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A portmanteau (, ) or portmanteau word (from "
portmanteau (luggage) A portmanteau is a piece of luggage Baggage or luggage consists of bags, cases, and containers which hold a travel Travel is the movement of people between distant geographical locations. Travel can be done by foot, bicycle, automob ...
") is a blend of wordsGarner's Modern American Usage
, p. 644.
in which parts of multiple words are combined into a new word, as in ''smog'', coined by blending ''smoke'' and ''fog'', or ''motel'', from ''motor'' and ''hotel''. In
linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo ...

linguistics
, a portmanteau is a single morph that is analyzed as representing two (or more) underlying
morpheme A morpheme is the smallest meaningful lexical itemIn lexicography, a lexical item (or lexical unit / LU, lexical entry) is a single word, a part of a word, or a chain of words ( catena) that forms the basic elements of a language's lexicon A ...
s. A portmanteau word is similar to a '' contraction'', but contractions are formed from words that would otherwise appear together in sequence, such as ''do'' and ''not'' to make ''don't'', whereas a portmanteau is formed by combining two or more existing words that all relate to a single concept. A portmanteau also differs from a
compound Compound may refer to: Architecture and built environments * Compound (enclosure), a cluster of buildings having a shared purpose, usually inside a fence or wall ** Compound (fortification), a version of the above fortified with defensive structu ...
, which does not involve the truncation of parts of the stems of the blended words. For instance, ''starfish'' is a compound, not a portmanteau, of ''star'' and ''fish'', as it includes both words in full. If it were called a ''stish'' or a ''starsh'', it would be a portmanteau.


Origin

The word ''portmanteau'' was introduced in this sense by
Lewis Carroll Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (; 27 January 1832 – 14 January 1898), better known by his pen name Lewis Carroll, was an English writer of children's fiction, notably ''Alice's Adventures in Wonderland'' and its sequel ''Through the Looking-Glass'' ...

Lewis Carroll
in the book ''
Through the Looking-Glass ''Through the Looking-Glass, and What Alice Found There'' (also known as ''Alice Through the Looking-Glass'' or simply ''Through the Looking-Glass'') is a novel published on 27 December 1871 (though indicated as 1872) by Lewis Carroll Cha ...

Through the Looking-Glass
'' (1871), where
Humpty Dumpty Humpty Dumpty is a character in an English nursery rhyme A nursery rhyme is a traditional poem or song for children in Britain and many other countries, but usage of the term only dates from the late 18th/early 19th century. The term Moth ...

Humpty Dumpty
explains to Alice the coinage of unusual words used in "
Jabberwocky "Jabberwocky" is a nonsense poem written by Lewis Carroll Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (; 27 January 1832 – 14 January 1898), better known by his pen name Lewis Carroll, was an English writer of children's fiction, notably ' and its sequel ...

