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A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a
word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meaning (linguistics), meaning. In many languages, words also co ...

word
as permanently adopted from one
language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the ...

language
(the donor language) and incorporated into another language without
translation Translation is the communication of the meaning Meaning most commonly refers to: * Meaning (linguistics), meaning which is communicated through the use of language * Meaning (philosophy), definition, elements, and types of meaning discusse ...

translation
. This is in contrast to
cognate In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most langu ...
s, which are words in two or more languages that are similar because they share an
etymological Etymology ()The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p. 633 "Etymology /ˌɛtɪˈmɒlədʒi/ the study of the class in words and the way their meanings have changed throughout time". is the study of the history of words. By extension, t ...
origin, and
calque In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the me ...

calque
s, which involve translation. Loanwords from languages with different
scripts Script may refer to: Writing systems * Script, a distinctive writing system A writing system is a method of visually representing verbal communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is the act of developi ...
are usually
transliterated Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script Script may refer to: Writing systems * Script, a distinctive writing system, based on a repertoire of specific elements or symbols, or that repertoire * Script (styles of ha ...

transliterated
(between scripts), but they are not translated.


Examples and related terms

A loanword is distinguished from a
calque In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the me ...

calque
(or
loan translation In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languag ...
), which is a word or phrase whose
meaning Meaning most commonly refers to: * Meaning (linguistics), meaning which is communicated through the use of language * Meaning (philosophy), definition, elements, and types of meaning discussed in philosophy * Meaning (non-linguistic), a general ter ...
or
idiom An idiom is a phrase In syntax and grammar, a phrase is a group of words which act together as a grammatical unit. For instance, the English language, English expression "the very happy squirrel" is a noun phrase which contains the adjective phra ...
is adopted from another language by word-for-word
translation Translation is the communication of the meaning Meaning most commonly refers to: * Meaning (linguistics), meaning which is communicated through the use of language * Meaning (philosophy), definition, elements, and types of meaning discusse ...

translation
into existing words or word-forming roots of the recipient language. Loanwords, in contrast, are translated. Examples of loanwords in the
English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( spoken language), g ...

English language
include ''
café A coffeehouse, coffee shop, or café is an establishment that primarily serves coffee Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, the seeds of berries from certain '' Coffea'' species. When coffee berries turn from ...

café
'' (from French ''café'', which means "coffee"),
bazaar A bazaar or souk, is a permanently enclosed marketplace or street where goods and services are exchanged or sold. The term bazaar originates from the Persian language, Persian word ''bāzār''. The term bazaar is sometimes also used to refer ...

bazaar
(from Persian ''bāzār'', which means "market"), and
kindergarten Kindergarten (, ) is a preschool educational approach based on playing, singing, practical activities such as drawing, and social interaction as part of the transition from home to school. Such institutions were originally made in the late 18th ...

kindergarten
(from German ''Kindergarten'', which literally means "children's garden"). The word ''calque'' is a loanword from the French noun ''calque'' ("tracing; imitation; close copy"); while the word ''loanword'' and the phrase ''loan translation'' are calques of the
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...

German
nouns ''Lehnwort'' and ''Lehnübersetzung''. Loans of multi-word phrases, such as the English use of the French term ''
déjà vu ''Déjà vu'' ( ; ) is the feeling that one has lived through the present situation before.Schnider, Armin. (2008). ''The Confabulating Mind: How the Brain Creates Reality''. Oxford University Press. pp. 167–168. Blom, Jan Dirk. (2010). ''A Dict ...
'', are known as adoptions, adaptations, or lexical borrowings. Although colloquial and informal register loanwords are typically spread by word-of-mouth, technical or academic loanwords tend to be first used in written language, often for scholarly, scientific, or literary purposes. The terms
substrate Substrate may refer to: Physical layers *Substrate (biology), the natural environment in which an organism lives, or the surface or medium on which an organism grows or is attached **Substrate (locomotion), the surface over which an organism loco ...
and
superstrate In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis include ...
are often used when two languages interact. However, the meaning of these terms is reasonably well-defined only in second language acquisition or language replacement events, when the native speakers of a certain source language (the substrate) are somehow compelled to abandon it for another target language (the superstrate).


