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A mandolin ( it, mandolino ; literally "small
mandola The mandola (US and Canada) or tenor mandola (Ireland and UK) is a fretted, stringed musical instrument A musical instrument is a device created or adapted to make Music, musical sounds. In principle, any object that produces sound can be cons ...

mandola
") is a
stringed musical instrument String instruments, stringed instruments, or chordophones are musical instrument A musical instrument is a device created or adapted to make Music, musical sounds. In principle, any object that produces sound can be considered a musical instru ...
in the
lute A lute ( or ) is any plucked string instrument String instruments, stringed instruments, or chordophones are musical instruments that produce sound from vibrating strings when a performer plays or sounds the strings in some manner. Musicia ...

lute
family and is generally plucked with a
plectrum Image:Guitar picks DSC06879.jpg, thumbnail, Three plectra for use with guitar A plectrum is a small flat tool used to pluck or strum a string instrument, stringed instrument. For hand-held instruments such as guitars and mandolins, the plectrum is ...
. It most commonly has four
courses Course may refer to: Directions or navigation * Course (navigation), the path of travel * Course (orienteering), a series of control points visited by orienteers during a competition, marked with red/white flags in the terrain, and corresponding ...
of doubled metal
strings String or strings may refer to: *String (structure), a long flexible structure made from threads twisted together, which is used to tie, bind, or hang other objects Arts, entertainment, and media Films * Strings (1991 film), ''Strings'' (1991 fil ...
tuned in
unison Unison, stylised as UNISON, is the second largest trade union A trade union (or a labor union in American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of v ...
, thus giving a total of 8 strings, although five (10 strings) and
six (12 strings)
six (12 strings)
course versions also exist. The courses are typically tuned in an interval of perfect fifths, with the same tuning as a violin (G3, D4, A4, E5). Also, like the violin, it is the
soprano A soprano () is a type of classical Classical may refer to: European antiquity *Classical antiquity, a period of history from roughly the 7th or 8th century B.C.E. to the 5th century C.E. centered on the Mediterranean Sea *Classical architectu ...

soprano
member of a
family In , family (from la, familia) is a of people related either by (by recognized birth) or (by marriage or other relationship). The purpose of families is to maintain the well-being of its members and of society. Ideally, families would off ...
that includes the
mandola The mandola (US and Canada) or tenor mandola (Ireland and UK) is a fretted, stringed musical instrument A musical instrument is a device created or adapted to make Music, musical sounds. In principle, any object that produces sound can be cons ...

mandola
,
octave mandolin The octave mandolin is a fretted string instrument with four pairs of strings tuned in fifths, G−D−A−E (low to high), an octave In music, an octave ( la, octavus: eighth) or perfect octave (sometimes called the diapason) is the interva ...
,
mandocello The mandocello ( it, mandoloncello, Liuto cantabile, liuto moderno) is a plucked string instrument of the mandolin A mandolin ( it, mandolino ; literally "small mandola") is a stringed musical instrument in the lute family and is generally p ...

mandocello
and
mandobass Mandobass is the largest (and least common) member of the Mandolin#Mandolin family, mandolin family, sometimes used as the bass instrument in mandolin orchestras. It is so large that it usually isn't held in the lap, but supported on a spike that r ...
. There are many styles of mandolin, but the three most common types are the ''Neapolitan'' or ''round-backed'' mandolin, the ''archtop'' mandolin and the ''flat-backed'' mandolin. The round-backed version has a deep bottom, constructed of strips of wood, glued together into a bowl. The archtop, also known as the ''carved-top'' mandolin has an arched top and a shallower, arched back both carved out of wood. The flat-backed mandolin uses thin sheets of wood for the body, braced on the inside for strength in a similar manner to a guitar. Each style of instrument has its own sound quality and is associated with particular forms of music. Neapolitan mandolins feature prominently in European
classical music Classical music generally refers to the formal musical tradition of the Western world The Western world, also known as the West, refers to various regions, nations and state (polity), states, depending on the context, most often consis ...

classical music
and
traditional music Folk music is a music genre A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music Music is the art of arranging sounds in time to produce a composition through the elements of melody, harmony, rhythm, and ti ...

traditional music
. Archtop instruments are common in American
folk music Folk music is a music genre A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music Music is the art of arranging sounds in time to produce a composition through the elements of melody, harmony, rhythm, and ti ...

folk music
and
bluegrass music Bluegrass music is a genre of American roots music that developed in the 1940s in the United States Appalachia Appalachia () is a cultural region in the Eastern United States that stretches from the Southern Tier of New York State Ne ...
. Flat-backed instruments are commonly used in Irish, British, and Brazilian folk music. Other mandolin varieties differ primarily in the number of strings and include four-string models (tuned in fifths) such as the Brescian and Cremonese, six-string types (tuned in
fourths
fourths
) such as the Milanese, Lombard and the Sicilian and 6 course instruments of 12 strings (two strings per course) such as the Genoese. There has also been a twelve-string (three strings per course) type and an instrument with sixteen strings (four strings per course). Much of mandolin development revolved around the soundboard (the top). Early instruments were quiet, strung with gut strings, and plucked with the fingers or with a quill. However, modern instruments are louder, using metal strings, which exert more pressure than the gut strings. The modern soundboard is designed to withstand the pressure of metal strings that would break earlier instruments. The soundboard comes in many shapes—but generally round or teardrop-shaped, sometimes with scrolls or other projections. There are usually one or more
sound hole A sound hole is an opening in the body of a stringed musical instrument A musical instrument is a device created or adapted to make Music, musical sounds. In principle, any object that produces sound can be considered a musical instrument—it ...
s in the soundboard, either round, oval, or shaped like a calligraphic (f-hole). A round or oval sound hole may be covered or bordered with decorative rosettes or purfling.''The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, Second Edition'', edited by Stanley Sadie and others (2001)


History

Mandolins evolved from
lute A lute ( or ) is any plucked string instrument String instruments, stringed instruments, or chordophones are musical instruments that produce sound from vibrating strings when a performer plays or sounds the strings in some manner. Musicia ...

lute
family instruments in Europe. Predecessors include the
gittern The gittern was a relatively small gut-strung, round-backed instrument that first appears in literature and pictorial representation during the 13th century in Western Europe (Iberian Peninsula, Italy, France, England). It is usually depicted pl ...
and
mandore Mandore Garden, is a suburb Historical town located 9 km north of Jodhpur Jodhpur (; ) is the second-largest city in the Indian state of Rajasthan and officially the second metropolitan city of the state. It was formerly the seat of ...
or mandola in
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of Italian Peninsula, a peninsula delimited by the Alps and List of islands of Italy, several islands surrounding it, whose ...

Italy
during the 17th and 18th centuries. There were a variety of regional variants, but the two most widespread ones were the Neapolitan mandolin and the Lombardic mandolin. The Neapolitan style has spread worldwide.