Jabberwocky
".Fromkin, V., Rodman, R., and Hyams, N. (2007) ''An Introduction to Language'', Eighth Edition. Boston: Thomson Wadsworth. . ''Slithy'' means "slimy and lithe" and ''mimsy'' means "miserable and flimsy". Humpty Dumpty explains to Alice the practice of combining words in various ways: In his introduction to his 1876 poem ''
The Hunting of the Snark ''The Hunting of the Snark'', subtitled ''An Agony in 8 Fits'', is a poem by the English writer Lewis Carroll. It is typically categorised as a nonsense verse, nonsense poem. Written between 1874 and 1876, it borrows the setting, some creature ...
'', Carroll again uses ''portmanteau'' when discussing lexical selection: In then-contemporary English, a portmanteau was a
suitcase A suitcase is a form of luggage. It is often a somewhat flat, rectangular-shaped bag with rounded square corners. Vinyl, leather or cloth suitcases may have a metal frame. Hardshell suitcases open on hinges like a door. History Aluminum e ...
that opened into two equal sections. According to the
OED Online The ''Oxford English Dictionary'' (''OED'') is the principal historical dictionary A historical dictionary or dictionary on historical principles is a dictionary which deals not only with the latterday meanings of words but also the historical ...
, a portmanteau is a "case or bag for carrying clothing and other belongings when travelling; (originally) one of a form suitable for carrying on horseback; (now esp.) one in the form of a stiff leather case hinged at the back to open into two equal parts". According to
The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language ''The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language'' (''AHD'') is an American English, American dictionary of English published by Boston publisher Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Houghton Mifflin, the first edition of which appeared in 1969. I ...
(AHD), the etymology of the word is the French , from , "to carry", and , "cloak" (from Old French , from Latin ). According to the
OED Online The ''Oxford English Dictionary'' (''OED'') is the principal historical dictionary A historical dictionary or dictionary on historical principles is a dictionary which deals not only with the latterday meanings of words but also the historical ...
, the etymology of the word is the "officer who carries the mantle of a person in a high position (1507 in Middle French), case or bag for carrying clothing (1547), clothes rack (1640)". In modern French, a is a
clothes valet Clothes valet, also called men's valet, valet stand and ''suit stand'', is an item of furniture on which clothes, particularly men's suits, may be hung. Typical features of valets include trouser hangers, jacket hangers, shoe bars, and a tray or ...
, a coat-tree or similar article of furniture for hanging up jackets, hats, umbrellas and the like. An occasional synonym for "portmanteau word" is ''frankenword'', an
autological word An autological word (also called homological word) is a word that expresses a property that it also possesses (e.g., "word" is a word, "noun" is a noun, "English" is English, " pentasyllabic" has five syllables). The opposite is a heterological w ...
exemplifying the phenomenon it describes, blending "
Frankenstein ''Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus'' is an 1818 novel A novel is a relatively long work of narrative A narrative, story or tale is any account of a series of related events or experiences, whether nonfiction Nonfiction (also ...

Frankenstein
" and "word".


Examples in English

Many
neologism A neologism (; from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appro ...
s are examples of blends, but many blends have become part of the lexicon. In ''
Punch Punch commonly refers to: * Punch (combat), a strike made using the hand closed into a fist * Punch (drink), a wide assortment of drinks, non-alcoholic or alcoholic, generally containing fruit or fruit juice Punch may also refer to: Places * Pun ...
'' in 1896, the word
brunch Brunch is a combination of breakfast and lunch, and regularly has some form of alcoholic drink (most usually champagne or a cocktail) served with it. It is usually served anytime before 2 o'clock in the afternoon. The word is a portmanteau of ' ...

brunch
(breakfast + lunch) was introduced as a "portmanteau word". In 1964, the newly independent African republic of
Tanganyika Tanganyika may refer to: * Tanganyika (territory) Tanganyika was a territory located on the continent of Africa, and administered by the United Kingdom from 1916 until 1961. The UK initially administered the territory as an occupying power with ...
and
Zanzibar Zanzibar (; ; ) is an insular autonomous region An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subnational administrative division Administrative d ...

Zanzibar
chose the portmanteau word
Tanzania Tanzania (; ), officially the United Republic of Tanzania ( sw, Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a country in East Africa East Africa or Eastern Africa is the eastern subregion of the Africa Africa is the world's second-larges ...

Tanzania
as its name. Similarly
Eurasia Eurasia () is the largest continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a ...

Eurasia
is a portmanteau of Europe and Asia. Some city names are portmanteaus of the border regions they straddle: Texarkana spreads across the Texas-Arkansas-Louisiana border, while Calexico and
Mexicali Mexicali (; ) is the capital city of the States of Mexico, Mexican state of Baja California and seat of the Mexicali Municipality, Municipality of Mexicali. The City of Mexicali has a population of 689,775, according to the 2010 census, while the ...

Mexicali
are respectively the American and Mexican sides of a single
conurbation A conurbation is a region comprising a number of metropolis in the background A metropolis () is a large city or conurbation which is a significant economic, political, and cultural center for a country or region, and an important hub for r ...
. A scientific example is a ''
liger The liger is a hybrid offspring of a male lion The lion (''Panthera leo'') is a large Felidae, cat of the genus ''Panthera'' native to Africa and India. It has a muscular, deep-chested body, short, rounded head, round ears, and a hairy t ...

liger
,'' which is a cross between a male lion and a female tiger (a ''
tigon A tion (), tigon (), or tiglon () (portmanteau of ''tiger'' and ''lion'') is the Hybrid (biology), hybrid offspring of a male tiger (''Panthera tigris'') and a female lion (''Panthera leo''),
tigon
'' is a similar cross in which the male is a tiger). Many company or brand names are portmanteaus, including
Microsoft Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational corporation, multinational technology company, technology corporation which produces Software, computer software, consumer electronics, personal computers, and related services. Its best-know ...

