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A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a
word A word is a basic element of language Language is a structured system of communication. The structure of a language is its grammar and the free components are its vocabulary. Languages are the primary means by which humans communicate, ...
at least partly assimilated from one
language Language is a structured system of communication. The structure of a language is its grammar and the free components are its vocabulary. Languages are the primary means by which humans communicate, and may be conveyed through a variety of met ...
(the donor language) into another language. This is in contrast to
cognate In historical linguistics, cognates or lexical cognates are sets of words in different languages that have been inherited in direct descent from an etymological ancestor in a common parent language. Because language change can have radical ...
s, which are words in two or more languages that are similar because they share an etymological origin, and
calque In linguistics, a calque () or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal translation, literal word-for-word or root-for-root translation. When used as a verb, "to calque" means to borrow a word or phrase from ...
s, which involve translation. Loanwords from languages with different scripts are usually
transliterated Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one writing system, script to another that involves swapping Letter (alphabet), letters (thus ''wikt:trans-#Prefix, trans-'' + ''wikt:littera#Latin, liter-'') in predictable ways, such as ...
(between scripts), but they are not translated. Additionally, loanwords may be adapted to
phonology Phonology is the branch of linguistics that studies how languages or dialects systematically organize their sounds or, for sign languages, their constituent parts of signs. The term can also refer specifically to the sound or sign system of a ...
, phonotactics,
orthography An orthography is a set of convention (norm), conventions for writing a language, including norms of spelling, hyphenation, capitalization, word, word breaks, Emphasis (typography), emphasis, and punctuation. Most transnational languages in the ...
, and morphology of the target language. When a loanword is fully adapted to the rules of the target language, it is distinguished from native words of the target language only by its origin. However, often the adaptation is incomplete, so loanwords may conserve specific features distinguishing them from native words of the target language: loaned phonemes and sound combinations, partial or total conserving of the original spelling, foreign plural or case forms or indeclinability.


