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Pedagogy (), most commonly understood as the approach to teaching, is the theory and practice of
learning Learning is the process of acquiring new , , s, s, , attitudes, and s. The ability to learn is possessed by s, s, and some ; there is also evidence for some kind of learning in certain s. Some learning is immediate, induced by a single event (e ...

learning
, and how this process influences, and is influenced by, the social, political and
psychological development Developmental psychology is the scientific Science (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around ...
of learners. Pedagogy, taken as an academic discipline, is the study of how knowledge and skills are imparted in an educational context, and it considers the interactions that take place during learning. Both the theory and practice of pedagogy vary greatly, as they reflect different social, political, and cultural contexts. Pedagogy is often described as the act of teaching. The pedagogy adopted by teachers shapes their actions, judgments, and other teaching strategies by taking into consideration theories of learning, understandings of students and their needs, and the backgrounds and interests of individual students. Its aims may range from furthering
liberal education A liberal education is a system or course of education suitable for the cultivation of a (Latin: ''liber'') human being. It is based on the concept of the or, more commonly now, the of the . It has been described as "a philosophy of education ...
(the general development of human potential) to the narrower specifics of
vocational education Vocational education is education that prepares people to work as a technician or to take up employment in a skilled craft or trade as a tradesman, tradesperson or artisan. Vocational education is sometimes referred to as ''career and technica ...
(the imparting and acquisition of specific skills). Conventional western pedagogies view the teacher as knowledge holder and student as the recipient of knowledge (described by
Paulo Freire Paulo Reglus Neves Freire (19 September 1921 – 2 May 1997) was a Brazilian educator and philosopher who was a leading advocate of critical pedagogy. His influential work ''Pedagogy of the Oppressed'' is generally considered one of the foundatio ...

Paulo Freire
as "banking methods"), but theories of pedagogy increasingly identify the student as an agent and the teacher as a facilitator. Instructive strategies are governed by the pupil's background knowledge and experience, situation, and environment, as well as
learning Learning is the process of acquiring new , , s, s, , attitudes, and s. The ability to learn is possessed by s, s, and some ; there is also evidence for some kind of learning in certain s. Some learning is immediate, induced by a single event (e ...

learning
goal A goal is an idea In common usage and in philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existence, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of ...

goal
s set by the student and teacher. One example would be the
Socratic method The Socratic method (also known as method of Elenchus, elenctic method, or Socratic debate) is a form of cooperative Argumentation, argumentative dialogue between individuals, based on asking and answering questions to stimulate critical thinking ...
.


Etymology and pronunciation

The word ''pedagogy'' is a derivative of the
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
(''paidagōgia''), from (''paidagōgos''), itself a synthesis of (''ágō''), "I lead", and (, genitive , ) "boy, child": hence, "attendance on boys, to lead a child". It is pronounced variously, as , , or . The related word ''pedagogue'' has had a negative
connotation A connotation is a commonly understood cultural Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior Social behavior is behavior among two or more organisms within the same species, and encompasses any behavior in which o ...
of
pedant A pedant is a person who is excessively concerned with formalism Formalism may refer to: * Form (disambiguation) * Formal (disambiguation) * Legal formalism, legal positivist view that the substantive justice of a law is a question for the leg ...

pedant
ry, dating from at least the 1650s; a related expression is ''
educational theorist Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, value (ethics), values, morals, beliefs, and habits. Educational methods include teaching, training, storytelling, discussion and directed resear ...
''.


History


Western

In the Western world, pedagogy is associated with the Greek tradition of philosophical dialogue, particularly the Socratic method of inquiry. A more general account of its development holds that it emerged from the active concept of humanity as distinct from a fatalistic one and that history and human destiny are results of human actions. This idea germinated in ancient Greece and was further developed during the
Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. is a period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in ...

Renaissance
, the
Reformation The Reformation (alternatively named the Protestant Reformation or the European Reformation) was a major movement within Western Christianity in Vatican City Vatican City (), officially the Vatican City State ( it, Stato della Cit ...

Reformation
, and the
age of Enlightenment The Age of Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Reason or simply the Enlightenment); ger, Aufklärung, "Enlightenment"; it, L'Illuminismo, "Enlightenment"; pl, Oświecenie , "Enlightenment"; pt, Iluminismo, "Enlightenment"; es, link= ...
.


Socrates

Socrates Socrates (; ; –399 BC) was a Greek philosopher from Athens Athens ( ; el, Αθήνα, Athína ; grc, Ἀθῆναι, Athênai (pl.) ) is the capital city, capital and List of cities in Greece, largest city of Greece. Athens domi ...

Socrates
(470 – 399 BCE) employed the
Socratic method The Socratic method (also known as method of Elenchus, elenctic method, or Socratic debate) is a form of cooperative Argumentation, argumentative dialogue between individuals, based on asking and answering questions to stimulate critical thinking ...
while engaging with a student or peer. This style does not impart knowledge, but rather tries to strengthen the
logic Logic is an interdisciplinary field which studies truth and reasoning. Informal logic seeks to characterize Validity (logic), valid arguments informally, for instance by listing varieties of fallacies. Formal logic represents statements and ar ...

logic
of the student by revealing the conclusions of the statement of the student as erroneous or supported. The instructor in this learning environment recognizes the learners' need to think for themselves to facilitate their ability to think about problems and issues. It was first described by Plato in the ''Socratic Dialogues''.


