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Methodology
Methodology is the study of research methods, or, more formally, "'a contextual framework' for research, a coherent and logical scheme based on views, beliefs, and values, that guides the choices researchers [or other users] make". It comprises the theoretical analysis of the body of methods and principles associated with a branch of knowledge such that the methodologies employed from differing Academic discipline, disciplines vary depending on their historical development. This creates a continuum of methodologies that stretch across competing understandings of how Epistemology, knowledge and Ontology, reality are best understood. This situates methodologies within overarching philosophies and approaches. Methodology may be visualized as a spectrum from a predominantly Quantitative research, quantitative approach towards a predominantly Qualitative research, qualitative approach. Although a methodology may conventionally sit specifically within one of these approaches, resear ...
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Falsifiability
Falsifiability is a standard of evaluation of scientific theories and hypotheses that was introduced by the philosopher of science Karl Popper in his book The Logic of Scientific Discovery, ''Logik der Forschung'' (1934). He proposed it as the cornerstone of a solution to both the problem of induction and the demarcation problem, problem of demarcation. A theory or hypothesis is falsifiable (or refutable) if it can be logically contradicted by an empirical test with existing technologies. The purpose of falsifiability even as a ''logical'' criterion is to make the theory predictive power, predictive and Testability, testable thus useful in practice. Popper opposed falsifiability to the intuitively similar concept of Verifiability (science), verifiability. Verifying the claim "All swans are white" would ''logically'' require observing all swans, which is not technologically possible. In contrast, the observation of a single black swan is technologically reasonable and suffic ...
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STARR-seq Methodology
STARR-seq (short for self-transcribing active regulatory region sequencing) is a method to assay enhancer activity for millions of candidates from arbitrary sources of DNA. It is used to identify the sequences that act as transcriptional enhancers in a direct, quantitative, and genome-wide manner. Introduction In eukaryotes Eukaryotes () are organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual contiguous system that embodies the Life#Biology, properties of life. It is a synonym for "Outline ..., transcription is regulated by sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins (transcription factors In molecular biology Molecular biology is the branch of biology that seeks to understand the molecule, molecular basis of biological activity in and between Cell (biology), cells, including biomolecule, molecular synthesis, modification, m ...) associated with a gene’s promoter and also by distant control s ...
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Multimethodology
Multimethodology or multimethod research includes the use of more than one method of data collection or research in a research study or set of related studies. Mixed methods research is more specific in that it includes the mixing of qualitative and quantitative data, methods, methodologies, and/or paradigms in a research study or set of related studies. One could argue that mixed methods research is a special case of multimethod research. Another applicable, but less often used label, for multi or mixed research is methodological pluralism. All of these approaches to professional and academic research Research is "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge". It involves the collection, organization and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expa ... emphasize that monomethod research can be improved through the use of multiple data sources, methods, research methodologies, perspe ...
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Analysis
Analysis is the process of breaking a complex topic or substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote the base or owner of attributes * Chemical substance, a material with a definite chemical composition * Matter, anything that has mass and takes up space * Substance th ... into smaller parts in order to gain a better understanding of it. The technique has been applied in the study of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers ( and ), formulas and related structures (), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (), and quantities and their changes ( and ). There is no general consensus abo ... and logic Logic is an interdisciplinary field which studies truth and reasoning Reason is the capacity of consciously making sense of things, applying logic Logic (from Ancient Greek, Greek: grc, wikt:λογική, λογική, label=none, lit ... since before Aristotle A ...
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Social Science
Social science is the branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who spe ... of science Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts ( descriptive knowledge), skills (procedural knowledge), or objects ... devoted to the study of societies A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction In social science, a social relation or social interaction is any relationship between two or more individuals. Social relations derived from individual agenc ... and the relationships among individual An individual is that which exists as a distinct entity Entity may refer to: Computing * Character entity refe ...
