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A preschool, also known as nursery school, pre-primary school, or play school, is an
educational establishment
educational establishment
or
learning space Learning space or learning setting refers to a physical setting for a learning environment, a place in which teaching and learning occur. The term is commonly used as a more definitive alternative to "classroom," but it may also refer to an i ...
offering
early childhood education#REDIRECT Early childhood education Early childhood education (ECE; also nursery education) is a branch of education theory that relates to the teaching of child Biologically, a child (plural children) is a human Humans (''Homo sap ...
to children before they begin
compulsory education Compulsory education refers to a period of education that is required of all people and is imposed by the government. This education may take place at a registered school or Homeschooling, at other places. Compulsory school attendance or compuls ...
at primary school. It may be publicly or privately operated, and may be subsidized from public funds.


Terminology

Terminology varies by country. In some European countries the term "kindergarten" refers to formal education of children classified as '' ISCED level 0'' – with one or several years of such education being compulsory – before children start primary school at ''ISCED level 1''. The following terms may be used for educational institutions for this age group: *Pre-Primary from 6 weeks old to 6 years old- is an educational childcare service a parent can enroll their child(ren) in before primary school. This can also be used to define services for children younger than kindergarten age, especially in countries where kindergarten is compulsory. The pre-primary program takes place in a nursery school. *Nursery school (UK and US) from 0 months to 5 years old- is a pre-primary educational child care institution which includes Preschool. *Daycare (US) from 0 months to 2½ years old – held in a Nursery School, but can also be called "a child care service" or a "crèche".Turner, Martin; Rack, John Paul (2004). ''The study of dyslexia''. Birkhäuser, Dustmann, Christian; Fitzenberger, Bernd; Machin, Stephen (2008). ''The economics of education and training.'' Springer, *Preschool (US and UK) from 2 to 5 years old- held in a Nursery School; readiness has to do with whether the child is developmentally appropriate, potty training is a big factor, so a child can start as early as 2 years old. Preschool education is important and beneficial for any child attending nursery school because it gives the child a head start through social interactions. Through cognitive, psychosocial and physical development-based learning a child in preschool will learn about their environment and how to verbally communicate with others. Children who attend Preschool learn how the world around them works through play and communication. *
Pre-K Pre-kindergarten (also called Pre-K or PK) is a voluntary classroom A classroom or schoolroom is a learning space in which both children and adults learn. Classrooms are found in educational institutions of all kinds, ranging from preschools t ...
(or Pre-Kindergarten) from 4 to 5 years old- held in Nursery School and is an initiative to improve access to pre-primary schools for children in the USA. There is much more than teaching a child colors, numbers, shapes and so on. *
Kindergarten Kindergarten (, ) is a preschool educational approach based on playing, singing, practical activities such as drawing, and social interaction as part of the transition from home to school. Such institutions were originally made in the late 18th ...

Kindergarten
(US) from 5 to 6 years old- held in a Nursery School and/or some primary elementary schools; in many parts of world (less so in English speaking countries) it refers to the first stages of formal education.


History


Origins

In an age when school was restricted to children who had already learned to read and write at home, there were many attempts to make school accessible to orphans or to the children of women who worked in factories. In 1779,
Johann Friedrich Oberlin J. F. Oberlin (31 August 1740 – 1 June 1826) was an Alsatian pastor and a philanthropist. He has been known as John Frederic(k) Oberlin in English language, English, Jean-Frédéric Oberlin in French language, French, and Johann Friedrich Oberlin ...
and Louise Scheppler founded in
Strassbourg Strasbourg (, , ; gsw, label= Bas Rhin Alsatian, Strossburi , gsw, label=Haut Rhin Haut-Rhin (, ; Alsatian language, Alsatian: ''Owerelsàss'' or ';. german: Oberelsass, ) is a Departments of France, department in the Grand Est Regions ...

Strassbourg
an early establishment for caring for and educating pre-school children whose parents were absent during the day. At about the same time, in 1780, similar infant establishments were established in
Bavaria Bavaria (; German language, German and Bavarian language, Bavarian: ''Bayern'' ), officially the Free State of Bavaria (German and Bavarian: ''Freistaat Bayern''; ), is a Landlocked country, landlocked Federated state, state (''States of Germany ...

Bavaria
In 1802, Pauline zur Lippe established a preschool center in
Detmold Detmold () is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia North Rhine-Westphalia (german: Nordrhein-Westfalen, ; Low Franconian Low Franconian, Low Frankish, NetherlandicSarah Grey Thomason, Terrence Kaufman: ''Language Contact, Creolization, and Gen ...
. In 1816,
Robert Owen Robert Owen (; 14 May 1771 – 17 November 1858) was a textile manufacturer, philanthropist and social reformer, and a founder of and the movement. He strove to improve factory working conditions, promoted experimental socialistic communitie ...
, a philosopher and
pedagogue Pedagogy (), most commonly understood as the approach to teaching, is the theory and practice of learning, and how this process influences, and is influenced by, the social, political and psychological development of learners. Pedagogy, taken as ...
, opened the first British and probably globally the first infant school in
New Lanark New is an adjective referring to something recently made, discovered, or created. New or NEW may refer to: Music * New, singer of K-pop group The Boyz Albums and EPs * ''New'' (album), by Paul McCartney, 2013 * ''New'' (EP), by Regurgitator, ...