Microsoft
, a portmanteau of ''
microcomputer A microcomputer is a small, relatively inexpensive computer with a microprocessor as its central processing unit (CPU). It includes a microprocessor, Computer memory, memory and minimal input/output (I/O) circuitry mounted on a single printed ci ...
'' and ''software''; the cheese '''' combines a similar rind to ''
Camembert Camembert (, also , , ) is a moist, soft, creamy, surface-ripened cow's milk cheese. It was first made in the late 18th century at Camembert, Orne, Camembert, Normandy, in northwest France. Production The first camembert was made from raw milk ...

Camembert
'' with the same mould used to make ''
Gorgonzola Gorgonzola (; ) is a veined blue cheese, originally from Italy, made from unskimmed cow's milk. It can be buttery or firm, crumbly and quite salty, with a "bite" from its blue veining. History Historically, gorgonzola has been produced for ce ...

Gorgonzola
''; passenger rail company '''', a portmanteau of ''
America The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country primarily located in North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and a ...

America
'' and ''
track Track or Tracks may refer to: Routes or imprints * Ancient trackway, any track or trail whose origin is lost in antiquity * Animal track, imprints left on surfaces that an animal walks across * Desire path, a line worn by people taking the shortes ...
''; ''
Velcro Velcro, officially known as Velcro IP Holdings LLC and trading as Velcro Companies, is a British privately held company, founded by Swiss electrical engineer George de Mestral George de Mestral (June 19, 1907February 8, 1990) was a Swiss Swiss m ...

Velcro
'', a portmanteau of the French (velvet) and (hook); ''
Verizon Verizon Communications Inc., commonly known as Verizon, is an American multinational telecommunications Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over wire, radio, Optical system, optical, or ot ...
'', a portmanteau of (Latin for truth) and ''horizon''; and
ComEd Commonwealth Edison, commonly known by syllabic abbreviation An abbreviation (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken i ...
(a Chicago-area electric utility company), a portmanteau of ''Commonwealth'' and ''''. ''Jeoportmanteau!'' is a recurring category on the American television
quiz show A game show is a type of radio, television or stage show where contestants regularly compete for a reward. The history of game shows dates back to the invention of television as a medium. On most game shows, contestants either have to answer que ...
''
Jeopardy! ''Jeopardy!'' is an American television game show created by Merv Griffin. The show features a quiz competition in which contestants are presented with general knowledge clues in the form of answers, and must phrase their responses in the form ...
'' The category's name is itself a portmanteau of the words ''Jeopardy'' and ''portmanteau.'' Responses in the category are portmanteaus constructed by fitting two words together. Portmanteau words may be produced by joining together
proper nouns A proper noun is a noun A noun () is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meaning (lingu ...
with common nouns, such as "
gerrymandering In representative democracies, Gerrymandering (, originally ) refers to political manipulation of electoral district boundaries with the intent of creating undue advantage for a party, group, or socio-economic class within the constituency. ...

gerrymandering
", which refers to the scheme of Massachusetts Governor
Elbridge Gerry Elbridge Gerry (; July 17, 1744 (Old Style and New Style dates, OS July 6, 1744) – November 23, 1814) was an American Founding Fathers of the United States, Founding Father, politician, and diplomat who served as the fifth Vice President of t ...
for politically contrived redistricting; the perimeter of one of the districts thereby created resembled a very curvy
salamander Salamanders are a group of amphibian Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the Class (biology), class Amphibia. All living amphibians belong to the group Lissamphibia. They inhabit a wide variety of habitats, with most spe ...
in outline. The term gerrymander has itself contributed to portmanteau terms bjelkemander and
playmander The Playmander was a gerrymandering system, a pro-rural electoral malapportionment in the Australian state of South Australia South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a States and territories of Australia, state in the southern central part of A ...

playmander
.
Oxbridge Oxbridge is a portmanteau A portmanteau (, ) or portmanteau word (from "portmanteau (luggage) A portmanteau is a piece of luggage Baggage or luggage consists of bags, cases, and containers which hold a travel Travel is the move ...
is a common portmanteau for the UK's two oldest universities, those of
Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' u ...

