway that uses a Wire rope, cable, rope or chain to haul trains. It is a specific type of cable transportation. The most common use for a cable railway is to move vehicles ...

Funicular
*****
Inclined elevator An inclined elevator or inclined lift is a form of a cable railway system that can travel up a steep gradient. Introduction An inclined elevator consists of one or two inclined tracks on a slope with a single car on each carrying payload. I ...
****
Light rail Light rail transit (LRT) is a form of passenger urban rail transit Urban rail transit is an all-encompassing term for various types of local rail Rail or rails may refer to: Rail transport *Rail transport and related matters *Rail (rail t ...

Light rail
****
Medium-capacity rail system – Kelana Jaya Line – Wenhu Line A medium-capacity system (MCS), also known as light rapid transit or light metro, is a rail transport Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a means of transferring passengers and goods on w ...
****
Monorail A monorail is a railway Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a means of transferring passengers and goods on wheeled vehicle A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine that transports people or cargo. Vehicles inclu ...

Monorail
***** Slope car *****
Suspension railwayA suspension railway is a form of elevated monorail A monorail is a Rail transport, railway in which the track consists of a single rail or a beam. The term is also used to describe the beam of the system, or the trains traveling on such a beam ...
****
People mover A people mover or automated people mover (APM) is a type of small scale automated guideway transit'' AGT, Odaiba Tokyo, Japan The automated guideway transit (AGT) is a fully automated, driverless transit system in which vehicles are autom ...

People mover
****
Railway electrification system A railway electrification system supplies electric power Electric power is the rate, per unit time, at which electrical energy Electrical energy is energy derived as a result of movement of electrically charged particles. When used loos ...

Railway electrification system
****
Rapid transit Rapid transit or mass rapid transit (MRT), also known as heavy rail, metro, subway, tube, U-Bahn Rapid transit in Germany consists of four U-Bahn systems and fourteen S-Bahn systems. The U-Bahn or Untergrundbahn (''underground railway'') ...
*****
Rubber-tyred metro A rubber-tyred metro or rubber-tired metro is a form of rapid transit Rapid transit or mass rapid transit (MRT), also known as heavy rail, metro, subway, tube, U-Bahn Rapid transit in Germany consists of four U-Bahn systems and fourte ...
****
Tram A tram (also known as a streetcar or trolley in North America) is a train that runs on tramway track Tramway track is used on tramways or light rail operations. Groove (engineering), Grooved rails (or Rail profile#Grooved rail, girder ...

Tram
*****
Heritage streetcar Conservation and restoration of rail vehicles aims to preserve historic rail vehicles. Trains It may concern trains that have been removed from service and later restored to their past condition, or have never been removed from service, like UP 8 ...
*****
Tram-train File:Baden_Josefsplatz.jpg, 250px, Vienna ''Badner Bahn'' tram-trains at the terminal station in Baden bei Wien, Baden class 100 (high floor) and 400 (low floor) trainsets A tram-train is a railway public transport vehicle that meets a nati ...

Tram-train
**
Road transport Road transport or road transportation is a type of transport using roads. Transport on roads can be roughly grouped into the transportation of goods and transportation of people. In many countries licensing requirements and safety regulations e ...

Road transport
***
Public transport bus service Public transport bus services are generally based on regular operation of transit bus Interior of a wheelchair-accessible transit bus, with bucket seats and smart-card readers at the exit. A transit bus (also big bus, commuter bus, city ...
****
Transit bus Interior of a wheelchair-accessible transit bus, with bucket seats and smart-card readers at the exit. A transit bus (also big bus, commuter bus, city bus, town bus, urban bus, stage bus, public bus or simply bus) is a type of bus used on sh ...

Transit bus
*****
Articulated bus An articulated bus, also referred to as a bendy bus, tandem bus, stretch bus, or an accordion Accordions (from 19th-century German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citize ...