Plato

Plato Plato ( ; grc-gre, Πλάτων ; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was an Classical Athens, Athenian philosopher during the Classical Greece, Classical period in Ancient Greece, founder of the Platonist school of thought and the Platoni ...

Plato
(428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BCE) describes a system of education in '' The Republic (375 BCE)'' in which individual and family rights are sacrificed to the State. He describes three castes: one to learn a trade; one to learn literary and aesthetic ideas; and one to be trained in literary, aesthetic, scientific, and philosophical ideas. Plato saw education as a fulfillment of the soul, and by fulfilling the soul the body subsequently benefited. Plato viewed physical education for all as a necessity to a stable society.


Aristotle

Aristotle Aristotle (; grc-gre, Ἀριστοτέλης ''Aristotélēs'', ; 384–322 BC) was a Greek philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questio ...

Aristotle
(384–322 BCE) composed a treatise, ''On Education'', which was subsequently lost. However, he renounced Plato's view in subsequent works, advocating for a common education mandated to all citizens by the State. A small minority of people residing within Greek city-states at this time were considered citizens, and thus Aristotle still limited education to a minority within Greece. Aristotle advocates physical education should precede intellectual studies.


Quintilian

(35 – 100 CE) published his pedagogy in ''Institutio Oratoria'' (95 CE). He describes education as a gradual affair, and places certain responsibilities on the teacher. He advocates for rhetorical, grammatical, scientific, and philosophical education.


Tertullian

(155 - 240 CE) was a Christian scholar who rejected all pagan education, insisting this was "a road to the false and arrogant wisdom of ancient philosophers".


Jerome

Saint Jerome Jerome (; la, Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus; grc-gre, Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος; – 30 September 420), also known as Jerome of Stridon, was a Christian priest A priest is a religious leader authoriz ...

Saint Jerome
(347 - 30 September 420 CE), or Saint Hieronymus, was a Christian scholar who detailed his pedagogy of girls in numerous letters throughout his life. He did not believe the body in need of training, and thus advocated for fasting and mortification to subdue the body. He only recommends the Bible as reading material, with limited exposure, and cautions against musical instruments. He advocates against letting girls interact with society, and of having "affections for one of her companions than for others." He does recommend teaching the alphabet by ivory blocks instead of memorization so "She will thus learn by playing." He is an advocate of
positive reinforcement In behavioral psychology Behaviorism is a systematic approach to understanding the behavior of humans and other animals. It assumes that behavior is either a reflex evoked by the pairing of certain antecedent (behavioral psychology), anteced ...

positive reinforcement
, stating "Do not chide her for the difficulty she may have in learning. On the contrary, encourage her by commendation..."


Jean Gerson

(13 December 1363 – 12 July 1429), the
Chancellor of the University of Paris The Chancellor of the University of Paris was originally the chancellor Chancellor ( la, links=no, cancellarius) is a title of various official positions in the governments of many nations. The original chancellors were the ' of Roman courts of j ...
, wrote in ''De parvulis ad Christum trahendis'' "Little children are more easily managed by caresses than fear," supporting a more gentle approach than his Christian predecessors. He also states "Above all else, let the teacher make an effort to be a father to his pupils." He is considered a precursor of Fenelon.


John Amos Comenius

John Amos Comenius John Amos Comenius (; cs, Jan Amos Komenský; german: link=no, Johann Amos Comenius; Latinized: ''Ioannes Amos Comenius''; 28 March 1592 – 15 November 1670) was a Czech Philosophy, philosopher, Pedagogy, pedagogue and Theology, theologian f ...
(28 March 1592 – 15 November 1670) is considered the father of modern education.


Johann Pestalozzi

Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi (; ; January 12, 1746 – February 17, 1827) was a Swiss Swiss may refer to: * the adjectival form of Switzerland ,german: Schweizer(in),french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , governme ...

Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi
(January 12, 1746 – February 17, 1827), founder of several educational institutions both in German- and French-speaking regions of Switzerland and wrote many works explaining his revolutionary modern principles of education. His motto was "Learning by head, hand and heart".


Johann Herbart

The educational philosophy and pedagogy of
Johann Friedrich Herbart Johann Friedrich Herbart (; 4 May 1776 – 14 August 1841) was a German philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason ...

Johann Friedrich Herbart
(4 May 1776 - 14 August 1841) highlighted the correlation between
personal development Personal development consists of activities that develop a person's capabilities and potential, build human capital, facilitate employability, and enhance quality of life Quality of life (QOL), according to Britannica, is the degree to which a ...
and the resulting benefits to society. In other words, Herbart proposed that humans become fulfilled once they establish themselves as productive citizens. Herbartianism refers to the movement underpinned by Herbart's theoretical perspectives. Referring to the teaching process, Herbart suggested five steps as crucial components. Specifically, these five steps include: preparation, presentation, association, generalization, and application. Herbart suggests that pedagogy relates to having assumptions as an educator and a specific set of abilities with a deliberate end goal in mind.