New Lanark
, Scotland. In conjunction with his venture for
cooperative A cooperative (also known as co-operative, co-op, or coop) is "an autonomous The federal subject The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (russian: субъекты Российск ...
mills Owen wanted the children to be given a good moral education so that they would be fit for work. His system was successful in producing obedient children with basic literacy and numeracy.
Samuel Wilderspin Samuel Wilderspin (Hornsey Hornsey is a district of north London, England in the London Borough of Haringey. It is an inner-suburban, for the most part residential, area centred north of Charing Cross. It adjoins green spaces Queen's Wood ...

Samuel Wilderspin
opened his first infant school in London in 1819, and went on to establish hundreds more. He published many works on the subject, and his work became the model for infant schools throughout England and further afield. Play was an important part of Wilderspin's system of education. He is credited with inventing the
playground A playground, playpark, or play area is a place designed to provide an environment for child Biologically, a child (plural children) is a human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread species In biolog ...

playground
. In 1823, Wilderspin published ''On the Importance of Educating the Infant Poor'', based on the school. He began working for the Infant School Society the next year, informing others about his views. He also wrote "The Infant System, for developing the physical, intellectual, and moral powers off all children from one to seven years of age".


Spread

Countess
Theresa Brunszvik Countess Therese onBrunsvik (in Hungarian Teréz Brunszvik, sometimes referred to in English as Therese Countess von Brunsvik or Brunswick) (27 July 1775, Pozsony, Kingdom of Hungary The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe th ...
(1775–1861), who had known and been influenced by
Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi (; ; January 12, 1746 – February 17, 1827) was a Swiss Swiss may refer to: * the adjectival form of Switzerland ,german: Schweizer(in),french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , governme ...

Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi
, was influenced by this example to open an ''Angyalkert'' ('angel garden' in Hungarian) on 27 May 1828 in her residence in
Buda Buda (; German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language ...

Buda
, the first of eleven care centers that she founded for young children. In 1836 she established an institute for the foundation of preschool centers. The idea became popular among the nobility and the middle class and was copied throughout the Hungarian kingdom.
Friedrich Fröbel Friedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel or Froebel (; 21 April 1782 – 21 June 1852) was a German pedagogue, a student of Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, who laid the foundation for modern education based on the recognition that children have unique needs ...

Friedrich Fröbel
(1782–1852) opened a ''Play and Activity'' institute in 1837 in the village of
Bad Blankenburg Bad Blankenburg () is a spa town A spa town is a resort town based on a mineral spa (a developed mineral spring). Patrons visit spas to "take the waters" for their purported health benefits. The word ''spa'' is derived from the name of ...
in the
principality A principality (or sometimes princedom) can either be a monarchical A monarchy is a form of government in which a person, the monarch, is head of state for life or until abdication. The legitimacy (political)#monarchy, political le ...
of
Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt was a small historic state in present-day Thuringia, Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official lan ...
, Thuringia, which he renamed
Kindergarten Kindergarten (, ) is a preschool educational approach based on playing, singing, practical activities such as drawing, and social interaction as part of the transition from home to school. Such institutions were originally made in the late 18th ...

Kindergarten
on 28 June 1840. Women trained by Fröbel opened Kindergartens throughout Europe and around the World. The
First Kindergarten The First Kindergarten in Watertown, Wisconsin is the building that housed the first kindergarten in the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguou ...
in the United States was founded in
Watertown, Wisconsin Watertown is a city in Dodge and Jefferson counties in the U.S. state of Wisconsin. Most of the city's population is in Jefferson County. Division Street, several blocks north of downtown, marks the county line. The population of Watertown was ...
in 1856 and was conducted in German.
Elizabeth Peabody Elizabeth Palmer Peabody (May 16, 1804January 3, 1894) was an American educator who opened the first English-language kindergarten in the United States. Long before most educators, Peabody embraced the premise that children's play has intrinsic dev ...
founded America's first English-language kindergarten in 1860 and the first free kindergarten in America was founded in 1870 by
Conrad Poppenhusen Conrad Poppenhusen (April 1, 1818 – December 12, 1883) was a German American German Americans (german: Deutschamerikaner, ) are Americans Americans are the Citizenship of the United States, citizens and United States nationality law, natio ...
, a German industrialist and philanthropist, who also established the
Poppenhusen Institute Poppenhusen Institute is a historic building at 114-04 14th Road in College Point, Queens that housed the first free kindergarten Kindergarten (, ) is a preschool educational approach based on playing, singing, practical activities such as dra ...
and the first publicly financed kindergarten in the United States was established in
St. Louis St. Louis () is the second-largest city in Missouri Missouri is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State ( ...

St. Louis
in 1873 by
Susan Blow Susan Elizabeth Blow (June 7, 1843 – March 27, 1916) was an American educator who opened the first successful public kindergarten Kindergarten (, ) is a preschool educational approach based on playing, singing, practical activities such as ...

Susan Blow
. Canada's first private kindergarten was opened by the Wesleyan Methodist Church in
Charlottetown Charlottetown is the capital and largest city of the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of Prince Edward Island, and the county seat of Queens County, Prince Edward Island, Queens County. Named after Queen Charlotte, Charlotte ...

Charlottetown
, Prince Edward Island in 1870 and by the end of the decade, they were common in large Canadian towns and cities. The country's first public-school kindergartens were established in
Berlin, Ontario ) , image_flag = Flag of Kitchener, Ontario.svg , image_blank_emblem = Logo of Kitchener, Ontario.svg , blank_emblem_size = 100x90px , image_map = , mapsize ...
in 1882 at Central School.Larry Prochner, ''History of Early Childhood Education in Canada, Australia and New Zealand'', UBC Press 2009 In 1885, the
Toronto Normal School The Toronto Normal School was a teachers college in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Opened in 1847, the Normal School was located at Church and Gould streets in central Toronto (after 1852), and was a predecessor to the current Ontario Institute for Stud ...
(teacher training) opened a department for Kindergarten teaching. Elizabeth Harrison wrote extensively on the theory of
early childhood education#REDIRECT Early childhood education Early childhood education (ECE; also nursery education) is a branch of education theory that relates to the teaching of child Biologically, a child (plural children) is a human Humans (''Homo sap ...
and worked to enhance educational standards for kindergarten teachers by establishing what became the National College of Education in 1886. Head Start was the first publicly funded preschool program in the US, created in 1965 by for low-income families—only 10% of children were then enrolled in preschool. Due to large demand, various states subsidized preschool for low-income families in the 1980s.