Oxford
and
Cambridge Cambridge ( ) is a university city and the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' ...

Cambridge
. In 2016, Britain's planned exit from the European Union became known as "
Brexit Brexit (; a portmanteau of "British exit") was the Withdrawal from the European Union, withdrawal of the United Kingdom (UK) from the European Union (EU) and the European Atomic Energy Community (EAEC or Euratom) at 23:00 31 January 2020 Green ...

Brexit
". Many portmanteau words receive some use but do not appear in all dictionaries. For example, a ''
spork A spork is a hybrid form of cutlery taking the form of a spoon-like shallow scoop with two to four fork-like Tine (structural), tines. Spork-like utensils, such as the terrapin fork or ice cream fork, have been manufactured since the late 19th ...

spork
'' is an eating utensil that is a combination of a spoon and a fork, and a ''
skort A skort is a pair of shorts with an overlapping fabric panel made to resemble a skirt covering the front and back, or a skirt with a pair of integral shorts hidden underneath. History While some garments sold as culottes Culottes are an item ...
'' is an item of clothing that is part
skirt A skirt is the lower part of a dress A dress (also known as a frock Frock has been used since Middle English Middle English (abbreviated to ME) was a form of the English language spoken after the Norman conquest of England, Norman ...

skirt
, part
shorts Shorts are a garment File:KangaSiyu1.jpg, A kanga (African garment), kanga, worn throughout the African Great Lakes region Clothing (also known as clothes, apparel, and attire) are items worn on the body. Typically, clothing is made of f ...

shorts
. On the other hand, ''
turducken Turducken is a dish consisting of a deboned chicken stuffed into a deboned duck Duck is the common name for numerous species in the waterfowl family (biology), family Anatidae which also includes swans and goose, geese. Ducks are divided am ...

turducken
'', a dish made by inserting a chicken into a duck, and the duck into a turkey, was added to the ''Oxford English Dictionary'' in 2010. Similarly, the word ''refudiate'' was first used by
Sarah Palin Sarah Louise Palin (; née Heath; born February 11, 1964) is an American politician, commentator, author, and reality television personality, who served as the List of Governors of Alaska, ninth governor of Alaska from 2006 until Resignation o ...

Sarah Palin
when she misspoke, conflating the words ''refute'' and ''repudiate''. Though initially the word was a gaffe, it was recognized as the ''New Oxford American Dictionary''s "Word of the Year" in 2010. The business lexicon is replete with newly formed portmanteau words like "permalance" (permanent freelance), "advertainment" (advertising as entertainment), "advertorial" (a blurred distinction between advertising and editorial), "infotainment" (information about entertainment or itself intended to entertain by its manner of presentation), and "infomercial" (informational commercial). Company and product names may also use portmanteau words: examples include ''Timex'' (a portmanteau of ''Time'' eferring_to_Time_magazine.html" ;"title="Time_magazine.html" ;"title="eferring to Time magazine">eferring to Time magazine">Time_magazine.html" ;"title="eferring to Time magazine">eferring to Time magazineand Kleenex), Renault's ''Renault Twingo, Twingo'' (a combination of ''twist'', ''swing'' and ''tango''), and Garmin (portmanteau of company founders' first names Gary Burrell and Min Kao).


Name-meshing

Two proper names can also be used in creating a portmanteau word in reference to the partnership between people, especially in cases where both persons are well-known, or sometimes to produce
epithet An epithet (, ) is a byname, or a descriptive term (word or phrase), accompanying or occurring in place of a name and having entered common usage. It has various shades of meaning when applied to seemingly real or fictitious people, divinities, ...
s such as "Billary" (referring to former United States president
Bill Clinton William Jefferson Clinton ('' né'' Blythe III; born August 19, 1946) is an American politician and attorney who served as the 42nd president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and ...