John Dewey

The pedagogy of
John Dewey John Dewey (; October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy. The term ''philosopher'' comes from the grc, φιλόσοφος, , translit=philosophos, meaning 'lover of wisdom ...
(20 October 1859 – 1 June 1952) is presented in several works, including '' My Pedagogic Creed'' (1897), '' The School and Society'' (1900), ''The Child and the Curriculum'' (1902), ''
Democracy and Education ''Democracy and Education: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Education'' is a 1916 book by John Dewey John Dewey (; October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy. The ter ...

Democracy and Education
'' (1916), ''Schools of To-morrow'' (1915) with Evelyn Dewey, and '' Experience and Education'' (1938). In his eyes, the purpose of education should not revolve around the acquisition of a pre-determined set of skills, but rather the realization of one's full potential and the ability to use those skills for the greater good (''My Pedagogic Creed'', Dewey, 1897). Dewey advocated for an educational structure that strikes a balance between delivering knowledge while also taking into account the interests and experiences of the student (''The Child and the Curriculum, Dewey,'' 1902). Dewey not only re-imagined the way that the learning process should take place but also the role that the teacher should play within that process. He envisioned a divergence from the mastery of a pre-selected set of skills to the cultivation of autonomy and critical-thinking within the teacher and student alike.


Paulo Freire

Paulo Reglus Neves Freire (September 19, 1921 – May 2, 1997) was a Brazilian and
philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphysics, existence, reason, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, mi ...

philosopher
who was a leading advocate of
critical pedagogy Critical pedagogy is a philosophy of education and social movement that developed and applied concepts from critical theory and related traditions to the field of education and the study of culture. It insists that issues of social justice and dem ...
. He is best known for his influential work ''
Pedagogy of the Oppressed ''Pedagogy of the Oppressed'' ( pt, Pedagogia do Oprimido) is a book written by Brazilian educator Paulo Freire, first written in Portuguese in 1968. It was first published in English in 1970, in a translation by Myra Ramos. The book is considered ...
'', which is generally considered one of the foundational texts of the critical pedagogy movement.


Eastern


Confucius

Confucius } Confucius ( ; zh, s=, p=Kǒng Fūzǐ, "Master Kǒng"; or commonly zh, s=, p=Kǒngzǐ, labels=no; ) was a Chinese philosopher Chinese philosophy originates in the Spring and Autumn period () and Warring States period (), ...

Confucius
(551–479 BCE) stated that authority has the responsibility to provide oral and written instruction to the people under the rule, and "should do them good in every possible way." One of the deepest teachings of Confucius may have been the superiority of personal exemplification over explicit rules of behavior. His moral teachings emphasized self-cultivation, emulation of moral exemplars, and the attainment of skilled judgement rather than knowledge of rules. Other relevant practices in the Confucian teaching tradition include the Rite and its notion of body-knowledge as well as Confucian understanding of the self, one that has a broader conceptualization than the Western individual self.


Pedagogy during National Socialism

A study on the central organ of the National Socialist Teachers' Union (NSLB) has been published at the Research Center for National Socialist Education at the University of Frankfurt am Main. Over 90 percent of the teachers were organized in it. The NSLB was not a harmless professional organization, but an integral part of the Nazi system, which accompanied the murder program with racism, hostility to Jews and agitation against the persecuted. The vast majority of teachers did not join the organization by force, but voluntarily and gladly. Nevertheless there are some teachers like the Austrian priest
Heinrich Maier Heinrich Maier, DDr. (; born 16 February 1908 in Großweikersdorf), was executed on 22 March 1945 as the last victim of Hitler Adolf Hitler (; 20 April 188930 April 1945) was an Austrian-born German politician who was the dictator of Naz ...
who founded a resistance group and actively took action against the Nazi system. The group passed very important military information to the Allies, was discovered by the Gestapo and most of its members were executed. The denominational area was particularly affected by National Socialism, because denominational schools were closed and religious events in the school area were generally banned. Knowledge transfer was followed by political and physical training, which ranged from sport to paramilitary training.


Pedagogical considerations


Hidden curriculum

A hidden curriculum is a side effect of an education, " essonswhich are learned but not openly intended"Martin, Jane. "What Should We Do with a Hidden Curriculum When We Find One?" The Hidden Curriculum and Moral Education. Ed. Giroux, Henry and David Purpel. Berkeley, California: McCutchan Publishing Corporation, 1983. 122–139. such as the transmission of norms, values, and beliefs conveyed in the classroom and the social environment.Giroux, Henry and Anthony Penna. "Social Education in the Classroom: The Dynamics of the Hidden Curriculum." The Hidden Curriculum and Moral Education. Ed. Giroux, Henry and David Purpel. Berkeley, California: McCutchan Publishing Corporation, 1983. 100–121.