Developmental areas

The most important years of
learning Learning is the process of acquiring new understanding Understanding is a psychological process related to an abstract or physical thing, such as a person, situation, or message whereby one is able to use concepts to model that thing. Under ...

learning
begin at birth. The first three years of a child's life are critical for setting the foundation for language acquisition, socialization, and attitudes to learning. During the early years and especially during the first 3 to 5 years, humans are capable of absorbing a lot of information. The brain grows most rapidly in the early years. High quality and well trained teachers and preschools with developmentally-appropriate programmes can have a long-term effect on improving learning outcomes for children. The effects tend to be more marked for disadvantaged students i.e. children coming from impoverished backgrounds with very little or no access to healthy food, socialization, books and play resources. The areas of development that preschool education covers varies. However, the following main themes are typically offered. * Personal, social, economic and emotional development * Communication (including
sign language Sign languages (also known as signed languages) are languages that use the visual-manual modality to convey meaning. Sign languages are expressed through manual articulations in combination with non-manual elements. Sign languages are full-fled ...

sign language
), talking and listening * World knowledge and * Creative and aesthetic development * Mathematical awareness *
Physical development Developmental biology is the study of the process by which animals and plants grow and develop. Developmental biology also encompasses the biology of Regeneration (biology), regeneration, asexual reproduction, metamorphosis, and the growth and diff ...
*
Physical health Health is a state of physical, mental and social well-being Well-being, also known as ''wellness'', ''prudential value'' or ''quality of life'', refers to what is intrinsically valuable relative ''to'' someone. So the well-being of a person ...
*
Play Play most commonly refers to: * Play (activity) Play is a range of Motivation#Incentive theories: intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, intrinsically motivated activities done for recreational pleasure and enjoyment. Play is commonly associated w ...
*
Teamwork Teamwork is the collaborative effort of a group to achieve a common goal or to complete a task in the most effective and efficient way. This concept is seen within the greater framework of a team A team is a group of individuals (human o ...

Teamwork
* Self-help skills *
Social skill A social skill is any competence facilitating interaction Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another. The idea of a two-way effect is essential in the concept of interaction, as opposed to ...
s * Scientific thinking *
Literacy Literacy is popularly understood as an ability to read and write Writing is a medium of human communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is the act of developing Semantics, meaning among Subject (p ...
Preschool systems observe standards for structure (administration, class size,
student–teacher ratioStudent–teacher ratio or student–faculty ratio is the number of students who attend a school or university divided by the number of teachers in the institution. For example, a student–teacher ratio of 10:1 indicates that there are 10 students f ...
, services), process (quality of classroom environments, teacher-child interactions, etc.) and alignment (standards, curriculum, assessments) components. Curriculum is designed for differing ages. For example, counting to 10 is generally after the age of four. Some studies dispute the benefits of preschool education, finding that preschool can be detrimental to cognitive and social development. A study by
UC Berkeley The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general public) is the tota ...

UC Berkeley
and
Stanford University Stanford University, officially Leland Stanford Junior University, is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Du ...

Stanford University
on 14,000 preschools revealed that while there is a temporary cognitive boost in pre-reading and math, preschool holds detrimental effects on social development and cooperation. Research has also shown that the home environment has a greater impact on future outcomes than preschool. There is emerging evidence that high-quality preschools are "play based," rather than attempting to provide early formal instruction in academic subjects. "Playing with other children, away from adults, is how children learn to make their own decisions, control their emotions and impulses, see from others' perspectives, negotiate differences with others, and make friends," according to Dr. Peter Gray, Boston College professor and an expert on the evolution of play and its vital role in child development. "In short, play is how children learn to take control of their lives." Preschools have adopted various methods of teaching, such as
Montessori The Montessori method of education was developed by Italian physician Maria Montessori. Emphasizing independence, it views children as naturally eager for knowledge and capable of initiating learning in a sufficiently supportive and well-prepar ...
, Waldorf, Head Start,
HighScope The HighScope Educational Research Foundation (known as HighScope or High/Scope) studies methods of early childhood education based on the methods of the 1962 Perry Preschool study. It was founded in 1970 by psychologist David Weikart. The Perry ...
,
Reggio Emilia approach The Reggio Emilia approach is an educational philosophy and pedagogy focused on preschool and primary education. This approach is a student-centered learning, student-centered and Constructivism (philosophy of education), constructivist self-guid ...
, Bank Street and
Forest kindergarten Forest kindergarten is a type of preschool education for children between the ages of three and six that is held almost exclusively outdoors. Whatever the weather, children are encouraged to play, explore and learn in a forest environment. The adult ...
s.