Construction

Mandolins have a body that acts as a
resonator A resonator is a device or system that exhibits resonance Resonance describes the phenomenon of increased amplitude that occurs when the frequency of a Periodic function, periodically applied force (or a Fourier analysis, Fourier component ...
, attached to a
neck The neck is the part of the body on many vertebrate Vertebrates () comprise all species of animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biological kingdom Animalia. With f ...
. The resonating body may be shaped as a bowl (
necked bowl lutes Necking can refer to: * Making out, a term for heavy kissing of the neck or petting of that area * Necking (engineering), the process by which a ductile material deforms under tension forming a thin ''neck'' * Necking (electronics), thinning of tra ...
) or a box ( necked box lutes). Traditional Italian mandolins, such as the Neapolitan mandolin, meet the necked bowl description. The necked box instruments include archtop mandolins and the flatback mandolins.
Strings String or strings may refer to: *String (structure), a long flexible structure made from threads twisted together, which is used to tie, bind, or hang other objects Arts, entertainment, and media Films * Strings (1991 film), ''Strings'' (1991 fil ...
run between mechanical tuning machines at the top of the neck to a tailpiece that anchors the other end of the strings. The strings are suspended over the neck and soundboard and pass over a
floating bridge
floating bridge
. The bridge is kept in contact with the soundboard by the downward pressure from the strings. The neck is either flat or has a slight radius, and is covered with a fingerboard with
fret A fret is a space between two fretbars on the of a . Frets usually extend across the full width of the neck. On most modern fretted instruments, frets are the spaces between the strips (fretbars) that are inserted into the . On some historica ...

fret
s. The action of the strings on the bridge causes the soundboard to vibrate, producing sound. Like any plucked instrument, mandolin notes decay to silence rather than sound out continuously as with a bowed note on a
violin The violin, sometimes known as a ''fiddle A fiddle is a Bow (music), bowed String instrument, string musical instrument, most often a violin. It is a colloquial term for the violin, used by players in all genres, including European cla ...

violin
, and mandolin notes decay faster than larger chordophones like the guitar. This encourages the use of
tremolo In music, ''tremolo'' (), or ''tremolando'' (), is a trembling effect. There are two types of tremolo. The first is a rapid reiteration: * of a single note Note, notes, or NOTE may refer to: Music and entertainment * Musical note In music, ...

tremolo
(rapid picking of one or more pairs of strings) to create sustained notes or chords. The mandolin's paired strings facilitate this technique: the plectrum (pick) strikes each of a pair of strings alternately, providing a more full and continuous sound than a single string would. Various design variations and amplification techniques have been used to make mandolins comparable in volume with louder instruments and orchestras, including the creation of
mandolin-banjo
mandolin-banjo
hybrids with the drum-like body of the louder
banjo The banjo is a stringed instrument with a thin membrane stretched over a frame or cavity to form a resonator. The membrane is typically circular, and usually made of plastic, or occasionally animal skin. Early forms of the instrument were fashion ...

banjo
, adding metal resonators (most notably by
Dobro Dobro is an American brand A brand is a name, term, design, symbol or any other feature that identifies one seller's good or service as distinct from those of other sellers. Brands are used in business, marketing, and advertising for reco ...

Dobro
and the
National String Instrument Corporation The National String Instrument Corporation was an American guitar company, that first formed to manufacture banjos and then the original resonator guitar A resonator guitar or resophonic guitar is an acoustic guitar that produces sound by ...
) to make a
resonator mandolin up300px, 1930 National Triolian resonator mandolin from Lowell Levinger's collectionA resonator mandolin or "resophonic mandolin" is a mandolin A mandolin ( it, mandolino ; literally "small mandola") is a stringed musical instrument in the lute ...
, and amplifying
electric mandolin The electric mandolin is an instrument tuned and played as the mandolin A mandolin ( it, mandolino ; literally "small mandola") is a stringed musical instrument in the lute family and is generally plucked with a plectrum. It most commonly ha ...
s through amplifiers.


Tuning

A variety of different tunings are used. Usually,
courses Course may refer to: Directions or navigation * Course (navigation), the path of travel * Course (orienteering), a series of control points visited by orienteers during a competition, marked with red/white flags in the terrain, and corresponding ...
of 2 adjacent strings are tuned in unison. By far the most common tuning is the same as violin tuning, in
scientific pitch notation Scientific pitch notation (SPN), also known as American standard pitch notation (ASPN) and international pitch notation (IPN), is a method of specifying musical pitch Pitch may refer to: Acoustic frequency * Pitch (music), the perceived frequency ...

scientific pitch notation
G3–D4–A4–E5, or in
Helmholtz pitch notation Helmholtz pitch notation is a system for naming musical note In music, a note is a symbol denoting a musical sound. In English usage a note is also the sound itself. Notes can represent the Pitch (music), pitch and Duration (music), duration of a ...

Helmholtz pitch notation
: g–d′–a′–e″. * fourth (lowest tone)
course Course may refer to: Directions or navigation * Course (navigation), the path of travel * Course (orienteering), a series of control points visited by orienteers during a competition, marked with red/white flags in the terrain, and corresponding ...
: G3 () * third course: D4 () * second course: A4 (; A above
middle C C or Do is the first note Note, notes, or NOTE may refer to: Music and entertainment * Musical note In music, a note is a symbol denoting a musical sound. In English usage a note is also the sound itself. Notes can represent the Pitch (music), ...

middle C
) * first (highest tone) course: E5 () Note that the numbers of Hz shown above assume a 440 Hz A, standard in most parts of the western world. Some players use an A up to 10 Hz above or below a 440, mainly outside the United States. Other tunings exist, including ''cross-tunings'', in which the usually doubled string runs are tuned to different pitches. Additionally, guitarists may sometimes tune a mandolin to mimic a portion of the intervals on a standard guitar tuning to achieve familiar fretting patterns.


Mandolin family


Soprano

The mandolin is the soprano member of the mandolin family, as the
violin The violin, sometimes known as a ''fiddle A fiddle is a Bow (music), bowed String instrument, string musical instrument, most often a violin. It is a colloquial term for the violin, used by players in all genres, including European cla ...

violin
is the soprano member of the
violin family The violin family of musical instruments was developed in Italy in the 16th century. At the time the name of this family of instruments was viole da braccio which was used to distinguish them from the viol family (viole ''da gamba''). The standar ...
. Like the violin, its scale length is typically about . Modern American mandolins modelled after Gibsons have a longer
scale Scale or scales may refer to: Mathematics * Scale (descriptive set theory)In the mathematical discipline of descriptive set theory, a scale is a certain kind of object defined on a set (mathematics), set of point (mathematics), points in some Poli ...
, about . The strings in each of its double-strung
courses Course may refer to: Directions or navigation * Course (navigation), the path of travel * Course (orienteering), a series of control points visited by orienteers during a competition, marked with red/white flags in the terrain, and corresponding ...
are tuned in unison, and the courses use the same tuning as the violin: G3–D4–A4–E5.


Piccolo

The ''piccolo'' or ''sopranino mandolin'' is a rare member of the family, tuned one octave above the mandola and one fourth above the mandolin (C4–G4–D5–A5); the same relation as that of the
piccolo The piccolo (; Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italian ...

piccolo
(to the
western concert flute The Western concert flute is a family of transverse Transverse may refer to: *Transverse engine, an engine in which the crankshaft is oriented side-to-side relative to the wheels of the vehicle *Transverse flute, a flute that is held horizonta ...

western concert flute
) or
violino piccolo The violino piccolo (also called the ''Diskantgeige'', ''Terzgeige'', ''Quartgeige'' or ''Violino alla francese'') is a small stringed instrument of the Baroque music, baroque period. Most examples are similar to a child's size violin in size, and ...
(to the
violin The violin, sometimes known as a ''fiddle A fiddle is a Bow (music), bowed String instrument, string musical instrument, most often a violin. It is a colloquial term for the violin, used by players in all genres, including European cla ...

violin
and
viola ; german: Bratsche , alt=Viola shown from the front and the side , image=Bratsche.jpg , caption= , background=string , hornbostel_sachs=321.322-71 , hornbostel_sachs_desc=Composite chordophone A chordophone is a musical instrument that makes s ...

viola
). One model was manufactured by the Lyon & Healy company under the Leland brand. A handful of contemporary luthiers build piccolo mandolins. Its scale length is typically about .