Learning space

Learning space or learning setting refers to a physical setting for a
learning environment The term learning environment can refer to an educational approach, cultural context, or physical setting in which teaching and learning occur. The term is commonly used as a more definitive alternative to "classroom A classroom or schoolroom i ...
, a place in which teaching and learning occur. The term is commonly used as a more definitive alternative to "
classroom A classroom or schoolroom is a learning space Learning space or learning setting refers to a physical setting for a learning environment, a place in which teaching and learning occur. The term is commonly used as a more definitive alternat ...

classroom
," but it may also refer to an indoor or outdoor location, either actual or virtual. Learning spaces are highly diverse in use, learning styles, configuration, location, and educational institution. They support a variety of pedagogies, including quiet study, passive or active learning, kinesthetic or physical learning, vocational learning, experiential learning, and others.


Learning theories

Learning theories are
conceptual framework A conceptual framework is an analytical tool Analytical chemistry studies and uses instruments and methods used to separate, identify, and quantify matter. In practice, separation, identification or quantification may constitute the entire anal ...
s describing how knowledge is absorbed, processed, and retained during
learning Learning is the process of acquiring new , , s, s, , attitudes, and s. The ability to learn is possessed by s, s, and some ; there is also evidence for some kind of learning in certain s. Some learning is immediate, induced by a single event (e ...

learning
. Cognitive, emotional, and environmental influences, as well as prior experience, all play a part in how understanding, or a world view, is acquired or changed and knowledge and skills retained.


Distance learning

Distance education or long-distance learning is the education of students who may not always be physically present at a
school A school is an educational institution An educational institution is a place where people of different ages gain an education, including preschools, childcare, primary-elementary schools, secondary-high schools, and universities. They p ...

school
. Traditionally, this usually involved correspondence courses wherein the student corresponded with the school via
post Post or POST commonly refers to: *Mail The mail or post is a system for physically transporting postcards, letters, and parcels. A postal service can be private or public, though many governments place restrictions on private systems. Since ...

post
. Today it involves online education. Courses that are conducted (51 percent or more) are either
hybrid Hybrid may refer to: Economics and finance * Hybrid market, a system allowing stock trades to be completed either electronically or manually * Hybrid security, a type of economic instrument Technology Electrical power generation * Hybrid generato ...
, or 100% distance learning.
Massive open online course A massive open online course (MOOC ) is an online course Educational technology (commonly abbreviated as EduTech, or EdTech) is the combined use of computer hardware, software, and Education sciences, educational theory and practice to facili ...
s (MOOCs), offering large-scale interactive participation and open access through the
World Wide Web The World Wide Web (WWW), commonly known as the Web, is an information system An information system (IS) is a formal, sociotechnical Sociotechnical systems (STS) in organizational development is an approach to complex organizational ...
or other network technologies, are recent developments in distance education. A number of other terms (distributed learning, e-learning, online learning, etc.) are used roughly synonymously with distance education.


Teaching resource adaptation

Adapting the teaching resource should suit appropriate teaching and learning environments, national and local cultural norms, and make it accessible to different types of learners. Key adaptations in teaching resource include: Classroom constraints * Large class size – consider smaller groups or have discussions in pairs; * Time available – shorten or lengthen the duration of activities; * Modifying materials needed – find, make or substitute required materials; * Space requirements – reorganize
classroom A classroom or schoolroom is a learning space Learning space or learning setting refers to a physical setting for a learning environment, a place in which teaching and learning occur. The term is commonly used as a more definitive alternat ...

classroom
, use a larger space, move indoors or outdoors. Cultural familiarity * Change references to names, food and items to make them more familiar; * Substitute local texts or art (
folklore Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the tradition A tradition is a belief A belief is an attitude Attitude may refer to: Philosophy and psychology * Attitude (psycholog ...

folklore
, stories, songs, games, artwork and
proverbs A proverb (from la, proverbium) is a simple and insightful, traditional saying A saying is any concisely written or spoken expression (linguistics), expression that is especially memorable because of its meaning or style. Sayings are categorize ...

proverbs
). Local relevance * Use the names and processes for local institutions such as courts; * Be sensitive of local behavior norms (e.g. for genders and ages); * Ensure content is sensitive to the degree of
rule of law The rule of law is defined in the ''Oxford English Dictionary The ''Oxford English Dictionary'' (''OED'') is the principal of the , published by (OUP). It traces the historical development of the English language, providing a compreh ...

rule of law
in society (trust in authorities and institutions). Inclusivity for diverse students * Appropriate
reading Reading is the process of taking in the sense or meaning of letters, symbols, ''etc.'', especially by sight or touch. For educators and researchers, reading is a multifaceted process involving such areas as word recognition, orthography An ...

reading
level(s) of texts for student use; * Activities for different learning styles; * Accommodation for students with special educational needs; * Sensitivity to cultural,
ethnic An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason Reason is the capacity of consciously a ...
and linguistic diversity; * Sensitivity to students’
socioeconomic Socioeconomics (also known as social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is shaped by social processes. In general it analyzes how modern society, societies social progress, progress, economic stagnation ...
status.