Funding

While a majority of American preschool programs remain tuition-based, support for some public funding of early childhood education has grown over the years. As of 2008, 38 states and the District of Columbia invested in at least some preschool programs, and many school districts were providing preschool services on their own, using local and federal funds. The United States spends .04% of its GDP or $63 billion on preschool education. The benefits and challenges of a public preschool reflect the available funding. Funding can range from federal, state, local public allocations, private sources, and parental fees. The problem of funding a public preschool occurs not only from limited sources but from the cost per child. As of 2007, the average cost across the lower 48 states was $6,582. Four categories determine the costs of public preschools: personnel ratios, personnel qualifications, facilities and transportation, and health and nutrition services. These costs depend heavily on the cost and quality of services provided. The main personnel factor related to cost is teacher qualifications. Another determinant of cost is the length of the school day. Longer sessions cost more. Collaboration has helped fund programs in several districts. Collaborations with area Head Start and other private preschools helped fund a public preschool in one district. "We're very pleased with the interaction. It's really added a dimension to our program that's been very positive". The National Head Start Bureau has been looking for more opportunities to partner with public schools. Torn Schultz of the Bureau states, "We're turning to partnership as much as possible, either in funds or facilities to make sure children get everything necessary to be ready for school".


Advocacy

The
Universal Preschool Universal preschool is an international movement to use public funding to ensure high quality preschool (pre-k) is available to all families. Schools rate their education systems on academic performance of their students and compare them to school ...
movement is an international effort to make preschool available to families, as it is for primary education. Various jurisdictions and advocates have differing priorities for access, availability and funding sources. In the United States, most preschool advocates support the
National Association for the Education of Young Children The National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) is a large nonprofit A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organiz ...
's Developmentally Appropriate Practices. The
National Association for the Education of Young Children The National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) is a large nonprofit A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organiz ...
(NAEYC) and the National Association of Child Care Professionals (NACCP) publicize and promote the idea of
developmentally appropriate practice Developmentally appropriate practice (or DAP) is a perspective within early childhood education whereby a teacher or child caregiver nurtures a child's social/emotional, physical, and cognitive development. It is also described as a philosophy in ...
, although many institutions have not taken that approach. NAEYC claimed that although 80% of kindergarten classrooms claim to be developmentally appropriate, only 20% actually are.


Curriculam

Curricula for preschool children have long been a hotbed for debate. Much of this revolves around content and
pedagogy Pedagogy (), most commonly understood as the approach to teaching, is the theory and practice of learning Learning is the process of acquiring new , , s, s, , attitudes, and s. The ability to learn is possessed by s, s, and some ; there is ...
; the extent to which academic content should be included in the curriculum and whether formal instruction or child-initiated exploration, supported by adults, is more effective.Katz, L. ''Curriculum Disputes in Early Childhood Education''. ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education. EDO-PS-99-13. Proponents of an academic curriculum are likely to favour a focus on basic skills, especially
literacy Literacy is popularly understood as an ability to read and write Writing is a medium of human communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is the act of developing Semantics, meaning among Subject (p ...
and ''numeracy'', and structured pre-determined activities for achieving related goals. Internationally, there is strong opposition to this type of early childhood care and education curriculum and defence of a broad-based curriculum that supports a child's overall development including health and physical development, emotional and spiritual wellbeing, social competence, intellectual development and communication skills. The type of document that emerges from this perspective is likely to be more open, offering a framework which teachers and parents can use to develop curricula specific to their contexts.


National variations

Preschool education, like all other forms of education, is intended by the society that controls it to transmit important cultural values to the participants. As a result, different cultures make different choices about preschool education. Despite the variations, there are a few common themes. Most significantly, preschool is universally expected to increase the young child's ability to perform basic self-care tasks such as dressing, feeding, and toileting.


China

The study of early childhood education (ECE) in China has been intimately influenced by the reforms and progress of Chinese politics and the economy. Currently, the Chinese government has shown interest in early childhood education, implementing policies in the form of The Guidance for Kindergarten Education (Trial Version) in 2001 and The National Education Reform and Development of Long-Term planning Programs (2010–2020) in 2010. It has been found that China's kindergarten education has dramatically changed since 1990. In recent years, various Western curricula and pedagogical models have been introduced to China, such as Montessori programs, Reggio Emilia, Developmentally Appropriate Practice (DAP), and the Project Approach. Many kindergartens have faced difficulties and challenges in adapting these models in their programs. Therefore, a heated debate about how the Western curricula can be appropriated in the Chinese cultural context has been initiated between early childhood researchers and practitioners. Research has revealed that the most important aim for promoting curriculum reform is to improve kindergarten teachers' professional knowledge, such as their understanding of the concept of play and pedagogy, and perceptions of inclusion and kindergarten-based curriculum. Furthermore, within the process of reform, family education and family collaborations cannot be ignored in child development. Early childhood education in China has made dramatic progress since the 1980s. In Tobin, et al. 2009, which studies across three cultures, the continuity and change across the systems of early childhood education are evident. The project report Zhongguo Xueqian Jiaoyu Fazhan Zhanlue Yanjiu Ketizu 2010 reflects upon the development of China's early childhood education and locates the current situation of the development of early childhood education. The historical development of Chinese early childhood education indicates three distinct cultural threads, including traditional culture, communist culture, and Western culture, that have shaped early childhood education in China, as demonstrated in Zhu and Zhang 2008 and Lau 2012. Furthermore, currently, administrative authorities intend to establish an independent budget for the ECE field in order to support early childhood education in rural areas (Zhao and Hu 2008). A higher quality of educational provisions for children living in rural areas will be another goal for the Chinese government. Many researchers have detailed the important issues of early childhood education, especially teacher education. The exploratory study in Hu and Szente 2010 (cited under Early Childhood Inclusive Education) has indicated that Chinese kindergarten teachers hold negative attitudes toward inclusion of children with disabilities, as they do not have enough knowledge and skills for working with this population. This indicates that kindergarten teachers need to improve their perceptions of children with disabilities. Furthermore, Gu 2007 has focused on the issues of new early childhood teachers' professional development and puts forward some feasible suggestions about how new teachers deal with key events in their everyday teaching practices. With regard to families' support of their children's early development at home, family education should be focused and the collaborative partnership between kindergarten and family needs to be enhanced. Teachers' attitudes toward family intervention are a vital aspect of teacher-family collaboration. Therefore, kindergarten teachers should support family members in their role as the child's first teacher and build collaborative partnerships with family, as presented in Ding 2007. Furthermore, kindergarten teachers should be considered as active researchers in children's role play. This supports the co-construction of their teaching knowledge in relation to children's initiation/subjectivity in role play (Liu, et al. 2003).