Bill Clinton
and his wife, former United States Secretary of State
Hillary Clinton Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton ( Rodham; born October 26, 1947) is an American politician, diplomat, lawyer, writer, and public speaker who served as the 67th United States secretary of state The United States secretary of state is an of ...

Hillary Clinton
). In this example of recent American political history, the purpose for blending is not so much to combine the meanings of the source words but "to suggest a resemblance of one named person to the other"; the effect is often derogatory, as linguist
Benjamin Zimmer Benjamin Zimmer (born 1971) is an American linguist, lexicographer Lexicography is divided into two separate but equally important groups: * Practical lexicography is the art or craft A craft or trade is a pastime or an occupation th ...
states. By contrast, the public, including the media, use portmanteaus to refer to their favorite pairings as a way to "...giv people an essence of who they are within the same name." This is particularly seen in cases of fictional and real-life "
supercouple are credited with defining the term ''supercouple''. A supercouple or super couple (also known as a power couple) is a popular or wealthy pairing that intrigues and fascinates the public in an intense or obsessive fashion. The term originated in ...
s". An early known example,
Bennifer are credited with defining the term ''supercouple''. A supercouple or super couple (also known as a power couple) is a popular or wealthy pairing that intrigues and fascinates the public in an intense or obsessive fashion. The term originated in ...
, referred to film stars
Ben Affleck Benjamin Géza Affleck-Boldt (born August 15, 1972) is an American actor, film director, producer, screenwriter, and philanthropist. His accolades The accolade (also known as dubbing or adoubement) ( la, benedictio militis) was the centr ...

Ben Affleck
and
Jennifer Lopez Jennifer Lynn "J.Lo" Lopez (born July 24, 1969) is an American singer, actress, and dancer. In 1991, Lopez began appearing as a Fly Girl dancer on ''In Living Color ''In Living Color'' is an American sketch comedy Sketch comedy compris ...

Jennifer Lopez
. Other examples include Brangelina (
Brad Pitt William Bradley Pitt (born December 18, 1963) is an American actor and film producer. He is the recipient of List of awards and nominations received by Brad Pitt, numerous accolades, including an Academy Award, a British Academy Film Award, an ...

Brad Pitt
and
Angelina Jolie Angelina Jolie (; née __NOTOC__ A birth name is the name of the person given upon their birth. The term may be applied to the surname In some cultures, a surname, family name, or last name is the portion of one's personal name 30 ...

Angelina Jolie
) and
TomKat Thomas Cruise Mapother IV (born July 3, 1962) is an American actor and producer. He has received List of awards and nominations received by Tom Cruise, various accolades for his work, including three Golden Globe Awards and three nominations f ...
(
Tom Cruise Thomas Cruise Mapother IV (born July 3, 1962) is an American actor and producer. One of the world's highest-paid actors, he has received various accolades throughout his career, including three Golden Globe Awards The Golden Globe Awar ...
and
Katie Holmes Kate Noelle Holmes (born December 18, 1978) is an American actress, director, and producer. She first achieved fame as Joey Potter on the television series ''Dawson's Creek'' (1998–2003). She made her feature film debut in Ang Lee's ''The Ic ...

Katie Holmes
). "
Desilu Productions Desilu Productions () was an American television production company founded and co-owned by husband and wife Desi Arnaz and Lucille Ball Lucille Désirée Ball (August 6, 1911 – April 26, 1989) was an American actress, comedian, model, studi ...
" was a Los Angeles, California-based company jointly owned by couple and actors
Desi Arnaz Desiderio Alberto Arnaz y de Acha III (March 2, 1917 – December 2, 1986), better known as Desi Arnaz, was a Cuban-American Cuban Americans ( es, cubanoestadounidenses or es, cubanoamericanos) are Americans Americans are the citi ...
and
Lucille Ball Lucille Désirée Ball (August 6, 1911 – April 26, 1989) was an American actress, comedian, model, studio executive, and producer. She was nominated for 13 Primetime Emmy Awards, winning five times, and was the recipient of several other accol ...
.
Miramax Miramax, LLC (also known as Miramax Films) is an American entertainment company known for producing and distributing films and television shows. Its headquarters are located in Los Angeles Los Angeles (; es, Los Ángeles; "The Angels") ...
is the combination of the first names of the parents of the Weinstein brothers. On Wednesday, 28 June 2017, ''
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
''
crossword A crossword is a word puzzle A puzzle is a game with separate sliding drawer, from 1390–1353 BC, made of glazed faience, dimensions: 5.5 × 7.7 × 21 cm, in the Brooklyn Museum (New York City) '', 1560, Pieter Bruege ...