Pedagogical approaches


Critical pedagogy

Critical pedagogy is both a pedagogical approach and a broader
social movement A social movement is a loosely organized effort by a large group of people to achieve a particular goal, typically a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social wh ...
. Critical pedagogy asserts that educational practices are contested and shaped by history, that schools are not
politically Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other forms of power relations between individuals, such as the distribution of resource A resource is a source or supply from which a ben ...

politically
neutral spaces, and that teaching is political. Decisions regarding the
curriculum In education Education is the process of facilitating , or the acquisition of , s, , morals, s, s, and personal development. Educational methods include , , , and directed . Education frequently takes place under the guidance of educat ...
, disciplinary practices, student testing,
textbook A textbook is a book A book is a medium for recording information Information is processed, organised and structured data. It provides context for data and enables decision making process. For example, a single customer’s sale at ...
selection, the language used by the teacher, and more can empower or disempower students. It asserts that educational practices favor some students over others and some practices harm all students. It also asserts that educational practices often favor some voices and perspectives while marginalizing or ignoring others. Another aspect examined is the
power Power typically refers to: * Power (physics) In physics, power is the amount of energy transferred or converted per unit time. In the International System of Units, the unit of power is the watt, equal to one joule per second. In older works, p ...
the teacher holds over students and the implications of this. Its aims include empowering students to become active and engaged
citizens Citizenship is a relationship between an individual and a state to which the individual owes allegiance and in turn is entitled to its protection. Each state determines the conditions under which it will recognize persons as its citizens, and t ...

citizens
, who are able to actively improve their own lives and their
communities A community is a social unit (a group of living things) with commonality such as norms, religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious behaviour, behaviors and practices, morality, morals, beliefs, wor ...

communities
. Critical pedagogical practices may include listening to and including students' knowledge and perspectives in class, making connections between school and the broader community, and posing problems to students that encourage them to question assumed knowledge and understandings. The goal of problem posing to students is to enable them to begin to pose their own problems. Teachers acknowledge their position of authority and exhibit this authority through their actions that support students.


Dialogic learning

Dialogic learning is
learning Learning is the process of acquiring new , , s, s, , attitudes, and s. The ability to learn is possessed by s, s, and some ; there is also evidence for some kind of learning in certain s. Some learning is immediate, induced by a single event (e ...

learning
that takes place through
dialogue Dialogue (sometimes spelled dialog in American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. ...
. It is typically the result of egalitarian dialogue; in other words, the consequence of a dialogue in which different people provide
arguments In logic Logic (from Ancient Greek, Greek: grc, wikt:λογική, λογική, label=none, lit=possessed of reason, intellectual, dialectical, argumentative, translit=logikḗ)Also related to (''logos''), "word, thought, idea, argument, ...

arguments
based on
validity Validity or Valid may refer to: Science/mathematics/statistics: * Validity (logic), a property of a logical argument * Scientific: ** Internal validity, the validity of causal inferences within scientific studies, usually based on experiments ** ...
claims and not on
power Power typically refers to: * Power (physics) In physics, power is the amount of energy transferred or converted per unit time. In the International System of Units, the unit of power is the watt, equal to one joule per second. In older works, p ...
claims.


Student-centered learning

Student-centered learning, also known as learner-centered education, broadly encompasses methods of
teaching Education is the process of facilitating learning Learning is the process of acquiring new understanding, knowledge, behaviors, skills, value (personal and cultural), values, attitudes, and preferences. The ability to learn is possessed ...

teaching
that shift the focus of instruction from the
teacher A teacher, also called a schoolteacher or formally an educator, is a person who helps student A student is primarily a person enrolled in a school A school is an educational institution designed to provide learning spaces and le ...

teacher
to the
student A student is primarily a person enrolled in a school A school is an educational institution designed to provide learning spaces and learning environments for the teaching of students under the direction of teachers. Most countries h ...

student
. In original usage, student-centered learning aims to develop learner autonomy and independence by putting responsibility for the learning path in the hands of students.Hannafin, M. J., & Hannafin, K. M. (2010)
Cognition and student-centered, web-based learning: Issues and implications for research and theory
Learning and instruction in the digital age (pp. 11–23). Springer US.
Student-centered instruction focuses on skills and practices that enable
lifelong learning Lifelong learning is the "ongoing, voluntary, and self-motivated"Department of Education and Science (2000).Learning for Life: Paper on Adult Education Dublin: Stationery Office. pursuit of knowledge for either personal or professional reasons ...
and independent problem-solving.


Academic degrees

The
academic degree An academic degree is a qualification awarded to students upon successful completion of a course of study in higher education, usually at a college or university. These institutions commonly offer degrees at various levels, usually including Bach ...
Ped. D.,
Doctor Doctor or The Doctor may refer to: Personal titles * Doctor (title) Doctor is an Academic degree, academic title that originates from the Latin word of the same spelling and meaning. The word is originally an Agent noun, agentive noun ...

Doctor
of Pedagogy, is awarded honorarily by some US universities to distinguished teachers (in the US and UK, earned degrees within the instructive field are classified as an Ed. D.,
Doctor of Education The Doctor of Education (Ed.D. or D.Ed.; Latin ''Educationis Doctor'' or ''Doctor Educationis'') is a research and professional doctoral degree The cover of the thesis presented by Claude Bernard to obtain his Doctor of Medicine">Claude_Bernard ...
, or a Ph.D.,
Doctor of Philosophy A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD, Ph.D., or DPhil; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Throug ...
). The term is also used to denote an emphasis in education as a specialty in a field (for instance, a
Doctor of Music The Doctor of Music degree (D.Mus., D.M., Mus.D. or occasionally Mus.Doc.) is a higher doctorate A doctorate (from Latin ''docere'', "to teach") or doctor's degree (from Latin ''doctor'', "teacher") or doctoral degree is an academic degree a ...
degree in piano pedagogy).