India

Preschool education in India is not yet officially recognized by the government and is largely run by privately held companies lik
Petals Preschool
Mothers Pride and many others. The demand for play schools that cater to caring for very young children is high, with the rise in families in which both parents are working. However, a positive step forward in the direction of formalising preschool education has come forth through the NEP (National Education Policy) 2020. The NEP 2020 has placed a great deal of importance on early childhood care and education, advocating that the foundational stage (3 to 8 years) is critical and requires official/formal intervention. In fact, NEP 2020 has advocated replacing the traditional 10 + 2 schooling system with a 5+3+3+4 system. The preschools those are frontrunners in implementing consist only 1 name as Petals Preschool & Daycare which implemented the NEP 2020. In India there are not just the preschools as an individual institutions but there are hundreds of preschools who operate as a chain of preschools. These preschools work on franchise models and let other entrepreneurs operate preschool under their brand. In 2021 there are almost 450 preschool franchise providers in India.


Ireland

Starting in the year of 2010, Ireland passed a law stating that all children of the age 3 years and 2 months and less than 4 years and 7 months are qualified to attend a preschool free of charge. Before this law was passed there was a large number of children who did not attend an Early Childhood Education Program. The programs that were offered operated voluntary and required the parents to pay a steep fee per child. This left many families with no option but to keep the kids at home. The government soon realized that a large number of children were having trouble in their first years of primary school and parents were having to stay home becoming jobless. Once the government issued the free preschool scheme, Ireland's preschool enrollment rate increased to about 93%.


Japan

In Japan, development of social skills and a sense of group belonging are major goals. Classes tend to have up to 40 students, to decrease the role of the teacher and increase peer interactions. Participation in group activities is highly valued, leading some schools to, for example, count a child who is standing still near a group exercise session as participating. Children are taught to work harmoniously in large and small groups, and to develop cooperativeness, kindness and social consciousness. The most important goal is to provide a rich social environment that increasingly isolated
nuclear families A nuclear family, elementary family or conjugal family is a family In human society, family (from la, familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth) or affinity (by marriage or other relationship). The ...

nuclear families
do not provide; unstructured play time is valued. Children are allowed to resolve disputes with each other, including physical fighting. Most behavioral problems are attributed to the child's inappropriately expressed emotional dependency. Remedies involve accepting the child, rather than treatment with drugs or punishment. Japanese culture attributes success to effort rather than inborn talent, leading teachers to ignore innate differences between children by encouraging and praising perseverance. They work to ensure that all students meet the standard rather that each reaches his or her own potential. Although preschools exhibit great variety, most target age-appropriate personal development, such as learning empathy, rather than academic programs. Academic programs tend to be more common among Westernized and Christian preschools. Boisterous play is accepted. Kids are allowed to play with
water gun A water gun (or water pistol, water blaster, or squirt gun) is a type of toy gun Toy guns are toys which imitate guns, real guns, but are designed for recreational sport or casual play by children. From hand-carved wooden replicas to factory-p ...
s or to make toy swords out of paper.
Gun control Gun control (or firearms regulation) is the set of laws or policies that regulate the manufacture, sale, transfer, possession, modification, or use of firearms by civilians. Overview of gun laws by nation, Most countries have a restrictive f ...
is extensive, and real firearms are rarely seen in Japan, but playing with toy weapons is acceptable and encouraged.


Lithuania

According to the Law on Education (article 6, 1991, as last amended in April 2016), pre-school education is a part of non-formal education. According to the 7th article of the Law, "the purpose of pre-school education shall be to help a child satisfy inherent, cultural (including ethnic), social and cognitive needs." Despite the provision of pre-school education being an independent function of a municipality, the Law regulates the pre-school curriculum to be "prepared in compliance with the criteria of pre-school curricula approved by the Minister of Education, Science and
Sport Sport pertains to any form of Competition, competitive physical activity or game that aims to use, maintain or improve physical ability and Skill, skills while providing enjoyment to participants and, in some cases, entertainment to spectato ...

Sport
, shall be implemented by pre-school education schools, general education schools, freelance teachers or other education providers" (article 7 part 4). The ownership of pre-school education facilities (namely,
kindergarten Kindergarten (, ) is a preschool A preschool, also known as nursery school, pre-primary school, or play school, is an school, educational establishment or learning space offering early childhood education to children before they begin com ...

kindergarten
s) according to the Law could be public (state or municipality) as well as private.