crossword
included the quip, "How I wish
Natalie Portman Natalie Portman (born Natalie Hershlag, he, נטע-לי הרשלג, ) is an Israeli-born American actress. With an extensive career in film since her teenage years, she has starred in various blockbusters and independent films, for which she h ...

Natalie Portman
dated
Jacques Cousteau Jacques-Yves Cousteau, (, also , ; 11 June 191025 June 1997) was a French naval officer, explorer, Conservation movement, conservationist, filmmaker, scientist, photographer, author and researcher who studied the sea and all forms of life in w ...
, so I could call them 'Portmanteau'". Holidays are another example, as in , a portmanteau neologism given to the convergence of the American holiday of
Thanksgiving Thanksgiving is a national holiday A holiday is a day set aside by Norm (social), custom or by law on which normal activities, especially business or work including school, are suspended or reduced. Generally, holidays are intended to allow ...
and the first day of the
Jewish holiday Jewish holidays, also known as Jewish festivals or ''Yamim Tovim'' ( he, ימים טובים, , Good Days, or singular , in transliterated Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script Script may refer to: Writ ...
of
Hanukkah or English translation: 'Establishing' or 'Dedication' (of the Temple in Jerusalem The Temple in Jerusalem was any of a series of structures which were located on the Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem, the current site of the Dome o ...

Hanukkah
on Thursday, 28 November 2013.
Chrismukkah Chrismukkah is a pop-culture portmanteau neologism referring to the merging of the holidays of Christianity's Christmas, Christmas and Judaism's Hanukkah, Hanukkah. It first arose in the German-speaking countries within middle-class Jews of the 19t ...
is another pop-culture portmanteau neologism popularized by the TV drama ''
The O.C. ''The O.C. '' is an American teen drama In film and television show, television, drama is a category of narrative fiction (or docudrama, semi-fiction) intended to be more serious than humour, humorous in tone. Drama of this kind is usuall ...
'', merging of the holidays of Christianity's Christmas and Judaism's Hanukkah. In the
Disney The Walt Disney Company, commonly known as Disney (), is an American diversified multinational mass media and entertainment conglomerate headquartered at the Walt Disney Studios complex in Burbank, California California is a U.S. st ...
film '' Big Hero 6'', the film is situated in a fictitious city called "San Fransokyo", which is a portmanteau of two real locations, San Francisco and Tokyo.


Other languages


Modern Hebrew

Modern Hebrew Modern Hebrew ( he, עברית חדשה, ''ʿivrít ḥadašá ', , ''Literal translation, lit.'' "Modern Hebrew" or "New Hebrew"), also known as Israeli Hebrew or Israeli, and generally referred to by speakers simply as Hebrew ( ), is the ...
abounds with European mechanisms such as blending: Along with CD, or simply (''Disk''), Hebrew has the blend (''taklitor''), which consists of (''taklít'', Phonograph record) and (''or'', light). Modern Hebrew is full of portmanteau blends, such as the following: * (''arpíakh'', smog), from (''arafél'', fog) and (''píakh'', soot) * (''midrakhov'', pedestrian-only street), from (''midrakhá'', sidewalk) and (''rekhóv'', street) * (''makhazémer'', musical), from (''makhazé'',theatre play) and (''zémer'', singing erund Other blends include the following: * (''migdalór'', lighthouse), from (''migdál'', tower) and (''or'', light) * (''karnàf'', rhinoceros), from (''kéren'', horn) and (''af'', nose) * (''ramzór'', traffic light), from (''rémez'', indication) and (''or'', light) Sometimes the root of the second word is truncated, giving rise to a blend that resembles an acrostic: * (''tapúz'', orange (fruit), from (''tapúakh'', apple) and (''zaháv'', gold), as well as (''tapúd'', potato) from (''tapúakh'', apple) and (''adamah'', soil) but the full is more common in the latter case.