Examples and related terms

A loanword is distinguished from a
calque In linguistics, a calque () or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal translation, literal word-for-word or root-for-root translation. When used as a verb, "to calque" means to borrow a word or phrase from ...
(or loan translation), which is a word or phrase whose meaning or
idiom An idiom is a phrase or expression that typically presents a Literal and figurative language, figurative, non-literal meaning (linguistic), meaning attached to the phrase; but some phrases become figurative idioms while retaining the literal meani ...
is adopted from another language by word-for-word
translation Translation is the communication of the Meaning (linguistic), meaning of a #Source and target languages, source-language text by means of an Dynamic and formal equivalence, equivalent #Source and target languages, target-language text. The ...
into existing words or word-forming roots of the recipient language. Loanwords, in contrast, are translated. Examples of loanwords in the
English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family, with its earliest forms spoken by the inhabitants of early medieval England. It is named after the Angles, one of the ancient Germanic people ...
include '' café'' (from French ''café'', which means "coffee"),
bazaar A bazaar () or souk (; also transliterated as souq) is a marketplace consisting of multiple small Market stall, stalls or shops, especially in the Middle East, the Balkans, North Africa and India. However, temporary open markets elsewhere, suc ...
(from Persian ''bāzār'', which means "market"), and
kindergarten Kindergarten is a preschool educational approach based on playing, singing, practical activities such as drawing, and social interaction as part of the transition from home to school. Such institutions were originally made in the late 18th cent ...
(from German ''Kindergarten'', which literally means "children's garden"). The word ''calque'' is a loanword from the French noun ''calque'' ("tracing; imitation; close copy"); while the word ''loanword'' and the phrase ''loan translation'' are calques of the German nouns ''Lehnwort'' and ''Lehnübersetzung''. Loans of multi-word phrases, such as the English use of the French term '' déjà vu'', are known as adoptions, adaptations, or lexical borrowings. Although colloquial and informal register loanwords are typically spread by word-of-mouth, technical or academic loanwords tend to be first used in written language, often for scholarly, scientific, or literary purposes. The terms substrate and
superstrate In linguistics, a stratum (Latin for "layer") or strate is a language that influences or is influenced by another through language contact, contact. A substratum or substrate is a language that has lower power or prestige than another, while a s ...
are often used when two languages interact. However, the meaning of these terms is reasonably well-defined only in second language acquisition or language replacement events, when the native speakers of a certain source language (the substrate) are somehow compelled to abandon it for another target language (the superstrate). Most of the technical vocabulary of classical music (such as
concerto A concerto (; plural ''concertos'', or ''concerti'' from the Italian plural) is, from the Late Baroque (music), late Baroque era, mostly understood as an instrumental composition, written for one or more solo (music), soloists accompanied by an or ...
, allegro,
tempo In musical terminology, tempo (Italian language, Italian, 'time'; plural ''tempos'', or ''tempi'' from the Italian plural) is the speed or pace of a given musical composition, piece. In classical music, tempo is typically indicated with an inst ...
,
aria In music, an aria ( Italian: ; plural The plural (sometimes list of glossing abbreviations, abbreviated pl., pl, or ), in many languages, is one of the values of the grammatical number, grammatical category of number. The plural of a noun ty ...
,
opera Opera is a form of theatre Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of performing art that uses live performers, usually actor, actors or actresses, to present the experience of a real or imagined event before a live audience in a ...
, and
soprano A soprano () is a type of classical female singing voice and has the highest vocal range Vocal range is the range of pitch (music), pitches that a human voice can Phonation, phonate. A common application is within the context of singing, whe ...
) is borrowed from Italian, and that of
ballet Ballet () is a type of performance dance that originated during the Italian Renaissance in the fifteenth century and later developed into a concert dance form in France and Russia. It has since become a widespread and highly technical form of ...
from French. Much of the
terminology Terminology is a group of specialized words and respective meanings in a particular field, and also the study of such terms and their use; the latter meaning is also known as terminology science. A ''term'' is a word, Compound (linguistics), com ...
of the sport of
fencing Fencing is a group of three related combat sports. The three disciplines in modern fencing are the Foil (fencing), foil, the épée, and the Sabre (fencing), sabre (also ''saber''); winning points are made through the weapon's contact with an ...
also comes from French. Many loanwords come from prepared food, drink, fruits, vegetables, seafood and more from languages around the world. In particular, many come from
French cuisine French cuisine () is the cooking traditions and practices from France. It has been influenced over the centuries by the many surrounding cultures of Spain, Italy, Switzerland, Germany and Belgium, in addition to the food traditions of the re ...
( crêpe, Chantilly, crème brûlée), Italian (
pasta Pasta (, ; ) is a type of food typically made from an unleavened dough of wheat flour mixed with water or eggs, and formed into sheets or other shapes, then cooked by boiling or baking. Rice flour, or legumes such as beans or lentils, are som ...
, linguine,
pizza Pizza (, ) is a Dish (food), dish of Italian cuisine, Italian origin consisting of a usually round, flat base of Leavening agent, leavened wheat-based dough topped with tomatoes, cheese, and often various other ingredients (such as various ...
,
espresso Espresso (, ) is a coffee-brewing method of Italian cuisine, Italian origin, in which a small amount of nearly boiling water (about ) is forced under of pressure through finely-ground coffee beans. Espresso can be made with a wide variety of ...
), and Chinese (
dim sum Dim sum () is a large range of small Chinese dishes that are traditionally enjoyed in restaurants for brunch. Most modern dim sum dishes are commonly associated with Cantonese cuisine, although dim sum dishes also exist in other Chinese cuisi ...
,
chow mein ''Chow mein'' ( and , ; Pinyin: ''chǎomiàn'') is a Chinese cuisine, Chinese dish made from stir frying, stir-fried noodles with vegetables and sometimes meat or tofu. Over the centuries, variations of ''chǎomiàn'' were developed in many re ...
,
wonton A wonton () is a type of Chinese dumpling commonly found across regional styles of Chinese cuisine. It is also spelled wantan or wuntun in transliteration from Cantonese () and wenden from Shanghainese (). There are many different styles of ...
).