Articulated bus
******
Bi-articulated bus ExquiCity 24 on Mettis services at Metz, France bi-articulated bus in Guatemala City Guatemala City ( es, Ciudad de Guatemala), locally known as Guatemala or Guate, officially Ciudad de Guatemala (art. 231 of the Political Constitution of the ...
******
Trailer bus 300px, A trailer bus (Karosa NO 80) exhibited in Prague A trailer bus is a trailer (vehicle), trailer vehicle designed specifically for the transportation of passengers (a bus). Trailer buses typically comprise one of two forms: *a semi-trailer p ...
*******
Trackless train A trackless train — or tram (U.S. English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of variety (linguistics), varieties of the English language native to the Uni ...
********
Autonomous Rail Rapid Transit Autonomous Rail Rapid Transit (ART, zh, 智能轨道快运系统/智轨) is a railless guided bus bus on the O-Bahn Busway route in Adelaide, Australia , Germany Image:VantageBus-NewearthRd-KerbGuidedBusStop-P1400524.jpg, Level-boarding onto a ...
*****Rigid bus ******Airport bus ******Bus rapid transit ******Double-decker bus ******Express bus service ******Guided bus *******Rubber-tyred trams ******High-floor ******Low-floor bus ******Midibus ******Single-deck bus ******Tourist trolley ******Trolleybus ****Intercity bus service *****Coach (bus), Coach ****Minibus *****
Paratransit buses engaged in paratransit services. One is picking up a person who uses a wheelchair A wheelchair is a chair with wheels, used when walking is difficult or impossible due to illness, injury, problems related to old age, or disability. These c ...
***Taxicab ****Hackney carriage ****
Share taxi A share taxi (also called shared taxi) is a mode of transport Mode of transport is a term used to distinguish between different ways of transportation or transporting people or goods. The different modes of transport are aviation, air, ship tra ...


Comparing modes

Seven criteria measure the usability of different types of public transport and its overall appeal. The criteria are speed, comfort, safety, cost, proximity, timeliness and directness. Speed is calculated from total journey time including transfers. Proximity means how far passengers must walk or otherwise travel before they can begin the public transport leg of their journey and how close it leaves them to their desired destination. Timeliness is how long they must wait for the vehicle. Directness records how far a journey using public transport deviates from the route. In selecting between competing modes of transport, many individuals are strongly motivated by direct cost (travel fare/ ticket price to them) and convenience, as well as being informed by habit. The same individual may accept the lost time and statistically Aviation safety#Transport comparisons, higher risk of accident in
private transport Private transport (as opposed to public transport) is the personal or individual use of transportation Transport (in British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West G ...
, together with the initial, running and parking costs. locus of control, Loss of control, spatial constriction, overcrowding, high speeds/accelerations, height and other phobias may discourage use of public transport. Actual travel time on public transport becomes a lesser consideration when Predictability, predictable and when travel itself is reasonably comfortable (seats, toilets, services), and can thus be scheduled and used pleasurably, productively or for (overnight) rest. Chauffeured movement is enjoyed by many people when it is relaxing, safe, but not too monotonous. Waiting, interchanging, stops and holdups, for example due to traffic or for security, are discomforting. Jet lag is a human constraint discouraging frequent rapid long-distance east–west commuting, favoring modern telecommunications and VR technologies.


Airline

An airline provides scheduled service with aircraft between airports. Air travel has high speeds, but incurs large waiting times before and after travel, and is therefore often only feasible over longer distances or in areas where a lack of ground infrastructure makes other modes of transport impossible. Bush airlines work more similarly to bus stops; an aircraft waits for passengers and takes off when the aircraft is full.


Bus and coach

Public transport bus service, Bus services use buses on conventional roads to carry numerous passengers on shorter journeys. Buses operate with low capacity (compared with trams or trains), and can operate on conventional roads, with relatively inexpensive bus stops to serve passengers. Therefore, buses are commonly used in smaller cities, towns, and rural areas, and for Share taxi, shuttle services supplementing other means of transit in large cities. Bus rapid transit is an ambiguous term used for buses operating on dedicated right-of-way, much like a light rail. Intercity bus service, Coach services use Coach (bus), coaches (long-distance buses) for suburb-to-CBD or longer-distance transportation. The vehicles are normally equipped with more comfortable seating, a separate luggage compartment, video and possibly also a toilet. They have higher standards than city buses, but a limited stopping pattern.


Electric buses

Trolleybuses are electric bus, electrically powered buses that receive power from overhead power line by way of a set of trolley poles for mobility. Online Electric Vehicles are buses that run on a conventional battery, but are inductive charging, recharged frequently at certain points via underground wires. Certain types of buses, styled after old-style streetcars, are also called trackless trolleys, but are built on the same platforms as a typical Diesel fuel, diesel, CNG, or Hybrid vehicle, hybrid bus; these are more often used for tourist rides than commuting and tend to be privately owned.