Irish

A few portmanteaus are in use in modern Irish, for example: *
Brexit Brexit (; a portmanteau of "British exit") was the Withdrawal from the European Union, withdrawal of the United Kingdom (UK) from the European Union (EU) and the European Atomic Energy Community (EAEC or Euratom) at 23:00 31 January 2020 Green ...

Brexit
is referred to as (from , "Britain", and , "leave") or (from , "England", and , "out") * The resignation of Tánaiste (deputy prime minister) Frances Fitzgerald (politician), Frances Fitzgerald was referred to as (from , "goodbye" and ''Tánaiste'') * , an Irish-language preschool (from , "infants", and , "band") * The Irish translation of ''A Game of Thrones'' refers to Winterfell castle as (from , "winter", and , "exposed to winds") * (from English ''jail'' and , "Irish-speaking region"): the community of Irish-speaking Irish republicanism, republican prisoners.


Icelandic

There is a tradition of linguistic purism in Icelandic, and
neologism A neologism (; from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appro ...
s are frequently created from pre-existing words. For example, ''Tölva'' ("computer") is a ''portmanteau'' of ''tala'' ("digit; number") and ''völva'' ("oracle or seeress").


Indonesian

In Indonesian language, Indonesian, portmanteaus and acronyms are very common in both formal and informal usage.


Malaysian

In the Malaysian national language of Bahasa Melayu, the word ''jadong'' was constructed out of three Malay words for evil (''jahat''), stupid (''bodoh'') and arrogant (''sombong'') to be used on the worst kinds of community and religious leaders who mislead naive, submissive and powerless folk under their thrall.


Japanese

A very common type of portmanteau in Japanese forms one word from the beginnings of two others (that is, from two clipping (morphology), back-clippings). The portion of each input word retained is usually two on (Japanese prosody), morae, which is tantamount to one kanji in most words written in kanji. The inputs to the process can be native words, Sino-Japanese vocabulary, Sino-Japanese words, gairaigo (later borrowings), or combinations thereof. A Sino-Japanese example is the name for the University of Tokyo, in full . With borrowings, typical results are words such as , meaning personal computer (PC), which despite being formed of English elements does not exist in English; it is a wasei-eigo, uniquely Japanese contraction of the English . Another example, , is a contracted form of the English words and . A famous example of a blend with mixed sources is , blending the Japanese word for and the Greek word . The Japanese fad of egg-shaped keychain pet toys from the 1990s, Tamagotchi, is a portmanteau combining the two Japanese words tamago (たまご), which means "egg", and uotchi (ウオッチ) "watch". The portmanteau can also be seen as a combination of tamago (たまご), "egg", and tomodachi (友だち), which means "friend". Some anime titles also are portmanteaus, such as ''Hetalia'' (ヘタリア). It came from He''ta''re (ヘタレ), which means "idiot", and I''ta''lia (イタリア) which means Italy. Another example is ''Servamp'', which came from the English words Ser''va''nt (サーヴァント) and ''Va''mpire (ヴァンパイア).


Portuguese

In Brazilian Portuguese, portmanteaus are usually slang, including: * ''Cantriz'', from ''cantora'' (female singer) and ''atriz'' (actress), which defines women that both sing and act. * ''Aborrescente'', from ''aborrecer'' (annoy) and ''adolescente'' (teenager), which is a pejorative term for teenagers. * ''Pescotapa'', from ''pescoço'' (neck) and ''tapa'' (slap), which defines a slap on the back of the neck. In European Portuguese, portmanteaus are also used. Some of them include: * ''Telemóvel'', which means mobile phone, comes from ''telefone'' (telephone) and ''móvel'' (mobile). * ''Cantautor'', which means Singer-songwriter, and comes from ''cantor'' (singer) and ''autor'' (songwriter).