Pedagogues across the world

The education of pedagogues, and their role in society, varies greatly from culture to culture.


Brazil

In Brazil, a pedagogue is a multidisciplinary educator. Undergraduate education in Pedagogy qualifies students to become school administrators or coordinators at all educational levels, and also to become multidisciplinary teachers, such as pre-school, elementary and
special Special or specials may refer to: Policing * Specials, Ulster Special Constabulary, the Northern Ireland police force * Specials, Special Constable, an auxiliary, volunteer, or temporary; police worker or police officer Literature * ''Special ...

special
teachers.


Denmark

In Scandinavia, a pedagogue (''pædagog'') is broadly speaking a practitioner of pedagogy, but the term is primarily reserved for individuals who occupy jobs in
pre-school A preschool, also known as nursery school, pre-primary school, or play school, is an educational establishment or learning space Learning space or learning setting refers to a physical setting for a learning environment, a place in whic ...
education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, value (ethics), values, morals, beliefs, habits, and personal development. Educational methods include teaching, training, storytelling, discussion ...

education
(such as
kindergarten Kindergarten (, ) is a preschool A preschool, also known as nursery school, pre-primary school, or play school, is an school, educational establishment or learning space offering early childhood education to children before they begin com ...

kindergarten
s and ). A pedagogue can occupy various kinds of jobs, within this restrictive definition, e.g. in
retirement home A retirement home – sometimes called an old people's home or old age home, although ''old people's home'' can also refer to a nursing home A nursing home is a facility for the residential careResidential care refers to long-term care give ...
s,
prison A prison, also known as a jail or gaol (dated, English language in England, standard English, Australian English, Australian, and Huron Historic Gaol, historically in Canada), penitentiary (American English and Canadian English), detention ...

prison
s,
orphanage Historically, an orphanage is a residential institution, or group home, devoted to the Childcare, care of orphans and other children who were separated from their biological families. Examples of what would cause a child to be placed in orp ...

orphanage
s, and
human resource management Human resource management (HRM or HR) is the strategic approach to the effective and efficient management of people in a company or organization such that they help their business gain a competitive advantage In business, a competitive advantage ...
. When working with at-risk families or youths they are referred to as social pedagogues (''socialpædagog''). The pedagogue's job is usually distinguished from a
teacher A teacher, also called a schoolteacher or formally an educator, is a person who helps student A student is primarily a person enrolled in a school A school is an educational institution designed to provide learning spaces and le ...

teacher
's by primarily focusing on teaching children life-preparing knowledge such as
social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchange is voluntary/involuntary. Etymology The word "Social" derives fr ...
or non-curriculum skills, and
cultural norms Social norms are regarded as collective representations of acceptable group conduct as well as individual perceptions of particular group conduct. They can be viewed as cultural products (including values, customs, and traditions)Sherif, M. (193 ...
. There is also a very big focus on the care and well-being of the child. Many pedagogical institutions also practice
social inclusion Social exclusion or social marginalisation is the social disadvantage and relegation to the fringe of society A society is a group A group is a number A number is a mathematical object used to counting, count, measurement, measur ...
. The pedagogue's work also consists of supporting the child in their mental and social development. In Denmark all pedagogues are educated at a series of national institutes for social educators located in all major cities. The education is a 3.5-year academic course, giving the student the title of a
Bachelor A bachelor is a man who is not and has never been married.Bachelors are, in Richard Pitt, Pitt & al.'s phrasing, "men who live independently, outside of their parents' home and other institutional settings, who are neither married nor cohabitating ...
in Social Education (Danish: ''Professionsbachelor som pædagog''). It is also possible to earn a master's degree in pedagogy/educational science from the University of Copenhagen. This BA and MA program has a more theoretical focus compared to the more vocational Bachelor in Social Education.


Hungary

In Hungary, the word pedagogue (''pedagógus'') is synonymous with the teacher (''tanár''); therefore, teachers of both primary and secondary schools may be referred to as pedagogues, a word that appears also in the name of their lobbyist organizations and labor unions (e.g. Labor Union of Pedagogues, Democratic Labor Union of Pedagogues). However, undergraduate education in Pedagogy does not qualify students to become teachers in primary or secondary schools but makes them able to apply to be educational assistants. As of 2013, the 6-year training period was re-installed in place of the undergraduate and postgraduate division which characterized the previous practice.


India

In India, the
Gurukula A or ( sa, गुरुकुल, gurukula) is a type of education system in ancient India with ('students' or 'disciples') living near or with the guru, in the same house. The guru-shishya tradition is a sacred one in Hinduism and possibly ...
system was followed. A
gurukula A or ( sa, गुरुकुल, gurukula) is a type of education system in ancient India with ('students' or 'disciples') living near or with the guru, in the same house. The guru-shishya tradition is a sacred one in Hinduism and possibly ...
or is a type of education system of ancient
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
with shishya ('students' or 'disciples') living near or with the
guru Guru (, ; sa, गुरु, IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation of Brahmic family, Indic scripts as employed by Sanskrit and related Indic langu ...

guru
, in the same house. The guru-shishya tradition is a sacred one in
Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent. These religions, which include Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, ...