Train

Passenger rail transport is the conveyance of passengers by means of wheeled vehicles specially designed to run on railways. Trains allow high capacity on short or long distance, but require Track (rail transport), track, Signalling control, signalling, infrastructure and train station, stations to be built and maintained.


Intercity and high-speed rail

Intercity rail is long-haul passenger services that connect multiple urban areas. They have few stops, and aim at high average speeds, typically only making one of a few stops per city. These services may also be international.
High-speed rail High-speed rail (HSR) is a type of rail transport that runs significantly faster than traditional rail traffic, using an integrated system of specialised rolling stock The term rolling stock in the rail transport Rail transport (also k ...
is passenger trains operating significantly faster than conventional rail—typically defined as at least . The most predominant systems have been built in Europe and East Asia, and compared with air travel, offer long-distance rail journeys as quick as air services, have lower prices to compete more effectively and use electricity instead of combustion.


Urban rail transit

Urban rail transit Urban rail transit is an all-encompassing term for various types of local rail Rail or rails may refer to: Rail transport *Rail transport and related matters *Rail (rail transport) or railway lines, the running surface of a railway Film *Rail ...
is an all-encompassing term for various types of local rail systems, such as
tram A tram (also known as a streetcar or trolley in North America) is a train that runs on tramway track Tramway track is used on tramways or light rail operations. Groove (engineering), Grooved rails (or Rail profile#Grooved rail, girder ...

tram
s,
light rail Light rail transit (LRT) is a form of passenger urban rail transit Urban rail transit is an all-encompassing term for various types of local rail Rail or rails may refer to: Rail transport *Rail transport and related matters *Rail (rail t ...

light rail
,
rapid transit Rapid transit or mass rapid transit (MRT), also known as heavy rail, metro, subway, tube, U-Bahn Rapid transit in Germany consists of four U-Bahn systems and fourteen S-Bahn systems. The U-Bahn or Untergrundbahn (''underground railway'') ...
, people movers, commuter rail, monorail, suspension railways and funiculars.


=Commuter rail

=
Commuter rail Commuter rail, or suburban rail, is a service that primarily operates within a , connecting to a from adjacent s or s. Generally commuter rail systems are considered , using electrified or diesel trains. Distance charges or may be use ...
is part of an urban area's public transport; it provides faster services to outer suburbs and neighboring towns and villages. Trains stop at train station, stations that are located to serve a smaller suburban or town center. The stations are often combined with shuttle bus or park and ride systems. Frequency may be up to several times per hour, and commuter rail systems may either be part of the national railway or operated by local transit agencies.


=Rapid transit

= A rapid transit railway system (also called a metro, underground, or subway) operates in an urban area with high capacity and frequency, and grade separation from other traffic. Systems are able to transport large numbers of people quickly over short distances with little land use. Variations of rapid transit include people movers, small-scale light metro and the commuter rail hybrid S-Bahn. More than 160 cities have rapid transit systems, totalling more than of track and 7,000 stations. Twenty-five cities have systems under construction.


=Tram

= Trams are railborne vehicles that run in city streets or dedicated tracks. They have higher capacity than buses, but must follow dedicated infrastructure with rails and wires either above or below the track, limiting their flexibility.


=Light rail

= Light rail is a modern development (and use) of the tram, with dedicated right-of-way not shared with other traffic, (often) step-free access and increased speed. Light rail lines are, thus, essentially modernized interurbans.


= Monorail

= Somewhere between light and heavy rail in terms of carbon footprint, monorail systems usually use overhead single tracks, either mounted directly on the track supports or put in an overhead design with the train suspended. Monorail systems are used throughout the world (especially in Europe and east Asia, particularly Japan), but apart from public transit installations in Las Vegas and Seattle, most North American monorails are either short shuttle services or privately owned services (With 150,000 daily riders, the Walt Disney World Monorail System, Disney monorail systems used at their parks may be the most famous in the world).


Personal rapid transit

Personal rapid transit is an automated cab service that runs on rails or a Automated guideway transit, guideway. This is an uncommon mode of transportation (excluding elevators) due to the complexity of automation. A fully implemented system might provide most of the convenience of individual automobiles with the efficiency of public transit. The crucial innovation is that the automated vehicles carry just a few passengers, turn off the guideway to pick up passengers (permitting other PRT vehicles to continue at full speed), and drop them off to the location of their choice (rather than at a stop). Conventional transit simulations show that PRT might attract many auto users in problematic medium-density urban areas. A number of experimental systems are in progress. One might compare personal rapid transit to the more labor-intensive taxicab, taxi or paratransit modes of transportation, or to the (by now automated) elevators common in many publicly accessible areas.