North Korea

Preschool
education in North Korea Education in North Korea North Korea (Korean language, Korean: /, McCune–Reischauer, MR: ''Chosŏn''; literally /, McCune–Reischauer, MR: ''Pukchosŏn'', or /, Revised Romanization of Korean, RR: ''Bukhan'' in South Korean us ...
is public and provides a variety of activities, such as dance, math, drawing and Korean, as well as basic abilities such as using a spoon and respecting elders. North Korean kindergarten education includes themes common to
North Korean propaganda Propaganda is widely used and produced by the government of North Korea. Most propaganda is based on the ''Juche'' ideology and on the promotion of the Workers' Party of Korea. The first syllable, "ju", means the man; the second syllable, "che", m ...
. Subjects include the life of
Kim Il-sung , relatives = Kim family , residence = Pyongyang, North Korea , profession = Politician , allegiance = , branch = Red Army The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army,) frequently short ...

Kim Il-sung
, the
Japanese occupation of Korea Korea under Japanese rule refers to the period between 1910 and 1945 which followed Korean Empire, Korea's Japan-Korea Treaty of 1910, annexation into the Empire of Japan. Joseon, Joseon Korea had come into the Japanese sphere of influence with t ...
, and the
Korean War The Korean War (see § Names) was a war fought between North Korea North Korea, officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), is a country in East Asia, constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula. It b ...

Korean War
. Children are taught to enjoy military games and to hate the ''miguk nom'', or "American bastards".


Turkey

Preschool education in
Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia an ...

Turkey
starts at the age of 5 while primary level education begins at the age of 6.


United Kingdom

In the UK, pre-school education in nursery classes or schools has some local government funding for children aged between two and four. Pre-school education can be provided by childcare centres, playgroups, nursery schools and nursery classes within primary schools. Private voluntary or independent (PVI sector) nursery education is also available throughout the UK and varies between structured pre-school education and a service offering child-minding facilities. Nursery in England is also called FS1 which is the first year of
foundation Foundation may refer to: * Foundation (nonprofit), a type of charitable organization ** Foundation (United States law), a type of charitable organization in the U.S. ** Private foundation, a charitable organization that, while serving a good cause ...
before they go into primary or infants. The curriculum goals of a nursery school are more specific than for childcare but less strenuous than for primary school. For example, the Scottish Early Years FrameworkEarly Years Framework
, Scottish Government, January 2009
and the
Curriculum for Excellence Curriculum for Excellence is the national curriculum In education, a curriculum (; plural curricula or curriculums) is broadly defined as the totality of student experiences that occur in the educational process. The term often refers specific ...
define expected outcomes even at this age. In some areas, the provision of nursery school services is on a
user pays User pays, or beneficiary pays, is a pricing Pricing is the process whereby a business sets the price A price is the (usually not negative) quantity of payment or compensation given by one party to another in return for one unit of ...
or limited basis while other governments fund nursery school services.


England

A voucher system for nursery provision was introduced in England and Wales under the Major government, providing for 15 hours per week free childcare or education for three and four-year-olds, much of it provided through reception classes in primary schools. This was replaced by the Blair government with direct funding by local education authorities. Every child in England at the first school term after their third birthday is now entitled to 15 hours per week free childcare funding. The
Early Years Foundation Stage The Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) is the statutory framework for Early Years education in England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west a ...
sets the standards that all early years providers must meet to ensure that children learn and develop well and are kept healthy and safe. It promotes teaching and learning to ensure children’s ‘school readiness’ and gives children the broad range of knowledge and skills that provide the right foundation for good future progress through school and life. Pre-schools in England follow the
Early Years Foundation Stage The Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) is the statutory framework for Early Years education in England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west a ...
statutory framework for education produced by the
Department for Education The Department for Education (DFE) is the UK government department responsible for child protection Child protection is the safeguarding of children from violence, exploitation, abuse, and neglect. Article 19 of the UN Convention on th ...
, which carries on into their first year of school at the age of four. This year of school is usually called
Reception Reception is a noun form of ''receiving'', or ''to receive'' something, such as art, experience, information, people, products, or vehicles. It is often used in the following contexts: Astrology * Reception (astrology), in astrology, where one p ...
. All pupils in the Early Years must follow a programme of education in seven areas, divided into 'prime areas' and 'specific areas'. The three prime areas: * communication and language * physical development * personal, social and emotional development The four specific areas: * literacy * mathematics * understanding the world * expressive arts and design Until the mid-1980s, nursery schools only admitted pupils in the final year (three terms) leading up to their admission to primary school, but pupils now attend nursery school for four or five terms. It is also common practice for many children to attend nursery much earlier than this. Many nurseries have the facilities to take on babies, using the 'Early Years Foundation Stage', framework as a guide to give each child the best possible start to becoming a competent learner and skilful communicator.


Wales

Provision in Wales followed England until devolution and subsequently diverged. Now early years education in
Wales Wales ( cy, Cymru ) is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It is bordered by England to the Wales–England border, east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, and the Bristol Channel to the south. It ...

Wales
is provided half-time for children aged 3–4 (Nursery) and full-time for those between the ages of 4 and 5 (Reception). Since 2005 it has been a statutory duty for all Local Education Authorities to secure sufficient nursery education in their area for children from the term following their third birthday. Currently, the Early Years curriculum in Wales, produced by the
Welsh Assembly Government Welsh may refer to: Related to Wales * Welsh, referring or related to Wales * Welsh language, a Brittonic Celtic language of the Indo-European language family, indigenous to the British Isles, spoken in Wales ** Patagonian Welsh, a dialect of Wel ...
Department for Children, Education, Lifelong Learning and Skills, is set out in the booklet "Desirable Outcomes for Children's Learning Before Compulsory School Age". However, a new 'Foundation Phase' covering 3- to 7-year-olds is being rolled out across Wales from 2008, with a focus on 'learning through play', which covers seven areas of learning: * Personal and Social Development and Well Being * Language, Literacy and Communication Skills * Mathematical Development * Bilingualism and Multi-cultural Understanding * Knowledge and Understanding of the World * Physical Development * Creative Development