Alto

The
mandola The mandola (US and Canada) or tenor mandola (Ireland and UK) is a fretted, stringed musical instrument A musical instrument is a device created or adapted to make Music, musical sounds. In principle, any object that produces sound can be cons ...

mandola
, termed the ''tenor mandola'' in Britain and Ireland and ''liola'' or ''alto mandolin'' in continental Europe, is tuned a fifth below the mandolin, in the same relationship as that of the
viola ; german: Bratsche , alt=Viola shown from the front and the side , image=Bratsche.jpg , caption= , background=string , hornbostel_sachs=321.322-71 , hornbostel_sachs_desc=Composite chordophone A chordophone is a musical instrument that makes s ...

viola
to the
violin The violin, sometimes known as a ''fiddle A fiddle is a Bow (music), bowed String instrument, string musical instrument, most often a violin. It is a colloquial term for the violin, used by players in all genres, including European cla ...

violin
, or the
alto flute The alto flute is an instrument in the Members of the western concert flute family, Western concert flute family, the second-highest member below the standard Western concert flute, C flute after the uncommon flûte d'amour. It is the third most co ...
to the flute. Some also call this instrument the "alto mandola". Its scale length is typically about . It is normally tuned like a viola (perfect fifth below the mandolin) and tenor banjo: C3–G3–D4–A4.


Tenor

The ''
octave mandolin The octave mandolin is a fretted string instrument with four pairs of strings tuned in fifths, G−D−A−E (low to high), an octave In music, an octave ( la, octavus: eighth) or perfect octave (sometimes called the diapason) is the interva ...
'' (US and Canada), termed the ''octave mandola'' in Britain and Ireland and ''mandola'' in continental Europe, is tuned an octave below the mandolin: G2–D3–A3–E4. Its relationship to the mandolin is that of the
tenor violin A tenor violin (or tenor viola) is an instrument with a range between those of the cello The cello ( ; plural celli or cellos) or violoncello ( ; ) is a bowed (sometimes plucked and occasionally hit Hit means to strike (attack), strike someo ...

tenor violin
to the violin, or the
tenor saxophone The tenor saxophone is a medium-sized member of the saxophone The saxophone is a type of with a conical body, usually made of . As with all single-reed instruments, sound is produced when a on a vibrates to produce a sound wave inside th ...

tenor saxophone
to the
soprano saxophone The soprano saxophone is a higher-register variety of the saxophone The saxophone (referred to colloquially as the sax) is a family of woodwind instruments usually made of brass and played with a Single-reed instrument, single-reed mouthpiece ...

soprano saxophone
. Octave mandolin scale length is typically about , although instruments with scales as short as or as long as are not unknown. The instrument has a variant off the coast of South America in Trinidad, where it is known as the
bandol Bandol is a commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, abstract is what belongs to or wit ...
, a flat-backed instrument with four courses, the lower two strung with metal and nylon strings. The
Irish bouzouki The Irish bouzouki () is an adaptation of the Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its populatio ...

Irish bouzouki
, although not strictly a member of the mandolin family, bears a reasonable resemblance, and also has a similar range, to the octave mandolin. It was derived from the Greek bouzouki (a long-necked lute), constructed like a flat-backed mandolin and uses fifth-based tunings, most often G2–D3–A3–D4. Other tunings include: A2–D3–A3–D4, G2–D3–A3–E4 (an octave below the mandolin—in which case it essentially functions as an octave mandolin), G2–D3–G3–D4 or A2–D3–A3–E4. Although the Irish bouzouki's bass course pairs are most often tuned in unison, on some instruments one of each pair is replaced with a lighter string and tuned in octaves, similar to the 12-string
guitar The guitar is a fretted musical instrument that typically has six string instrument, strings. It is held flat against the player's body and played by strumming or Plucked string instrument, plucking the strings with the dominant hand, while sim ...

guitar
. While occupying the same range as the octave mandolin/octave mandola, the Irish bouzouki is theoretically distinguished from the former instrument by its longer scale length, typically from , although scales as long as , which is the usual Greek bouzouki scale, are not unknown. In modern usage, however, the terms "octave mandolin" and "Irish bouzouki" are often used interchangeably to refer to the same instrument. The modern
cittern The cittern or cithren (French language, Fr. ''cistre'', Italian language, It. ''cetra'', German language, Ger. ''Cister,'' Spanish language, Sp. ''cistro, cedra, cítola'') is a stringed instrument dating from the Renaissance. Modern scholars de ...

cittern
may also be loosely included in an "extended" mandolin family, based on resemblance to the flat-backed mandolins, which it predates. Its own lineage dates it back to
the Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. is a period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in m ...
. It is typically a five course (ten-string) instrument having a scale length between . The instrument is most often tuned to either D2–G2–D3–A3–D4 or G2–D3–A3–D4–A4, and is essentially an
octave mandola The octave mandolin is a fretted string instrument with four pairs of strings tuned in Perfect fifth, fifths, G−D−A−E (low to high), an octave below a mandolin. It is larger than the mandola, but smaller than the mandocello and its constructi ...
with a fifth course at either the top or the bottom of its range. Some luthiers, such as Stefan Sobell, also refer to the octave mandola or a shorter-scaled Irish bouzouki as a cittern, irrespective of whether it has four or five courses. Other relatives of the cittern, which might also be loosely linked to the mandolins (and are sometimes tuned and played as such), include the 6-course/12-string
Portuguese guitar#redirect Portuguese guitar The Portuguese guitar or Portuguese guitarra ( pt, guitarra portuguesa, ) is a plucked string instrument with twelve steel strings, strung in six courses of two strings. It is one of the few musical instruments that stil ...

Portuguese guitar
and the 5-course/9-string
waldzither The waldzither (german: "forest zither") is a plucked string instrument from Germany Germany (german: Deutschland, ), officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in . It is the in Europe after , and the most populous . Germany is ...
.


Baritone/Bass

The
mandocello The mandocello ( it, mandoloncello, Liuto cantabile, liuto moderno) is a plucked string instrument of the mandolin A mandolin ( it, mandolino ; literally "small mandola") is a stringed musical instrument in the lute family and is generally p ...

mandocello
is classically tuned to an octave plus a fifth below the mandolin, in the same relationship as that of the
cello The cello ( ; plural celli or cellos) or violoncello ( ; ) is a (sometimes and occasionally ) of the . Its four strings are usually in s: from low to high, . The 's four strings are each an octave higher. Music for the cello is generally w ...

cello
to the violin, its strings being tuned to C2–G2–D3–A3. Its scale length is typically about . A typical violoncello scale is . The
mandolone A mandolone is a member of the mandolin family, created in the 18th century. It is a bass range version of the Neapolitan mandolin.Sterling Publishing Company, New York, ''Musical Instruments of the World'', page 188 Its range was not as good as th ...
was a
Baroque The Baroque (, ; ) is a of , , , , and other arts that flourished in Europe from the early 17th century until the 1740s. In the territories of the Spanish and Portuguese empires including the Iberian Peninsula it continued, together with new s ...
member of the mandolin family in the bass range that was surpassed by the mandocello. It was as part of the Neapolitan mandolin family. The Greek ''
laouto The laouto ( el, λαούτο, pl. laouta λαούτα) is a long-neck fretted instrument of the lute A lute ( or ) is any plucked string instrument with a neck and a deep round back enclosing a hollow cavity, usually with a sound hole or op ...
'' or ''laghouto'' (long-necked lute) is similar to a mandocello, ordinarily tuned C3/C2–G3/G2–D3/D3–A3/A3 with half of each pair of the lower two courses being tuned an octave high on a lighter gauge string. The body is a staved bowl, the saddle-less bridge glued to the flat face like most ouds and lutes, with mechanical tuners, steel strings, and tied gut frets. Modern laoutos, as played on Crete, have the entire lower course tuned to C3, a reentrant octave above the expected low C. Its scale length is typically about . The Algerian ''
mandole The Algerian mandole (mandol, mondol) is a steel-string fretted instrument resembling an elongated mandolin, widely used in Algerian music such as Chaabi (Algeria), Chaabi, Kabyle people, Kabyle music and Nuubaat (Andalusian classical music). The ...
'' was developed by an Italian luthier in the early 1930s, scaled up from a mandola until it reached a scale length of approximately 25-27 inches. It is a flatback instrument, with a wide neck and 4 courses (8 strings), 5 courses (10 strings) or 6 courses (12 strings), and is used in Algeria and Morocco. The instrument can be tuned as a guitar,
oud The oud ( ar, عود ) ( so, kaban or cuud) is a short-neck lute-type, pear Pears are fruits produced and consumed around the world, growing on a tree and harvested in the Northern Hemisphere in late summer into October. The pear tree an ...
, or mandocello, depending on the music it will be used to play and player preference. When tuning it as a guitar the strings will be tuned (E2) (E2) A2 A2 D3 D3 G3 G3 B3 B3 (E4) (E4); strings in parenthesis are dropped for a five or four-course instrument. Using a common Arabic oud tuning D2 D2 G2 G2 A2 A2 D3 D3 (G3) (G3) (C4) (C4). For a mandocello tuning using fifths C2 C2 G2 G2 D3 D3 A3 A3 (E4) (E4).