Linguistic classification

The studies by Werner Betz (1971, 1901), Einar Haugen (1958, also 1956), and Uriel Weinreich (1963) are regarded as the classical theoretical works on loan influence. The basic theoretical statements all take Betz's nomenclature as their starting point. Duckworth (1977) enlarges Betz's scheme by the type "partial substitution" and supplements the system with English terms. A schematic illustration of these classifications is given below. The phrase "foreign word" used in the image below is a mistranslation of the German ''Fremdwort'', which refers to loanwords whose pronunciation, spelling, inflection or gender have not been adapted to the new language such that they no longer seem foreign. Such a separation of loanwords into two distinct categories is not used by linguists in English in talking about any language. Basing such a separation mainly on spelling is (or, in fact, was) not common except amongst German linguists, and only when talking about German and sometimes other languages that tend to adapt foreign spellings, which is rare in English unless the word has been widely used for a long time. According to the linguist Suzanne Kemmer, the expression "foreign word" can be defined as follows in English: " en most speakers do not know the word and if they hear it think it is from another language, the word can be called a foreign word. There are many foreign words and phrases used in English such as bon vivant (French), mutatis mutandis (Latin), and Schadenfreude (German)." This is not how the term is used in this illustration: On the basis of an importation-substitution distinction, Haugen (1950: 214f.) distinguishes three basic groups of borrowings: "(1) ''Loanwords'' show morphemic importation without substitution.... (2) ''Loanblends'' show morphemic substitution as well as importation.... (3) ''Loanshifts'' show morphemic substitution without importation". Haugen later refined (1956) his model in a review of Gneuss's (1955) book on Old English loan coinages, whose classification, in turn, is the one by Betz (1949) again. Weinreich (1953: 47ff.) differentiates between two mechanisms of lexical interference, namely those initiated by simple words and those initiated by compound words and phrases. Weinreich (1953: 47) defines ''simple words'' "from the point of view of the bilinguals who perform the transfer, rather than that of the descriptive linguist. Accordingly, the category 'simple' words also includes compounds that are transferred in unanalysed form". After this general classification, Weinreich then resorts to Betz's (1949) terminology.


In English

The English language has borrowed many words from other cultures or languages. For examples, see
Lists of English words by country or language of origin The following are lists of words in the English language that are known as "loanwords" or "borrowings," which are derived from other languages. For Old English-derived words, see List of English words of Old English origin. *English words of Af ...
and
Anglicisation Anglicisation is a form of cultural assimilation whereby something non-English becomes assimilated into, influenced by or dominated by Culture of England, Englishness or Culture of the United Kingdom, Britishness. It can be socio-cultural, wher ...
. Some English loanwords remain relatively faithful to the original phonology even though a particular
phoneme In phonology and linguistics, a phoneme () is a unit of sound that can distinguish one word from another in a particular language. For example, in most List of dialects of English, dialects of English, with the notable exception of the West M ...
might not exist or have contrastive status in English. For example, the Hawaiian word '' '' is used by geologists to specify lava that is thick, chunky, and rough. The Hawaiian spelling indicates the two
glottal stop The glottal plosive or stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many Speech communication, spoken languages, produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract or, more precisely, the glottis. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabe ...
s in the word, but the English pronunciation, , contains at most one. The English spelling usually removes the ʻokina and macron diacritics. Most English affixes, such as ''un-'', ''-ing'', and ''-ly'', were used in Old English. However, a few English affixes are borrowed. For example, the verbal suffix ''-ize'' (American English) or ''ise'' (British English) comes from Greek -ιζειν (''-izein'') through Latin ''-izare''.