Northern Ireland

In Northern Ireland funded Nursery School places can be applied for from ages 3 and up. Preschool education is delivered also by PreSchools, also referred to as Playschools or Playgroups. A Nursery School is allowed to enrol up to 26 children into a class, with the curriculum being delivered by a qualified teacher and a Nursery Assistant. A preschool, which delivers the same curriculum, is also permitted to admit a maximum of 26 children to any single session. However, the regulations for personnel differ. The Preschool must have a Supervisor with an NVQ 3 qualification in Child Care (or Equivalent). There must be one qualified and vetted adult for every 8 children. Funding is applied for through PEAGs (Preschool Education Advisory Group). Both nursery and preschool settings are inspected by the Education and Training Inspectorate. Preschools are also subject to inspection by local Social Services.


Scotland

In
Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba Alba (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply as Gaelic) is a Goidelic language (in the Celtic languages, Celtic branch of the Indo-European ...

Scotland
a voucher system for part-time pre-school provision was introduced in parallel with England and Wales under the Major government, but with a strong emphasis on age-appropriate education rather than simply childcare, and avoiding the use of reception classes in primary schools. Now children are entitled to a place in a nursery class when they reach their third birthday. This gives parents the option of two years of funded pre-school education before beginning primary one, the first year of compulsory education. Nursery children who are three years old are referred to as ante-pre-school whilst children who are four years old are termed pre-school. Pre-school education in Scotland is planned around the Early Level of the
Curriculum for Excellence Curriculum for Excellence is the national curriculum In education, a curriculum (; plural curricula or curriculums) is broadly defined as the totality of student experiences that occur in the educational process. The term often refers specific ...
which identifies Outcomes & Experiences around the following eight curricular areas: * Expressive Arts, * Health & Wellbeing, * Languages, * Mathematics, * Religious & Moral Education, * Sciences * Social Studies * Technologies Responsibility for the review of care standards in Scottish nurseries rests with the
Care Commission The Care Inspectorate (formally known as Social Care and Social Work Improvement Scotland) is a scrutiny body which supports improvement. They look at the quality of care in Scotland to ensure it meets high standards. Where improvement is needed ...
.


United States

In the United States, nursery school is provided in a variety of settings. In general, preschool is meant to be voluntary and promote development in children through planned programs. Preschool is defined as: "center-based programs for four-year olds that are fully or partially funded by state education agencies and that are operated in schools or under the direction of state and local education agencies".Pre-kindergarten study
Preschools, both private and school sponsored, are available for children from ages three to five. Many of these programs follow similar curriculum as pre-kindergarten. In the United States, preschool education emphasizes individuality. Children are frequently permitted to choose from a variety of activities, using a learning center approach. During these times, some children draw or paint, some play house, some play with puzzles while some listen to the teacher read a story aloud. Activities vary in each session. Each child is assumed to have particular strengths and weaknesses to be encouraged or ameliorated by the teachers. A typical belief is that "children's play is their work" and that by allowing them to select the type of play, the child will meet his or her developmental needs. Preschools also adopt American ideas about justice, such as the
rule of law The rule of law is defined in the ''Oxford English Dictionary The ''Oxford English Dictionary'' (''OED'') is the principal of the , published by (OUP). It traces the historical development of the English language, providing a compreh ...

rule of law
and the idea that everyone is innocent until proven guilty. Teachers don't always actively intervene in disputes and encourage children to resolve disputes independently by using verbal strategies ("use your words"), stating objectively what the problem or issues is, and then discussing what steps can be taken to resolve it. Punishments that may or may not include time outs are rarely carried out by teachers. Children are encouraged to apologize after understanding what has happened rather than blindly apologize. Children are also encouraged to think through steps they can take to make up for their misbehavior. Teachers assist children by explaining what happened and what was wrong in their behavior, before any decision to punish is made. Self-expressive language skills are emphasized through informal interactions with teachers and through structured group activities such as show and tell exercises to enable the child to describe an experience to an adult. Resources vary depending on the wealth of the students, but generally are better equipped than other cultures. Most programs are not subsidized by government, making preschools relatively expensive even though the staff is typically poorly compensated. Student-teacher ratios are lower than in other cultures, ideally about 15 students per group. Parents and teachers see teachers as extensions of or partial substitutes for parents and consequently emphasize personal relationships and consistent expectations at home and at school. In contrast to many other cultures, including Japan and the UK, American preschools frequently ban squirt guns and pretend play involving toy or imaginary weapons, and may have zero-tolerance policies that require punishing children who bring or make toy guns at school. In the United States, students who may benefit from
special education Special education (known as special-needs education, aided education, exceptional education, exceptional student education, special ed., SEN, or SPED) is the practice of educating students in a way that provides accommodations that address the ...

special education
receive services in preschools. Since the enactment of the
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act An individual is that which exists as a distinct wikt:entity , entity. Individuality (or self-hood) is the state or quality of being an individual; particularly (in the case of humans) of being a person unique from other people and possessing one ...
(IDEA) Public Law 101–476 in 1975 and its amendments, PL 102-119 and PL 105–17 in 1997, the educational system has moved away from self-contained special education classrooms to inclusion, leading special education teachers to practice in a wider variety of settings. As with other stages in the life of a child with special needs, the
Individualized Education Plan The Individualized Education Program (IEP) is a legal document under United States law that is developed for each State school, public school child in the United States, U.S. who needs special education. It is created through a team of the child' ...
(IEP) or an Individual Family Service Plan (IFSP) is an important way for teachers, administrators and parents to set guidelines for a partnership to help the child succeed in preschool.