Mandobass

The
mandobass Mandobass is the largest (and least common) member of the Mandolin#Mandolin family, mandolin family, sometimes used as the bass instrument in mandolin orchestras. It is so large that it usually isn't held in the lap, but supported on a spike that r ...
is the bass version of the mandolin, just as the
double bass The double bass, also known simply as the bass (or by other names), is the largest and lowest-pitched bowed (or plucked) string instrument String instruments, stringed instruments, or chordophones are musical instruments that produce so ...

double bass
is the bass to the violin. Like the double bass, it most frequently has 4 single strings, rather than double courses, and also like the double bass, it is most commonly tuned to
perfect fourth A fourth is a musical interval In music theory Music theory is the study of the practices and possibilities of music. ''The Oxford Companion to Music'' describes three interrelated uses of the term "music theory". The first is the "Elements ...

perfect fourth
s rather than fifths (a trait all other chordophones in the violin family possess): E1–A1–D2–G2, which is also the same tuning as a
bass guitar The bass guitar, electric bass or simply bass, is the lowest-pitched member of the guitar family. It is a plucked string instrument similar in appearance and construction to an Electric guitar, electric or an acoustic guitar, but with a long ...

bass guitar
. These were made by the Gibson company in the early 20th century, but appear to have never been very common. A smaller scale four-string mandobass, usually tuned in fifths: G1–D2–A2–E3 (two octaves below the mandolin), though not as resonant as the larger instrument, was often preferred by players as easier to handle and more portable. Reportedly, however, most mandolin orchestras preferred to use the ordinary
double bass The double bass, also known simply as the bass (or by other names), is the largest and lowest-pitched bowed (or plucked) string instrument String instruments, stringed instruments, or chordophones are musical instruments that produce so ...

double bass
, rather than a specialised mandolin family instrument. Calace and other Italian makers predating Gibson also made mandolin-basses. The relatively rare eight-string mandobass, or "tremolo-bass", also exists, with double courses like the rest of the mandolin family, and is tuned either G1–D2–A2–E3, two octaves lower than the mandolin, or C1–G1–D2–A2, two octaves below the mandola.


Variations


Bowlback

Bowlback mandolins (also known as roundbacks), are used worldwide. They are most commonly manufactured in Europe, where the long history of mandolin development has created local styles. However, Japanese luthiers also make them. Owing to the shape and to the common construction from wood strips of alternating colors, in the United States these are sometimes colloquially referred to as the "potato bug" or "
potato beetle The Colorado potato beetle (''Leptinotarsa decemlineata''), also known as the Colorado beetle, the ten-striped spearman, the ten-lined potato beetle, or the potato bug, is a major Pest (organism), pest of potato crops. It is about long, with a ...

potato beetle
" mandolin.


Neapolitan and Roman styles

The Neapolitan style has an almond-shaped body resembling a bowl, constructed from curved strips of wood. It usually has a bent sound table, canted in two planes with the design to take the tension of the eight metal strings arranged in four courses. A hardwood
fingerboard The fingerboard (also known as a fretboard on fret A fret is a space between two fretbars on the neck The neck is the part of the body on many vertebrate Vertebrates () comprise all species of animal Animals (also called Metazoa) ...

fingerboard
sits on top of or is flush with the sound table. Very old instruments may use wooden
tuning peg A variety of methods are used to different . Most change the produced when the string is played by adjusting the of the . A tuning peg in a is perhaps the most common system. A peg has a grip or knob on it to allow it to be turned. A tuni ...

tuning peg
s, while newer instruments tend to use geared
metal tuners
metal tuners
. The
bridge A bridge is a Nonbuilding structure, structure built to Span (engineering), span a physical obstacle, such as a body of water, valley, or road, without closing the way underneath. It is constructed for the purpose of providing passage over the ...
is a movable length of hardwood. A
pickguard A pickguard (also known as scratchplate) is a piece of plastic or other (often lamination, laminated) material that is placed on the body of a guitar, mandolin or similar plucked string instrument. The main purpose of the pickguard is to protect th ...
is glued below the sound hole under the strings. European roundbacks commonly use a
scale Scale or scales may refer to: Mathematics * Scale (descriptive set theory)In the mathematical discipline of descriptive set theory, a scale is a certain kind of object defined on a set (mathematics), set of point (mathematics), points in some Poli ...
instead of the common on archtop Mandolins. Intertwined with the Neapolitan style is the Roman style mandolin, which has influenced it. The Roman mandolin had a fingerboard that was more curved and narrow. The fingerboard was lengthened over the sound hole for the E strings, the high pitched strings. The shape of the back of the neck was different, less rounded with an edge, the bridge was curved making the G strings higher. The Roman mandolin had mechanical tuning gears before the Neapolitan.


= Manufacturers of Neapolitan-style mandolins

= Prominent Italian manufacturers include Vinaccia (Naples), Embergher (Rome) and Calace (Naples). Other modern manufacturers include Lorenzo Lippi (Milan), Hendrik van den Broek (Netherlands), Brian Dean (Canada), Salvatore Masiello and Michele Caiazza (La Bottega del Mandolino) and Ferrara, Gabriele Pandini. In the United States, when the bowlback was being made in numbers, Lyon and Healy was a major manufacturer, especially under the "Washburn" brand. Other American manufacturers include
MartinMartin (name), Martin is a popular male given and family name. It may also refer to: Places * Martin City (disambiguation) * Martin County (disambiguation) * Martin Township (disambiguation) Antarctica * Martin Peninsula, Marie Byrd Land * Point M ...
, Vega, and Larson Brothers. In Canada, Brian Dean has manufactured instruments in Neapolitan, Roman, German and American styles but is also known for his original 'Grand Concert' design created for American virtuoso
Joseph Brent Joseph Frederick Brent (born April 6, 1976) is an American composer A composer (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in t ...
. German manufacturers include Albert & Mueller, Dietrich, Klaus Knorr, Reinhold Seiffert and Alfred Woll. The German bowlbacks use a style developed by Seiffert, with a larger and rounder body. Japanese brands include Kunishima and Suzuki. Other Japanese manufacturers include Oona, Kawada, Noguchi, Toichiro Ishikawa, Rokutaro Nakade, Otiai Tadao, Yoshihiko Takusari, Nokuti Makoto, Watanabe, Kanou Kadama and Ochiai.


Other bowlback styles: Lombardic, Milanese, Cremonese, Brescian, Genoese

Another family of bowlback mandolins came from
Milan Milan (, , Milanese: ; it, Milano ) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the List of cities in Italy, second-most populous city proper in Italy after Rome. The city proper has a population of about 1.4 million, while its ...