From the arts and sports

Most of the technical vocabulary of classical music (such as
concerto A concerto (; plural ''concertos'', or ''concerti'' from the Italian plural) is, from the , mostly understood as an composition, written for one or more ists accompanied by an or other . The typical three- structure, a slow movement (e.g., or ) ...

concerto
, allegro,
tempo In musical terminology This is a list of musical terms that are likely to be encountered in printed scores, Music criticism, music reviews, and program notes. Most of the terms are Italian (see also Italian musical terms used in English), in a ...

tempo
,
aria In music, an aria (; it, Air (music), air, links=no; plural: ''arie'' , or ''arias'' in common usage, diminutive form arietta , plural ariette, or in English simply air) is a self-contained piece for one voice, with or without instrument (music ...

aria
,
opera Opera is a form of theatre Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of performing art that uses live performers, usually actor, actors or actresses, to present the experience of a real or imagined event before a live audience in a s ...

opera
, and
soprano A soprano () is a type of classical Classical may refer to: European antiquity *Classical antiquity, a period of history from roughly the 7th or 8th century B.C.E. to the 5th century C.E. centered on the Mediterranean Sea *Classical architectu ...

soprano
) is borrowed from
Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italian, regional variants of the ...

Italian
, and that of
ballet Ballet () is a type of performance dance that originated during the Italian Renaissance in the fifteenth century and later developed into a concert dance form in France and Russia. It has since become a widespread and highly technical form of ...

ballet
from
French
French
. Much of the
terminology Terminology is a general word for the group of specialized words or meanings relating to a particular field, and also the study of such terms and their use. This is also known as terminology science. Terms are words and compound word In linguis ...
of the sport of
fencing Fencing is a group of three related combat sports. The three disciplines in modern fencing are the foil (fencing), foil, the épée, and the sabre (fencing), sabre (also ''saber''); winning points are made through the weapon's contact with an ...

fencing
also comes from French.


From food and drink

Many loanwords come from prepared food, drink, fruits, vegetables, seafood and more from languages around the world. In particular, many come from
Italian cuisine Italian cuisine (, ) is a Mediterranean cuisine Mediterranean cuisine is the food and methods of preparation used by the people of the Mediterranean Basin In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin (also known as the Mediterranean r ...
(e.g.
pasta Pasta (, ; ) is a type of food typically made from an unleavened dough of wheat flour mixed with water or eggs, and formed into sheets or other shapes, then cooked by boiling or baking. Rice flour, or legumes such as beans or lentils, are so ...

pasta
,
linguine Linguine (; ) is a type of pasta similar to fettuccine and trenette but elliptical in section rather than flat. It is about in width, which is wider than spaghetti but not as wide as fettuccine. The name ''linguine'' means "little tongues" in Ital ...

linguine
,
espresso Espresso (, ) is a coffee Coffee is a Coffee preparation, brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, the seeds of epigynous berries, berries from certain flowering plants in the ''Coffea'' genus. From the coffee fruit, the seeds a ...

espresso
), French (
soufflé A soufflé is a baked egg-based dish originating in France in the early eighteenth century. Combined with various other ingredients it can be served as a savory main dish or sweetened as a dessert Dessert () is a course (food), course that ...
,
crêpe A crêpe or crepe ( or , , Quebec French: ) is a type of very thin pancake A pancake (or hotcake, griddlecake, or flapjack) is a flat cake, often thin and round, prepared from a starch-based batter Batter or batters may refer to ...

crêpe
,
crème brûlée ''Crème brûlée'' (; ), also known as burned cream, burnt cream or Trinity cream, and similar to crema catalana, is a dessert Dessert () is a course (food), course that concludes a meal. The course consists of sweet foods, such as confecti ...

crème brûlée
), and
Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a populat ...

Chinese
(
dim sum Dim sum () is a large range of small Chinese dishes that are traditionally enjoyed in restaurants for brunch. Most modern dim sum dishes originated in China and are commonly associated with Cantonese cuisine Cantonese or Yue cuisine is the ...

dim sum
,
chow mein ''Chow mein'' ( and , ; Pinyin ''Hanyu Pinyin'' (), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese, Standard Mandarin Chinese in mainland China, Taiwan (ROC), and Singapore. It is often used to teach ...

chow mein
,
wonton A wonton (), also spelled wantan, or wuntun in transliteration Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script Script may refer to: Writing systems * Script, a distinctive writing system, based on a repertoire of spe ...
).