Cable-propelled transit

Cable-propelled transit (CPT) is a transit technology that moves people in motor-less, engine-less vehicles that are propelled by a steel cable. There are two sub-groups of CPT – gondola lifts and cable car (railway), cable cars (railway). Gondola lifts are supported and propelled from above by cables, whereas cable cars are supported and propelled from below by cables. While historically associated with usage in ski resorts, gondola lifts are now finding increased consumption and utilization in many urban areas – built specifically for the purposes of mass transit. Many, if not all, of these systems are implemented and fully integrated within existing public transportation networks. Examples include Metrocable (Medellín), Metrocable (Caracas), Portland Aerial Tram, Roosevelt Island Tramway in New York City, and London's Emirates Air Line (gondola lift), Emirates Air Line.


Ferry

A ferry is a boat used to carry (or ''ferry'') passengers, and sometimes their vehicles, across a body of water. A wikt:foot-passenger, foot-passenger ferry with many stops is sometimes called a water bus. Ferries form a part of the public transport systems of many waterside cities and islands, allowing direct transit between points at a capital cost much lower than bridges or tunnels, though at a lower speed. Ship connections of much larger distances (such as over long distances in water bodies like the Mediterranean Sea) may also be called ferry services.


Cycleway network

A report published by the UK National Infrastructure Commission in 2018 states that "cycling is mass transit and must be treated as such." Cycling infrastructure is normally provided without charge to users because it is cheaper to operate than mechanised transit systems that use sophisticated equipment and do not use human power.


Operation


Infrastructure

All public transport runs on infrastructure, either on roads, rail, airways or seaways. The infrastructure can be shared with other modes, freight and private transport, or it can be dedicated to public transport. The latter is especially valuable in cases where there are capacity problems for private transport. Investments in infrastructure are expensive and make up a substantial part of the total costs in systems that are new or expanding. Once built, the infrastructure will require operating and maintenance costs, adding to the total cost of public transport. Sometimes governments subsidize infrastructure by providing it free of charge, just as is common with roads for automobiles.


Interchanges

Interchanges are locations where passengers can switch from one public transport route to another. This may be between vehicles of the same mode (like a bus interchange), or e.g. between bus and train. It can be between local and intercity transport (such as at a central station or airport).


Timetables

Public transport timetable, Timetables (or 'schedules' in North American English) are provided by the transport operator to allow users to plan their journeys. They are often supplemented by transit map, maps and fare schemes to help travelers coordinate their travel. Online public transport route planners help make planning easier. Mobile apps are available for multiple transit systems that provide timetables and other service information and, in some cases, allow ticket purchase, some allowing to plan your journey, with time fares zones e.g. Services are often arranged to operate at regular intervals throughout the day or part of the day (known as clock-face scheduling). Often, more frequent services or even extra routes are operated during the morning and evening rush hours. Coordination between services at interchange points is important to reduce the total travel time for passengers. This can be done by coordinating shuttle services with main routes, or by creating a fixed time (for instance twice per hour) when all bus and rail routes meet at a station and exchange passengers. There is often a potential conflict between this objective and optimising the utilisation of vehicles and drivers.


Financing

The main sources of financing are ticket revenue, government subsidies and advertising. The percentage of revenue from passenger charges is known as the
farebox recovery ratio The farebox A fare is the fee paid by a passenger for use of a public transport system: Rail transport, rail, bus, Taxicab, taxi, etc. In the case of airline, air transport, the term airfare is often used. Fare structure is the system set up to ...
. A limited amount of income may come from land development and rental income from stores and vendors, parking fees, and leasing tunnels and rights-of-way to carry fiber optic communication lines.