Spanish

Although not very common in Spanish, portmanteaus are finding their way into the language mainly through marketing and media efforts, such as in Mexican Spanish 'cafebrería' from 'cafetería' (coffee shop) and 'librería' (bookstore), or Teletón from 'televisión' and 'maratón'. However, it is very frequent in commercial brands of any type (for instance, "chocolleta", from "chocolate" + "galleta", (cookie), and above all family-owned business (of small size, for instance: Rocar, from "Roberto" + "Carlos", and Mafer, from "Maria" + "Fernanda"). Such usages are prompted by the registering of a distinguishable trademark, but with time, commonly, a specific trademark became the name of the all similar products, like in Cola Cao, a name which is very common to use to refer any similar product. Other examples: * ''Cantautor'', which means Singer-songwriter, and comes from ''cantante'' (singer) and ''autor'' (songwriter). *''Mechatronics, Mecatrónica'' and '':es:Ofimática, Ofimática'' two Neologisms that are blends of ''mecánica'' (mechanical) with ''electrónica'' (electronics), and ''oficina'' (office) with ''informática'' (Computer science, informatics) respectively. *''Espanglish'', interlanguage that combines words from both Spanish (''Español'') and English. *''Metrobus (disambiguation), Metrobús'', blend of ''metro'' (subway) and ''autobús.'' *''Autopista (disambiguation), Autopista'', blend of ''automóvil'' (car) and ''pista'' (highway). *Company names and brands with portmanteaus are common in Spanish. Some examples of Spanish portmanteaus for Mexican companies include: The Mexican flag carrier Aeroméxico, (Aerovías de México), Banorte (Bank and North), Cemex (Cement and Mexico), Jumex (Jugos Mexicanos or Mexican Juice), Mabe (company), Mabe (from founders Egon MAbardi and Francisco BErrondo), Pemex (Petróleos Mexicanos or Mexican Oil), Softtek (portmanteau and stylization of Software and technology), and Telmex (Teléfonos de Mexico). Gamesa (Galletera Mexicana, S.A. or Mexican Biscuit Company, Inc.) and Grupo Famsa, Famsa (fabricantes Muebleros, S.A.) are examples of portmanteaus of four words, including the "S.A." (Sociedad Anónima). *Many more portmanteaus in Spanish come from Anglicisms, which are words borrowed from English, like ''módem'', ''transistor, códec, email, internet'' or ''emoticon.'' A somewhat popular example in Spain is the word Gallifante, a portmanteau of Gallo y Elefante (Cockerel and Elephant). It was the prize on the Spanish version of the children TV show Child's Play (Juego de niños) that ran on the public television channel La 1 (Spanish TV channel), La 1 of Televisión Española (TVE) from 1988 to 1992.


Portmanteau morph

In
linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo ...

linguistics
, a Blend word, blend is an amalgamation or fusion of independent lexemes, while a ''portmanteau'' or ''portmanteau morph'' is a single Allomorph, morph that is analyzed as representing two (or more) underlying
morpheme A morpheme is the smallest meaningful lexical itemIn lexicography, a lexical item (or lexical unit / LU, lexical entry) is a single word, a part of a word, or a chain of words ( catena) that forms the basic elements of a language's lexicon A ...
s. For example, in the Latin word ''animalis'' the ending ''-is'' is a portmanteau morph because it is used for two morphemes: the singular number and the genitive case. In English two separate morphs are used (''of an animal''). Other examples include French ''à le'' → wikt:au#French, ''au'' /o/, and ''de le'' → wikt:du#French, ''du'' /dy/.


See also

* Amalgamation (names) * Hybrid word * List of geographic portmanteaus * List of portmanteaus * Portmanteau sentence * Syllabic abbreviation


References


External links

{{Wiktionary, portmanteau, portmanteau word, English blends
Lexiconcept.com
an online portmanteau generator
Portmanteaur.com
a tool for making portmanteaus
Portmanteau tool – Invent new words
(with definition) Portmanteaus, 1870s neologisms