Linguistic classification

The studies by Werner Betz (1971, 1901),
Einar Haugen Einar Ingvald Haugen (; April 19, 1906 – June 20, 1994) was an American linguist, author, and professor Professor (commonly abbreviated as Prof.) is an Academy, academic rank at university, universities and other post-secondary education a ...
(1958, also 1956), and
Uriel Weinreich Uriel Weinreich ( yi, אוריאל ווײַנרײַך ''Uriel Vaynraykh'', ; 23 May 1926 – 30 March 1967) was a Polish-American linguist. Life Uriel Weinreich was born in Wilno, Poland Poland ( pl, Polska ), officially the Republic ...
(1963) are regarded as the classical theoretical works on loan influence. The basic theoretical statements all take Betz's nomenclature as their starting point. Duckworth (1977) enlarges Betz's scheme by the type "partial substitution" and supplements the system with English terms. A schematic illustration of these classifications is given below. The phrase "foreign word" used in the image below is a mistranslation of the German ''Fremdwort'', which refers to loanwords whose pronunciation, spelling, inflection or gender have not been adapted to the new language such that they no longer seem foreign. Such a separation of loanwords into two distinct categories is not used by linguists in English in talking about any language. Basing such a separation mainly on spelling is (or, in fact, was) not common except amongst German linguists, and only when talking about German and sometimes other languages that tend to adapt foreign spellings, which is rare in English unless the word has been widely used for a long time. According to the linguist Suzanne Kemmer, the expression "foreign word" can be defined as follows in English: " en most speakers do not know the word and if they hear it think it is from another language, the word can be called a foreign word. There are many foreign words and phrases used in English such as bon vivant (French), mutatis mutandis (Latin), and Schadenfreude (German)." This is however not how the term is (incorrectly) used in this illustration: On the basis of an importation-substitution distinction, Haugen (1950: 214f.) distinguishes three basic groups of borrowings: "(1) ''Loanwords'' show morphemic importation without substitution.... (2) ''Loanblends'' show morphemic substitution as well as importation.... (3) ''Loanshifts'' show morphemic substitution without importation". Haugen later refined (1956) his model in a review of Gneuss's (1955) book on Old English loan coinages, whose classification, in turn, is the one by Betz (1949) again. Weinreich (1953: 47ff.) differentiates between two mechanisms of lexical interference, namely those initiated by simple words and those initiated by compound words and phrases. Weinreich (1953: 47) defines ''simple words'' "from the point of view of the bilinguals who perform the transfer, rather than that of the descriptive linguist. Accordingly, the category 'simple' words also includes compounds that are transferred in unanalysed form". After this general classification, Weinreich then resorts to Betz's (1949) terminology.


In English

The English language has borrowed many words from other cultures or languages. For examples, see
Lists of English words by country or language of origin The following are lists of words in the that are known as "s" or "borrowings," which are derived from other languages. For purely native (-derived) words, see . * * ** ** * * ** * * * * * * (Kannada, Malayalam, Tamil, Telugu) * ** ** ** ** * * ...
and
Anglicization Linguistic anglicisation (or anglicization, occasionally anglification, anglifying, or Englishing) is the practice of modifying foreign words, names, and phrases to make them easier to spell, pronounce, or understand in English. The term commonly ...
. Some English loanwords remain relatively faithful to the original phonology even though a particular
phoneme In phonology and linguistics, a phoneme is a unit of sound that distinguishes one word from another in a particular language. For example, in most List of dialects of English, dialects of English, with the notable exception of the West Midlan ...
might not exist or have contrastive status in English. For example, the
Hawaiian Hawaiian may refer to: * Hawaii state residents, regardless of ancestry * Native Hawaiians, the current term for the indigenous people of the Hawaiian Islands or their descendants * Hawaiian language Historic uses * things and people of the Kingdo ...
word '' '' is used by geologists to specify lava that is thick, chunky, and rough. The Hawaiian spelling indicates the two
glottal stop
glottal stop
s in the word, but the English pronunciation, , contains at most one. The English spelling usually removes the ʻokina and macron diacritics. Most English affixes, such as ''un-'', ''-ing'', and ''-ly'', were used in Old English. However, a few English affixes are borrowed. For example, the verbal suffix ''-ize'' (American English) or ''ise'' (British English) comes from Greek -ιζειν (''-izein'') through Latin ''-izare''.