Fare and ticketing

Most—but not all—public transport requires the purchase of a ticket (admission), ticket to generate revenue for the operators. Tickets may be bought either in advance, or at the time of the journey, or the carrier may allow both methods. Passengers may be issued with a paper ticket, a metal or plastic token coin, token, or a magnetic or electronic card (smart card, contactless smart card). Sometimes a ticket has to be validated, e.g. a paper ticket has to be stamped, or an electronic ticket has to be checked in. Tickets may be valid for a single (or return) trip, or valid within a certain area for a period of time (see transit pass). The
fare A fare is the fee paid by a passenger for use of a public transport system: Rail transport, rail, bus, Taxicab, taxi, etc. In the case of airline, air transport, the term airfare is often used. Fare structure is the system set up to determine how ...

fare
is based on the travel class, either depending on the traveled distance, or based on zone pricing. The tickets may have to be shown or checked automatically at the station platform or when boarding, or during the ride by a conductor (transportation), conductor. Operators may choose to control all riders, allowing sale of the ticket at the time of ride. Alternatively, a proof-of-payment system allows riders to enter the vehicles without showing the ticket, but riders may or may not be controlled by a ticket controller; if the rider fails to show proof of payment, the operator may fine the rider at the magnitude of the fare. Multi-use tickets allow travel more than once. In addition to return tickets, this includes period cards allowing travel within a certain area (for instance month cards), or during a given number of days that can be chosen within a longer period of time (for instance eight days within a month). Passes aimed at tourists, allowing free or discounted entry at many tourist attractions, typically include zero-fare public transport within the city. Period tickets may be for a particular route (in both directions), or for a Integrated ticketing, whole network. A free travel pass allowing free and unlimited travel within a system is sometimes granted to particular social sectors, for example students, elderly, children, employees (''job ticket'') and the physically or mentally disabled. Zero-fare public transport services are funded in full by means other than collecting a fare from passengers, normally through heavy subsidy or commercial sponsor (commercial), sponsorship by businesses. Several mid-size European cities and many smaller towns around the world have converted their entire bus networks to zero-fare. The only European capital with free public transport is Tallinn. Local zero-fare shuttles or inner-city loops are far more common than city-wide systems. There are also zero-fare airport circulators and university transportation systems.


Revenue, profit and subsidies

Governments frequently opt to subsidize public transport for social, environmental or economic reasons. Common motivations include the desire to provide transport to people who are unable to use an automobile and to reduce congestion, land use and automobile emissions. Subsidies may take the form of direct payments for financially unprofitable services, but support may also include indirect subsidies. For example, the government may allow free or reduced-cost use of state-owned infrastructure such as railways and roads, to stimulate public transport's economic competitiveness over private transport, that normally also has free infrastructure (subsidized through such things as gas taxes). Other subsidies include tax advantages (for instance aviation fuel is typically not taxed), bailouts if companies that are likely to collapse (often applied to airlines) and reduction of competition through licensing schemes (often applied to taxis and airlines). Private transport is normally subsidized indirectly through free roads and infrastructure, as well as incentives to build car factories and, on occasion, directly via bailouts of automakers. Land development schemes may be initialized, where operators are given the rights to use lands near stations, depots, or tracks for property development. For instance, in Hong Kong, MTR Corporation Limited and KCR Corporation generate additional profits from land development to partially cover the cost of the construction of the urban rail system. Some supporters of mass transit believe that use of taxpayer capital to fund mass transit will ultimately save taxpayer money in other ways, and therefore, state-funded mass transit is a benefit to the taxpayer. Some research has supported this position, but the measurement of benefits and costs is a complex and controversial issue. A lack of mass transit results in more traffic, pollution, and road construction to accommodate more vehicles, all costly to taxpayers; providing mass transit will therefore alleviate these costs. (Perhaps, although others disagree)


Safety and security

Relative to other forms of transportation, public transit is safe (with a low crash risk) and secure (with low rates of crime).Todd Litman
A New Transit Safety Narrative
, ''Journal of Public Transportation'', Vol. 17, No. 4 (2014), pp. 114-134.
The injury and death rate for public transit is roughly one-tenth that of automobile travel. A 2014 study noted that "residents of transit-oriented communities have about one-fifth the per capita crash casualty rate as in automobile-oriented communities" and that "Transit also tends to have lower overall crime rates than automobile travel, and transit improvements can help reduce overall crime risk by improving surveillance and economic opportunities for at-risk populations." Although relatively safe and secure, public perceptions that transit systems are dangerous endure. A 2014 study stated that "Various factors contribute to the under-appreciation of transit safety benefits, including the nature of transit travel, dramatic news coverage of transit crashes and crimes, transit agency messages that unintentionally emphasize risks without providing information on its overall safety, and biased traffic safety analysis." Some systems attract vagrants who use the stations or trains as sleeping shelters, though most operators have practices that discourage this.Needle et al., 1997: 10–13


Impact


Accessibility

Public transport is means of independent transport for individuals (without walking or bicycling) such as children too young to drive, the elderly without access to cars, those who do not hold a drivers license, and the infirm such as wheelchair users. Kneeling buses, low-floor access boarding on buses and light rail has also enabled greater access for the disabled in mobility. In recent decades low-floor access has been incorporated into modern designs for vehicles. In economically deprived areas, public transport increases individual accessibility to transport where private means are unaffordable.