Milan
and
Lombardy (man), (woman) lmo, lombard, links=no (man), (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = ...
. These mandolins are closer to the mandolino or
mandore Mandore Garden, is a suburb Historical town located 9 km north of Jodhpur Jodhpur (; ) is the second-largest city in the Indian state of Rajasthan and officially the second metropolitan city of the state. It was formerly the seat of ...
than other modern mandolins. They are shorter and wider than the standard Neapolitan mandolin, with a shallow back. The instruments have 6 strings, 3 wire treble-strings and 3 gut or wire-wrapped-silk bass-strings. The strings ran between the tuning pegs and a bridge that was glued to the soundboard, as a guitar's. The Lombardic mandolins were tuned g–b–e′–a′–d″–g″ (shown in
Helmholtz pitch notation Helmholtz pitch notation is a system for naming musical note In music, a note is a symbol denoting a musical sound. In English usage a note is also the sound itself. Notes can represent the Pitch (music), pitch and Duration (music), duration of a ...

Helmholtz pitch notation
). A developer of the Milanese style was Antonio Monzino (Milan) and his family who made them for 6 generations. Samuel Adelstein described the Lombardi mandolin in 1893 as wider and shorter than the Neapolitan mandolin, with a shallower back and a shorter and wider neck, with six single strings to the regular mandolin's set of 4. The Lombardi was tuned C–D–A–E–B–G. The strings were fastened to the bridge like a guitar's. There were 20 frets, covering three octaves, with an additional 5 notes. When Adelstein wrote, there were no nylon strings, and the gut and single strings "do not vibrate so clearly and sweetly as the double steel string of the Neapolitan."


= Brescian mandolin or Cremonese mandolin

=
Brescia Brescia (; lmo, link=no, label=Lombard The term Lombard refers to members of or things related to Lombardy (man) it, Lombarda (woman) lmo, Lombard (man) lmo, Lombarda (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title ...

Brescia
n mandolins (also known as Cremonese) that have survived in museums have four gut strings instead of six and a fixed bridge. The mandolin was tuned in fifths, like the Neapolitan mandolin. In his 1805 mandolin method, ''Anweisung die Mandoline von selbst zu erlernen nebst einigen Uebungsstucken von Bortolazzi'', popularised the Cremonese mandolin, which had four single-strings and a fixed bridge, to which the strings were attached. Bortolazzi said in this book that the new wire-strung mandolins were uncomfortable to play, when compared with the gut-string instruments. Also, he felt they had a "less pleasing...hard, zither-like tone" as compared to the gut string's "softer, full-singing tone." He favored the four single strings of the Cremonese instrument, which were tuned the same as the Neapolitan.


=Genoese mandolin, a blend of styles

= Like the Lombardy mandolin, the
Genoese Genoese may refer to: * a person from Genoa * Genoese dialect, a dialect of the Ligurian language * Republic of Genoa (–1805), a former state in Liguria See also

* Genovese, a surname * Genovesi, a surname * * * * * Genova (disambiguati ...

Genoese
mandolin was not tuned in fifths. Its 6 gut strings (or 6 courses of strings) were tuned as a guitar but one octave higher: e-a-d’-g’-b natural-e”. Like the Neapolitan and unlike the Lombardy mandolin, the Genoese does not have the bridge glued to the soundboard, but holds the bridge on with downward tension, from strings that run between the bottom and neck of the instrument. The neck was wider than the Neapolitan mandolin's neck. The peg-head is similar to the guitar's.


Archtop

At the very end of the 19th century, a new style, with a carved top and back construction inspired by violin family instruments began to supplant the European-style bowl-back instruments in the United States. This new style is credited to mandolins designed and built by
Orville Gibson Orville H. Gibson (May 1856 – August 19, 1918) was a luthier who founded the Gibson, Gibson Guitar Company in Kalamazoo, Michigan in 1902, makers of guitars, mandolins and other instruments. His earliest known instrument was a 10-string mandoli ...
, a Kalamazoo, Michigan, luthier who founded the "Gibson Mandolin-Guitar Manufacturing Co., Limited" in 1902. Gibson mandolins evolved into two basic styles: the Florentine or F-style, which has a decorative scroll near the neck, two points on the lower body and usually a scroll carved into the headstock; and the A-style, which is pear-shaped, has no points and usually has a simpler headstock. These styles generally have either two f-shaped soundholes like a
violin The violin, sometimes known as a ''fiddle A fiddle is a Bow (music), bowed String instrument, string musical instrument, most often a violin. It is a colloquial term for the violin, used by players in all genres, including European cla ...

violin
(F-5 and A-5), or a single oval sound hole (F-4 and A-4 and lower models) directly under the strings. Much variation exists between makers working from these archetypes, and other variants have become increasingly common. Generally, in the United States, Gibson
F-hole A sound hole is an opening in the body of a stringed musical instrument A musical instrument is a device created or adapted to make Music, musical sounds. In principle, any object that produces sound can be considered a musical instrument—it ...

F-hole
F-5 mandolins and mandolins influenced by that design are strongly associated with bluegrass, while the A-style is associated with other types of music, although it too is most often used for and associated with bluegrass. The F-5's more complicated woodwork also translates into a more expensive instrument. Internal bracing to support the top in the F-style mandolins is usually achieved with parallel tone bars, similar to the bass bar on a violin. Some makers instead employ "X-bracing", which is two tone-bars mortised together to form an X. Some luthiers now using a "modified x-bracing" that incorporates both a tone bar and X-bracing. Numerous modern mandolin makers build instruments that largely replicate the Gibson F-5 Artist models built in the early 1920s under the supervision of Gibson acoustician
Lloyd Loar Lloyd Allayre Loar (1886–1943) was an American musician, instrument designer and sound engineer. He is best known for his design work with the Gibson Mandolin-Guitar Mfg. Co. Ltd. in the early 20th century, including the F-5 model mandolin ...
. Original Loar-signed instruments are sought after and extremely valuable. Other makers from the Loar period and earlier include Lyon and Healy, Vega and Larson Brothers.


Pressed archtops

The ideal for archtops has been solid pieces of wood carved into the right shape. However, another archtop exists, the top made of laminated wood or thin sheets of solid wood, pressed into the arched shape. These have become increasingly common in the world of internationally constructed musical instruments in the 21st century. The pressed-top instruments are made to appear the same as the carved-top instruments; however, the pressed tops do not sound the same as the carved-wood tops. Carved-wood tops when carved to the ideal thickness, produce the sound which consumers expect. Not carving them correctly can lead to a dull sound. The sound of a carved-wood instrument changes the longer it is played, and older instruments are sought out for their rich sound. Laminated-wood presstops are less resonant than carved wood, the wood and glue vibrating differently than wood grain. Presstops made of solid wood have the wood's natural grain compressed, creating a sound that is not as full as on a well-made, carved-top mandolin.


Flatback

Flatback mandolins use a thin sheet of wood with bracing for the back, as a guitar uses, rather than the bowl of the bowlback or the arched back of the carved mandolins. Like the bowlback, the flatback has a round sound hole. This has been sometimes modified to an elongated hole, called a D-hole. The body has a rounded almond shape with flat or sometimes canted soundboard. The type was developed in Europe in the 1850s. The French and Germans called it a Portuguese mandolin, although they also developed it locally. The Germans used it in Wandervogel. The bandolim is commonly used wherever the Spanish and Portuguese took it: in South America, in Brazil (Choro) and in the Philippines. In the early 1970s English luthier Stefan Sobell developed a large-bodied, flat-backed mandolin with a carved soundboard, based on his own
cittern The cittern or cithren (French language, Fr. ''cistre'', Italian language, It. ''cetra'', German language, Ger. ''Cister,'' Spanish language, Sp. ''cistro, cedra, cítola'') is a stringed instrument dating from the Renaissance. Modern scholars de ...

cittern
design; this is often called a 'Celtic' mandolin. American forms include the Army-Navy mandolin, the flatiron and the pancake mandolins.