Languages other than English


Transmission in the Ottoman Empire

During more than 600 years of the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
, the literary and administrative language of the empire was
Turkish Turkish may refer to: * of or about Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe and Western Asia. It shares borders with Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), offi ...
, with many
Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated with the Iranian peoples ** Persian language, an Iranian ...
, and
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...
loanwords, called
Ottoman Turkish Ottoman Turkish ( ota, لِسانِ عُثمانى, , ; tr, Osmanlı Türkçesi) was the standardized register (sociolinguistics), register of the Turkish language used in the Ottoman Empire (14th to 20th centuries CE). It borrowed extensively, ...
, considerably differing from the everyday spoken Turkish of the time. Many such words were adopted by other languages of the empire, such as
Albanian Albanian may refer to: *Pertaining to Albania in Southeast Europe; in particular: **Albanians, an ethnic group native to the Balkans **Albanian language **Albanian culture **Demographics of Albania, includes other ethnic groups within the country ...

Albanian
,
Bosnian Bosnian may refer to: *Anything related to the state of Bosnia and Herzegovina or its inhabitants *Anything related to Bosnia (region) or its inhabitants * Bosniaks, an ethnic group mainly inhabiting Bosnia and Herzegovina and one of three Ethnic gr ...
,
Bulgarian Bulgarian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Bulgaria * Bulgarians, a South Slavic ethnic group * Bulgarian language, a Slavic language * Bulgarian alphabet * A citizen of Bulgaria, see Demographics of Bulgaria * Bulg ...

Bulgarian
,
Croatian Croatian may refer to: *Croatia *Croatian cuisine *Croatian language *Croatian name *Croats, people from Croatia, or of Croatian descent *Citizens of Croatia, see demographics of Croatia See also

* Croatia (disambiguation) * Serbo-Croatian (di ...
,
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
,
HungarianHungarian may refer to: * Hungary, a country in Central Europe * Kingdom of Hungary, state of Hungary, existing between 1000 and 1946 * Hungarians, ethnic groups in Hungary * Hungarian algorithm, a polynomial time algorithm for solving the assignmen ...
, Ladino,
Macedonian Macedonian most often refers to someone or something from or related to Macedonia (disambiguation), Macedonia. Macedonian may specifically refer to: People Modern * Macedonians (ethnic group), the South Slavic ethnic group primarily associated w ...
, Montenegrin and
Serbian Serbian may refer to: * someone or something related to Serbia, a country in Southeastern Europe * someone or something related to the Serbs, a South Slavic people * in both meanings, depending on the context, it may refer to: ** Serbian language ...
. After the empire fell after
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
and the
Republic of Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia and ...
was founded, the Turkish language underwent an extensive
language reformLanguage reform is a kind of language planning by widespread change to a language. The typical methods of language reform are simplification and linguistic purism. Simplification regularises vocabulary, grammar, or spelling. Purism aligns the langu ...
led by the newly founded
Turkish Language Association The Turkish Language Association ( tr, Türk Dil Kurumu, TDK) is the regulatory body A regulatory agency or regulatory authority, is a Public-benefit corporation, Public benefit corporation, public authority/jurisdiction, or government agency tha ...
, during which many adopted words were replaced with new formations derived from
Turkic Turkic may refer to: * anything related to the country of Turkey * Turkic languages, a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages ** Turkic alphabets (disambiguation) ** Turkish language, the most widely spoken Turkic language * T ...