Languages other than English


Transmission in the Ottoman Empire

During more than 600 years of the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire, * ; is an archaic version. The definite article forms and were synonymous * and el, Оθωμανική Αυτοκρατορία, Othōmanikē Avtokratoria, label=none * info page on book at Martin Luther University) ...
, the literary and administrative language of the empire was Turkish, with many Persian, and
Arabic Arabic (, ' ; , ' or ) is a Semitic languages, Semitic language spoken primarily across the Arab world.Semitic languages: an international handbook / edited by Stefan Weninger; in collaboration with Geoffrey Khan, Michael P. Streck, Janet C ...
loanwords, called
Ottoman Turkish Ottoman Turkish ( ota, لِسانِ عُثمانى, Lisân-ı Osmânî, ; tr, Osmanlı Türkçesi) was the standardized register (sociolinguistics), register of the Turkish language used by the citizens of the Ottoman Empire (14th to 20th cent ...
, considerably differing from the everyday spoken Turkish of the time. Many such words were adopted by other languages of the empire, such as Albanian, Bosnian, Bulgarian, Croatian, Greek, Hungarian, Ladino, Macedonian, Montenegrin and Serbian. After the empire fell after
World War I World War I (28 July 1914 11 November 1918), often abbreviated as WWI, was List of wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll, one of the deadliest global conflicts in history. Belligerents included much of Europe, the Russian Empire, ...
and the
Republic of Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Türkiye ( tr, Türkiye Cumhuriyeti, links=no ), is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental country located mainly on the Anatolia, Anatolian Peninsula in Western Asia, with ...
was founded, the Turkish language underwent an extensive
language reform Language reform is a kind of language planning by widespread change to a language. The typical methods of language reform are simplification and linguistic purism. Simplification regularises vocabulary, grammar, or spelling. Purism aligns the lan ...
led by the newly founded Turkish Language Association, during which many adopted words were replaced with new formations derived from Turkic roots. That was part of the ongoing cultural reform of the time, in turn a part in the broader framework of Atatürk's Reforms, which also included the introduction of the new
Turkish alphabet The Turkish alphabet ( tr, ) is a Latin-script alphabet used for writing the Turkish language, consisting of 29 letters, seven of which (Ç, Ğ, Dotless I, I, İ, Ö, Ş and Ü) have been modified from their Latin originals for the phonetic requ ...
. Turkish also has taken many words from French, such as ''pantolon'' for ''trousers'' (from French ''pantalon'') and ''komik'' for ''funny'' (from French ''comique''), most of them pronounced very similarly. Word usage in modern Turkey has acquired a political tinge:
right-wing Right-wing politics describes the range of Ideology#Political ideologies, political ideologies that view certain social orders and Social stratification, hierarchies as inevitable, natural, normal, or desirable, typically supporting this pos ...
publications tend to use more Arabic or Persian originated words,
left-wing Left-wing politics describes the range of Ideology#Political%20ideologies, political ideologies that support and seek to achieve social equality and egalitarianism, often in opposition to social hierarchy. Left-wing politics typically in ...
ones use more adopted from European languages, while centrist ones use more native Turkish root words.


Dutch words in Indonesian

Almost 350 years of Dutch presence in what is now
Indonesia Indonesia, officially the Republic of Indonesia, is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania between the Indian Ocean, Indian and Pacific Ocean, Pacific oceans. It consists of over List of islands of Indonesia, 17,000 islands, including Sumatr ...
have left significant linguistic traces. Though very few Indonesians have a fluent knowledge of Dutch, the Indonesian language inherited many words from Dutch, both in words for everyday life (e.g., '' buncis'' from Dutch '' boontjes'' for (green) beans) and as well in administrative, scientific or technological terminology (e.g., '' kantor'' from Dutch '' kantoor'' for office). The Professor of Indonesian Literature at
Leiden University Leiden University (abbreviated as ''LEI''; nl, Universiteit Leiden) is a public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general public) is the totality of such groupi ...
, and of Comparative Literature at UCR, argues that roughly 20% of Indonesian words can be traced back to Dutch words.


Dutch words in Russian

In the late 17th century, the
Dutch Republic The United Provinces of the Netherlands, also known as the (Seven) United Provinces, officially as the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands (Dutch language, Dutch: ''Republiek der Zeven Verenigde Nederlanden''), and commonly referred to in ...
had a leading position in shipbuilding. Czar
Peter the Great Peter I ( – ), most commonly known as Peter the Great,) or Pyotr Alekséyevich ( rus, Пётр Алексе́евич, p=ˈpʲɵtr ɐlʲɪˈksʲejɪvʲɪtɕ, , group=pron was a List of Russian monarchs, Russian monarch who ruled the ...
, eager to improve his navy, studied shipbuilding in Zaandam and
Amsterdam Amsterdam ( , , , lit. ''The Dam on the River Amstel'') is the Capital of the Netherlands, capital and Municipalities of the Netherlands, most populous city of the Netherlands, with The Hague being the seat of government. It has a population ...
. Many Dutch naval terms have been incorporated in the Russian vocabulary, such as бра́мсель (''brámselʹ'') from Dutch ''bramzeil'' for the topgallant sail, домкра́т (''domkrát'') from Dutch '' dommekracht'' for jack, and матро́с (''matrós'') from Dutch '' matroos'' for sailor.