Environmental

Although there is continuing debate as to the true efficiency of different modes of transportation, mass transit is generally regarded as significantly more Energy efficiency in transport, energy efficient than other forms of travel. A 2002 study by the Brookings Institution and the American Enterprise Institute found that public transportation in the U.S uses approximately half the fuel required by cars, SUVs and light trucks. In addition, the study noted that "private vehicles emit about 95 percent more carbon monoxide, 92 percent more volatile organic compounds and about twice as much carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxide than public vehicles for every passenger mile traveled". Studies have shown that there is a strong inverse correlation between population density, urban population density and World energy resources and consumption, energy consumption per capita, and that public transport could facilitate increased urban population densities, and thus reduce travel distances and fossil fuel consumption. Supporters of the green movement usually advocate public transportation, because it offers decreased airborne pollution compared to automobiles. A study conducted in Milan, Italy, in 2004 during and after a transportation strike serves to illustrate the impact that mass transportation has on the environment. Air samples were taken between 2 and 9 January, and then tested for methane, carbon monoxide, non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), and other gases identified as harmful to the environment. The figure below is a computer simulation showing the results of the study "with 2 January showing the lowest concentrations as a result of decreased activity in the city during the holiday season. 9 January showed the highest NMHC concentrations because of increased vehicular activity in the city due to a public transportation strike." Based on the benefits of public transport, the green movement has affected public policy. For example, the state of New Jersey released ''Getting to Work: Reconnecting Jobs with Transit''. This initiative attempts to relocate new jobs into areas with higher public transportation accessibility. The initiative cites the use of public transportation as being a means of reducing traffic congestion, providing an economic boost to the areas of job relocation, and most importantly, contributing to a green environment by reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Using public transportation can result in a reduction of an individual's carbon footprint. A single person, round trip by car can be replaced using public transportation and result in a net CO2 emissions reduction of per year.Public Transportation Reduces Greenhouse Gases and Conserves Energy
Using public transportation saves CO2 emissions in more ways than simply travel as public transportation can help to alleviate traffic congestion as well as promote more efficient land use. When all three of these are considered, it is estimated that 37 million metric tons of CO2 will be saved annually. Another study claims that using public transit instead of private in the U.S. in 2005 would have reduced CO2 emissions by 3.9 million metric tons and that the resulting traffic congestion reduction accounts for an additional 3.0 million metric tons of CO2 saved. This is a total savings of about 6.9 million metric tons per year given the 2005 values. In order to compare energy impact of public transportation to private transportation, the amount of energy per passenger mile must be calculated. The reason that comparing the energy expenditure per person is necessary is to normalize the data for easy comparison. Here, the units are in per 100 p-km (read as person kilometer or passenger kilometer). In terms of energy consumption, public transportation is better than individual transport in a personal vehicle. In England, bus and rail are popular methods of public transportation, especially in London. Rail provides rapid movement into and out of the city of London while busing helps to provide transport within the city itself. As of 2006–2007, the total energy cost of London's trains was 15 kWh per 100 p-km, about 5 times better than a personal car.David JC MacKay. "Sustainable Energy Without the Hot Air." 2009. p. 121 www.withouthotair.com For busing in London, it was 32 kWh per 100 p-km, or about 2.5 times that of a personal car. This includes lighting, depots, inefficiencies due to capacity (i.e., the train or bus may not be operating at full capacity at all times), and other inefficiencies. Efficiencies of transport in Japan in 1999 were 68 kWh per 100 p-km for a personal car, 19 kWh per 100 p-km for a bus, 6 kWh per 100 p-km for rail, 51 kWh per 100 p-km for air, and 57 kWh per 100 p-km for sea. These numbers from either country can be used in energy comparison calculations or life-cycle assessment calculations. Public transportation also provides an arena to test environmentally friendly fuel alternatives, such as hydrogen-powered vehicles. Swapping out materials to create lighter public transportation vehicles with the same or better performance will increase environmental friendliness of public transportation vehicles while maintaining current standards or improving them. Informing the public about the positive environmental effects of using public transportation in addition to pointing out the potential economic benefit is an important first step towards making a difference.