Turkic
roots. That was part of the ongoing cultural reform of the time, in turn a part in the broader framework of
Atatürk's Reforms Atatürk's Reforms ( tr, ) were a series of political, legal, religious, cultural, social, and economic policy changes, designed to convert the new Republic of Turkey into a secular, modern nation-state, implemented under the leadership of Must ...
, which also included the introduction of the new
Turkish alphabet The Turkish alphabet ( tr, ) is a Latin-script alphabet A Latin-script alphabet (Latin alphabet or Roman alphabet) is an alphabet that uses Letter (alphabet), letters of the Latin script. The 21-letter archaic Latin alphabet and the 23-letter c ...

Turkish alphabet
. Turkish also has taken many words from French, such as ''pantolon'' for ''trousers'' (from French ''pantalon'') and ''komik'' for ''funny'' (from French ''comique''), most of them pronounced very similarly. Word usage in modern Turkey has acquired a political tinge:
right-wing Right-wing politics is generally defined by support of the view that certain social order The term social order can be used in two senses: In the first sense, it refers to a particular system of social structures and institution Instit ...
publications tend to use more Arabic or Persian originated words,
left-wing Left-wing politics support social equality Social equality is a state of affairs in which all people within a specific society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, social in ...
ones use more adopted from European languages, while centrist ones use more native Turkish root words.


Dutch words in Indonesian

Almost 350 years of Dutch presence in what is now
Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is t ...

Indonesia
have left significant linguistic traces. Though very few Indonesians have a fluent knowledge of Dutch, the Indonesian language inherited many words from Dutch, both in words for everyday life (e.g., '' buncis'' from Dutch '' boontjes'' for (green) beans) and as well in administrative, scientific or technological terminology (e.g., '' kantor'' from Dutch '' kantoor'' for office). The Professor of Indonesian Literature at
Leiden University Leiden University (abbreviated as ''LEI''; nl, Universiteit Leiden) is a Public university, public research university in Leiden, Netherlands. Founded in 1575 by William the Silent, William, Prince of Orange as a reward to the city of Leiden for ...
, and of Comparative Literature at UCR, argues that roughly 20% of
Indonesian Indonesian is anything of, from, or related to Indonesia, an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. It may refer to: * Indonesians, citizens of Indonesia ** Native Indonesians, diverse groups of local inhabitants of the archipelago ** Indonesian ...

Indonesian
words can be traced back to Dutch words.


Dutch words in Russian

In the late 17th century, the
Dutch Republic The United Provinces of the Netherlands, or United Provinces (officially the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands), commonly referred to in historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was ...
had a leading position in shipbuilding. Czar
Peter the Great Peter the Great ( rus, Пётр Вели́кий, Pyotr Velíkiy, ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I ( rus, Пётр Первый, Pyotr Pyervyy, ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Pyotr Alekséyevich ( rus, Пётр Алексе́евич, p=ˈp ...

Peter the Great
, eager to improve his navy, studied shipbuilding in
Zaandam Zaandam () is a city in the province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivisi ...

Zaandam
and
Amsterdam Amsterdam (, , ) is the Capital of the Netherlands, capital and Municipalities of the Netherlands, most populous city of the Netherlands with a population of 872,680 within the city proper, 1,558,755 in the City Region of Amsterdam, urban ar ...

Amsterdam
. Many Dutch naval terms have been incorporated in the Russian vocabulary, such as бра́мсель (''brámselʹ'') from Dutch ''bramzeil'' for the
topgallant sail On a square rig Square rig is a generic type of sail and rigging arrangement in which the primary driving sails are carried on horizontal spars which are perpendicular, or square In Euclidean geometry, a square is a regular polygon, reg ...
, домкра́т (''domkrát'') from Dutch '' dommekracht'' for
jack Jack may refer to: Places * Jack, Alabama Jack is an unincorporated community File:Entering Heinola, Minnesota.jpg, Sign at Heinola, Minnesota, Heinola, an unincorporated community in Otter Tail County, Minnesota An unincorporated area is a re ...
, and матро́с (''matrós'') from Dutch ''wikt:matroos, matroos'' for sailor.