Tone

The tone of the flatback is described as warm or mellow, suitable for folk music and smaller audiences. The instrument sound does not punch through the other players' sound like a carved top does.


Double top, double back

The double top is a feature that luthiers are experimenting with in the 21st century, to get better sound. However, mandolinists and luthiers have been experimenting with them since at least the early 1900s. Back in the early 1900s, mandolinist Ginislao Paris approached Luigi Embergher to build custom mandolins. The sticker inside one of the four surviving instruments indicates the build was called after him, the ''Sistema Ginislao Paris''). Paris' round-back double-top mandolins use a false back below the soundboard to create a second hollow space within the instrument. Modern mandolinists such as
Joseph Brent Joseph Frederick Brent (born April 6, 1976) is an American composer A composer (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in t ...
and Avi Avital use instruments customized, either by the luthier's choice or at the request of the player. Joseph Brent's mandolin, made by Brian Dean also uses what Brent calls a false back. Brent's mandolin was the luthier's solution to Brent's request for a loud mandolin in which the wood was clearly audible, with less metallic sound from the strings. The type used by Avital is variation of the flatback, with a double top that encloses a resonating chamber, sound holes on the side, and a convex back.Artist To Artist: 10 Minutes With Avi Avital.
''The Bluegrass Special'', January 2011 by Joe Brent.
It is made by one manufacturer in Israel, luthier Arik Kerman. Other players of Kerman mandolins include Alon Sariel, Jacob Reuven, and Tom Cohen.


Others

file:Vega cylinder-back.jpg, The bulge on the instrument's back side is visible in this photo of a Vega cylinder-back mandolin.


Mandolinetto

Other American-made variants include the mandolinetto or Howe-Orme guitar-shaped mandolin (manufactured by the Elias Howe Company between 1897 and roughly 1920), which featured a cylindrical bulge along the top from fingerboard end to tailpiece and the Vega mando-lute (more commonly called a cylinder-back mandolin manufactured by the Vega Company between 1913 and roughly 1927), which had a similar longitudinal bulge but on the back rather than the front of the instrument.


Mandolin-banjo

An instrument with a mandolin neck paired with a banjo-style body was patented by Benjamin Bradbury of Brooklyn in 1882 and given the name ''banjolin'' by John Farris in 1885. Today ''banjolin'' is sometimes reserved to describe an instrument with four strings, while the version with the four courses of double strings is called a ''''.


Resonator mandolin

A
resonator mandolin up300px, 1930 National Triolian resonator mandolin from Lowell Levinger's collectionA resonator mandolin or "resophonic mandolin" is a mandolin A mandolin ( it, mandolino ; literally "small mandola") is a stringed musical instrument in the lute ...
or "resophonic mandolin" is a mandolin whose sound is produced by one or more metal cones (resonators) instead of the customary wooden soundboard (mandolin top/face). Historic brands include
Dobro Dobro is an American brand A brand is a name, term, design, symbol or any other feature that identifies one seller's good or service as distinct from those of other sellers. Brands are used in business, marketing, and advertising for reco ...

Dobro
and National.


Electric mandolin

As with almost every other contemporary chordophone, another modern variant is the
electric mandolin The electric mandolin is an instrument tuned and played as the mandolin A mandolin ( it, mandolino ; literally "small mandola") is a stringed musical instrument in the lute family and is generally plucked with a plectrum. It most commonly ha ...
. These mandolins can have four or five individual or double courses of strings. They were developed in the early 1930s, contemporaneous with the development of the electric guitar. They come in solid body and acoustic-electric guitar, acoustic electric forms. Specific instruments have been designed to overcome the mandolin's rapid decay with its plucked notes. Fender released a model in 1992 with an additional string (a high A, above the E string), a tremolo bridge and extra humbucker Pickup (music technology), pickup (total of two). The result was an instrument capable of playing heavy metal style guitar Ostinato#Riff, riffs or violin-like passages with sustained notes that can be adjusted as with an electric guitar.


Playing traditions worldwide

The international repertoire of music for mandolin is almost unlimited, and musicians use it to play various types of music. This is especially true of violin music, since the mandolin has the same tuning as the violin. Following its invention and early development in Italy the mandolin spread throughout the European continent. The instrument was primarily used in a classical tradition with Mandolin orchestras, so-called ''Estudiantinas'' or in Germany ''Zupforchestern'' appearing in many cities. Following this continental popularity of the mandolin family local traditions appeared outside Europe in the Americas and in Japan. Travelling mandolin virtuosi like Carlo Curti, Giuseppe Pettine, Raffaele Calace and Silvio Ranieri contributed to the mandolin becoming a "fad" instrument in the early 20th century. This "mandolin craze" was fading by the 1930s, but just as this practice was falling into disuse, the mandolin found a new niche in American country music, country, old-time music, Bluegrass music, bluegrass and
folk music Folk music is a music genre A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music Music is the art of arranging sounds in time to produce a composition through the elements of melody, harmony, rhythm, and ti ...

folk music
. More recently, the Baroque and Classical music, Classical mandolin repertory and styles have benefited from the raised awareness of and interest in Early music, with media attention to classical players such as Israeli Avi Avital, Italian Carlo Aonzo and American
Joseph Brent Joseph Frederick Brent (born April 6, 1976) is an American composer A composer (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in t ...
. In India, the mandolin is played in classical Carnatic music. The musician U. Srinivas was perhaps the greatest mandolin player in this style. Lauded across the world for his virtuosity with the instrument, he died young.


Notable literature


Art or "classical" music

The tradition of so-called "classical music" for the mandolin has been somewhat spotty, due to its being widely perceived as a "folk" instrument. Significant composers did write music specifically for the mandolin, but few ''large'' works were composed for it by the most widely regarded composers. The total number of these works is rather small in comparison to—say—those composed for violin. One result of this dearth being that there were few positions for mandolinists in regular orchestras. To fill this gap in the literature, mandolin orchestras have traditionally played many arrangements of music written for regular orchestras or other ensembles. Some players have sought out contemporary composers to solicit new works. Furthermore, of the works that have been written for mandolin from the 18th century onward, many have been lost or forgotten. Some of these await discovery in museums and libraries and archives. One example of rediscovered 18th-century music for mandolin and ensembles with mandolins is the ''Gimo collection'', collected in the first half of 1762 by Jean Lefebure. Lefebure collected the music in Italy, and it was forgotten until manuscripts were rediscovered. Antonio Vivaldi, Vivaldi created some concertos for mandolinos and orchestra: one for 4-chord mandolino, string bass & continuo in C major, (RV 425), and one for two 5-chord mandolinos, bass strings & continuo in G major, (RV 532), and concerto for two mandolins, 2 violons "in Tromba"—2 flûtes à bec, 2 salmoe, 2 théorbes, violoncelle, cordes et basse continuein in C major (p. 16). Ludwig van Beethoven, Beethoven composed Beethoven's mandolin music, mandolin music and enjoyed playing the mandolin. His 4 small pieces date from 1796: Sonatine WoO 43a; Adagio ma non troppo WoO 43b; Sonatine WoO 44a and Andante con Variazioni WoO 44b. The opera ''Don Giovanni'' by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Mozart (1787) includes mandolin parts, including the accompaniment to the famous aria ''Deh vieni alla finestra'', and Verdi's opera Otello calls for Gusle, guzla accompaniment in the aria ''Dove guardi splendono raggi'', but the part is commonly performed on mandolin. Gustav Mahler used the mandolin in his Symphony No. 7 (Mahler), Symphony No. 7, Symphony No. 8 (Mahler), Symphony No. 8 and Das Lied von der Erde. Parts for mandolin are included in works by Arnold Schoenberg, Schoenberg (Variations Op. 31), Igor Stravinsky, Stravinsky (Agon), Sergei Prokofiev, Prokofiev (Romeo and Juliet) and Anton Webern, Webern (opus Parts 10) Some 20th-century composers also used the mandolin as their instrument of choice (amongst these are: Arnold Schoenberg, Schoenberg, Anton Webern, Webern, Igor Stravinsky, Stravinsky and Sergei Prokofiev, Prokofiev). Among the most important European mandolin composers of the 20th century are Raffaele Calace (composer, performer and luthier) and Giuseppe Anedda (virtuoso concert pianist and professor of the first chair of the Conservatory of Italian Mandolin, Padua, 1975). Today representatives of Italian classical music and Italian classical-contemporary music include Ugo Orlandi, Carlo Aonzo, Dorina Frati, Mauro Squillante and Duilio Galfetti. Japanese composers also produced orchestral music for mandolin in the 20th century, but these are not well known outside Japan. Traditional mandolin orchestras remain especially popular in Japan and Germany, but also exist throughout the United States, Europe and the rest of the world. They perform works composed for mandolin family instruments, or re-orchestrations of traditional pieces. The structure of a contemporary traditional mandolin orchestra consists of: first and second mandolins, mandolas (either octave mandolas, tuned an octave below the mandolin, or tenor mandolas, tuned like the viola), mandocellos (tuned like the cello), and bass instruments (conventional string bass or, rarely, mandobasses). Smaller ensembles, such as quartets composed of two mandolins, mandola, and mandocello, may also be found.