Hinduism
and appears in other religions too in India, such as
Jainism Jainism (), traditionally known as ''Jain Dharma'', is an ancient Indian religion. It is one of the oldest Indian religions. The three main pillars of Jainism are ''Ahimsa in Jainism, ahiṃsā'' (non-violence), ''anekāntavāda'' (non-absolut ...

Jainism
,
Buddhism Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and ...

Buddhism
and
Sikhism Sikhism () or Sikhi ( pa, ਸਿੱਖੀ ', , from pa, ਸਿੱਖ, lit=disciple', 'seeker', or 'learner, translit=Sikh, label=none)''Sikhism'' (indigenously known as ''Sikhī'') originated from the word ''Sikh'', which comes from the Sanskr ...
. The word
gurukula A or ( sa, गुरुकुल, gurukula) is a type of education system in ancient India with ('students' or 'disciples') living near or with the guru, in the same house. The guru-shishya tradition is a sacred one in Hinduism and possibly ...
is a combination of the
Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It arose in South Asia after its predecessor langua ...

Sanskrit
words ''
guru Guru (, ; sa, गुरु, IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation of Brahmic family, Indic scripts as employed by Sanskrit and related Indic langu ...

guru
'' ('teacher' or 'master') and ''kula'' ('family' or 'home'). Before
British rule The British Raj (; from ''rāj'', literally, "rule" in Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language of South Asia belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages, ...
, they served as
South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia Asia () is 's largest and most populous , located primarily in the and . It shares the continental of with the continent of and the continental landmass of with both Europe and . Asia cov ...

South Asia
's primary educational system. The term is also used today to refer to residential
monasteries A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monk A monk (, from el, μοναχός, ''monachos'', "single, solitary" via Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical langua ...
or schools operated by modern
gurus Guru (, ; sa, गुरु, IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scie ...
. The proper plural of the term is , though the terms “ gurukulas” and “ gurukuls” are also used in English and some other Western languages. The students learn from the
guru Guru (, ; sa, गुरु, IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation of Brahmic family, Indic scripts as employed by Sanskrit and related Indic langu ...

guru
and help the
guru Guru (, ; sa, गुरु, IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation of Brahmic family, Indic scripts as employed by Sanskrit and related Indic langu ...

guru
in his everyday life, including carrying out of mundane daily household chores. However, some scholars suggest that the activities are not mundane and are an essential part of the education and is also a method to inculcate self-discipline among students. Typically, a
guru Guru (, ; sa, गुरु, IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation of Brahmic family, Indic scripts as employed by Sanskrit and related Indic langu ...

guru
does not receive or accept any fees from the shishya studying with him as the relationship between a
guru Guru (, ; sa, गुरु, IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation of Brahmic family, Indic scripts as employed by Sanskrit and related Indic langu ...

guru
and the shishya is considered very sacred. At the end of one's education, a shishya offers the
guru Guru (, ; sa, गुरु, IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation of Brahmic family, Indic scripts as employed by Sanskrit and related Indic langu ...

guru
a gurudakshina (donation, fees, or honorarium to the teacher) before leaving the
gurukula A or ( sa, गुरुकुल, gurukula) is a type of education system in ancient India with ('students' or 'disciples') living near or with the guru, in the same house. The guru-shishya tradition is a sacred one in Hinduism and possibly ...
. The gurudakshina is a traditional gesture of acknowledgment, respect and thanks to the
guru Guru (, ; sa, गुरु, IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation of Brahmic family, Indic scripts as employed by Sanskrit and related Indic langu ...