Romance languages

A large percentage of the lexicon of
Romance languages The Romance languages, sometimes referred to as Latin languages or Neo-Latin languages, are the various modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin. They are the only extant subgroup of the Italic languages in the Indo-European languages, I ...
, themselves descended from
Vulgar Latin Vulgar Latin, also known as Popular or Colloquial Latin, is the range of non-formal registers of Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was ori ...
, consists of loanwords (later learned or scholarly borrowings) from Latin. These words can be distinguished by lack of typical sound changes and other transformations found in descended words, or by meanings taken directly from Classical or
Ecclesiastical Latin Ecclesiastical Latin, also called Church Latin or Liturgical Latin, is a form of Latin developed to discuss Christian theology, Christian thought in Late Antiquity and used in Christian liturgy, theology, and church administration down to the pre ...
that did not evolve or change over time as expected; in addition, there are also semi-learned terms which were adapted partially to the Romance language's character. Latin borrowings can be known by several names in Romance languages: in Spanish, for example, they are usually referred to as "cultismos", and in Italian as "latinismi". Latin is usually the most common source of loanwords in these languages, such as in Italian, Spanish, French, etc., and in some cases the total number of loans may even outnumber inherited terms (although the learned borrowings are less often used in common speech, with the most common vocabulary being of inherited, orally transmitted origin from Vulgar Latin). This has led to many cases of etymological doublets in these languages. For most Romance languages, these loans were initiated by scholars, clergy, or other learned people and occurred in Medieval times, peaking in the late Middle Ages and early Renaissance era- in Italian, the 14th century had the highest number of loans. In the case of Romanian, the language underwent a "re-Latinization" process later than the others (see Romanian lexis, ), in the 18th and 19th centuries, partially using French and Italian words (many of these themselves being earlier borrowings from Latin) as intermediaries, in an effort to modernize the language, often adding concepts that did not exist until then, or replacing words of other origins. These common borrowings and features also essentially serve to raise mutual intelligibility of the Romance languages, particularly in academic/scholarly, literary, technical, and scientific domains. Many of these same words are also found in English (through its numerous borrowings from Latin and French) and other European languages. In addition to Latin loanwords, many words of Ancient Greek origin were also borrowed into Romance languages, often in part through scholarly Latin intermediates, and these also often pertained to academic, scientific, literary, and technical topics. Furthermore, to a lesser extent, Romance languages borrowed from a variety of other languages; in particular English has become an important source in more recent times. The study of the origin of these words and their function and context within the language can illuminate some important aspects and characteristics of the language, and it can reveal insights on the phenomenon of lexical borrowing in linguistics as a method of enriching a language.


Cultural aspects

According to Hans Henrich Hock and Brian Joseph, "languages and dialects ... do not exist in a vacuum": there is always linguistic contact between groups. The contact influences what loanwords are integrated into the lexicon and which certain words are chosen over others.


Leaps in meaning

In some cases, the original meaning shifts considerably through unexpected logical leaps. The English word ''Viking'' became Japanese バイキング (''baikingu''), meaning "buffet", because the first restaurant in Japan to offer
buffet A buffet can be either a sideboard (a flat-topped piece of furniture with cupboards and drawers, used for storing crockery, glasses, and table linen) or a system of serving meals in which food is placed in a public area where the diners serve ...
-style meals, inspired by the Nordic smörgåsbord, was opened in 1958 by the Imperial Hotel under the name "Viking". The German word '' Kachel'', meaning "tile", became the Dutch word '' kachel'' meaning "stove", as a shortening of '' kacheloven'', from German '' Kachelofen'', a cocklestove.