Unaccompanied solo

* Niccolò Paganini :Minuet * Silvio Ranieri :Variations on a Theme by Haydn :Song of summer * Raffaele Calace :Prelude No. 1 :Prelude No. 2 :Prelude No. 3 :Prelude No. 5 :Prelude No. 10 :Prelude No. 11 :Prelude No. 14 :Prelude No. 15 :Large prelude :Collard :Sylvia :Minuet of rose * Ugo Bottacchiarri :I have stood on the banks * Heinrich Koniettsuni :Partita No. 1, etc. * Herbert Baumann :Sonatine, etc. * Siegfried Behrend :Sense – structure * John Craton :The Gray Wolf :Perpetuum Mobile :Variations from Der Fluyten Lust-hof * Sakutarō Hagiwara :Hataoriru maiden * Takei Shusei :Spring to go * Seiichi Suzuki :Variations on Schubert lullaby :City of Elm :Variations on Kojonotsuki of subject matter * Gilad Hochman :Two Episodes for solo mandolin * Jiro Nakano :"Spring has come" Variations :Prayer :Fantasia second No. :Serenata :Beautiful my child and where :Prayer of the evening :Variations on September Affair of the subject matter * Makino YukariTaka :Spring snow of ballads * Jo Kondo :In early spring * Takashi Kubota :Nocturne :Etude :Fantasia first No. * Yasuo Kuwahara :Moon and mountain witch :Impromptu :Winter Light :Mukyu motion :Jon-gara :Silent door * Victor Kioulaphides


Accompaniment with solo

* Ludwig van Beethoven :Beethoven's mandolin music, Sonatine in C minor, WoO 43a :Beethoven's mandolin music, Adagio in E major WoO 43b :Beethoven's mandolin music, Sonatine in C major WoO 44a :Beethoven's mandolin music, Andante and Variations in D major WoO 44b * John Craton :Dioces aztecas :The Legend of Princess Noccalula * Giovanni Hoffmann : 4 Quartet for Mandolin, Violin, Viola, and Lute : 4 Divertimenti for Mandolin, Violin & B.c. * Johann Nepomuk Hummel :Sonata in C major Op. 35 * Vittorio Monti :Csárdás (Monti), Csárdás * Carlo Munier :Spanish Capriccio :Mazurka for concert :Waltz for concert :Bizaria :Aria Varia data :Mandolin Concerto No. 1 * Raffaele Calace :Mandolin Concerto No. 1 :Mandolin Concerto No. 2 :Mukyu motion :Tarantella :Song of Nostalgia :Elegy :Mazurka for concert * Silvio Ranieri :Warsaw of memories * Enrico Marcelli :Gypsy style Capriccio :Fantastic Waltz :Mukyu motion :Polonaise for concert * Hans Gál :Divertimento for mandolin and harp :Such as a duo for the mandolin and guitar * Norbert Shupuronguru :Serenade for mandolin and guitar * Franco Marugora :Grand Sonata for mandolin and guitar * Kurt Schwaen :Slovenia wind Dances such as * Dietrich Erdmann :Sonatine * Mari Takano :Light of silence * Rikuya Terashima :Sonata for mandolin and piano (2002)


Duo and musical ensemble

A duet or duo is a musical composition for two performers in which the performers have equal importance to the piece. A musical ensemble with more than two solo instruments or voices is called trio, quartet, quintet, sextet, septet, octet, etc. *Ella Von Adajewska-Schultz (1846-1926) :Venezuelan Serenade *Valentine Abt (1873-1942) :In Venice Waters *Carlo Acton, Charles Acton :Chants Des Gondoliers * Hermann Ambrosius :Duo *Emanuele Barbella :Sonata in D major for Mandolin and Basso Continuo *Ignazio Bitelli (c. 1880–1956) :L'Albero di Natale, pastorale for mandolin & guitar :Il Gondoliere, valse for 2 mandolins & guitar *Costantino Bertucci :Il Carnevale Di Venezia Con Variazioni *Pietro Gaetano Boni (1686-1741) :Sonate pour mandoline en la, Op. 2 n° 1 :Sonate pour mandoline en ré mineur, Op. 2 n° 2 :Sonate pour mandoline en ré, Op. 2 n° 9 *Antonio Del Buono :"In Gondola" Serenata Veneziana "Ai Mandolnisti Di Venezia *Raffaele Calace :Barcarola Op. 100 Per Chitarra :Barcarola Op. 116 Per Liuto "A Mio Figlio Peppino" * Gioacchino Cocchi :* ''Sinfonia for 2 Mandolins & Continuo'', (Gimo 76) *Jules Cottin :Au Fil De L'Eau * John Craton :Charon Crossing the Styx (mandolin & double bass) :Four Whimsies (mandolin & octave mandolin) :Les gravures de Gustave Doré (mandolin & guitar) :Six Pantomimes for Two Mandolins :Sonatina No. 3 for Mandolin & Violin * Hans Gál :Op. 59a Sonatina for 2 mandolins (1952) *Giovani Battista Gervasio :''Sonata for Mandolin & Continuo'' (Gimo 141) :''Sonata per camera'' (Gimo 143) :Sinfonia for 2 Mandolins & Continuo, (Gimo 149) :''Trio for 2 Mandolins & Continuo,'' (Gimo 150) :Sonata in D major for Mandolin and Basso Continuo :Sonata in G major for Mandolin and Basso Continuo *Giuseppe Giuliano :Sonata in D major for Mandolin and Basso Continuo * Geoffrey Gordon :Interiors of a Courtyard (mandolin & guitar) *Addiego Guerra :Sonata in G major for Mandolin and Basso Continuo * Positive Hattori :Concerto for two mandolin and piano * Sean Hickey :Mandolin Canons (mandolin & guitar) * Giovanni Hoffmann : 3 Duets for Mandolin and Violin : Serenade for Viola and Mandolin * Tyler Kaier :Den lille Havfrue (mandolin & guitar) * Peter Machajdík :Mit den Augen eines Falken for mandolin & guitar (2016) *Giovanni Battista Maldura :Barcarola Veneziana Di Mendelssohn *Eduardo Mezzacapo, Edward Mezzacapo (1832-1898) :Le Chant Du Gondolier *Heinrich Molbe (1835–1915) :Gondolata Op. 74 Per Mandolino, Clarinetto E Pianoforte *Carlo Munier (1859-1911) :"In Gondola" Ricordi di Mendelssohn :Notturno Veneziano Per Quartetto Romantico * Jiro Nakano :Medaka, revolving lantern *Giuseppe Pettine (1874-1966) :Barcarola Per Mandolino * Hideo Saito (musician), Hideo Saito, Jiro Nakano :Du edge Martino *Domenico Scarlatti :Sonata in D minor (K77) :Sonata in E minor (K81) :Sonata in G minor (K88) :Sonata No. 54 (K. 89) in D minor for Mandolin and Basso Continuo :Sonata in D minor (K89) :Sonata in D minor (K90) :Sonata in G (K91) * Mari Takano :Silent Light for mandolin & harpsichord (2001) :Two Pieces for Two Mandolins (2002) *Sergei Taneyev, Sergeij Taneev (1856-1913) :Venezia Di Notte, Barcarola Op. 9 No. 1 :Serenata Per Voce, Mandolino E Pianoforte Op. 9 No. 2 Alla Contessa Tat'jana L'vovna Tolstaja *Roberto Valentini (1674-1747) :Sonate pour mandoline en la, Op. 12 n° 1 :Sonate pour mandoline en ré mineur, Op. 12 n° 2 :Sonate pour mandoline en sol, Op. 12 n° 3 :Sonate pour mandoline en sol mineur, Op. 12 n° 4 :Sonate pour mandoline en mi mineur, Op. 12 n° 5 :Sonate pour mandoline en ré, Op. 12 n° 6