Cooperative preschools

Formally starting in 1916, cooperative preschools are common throughout much of America and focus on providing a preschool environment for children and parents that meet
cooperative A cooperative (also known as co-operative, co-op, or coop) is "an autonomous The federal subject The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (russian: субъекты Российск ...
ideas. * Parent involvement * Parent participation * Parent education in early childhood education programs


Head Start

The goal of Head Start and of Early Head Start is to increase the school preparedness of young children in low-income families. These programs serve children from birth to age five, pregnant women, and their families. Head Start was started by the Federal Government in 1964 to help meet the needs of under-privilleged pre-school children. The office of Economic Opportunity launched Project Head Start as an eight-week summer program in 1965. It was then transferred to the Office of Child Development in the US Department of Health, Education, and Welfare in 1969. Today it is a program within the Administration on Children, Youth and Families in the Department of Health and Human Services. Programs are administered locally by school systems and non-profit organizations. *Services provided by Head Start #Disabilities – All programs fully include children with disabilities #Education – The goal of Head Start is to ensure that those children enrolled in the program are ready to begin school. Activities are geared towards skill and knowledge domains. #Family and Community Partnerships – both groups are involved in the operation, governance, and evaluation of the program. #Health – Health is seen as an important factor in a child's ability to thrive and develop. The program provides screenings to evaluate a child's overall health, regular health check-ups, and good practices in oral health, hygiene, nutrition, personal care, and safety. #Program Management and Operations – "focus on delivering high-quality child development services to children from low-income families."


See also

*
Children's television series Children's television series are television programs designed for children, normally scheduled for broadcast during the morning and afternoon when children are awake. They can sometimes run during the early evening, allowing younger children to wa ...
*
Daycare Child care, otherwise known as day care, is the care and supervision of a child or multiple children at a time, whose ages range from two weeks to eighteen years. Child care is a broad topic that covers a wide spectrum of professionals, institut ...
*
Education theoryEducation sciences or education theory (traditionally often called pedagogy Pedagogy (), most commonly understood as the approach to teaching, is the theory and practice of learning, and how this process influences, and is influenced by, the social ...
* Heutagogy *
Pedagogy Pedagogy (), most commonly understood as the approach to teaching, is the theory and practice of learning Learning is the process of acquiring new , , s, s, , attitudes, and s. The ability to learn is possessed by s, s, and some ; there is ...
* Poisonous pedagogy *
Pre-kindergarten Pre-kindergarten (also called Pre-K or PK) is a voluntary classroom A classroom or schoolroom is a learning space Learning space or learning setting refers to a physical setting for a learning environment, a place in which teaching and ...
*
Reggio Emilia approach The Reggio Emilia approach is an educational philosophy and pedagogy focused on preschool and primary education. This approach is a student-centered learning, student-centered and Constructivism (philosophy of education), constructivist self-guid ...
* Miriam Roth (1910–2005) – Israeli writer and scholar of children's books, kindergarten teacher, and educator


References


Sources

*


Further reading

* * Center for Public Education. (March 2007). Retrieved 2 July 2009, from http://www.centerforpubliceducation.org/Main-Menu/Pre-kindergarten/Pre-Kindergarten/Pre-kindergarten-What-the-research-shows.html * Condillac, E. B. (1746/1970, 2001). Essai sur l'origine des connaissances ssay on the origin of human knowledgein Oeuvres Completes Tome 1. Genève: Slatkine reprints. Retrieved from http://www.slatkine.com/. In addition, translated from the French of the Abbé de Condillac by Hans Aarsleff, Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press. * Condillac, E. B. (1749/1970, 1982). Traité des systèmes [Treatise on the systems] in Oeuvres Completes Tome 2. Genève: Slatkine reprints. Retrieved from http://www.slatkine.com/. In addition, translated from the French of the Abbé de Condillac by Franklin Philip, Philosophical Writings of Etienne Bonnot, Abbé de Condillac (Vol. I), Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. * Condillac, E. B. (1754/1982). Traité des sensations [Treatise on the sensations]. Genève: Slatkine reprints. Retrieved from http://www.slatkine.com/. In addition, translated from the French of the Abbé de Condillac by Franklin Philip, Philosophical Writings of Etienne Bonnot, Abbé de Condillac, and (Vol. I), Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. * Condillac, E. B. (1756). An essay on the origin of human knowledge. In Locke's Essay on the Human Understanding. Translated from the French of the Abbé de Condillac by Thomas Nugent. London, England: J. Nourse. Retrieved 23 September 2008 from https://books.google.com/books?id=rp_go5DhQqQC . * Fay, J. & Funk, D. (1995). Teaching with love & logic. Golden, CO: The Love & Logic Press, Inc. * Glasser, W. (1984). Self-importance boosts learning. The School Administrator 45, 16–18. * * Heyman, G., Dweck, C., & Cain, K. (1992). Young children's vulnerability to self-blame and helplessness: Relationship to beliefs about goodness. Child Development, 63, 401–415. * Individuals with Disabilities Individualizing Education Act (IDEA) Data. (2006). Part B child count data [Table]. Retrieved 25 May 2008, from https://web.archive.org/web/20130727110604/http://www.ideadata.org/PartBData.asp * Itard, J. M. G. (1962). The wild boy of Aveyron. (G. Humphrey & M. Humphrey, Trans.). New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. (Original works published 1801 and 1806). * * Symposium conducted at the meeting of the AEFA Annual Conference, Baltimore, Maryland. * * 1-9 *


External links

* {{Authority control School types Preschools,