Romance languages

A large percentage of the lexicon of Romance languages, themselves descended from Vulgar Latin, consists of loanwords (later learned or scholarly borrowings) from Latin. These words can be distinguished by lack of typical sound changes and other transformations found in descended words, or by meanings taken directly from Classical Latin, Classical or Ecclesiastical Latin that did not evolve or change over time as expected; in addition, there are also semi-learned terms which were adapted partially to the Romance language's character. Latin borrowings can be known by several names in Romance languages: in Spanish, for example, they are usually referred to as "cultismos", and in Italian as "latinismi". Latin is usually the most common source of loanwords in these languages, such as in Italian, Spanish, French, etc., and in some cases the total number of loans may even outnumber inherited terms (although the learned borrowings are less often used in common speech, with the most common vocabulary being of inherited, orally transmitted origin from Vulgar Latin). This has led to many cases of etymological Doublet (linguistics), doublets in these languages. For most Romance languages, these loans were initiated by scholars, clergy, or other learned people and occurred in Medieval times, peaking in the late Middle Ages and early Renaissance era- in Italian, the 14th century had the highest number of loans. In the case of Romanian, the language underwent a "re-Latinization" process later than the others (see Romanian lexis, ), in the 18th and 19th centuries, partially using French and Italian words (many of these themselves being earlier borrowings from Latin) as intermediaries, in an effort to modernize the language, often adding concepts that did not exist until then, or replacing words of other origins. These common borrowings and features also essentially serve to raise mutual intelligibility of the Romance languages, particularly in academic/scholarly, literary, technical, and scientific domains. Many of these same words are also found in English (through its numerous borrowings from Latin and French) and other European languages. In addition to Latin loanwords, many words of Ancient Greek origin were also borrowed into Romance languages, often in part through scholarly Latin intermediates, and these also often pertained to academic, scientific, literary, and technical topics. Furthermore, to a lesser extent, Romance languages borrowed from a variety of other languages; in particular English has become an important source in more recent times. The study of the origin of these words and their function and context within the language can illuminate some important aspects and characteristics of the language, and it can reveal insights on the phenomenon of lexical borrowing in linguistics as a method of enriching a language.


Cultural aspects

According to Hans Henrich Hock and Brian Joseph, "languages and dialects ... do not exist in a vacuum": there is always linguistic contact between groups. The contact influences what loanwords are integrated into the lexicon and which certain words are chosen over others.


Leaps in meaning

In some cases, the original meaning shifts considerably through unexpected logical leaps. The English word ''Viking'' became Japanese wikt:バイキング, バイキング (''baikingu''), meaning "buffet", because the first restaurant in Japan to offer buffet-style meals, inspired by the Nordic smörgåsbord, was opened in 1958 by the Imperial Hotel under the name "Viking". The German word ''wikt:Kachel#German, Kachel'', meaning "tile", became the Dutch word ''wikt:kachel, kachel'' meaning "stove", as a shortening of ''wikt:kacheloven, kacheloven'', from German ''wikt:Kachelofen, Kachelofen'', a cocklestove.


See also

* Bilingual pun * Cognate * Hybrid word * Inkhorn term * Language contact *
Lists of English words by country or language of origin The following are lists of words in the that are known as "s" or "borrowings," which are derived from other languages. For purely native (-derived) words, see . * * ** ** * * ** * * * * * * (Kannada, Malayalam, Tamil, Telugu) * ** ** ** ** * * ...
* Neologism * Phono-semantic matching * Reborrowing * Semantic loan * Translation


References


Sources

* Best, Karl-Heinz, Kelih, Emmerich (eds.) (2014): ''Entlehnungen und Fremdwörter: Quantitative Aspekte.'' Lüdenscheid: RAM-Verlag. * Betz, Werner (1949): ''Deutsch und Lateinisch: Die Lehnbildungen der althochdeutschen Benediktinerregel''. Bonn: Bouvier. *Betz, Werner (1959): "Lehnwörter und Lehnprägungen im Vor- und Frühdeutschen". In: Maurer, Friedrich / Stroh, Friedrich (eds.): ''Deutsche Wortgeschichte''. 2nd ed. Berlin: Schmidt, vol. 1, 127–147. * Bloom, Dan (2010): "What's That Pho?". French Loan Words in Vietnam Today; Taipei Times

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External links


World Loanword Database (WOLD)

AfBo: A world-wide survey of affix borrowing


{{Authority control Historical linguistics Etymology Cultural assimilation Translation Sociolinguistics