Concerto

Concerto: a musical composition generally composed of three movements, in which, usually, one solo instrument (for instance, a piano, violin, cello or flute) is accompanied by an orchestra or concert band. * Anna Clyne : ''Three Sisters'', for mandolin and chamber orchestra * Giovanni Hoffmann : Concerto for Mandolin and Orchestra in D Major * Antonio Vivaldi :Mandolin Concerto (Vivaldi), Mandolin Concerto in C major, :Concerto for two mandolinos in G major :Concerto for two mandolinos, 2 violons " in Tromba"—2 flûtes à bec, 2 salmoe, 2 théorbes, violoncelle, cordes et basse continuein in C major * Francisco Rodrigo Arto (Venezuela) :Mandolin Concerto (1984) * Dominico Caudioso :Mandolin Concerto in G Major * John Craton :Mandolin Concerto No. 1 in D Minor :Mandolin Concerto No. 2 in D Major :Mandolin Concerto No. 3 in E Minor :Mandolin Concerto No. 4 in G Major :Concerto for Two Mandolins ("Rromane Bjavela") * Gerardo Enrique Dirié (Argentina) :''Los ocho puentes'' for four recorders, mandolin and percussion (1984) * Johann Adolph Hasse :Mandolin Concerto in G major * Leopold Kozeluch :Concerto for piano, mandolin, trumpet and double bass in E major * Giovanni Battista Pergolesi :Mandolin Concerto in B major * Giovanni Paisiello :Mandolin Concerto in E major :Mandolin Concerto in C major :Mandolin Concerto in G major * Johann Nepomuk Hummel :Mandolin Concerto in G major * Armin Kaufmann :Mandolin Concerto * Dietrich Erdmann :Mandolin Concerto * Herbert Baumann :Mandolin and the Concerto for Strings * Brian Israel (1951-1986) :Concerto for Mandolin (1985) :Sonatinetta (1984) :Surrealistic Serenade (1985) * Makino YukariTaka :Mandolin Concerto * Julian Dawes :Mandolin and the Concerto for Strings * Tanaka Ken :"Arc" for mandolin and orchestra * Vladimir Kororutsuku :Suite "positive and negative" * Avner Dorman :Mandolin Concerto * Gilad Hochman :"Nedudim" ("Wanderings") Fantasia-Concertante for mandolin and string orchestra (2014)


Mandolin in the orchestra

Orchestral works in which the mandolin has a limited part. * Domenico Cimarosa :Opera ''La finta parigina'' * John Craton :Opera ''The Curious Affair of the Count of Monte Blotto'' * Michel Corrette :Concerto for orchestra ''25 Concertos Comiques (Michel Corrette), 25 Concertos Comiques'': ''Concerto nr 24 in C major "La Marche du Huron"'' *Lukas Foss :Symphony No. 2 "Symphony Of Chorales" (1958) *André Grétry : ''L'Amant jaloux'' (Paris, 1778) * George Frideric Handel :Oratorio ''Alexander Balus (George Frideric Handel), Alexander Balus'' * György Ligeti :Opera ''Le Grand Macabre'' * Bruno Maderna :Opera ''Don Perlimplin, ovvero il trionfo dell'amore e dell'immaginazione'' * Gustav Mahler :''Symphony No. 7 (Mahler), Symphony No. 7, Song of the Night'' :''Symphony No. 8 (Mahler), Symphony No. 8, Symphony of Thousands'' :Symphony ''Das Lied von der Erde, Song of the Earth'' * Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart :Opera ''Don Giovanni'' * Giovanni Paisiello :The Barber of Seville (Paisiello), The Barber of Seville'' * Willem Pijper :Opera ''Halewijn'' :''Romance sans paroles'' :Symphony No. 2 :Symphony No. 3 * Sergei Prokofiev :Ballet music ''Romeo and Juliet (Prokofiev), Romeo and Juliet'' * Ottorino Respighi :Symphonic poem ''Roman Festivals (Respighi), Festivals of Rome'' *Antonio Salieri :Tarare (opera), Tarare (Paris, 1787) * Rodion Shchedrin :Ballet music ''Anna Karenina (ballet), Anna Karenina'' * Arnold Schoenberg :Opera ''Moses und Aron'' :''Variations for Orchestra (Schoenberg), Variations for Orchestra'' * Niccola Spinelli : Opera ''A basso porto, A Basso Porto'': ''Intermezzo for mandolins and orchestra'' * Igor Stravinsky :Ballet music ''Agon (ballet), Agon'' * Giuseppe Verdi :Opera ''Otello'' * Antonio Vivaldi :Oratorio ''Juditha triumphans (Vivaldi), Juditha triumphans'' * Anton Webern :''Five Pieces for Orchestra''


See also

* List of mandolinists * List of mandolinists (sorted) * List of string instruments * Stringed instrument tunings * Pandura * bouzouki, Greek bouzouki * Bluegrass mandolin * Mandola * Octave Mandolin * Mandocello * Mandobass * Cittern *
Irish bouzouki The Irish bouzouki () is an adaptation of the Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its populatio ...

Irish bouzouki
*
Portuguese guitar#redirect Portuguese guitar The Portuguese guitar or Portuguese guitarra ( pt, guitarra portuguesa, ) is a plucked string instrument with twelve steel strings, strung in six courses of two strings. It is one of the few musical instruments that stil ...

Portuguese guitar


References

* * * * * * * *
Edition MANDO – Edition MANDO Verlags-Bestellung


Further reading

Chord dictionaries * A comprehensive chord dictionary. * A case-style chord dictionary. * A very comprehensive chord dictionary. Method and instructional guides * Instructional guide.


External links


Accademia Mandolinistica Pugliese (Puglia-Italy)
*



* [http://mandolin.music.coocan.jp/classics.html Works for orchestras that contain small parts for mandolin. Japanese website, but needed parts are in English.]
Works for mandolin or with major parts for mandolin.

19 works from Italian composers, during the mandolins first rise, copies from manuscript into modern notation.
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