guru
, which may be monetary, but may also be a special task the teacher wants the student to accomplish. While living in a
gurukula A or ( sa, गुरुकुल, gurukula) is a type of education system in ancient India with ('students' or 'disciples') living near or with the guru, in the same house. The guru-shishya tradition is a sacred one in Hinduism and possibly ...
, the students would be away from their home from a period of months to years at a stretch. The
gurukula A or ( sa, गुरुकुल, gurukula) is a type of education system in ancient India with ('students' or 'disciples') living near or with the guru, in the same house. The guru-shishya tradition is a sacred one in Hinduism and possibly ...
system of education has been in existence since ancient times. The Upanishads mention multiple , including that of guru Dronacharya. The Bhrigu Valli (a discourse on the Brahman) is said to have taken place in Guru Varuni's
gurukula A or ( sa, गुरुकुल, gurukula) is a type of education system in ancient India with ('students' or 'disciples') living near or with the guru, in the same house. The guru-shishya tradition is a sacred one in Hinduism and possibly ...
. The Vedic school of thought prescribes the
gurukula A or ( sa, गुरुकुल, gurukula) is a type of education system in ancient India with ('students' or 'disciples') living near or with the guru, in the same house. The guru-shishya tradition is a sacred one in Hinduism and possibly ...
(sacred rite of passage) to all individuals before the age of 8 (at least by 12). From initiation until the age of 25 all individuals are prescribed celibacy and bachelorhood, besides being students. Gurukulam were supported by public donations. This was followed by many following Vedic thoughts, making
gurukula A or ( sa, गुरुकुल, gurukula) is a type of education system in ancient India with ('students' or 'disciples') living near or with the guru, in the same house. The guru-shishya tradition is a sacred one in Hinduism and possibly ...
one of the earliest forms of public-school centers. During the United Kingdom, British colonial era, the
gurukula A or ( sa, गुरुकुल, gurukula) is a type of education system in ancient India with ('students' or 'disciples') living near or with the guru, in the same house. The guru-shishya tradition is a sacred one in Hinduism and possibly ...
system was on a steep decline in India. Dayananda Saraswathi, the founder of Arya Samaj and Swami Shraddhanand, were the pioneers of the modern
gurukula A or ( sa, गुरुकुल, gurukula) is a type of education system in ancient India with ('students' or 'disciples') living near or with the guru, in the same house. The guru-shishya tradition is a sacred one in Hinduism and possibly ...
system; in 1886 was founded the now-widespread Dayanand Anglo-Vedic Public Schools and Universities. In 1948, Shastriji Maharaj Shree Dharamjivan das Swami followed suit and initiated the first Swaminarayan Gurukula in Rajkot in Gujarat state of
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
. Recently, several have opened in India as well as overseas with a desire to uphold Hindu tradition. Various still exist in India, and researchers have been studying the effectiveness of the system through those institutions. With the advent of new means of mass communication, many
gurus Guru (, ; sa, गुरु, IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scie ...
and Vedantic scholars are opening E-Gurukulam. These are operating online and are now imparting knowledge about different Hindu scriptures using the internet. Most of these are breaking traditional bounds by allowing women to get access to knowledge about the scriptures and Vedas. The Gurukulam system of education is available outside of India as well, e.g., in Belgium, at the Jain Culture Center of Antwerp, children between the ages of 8 and 16 study Vedic Mathematics, Vedic Art, Vedic Music,
Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It arose in South Asia after its predecessor langua ...

Sanskrit
and Yoga.


Modern pedagogy

An article from The Kathmandu Post, Kathmandu Post published on 3 June 2018 described the usual first day of school in an academic calendar. Teachers meet their students with distinct traits. The diversity of attributions among children or teens exceeds similarities. Educators have to teach students with different cultural, social, and religious backgrounds. This situation entails a differentiated strategy in pedagogy and not the traditional approach for teachers to accomplish goals efficiently. American author and educator Carol Ann Tomlinson defined Differentiated instruction, Differentiated Instruction as "teachers' efforts in responding to inconsistencies among students in the classroom." Differentiation refers to methods of teaching. She explained that Differentiated Instruction gives learners a variety of alternatives for acquiring information. Primary principles comprising the structure of Differentiated Instruction include formative and ongoing assessment, group collaboration, recognition of students' diverse levels of knowledge, problem-solving, and choice in reading and writing experiences. Howard Gardner gained prominence in the education sector for his Theory of multiple intelligences, Multiple Intelligences Theory. He named seven of these intelligences in 1983: Linguistic, Logical and Mathematical, Visual and Spatial, Body and Kinesthetic, Musical and Rhythmic, Intrapersonal, and Interpersonal. Critics say the theory is based only on Gardner's intuition instead of empirical data. Another criticism is that the intelligence is too identical for types of personalities. The theory of Howard Gardner came from cognitive research and states these intelligence help people to "''know the world, understand themselves, and other people''." Said differences dispute an educational system that presumes students can "''understand the same materials in the same manner and that a standardized, collective measure is very much impartial towards linguistic approaches in instruction and assessment as well as to some extent logical and quantitative styles''."


See also

* * * * * * * * *Evidence-based education * Outline of education


References


Sources

*


Further reading

* Jerome Bruner, Bruner, J. S. (1960). ''The Process of Education'', Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. * Bruner, J. S. (1966). ''Toward a Theory of Instruction''. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Belkapp Press. * Bruner, J. S. (1971). ''The Relevance of Education''. New York, NY: Norton * Paulo Freire, Freire, P. (1970). ''Pedagogy of the Oppressed''. New York: Continuum * Maria Montessori, Montessori, M. (1910). ''Antropologia Pedagogica''. * Montessori, M. (1921). ''Manuale di Pedagogia Scientifica''. * Montessori, M. (1934). ''Psico Geométria''. * Montessori, M. (1934). ''Psico Aritmética''. * Jean Piaget, Piaget, J. (1926). ''The Language and Thought of the Child''. London: Routledge & Kegan. * Karl Rosenkranz (1848)
''Pedagogics as a System''
Translated 1872 by Anna C. Brackett, R.P. Studley Company * Karl Rosenkranz (1899)
''The philosophy of education''
D. Appleton and Co. * Lev Vygotsky, Vygotsky, L. (1962). ''Thought and Language''. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. {{Subject bar , b=y , commons=y , d = , n=y , q=y , s=y , v=y , wikt=y Pedagogy, Didactics Educational psychology Education terminology