See also

* Bilingual pun *
Hybrid word A hybrid word or hybridism is a Word (linguistics), word that etymologically derives from at least two languages. Common hybrids The most common form of hybrid word in English language, English combines Latin and Greek language, Greek parts. Sin ...
* Inkhorn term *
Language contact Language contact occurs when speakers of two or more languages or Variety (linguistics), varieties interact and influence each other. The study of language contact is called contact linguistics. When speakers of different languages interact closely ...
*
Neologism A neologism from Ancient Greek, Greek νέο- ''néo''(="new") and λόγος /''lógos'' meaning "speech, utterance"is a relatively recent or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that has not ...
*
Phono-semantic matching Phono-semantic matching (PSM) is the incorporation of a word into one language from another, often creating a neologism, where the word's non-native quality is hidden by replacing it with Phonetics, phonetically and semantically similar words or ...
* Reborrowing * Semantic loan


References


Sources

* Best, Karl-Heinz, Kelih, Emmerich (eds.) (2014): ''Entlehnungen und Fremdwörter: Quantitative Aspekte.'' Lüdenscheid: RAM-Verlag. * Betz, Werner (1949): ''Deutsch und Lateinisch: Die Lehnbildungen der althochdeutschen Benediktinerregel''. Bonn: Bouvier. *Betz, Werner (1959): "Lehnwörter und Lehnprägungen im Vor- und Frühdeutschen". In: Maurer, Friedrich / Stroh, Friedrich (eds.): ''Deutsche Wortgeschichte''. 2nd ed. Berlin: Schmidt, vol. 1, 127–147. * Bloom, Dan (2010): "What's That Pho?". French Loan Words in Vietnam Today; Taipei Times
[ SOCIETY ] What's that 'pho'? - Taipei Times
*Cannon, Garland (1999): "Problems in studying loans", ''Proceedings of the annual meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society'' 25, 326–336. *Duckworth, David (1977): "Zur terminologischen und systematischen Grundlage der Forschung auf dem Gebiet der englisch-deutschen Interferenz: Kritische Übersicht und neuer Vorschlag". In: Kolb, Herbert / Lauffer, Hartmut (eds.) (1977): Sprachliche Interferenz: Festschrift für Werner Betz zum 65. Geburtstag. Tübingen: Niemeyer, p. 36–56. *Gneuss, Helmut (1955): ''Lehnbildungen und Lehnbedeutungen im Altenglischen''. Berlin: Schmidt. * Grzega, Joachim (2003)
"Borrowing as a Word-Finding Process in Cognitive Historical Onomasiology"

Onomasiology Online
' 4, 22–42. *Grzega, Joachim (2004): ''Bezeichnungswandel: Wie, Warum, Wozu?'' Heidelberg: Winter. *Haugen, Einar (1950): "The analysis of linguistic borrowing". ''Language'' 26, 210–231. *Haugen, Einar (1956): "Review of Gneuss 1955". ''Language'' 32, 761–766. *. *. *Koch, Peter (2002): "Lexical Typology from a Cognitive and Linguistic Point of View". In: Cruse, D. Alan et al. (eds.): ''Lexicology: An International on the Nature and Structure of Words and Vocabularies/Lexikologie: Ein internationales Handbuch zur Natur und Struktur von Wörtern und Wortschätzen''. Berlin/New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1142–1178. *Oksaar, Els (1996): "The history of contact linguistics as a discipline". In: Goebl, Hans et al. (eds.): ''Kontaktlinguistik/contact linguistics/linguistique de contact: ein internationales Handbuch zeitgenössischer Forschung/an international handbook of contemporary research/manuel international des recherches contemporaines''. Berlin/New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1–12. *. *Stanforth, Anthony W. (2002): "Effects of language contact on the vocabulary: an overview". In: Cruse, D. Alan et al. (eds.) (2002): Lexikologie: ein internationales Handbuch zur Natur und Struktur von Wörtern und Wortschätzen/Lexicology: an international handbook on the nature and structure of words and vocabularies. Berlin/New York: Walter de Gruyter, p. 805–813. * Zuckermann, Ghil'ad (2003)
''Language Contact and Lexical Enrichment in Israeli Hebrew''
Houndmills:
Palgrave Macmillan Palgrave Macmillan is a British academic and trade publishing company headquartered in the London Borough of Camden. Its programme includes textbooks, journals, monographs, professional and reference works in print and online. It maintains offi ...
, ()


External links


World Loanword Database (WOLD)

AfBo: A world-wide survey of affix borrowing


{{Authority control Historical linguistics Etymology Cultural assimilation Translation Sociolinguistics