Land use

Dense areas with mixed-land uses promote daily public transport use while urban sprawl is associated with sporadic public transport use. A recent European multi-city survey found that dense urban environments, reliable and affordable public transport services, and limiting motorized vehicles in high density areas of the cities will help achieve much needed promotion of public transport use. Urban space is a precious commodity and public transport utilises it more efficiently than a car dominant society, allowing cities to be built more compactly than if they were dependent on automobile transport. If public transport planning is at the core of urban planning, it will also force cities to be built more compactly to create efficient feeds into the stations and stops of transport. This will at the same time allow the creation of centers around the hubs, serving passengers' daily commercial needs and public services. This approach significantly reduces urban sprawl. Public land planning for public transportation can be difficult but it is the State and Regional organizations that are responsible to planning and improving public transportation roads and routes. With public land prices booming, there must be a plan to using the land most efficiently for public transportation in order to create better transportation systems. Inefficient land use and poor planning leads to a decrease in accessibility to jobs, education, and health care.


Societal

The consequences for wider society and civic life, is public transport breaks down social and cultural barriers between people in public life. An important social role played by public transport is to ensure that all members of society are able to travel without walking or cycling, not just those with a driving license and access to an automobile—which include groups such as the young, the old, the poor, those with medical conditions, and people banned from driving. Automobile dependency is a name given by policy makers to places where those without access to a private vehicle do not have access to independent mobility. This dependency contributes to the Transport divide, transport divide. Above that, public transportation opens to its users the possibility of meeting other people, as no concentration is diverted from interacting with fellow-travelers due to any steering activities. Adding to the above-said, public transport becomes a location of inter-social encounters across all boundaries of social, ethnic and other types of affiliation.


Economic

Investment in public transport has secondary positive effects on the local economy, with between $4 and $9 of economic activity resulting from every dollar spent. Many businesses rely on access to a transit system, in particular in cities and countries where access to cars is less widespread, businesses which require large numbers of people going to a same place may not be able to accommodate a large number of cars (concert venues, sport stadia, airports, exhibitions centres,...), or businesses where people are not able to use a car (bars, hospitals, or industries in the tourism sector whose customers may not have their cars). Transit systems also have an effect on derived businesses: commercial websites have been founded, such as Hopstop.com, that give directions through mass transit systems; in some cities, such as London, products themed on the local transport system are a popular tourist souvenir. Research in the Washington, DC area shows that public transport does a better job of providing high-skill residents with access to high-skill jobs than it does mid-skill residents to mid-skill jobs and low-skill residents to low-skill jobs.


Social issues

Because night trains or coaches can be cheaper than motels, homeless persons sometimes use these as overnight shelters, as with the famous Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority#Bus routes, Line 22 ("Hotel 22") in Silicon Valley.Cathy Newman, "Silicon Valley: Inside the Dream Incubator", ''National Geographic (magazine), National Geographic'' 200, no. 6 (December 2001): 52–76.


See also

* 3D Express Coach * Finnish models of public transport * Free public transport * Hitchhiking *
International Association of Public Transport The International Association of Public Transport (UITP, from the french: L’Union internationale des transports publics) is a non-profit advocacy organization for public transport authorities and operators, policy decision-makers, scientific inst ...
* List of urban transit advocacy organisations * Passenger load factor * Patronage (transport) * Private transport *
Public transport bus service Public transport bus services are generally based on regular operation of transit bus Interior of a wheelchair-accessible transit bus, with bucket seats and smart-card readers at the exit. A transit bus (also big bus, commuter bus, city ...
* Public transport route planner * Public transport timetable * Sustainable transport * Transit district * Transit pass * Transit police * Transit watchdog * Transport divide * Transportation engineering


References


Further reading

* Hess, D. 2007. "What is a clean bus? Object conflicts in the greening of urban transit." ''Sustainability: Science, Practice, & Policy'' 3(1):45–58

* * * * *


External links


International Association of Public Transport

US High Speed Rail Association

Transit Standards
- Knowledge base on branding, digital strategy, and graphic standards for public transit, compiled by Stewart Mader. Contains over 100 resources and examples, including 30 graphics standards manuals from transit agencies worldwide. {{DEFAULTSORT:Public Transport Public transport, Sustainable transport Articles containing video clips