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Paradigm
In science Science () is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations and predictions about the universe."... modern science is a discovery as well as an invention. ... and philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphysics, existence, reason, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, mind, and Philosophy of language, language. Such questio ..., a paradigm () is a distinct set of concepts or thought patterns, including theories, research method Research is "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge". It involves the collection, organization and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expa ...s, postulates, and standards for what constitutes legitimate contributions to a field. Etymology ''Parad ...
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Geoscience
Earth science or geoscience includes all fields of natural science Natural science is a branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or ph ... related to the planet A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or Stellar evolution#Stellar remnants, stellar remnant that is massive enough to be Hydrostatic equilibrium, rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and ... Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. The remaining 70.8% is Water distribution on Earth, covered wi .... This is a branch of science dealing with the physical and chemical constitution of Earth and its atmosphere. Earth science can be conside ...
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Research Question
A research question is 'a question that a research project sets out to answer'. Choosing a research question is an essential element of both quantitative and qualitative research Qualitative research relies on data obtained by the researcher from first-hand observation, interviews, questionnaires (on which participants write descriptively), focus groups, participant-observation, recordings made in natural settings, docum .... Investigation will require data collection and analysis, and the methodology for this will vary widely. Good research questions seek to improve knowledge on an important topic, and are usually narrow and specific. To form a research question, one must determine what type of study will be conducted such as a qualitative, quantitative, or mixed study. Additional factors, such as project funding, may not only affect the research question itself but also when and how it is formed during the research Research is "creative and systematic work undertake ...
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Scientific Method
The scientific method is an empirical Empirical evidence for a proposition is evidence, i.e. what supports or counters this proposition, that is constituted by or accessible to sense experience or experimental procedure. Empirical evidence is of central importance to the sciences and ... method of acquiring knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is something that is truth, true. The usual test for a statement of fact is verifiability—that is whether it can be demonstrated to correspond to e ... that has characterized the development of science Science () is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations and predictions about the universe."... modern science is a discovery as well as an invention. ... since at least the 17th century (with notable practitioners in previous centuries). It involves careful observat ...
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Epistemology
Epistemology (; ) is the Outline of philosophy, branch of philosophy concerned with knowledge. Epistemologists study the nature, origin, and scope of knowledge, epistemic Justification (epistemology), justification, the Reason, rationality of belief, and various related issues. Epistemology is considered a major subfield of philosophy, along with other major subfields such as ethics, logic, and metaphysics. Debates in epistemology are generally clustered around four core areas: # The philosophical analysis of the nature of knowledge and the conditions required for a belief to constitute knowledge, such as truth and Justification (epistemology), justification # Potential sources of knowledge and justified belief, such as perception, reason, memory, and Testimony#Philosophy, testimony # The structure of a body of knowledge or justified belief, including whether all justified beliefs must be derived from justified Foundationalism, foundational beliefs or whether justification r ...
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Causality
Causality (also referred to as causation, or cause and effect) is influence by which one Event (relativity), event, process, state or object (a ''cause'') contributes to the production of another event, process, state or object (an ''effect'') where the cause is partly responsible for the effect, and the effect is partly dependent on the cause. In general, a process has many causes, which are also said to be ''causal factors'' for it, and all lie in its past. An effect can in turn be a cause of, or causal factor for, many other effects, which all lie in its future. Some writers have held that causality is metaphysics, metaphysically prior to notions of time and space. Causality is an abstraction that indicates how the world progresses, so basic a concept that it is more apt as an explanation of other concepts of progression than as something to be explained by others more basic. The concept is like those of wikt:agency, agency and wikt:efficacy, efficacy. For this reason, a lea ...
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Quantitative Research
Quantitative research is a research strategy that focuses on quantifying the collection and analysis of data. It is formed from a deductive Deductive reasoning, also deductive logic, is the process of reasoning Reason is the capacity of consciously applying logic Logic is an interdisciplinary field which studies truth and reasoning Reason is the capacity of consciously making ... approach where emphasis is placed on the testing of theory, shaped by empiricist In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existence, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, mind, and Philosophy of language, ... and positivist philosophies. Associated with the natural Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, material world or universe The universe ( la, universus) is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, gal ...
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