HOME

TheInfoList




The liturgical year, also known as the church year or Christian year, as well as the kalendar, consists of the cycle of
liturgical Liturgy is the customary public worship Worship is an act of religion, religious wikt:devotion, devotion usually directed towards a deity. For many, worship is not about an emotion, it is more about a recognition of a god. An act of worship ma ...
seasons in
Christian church Christian Church is a Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Criticism of the Catholic Church, errors in the Catholic Church. ...

Christian church
es that determines when
feast day The calendar of saints is the traditional method of organizing a by associating each day with one or more s and referring to the day as the feast day or feast of said saint. The word "feast" in this context does not mean "a large meal, typicall ...
s, including
celebrations of saints
celebrations of saints
, are to be observed, and which portions of
Scripture Religious texts, also known as scripture, scriptures, holy writ, or holy books, are the texts which various religious traditions consider to be sacred Sacred describes something that is dedicated or set apart for the service or worship of ...
are to be read either in an annual cycle or in a cycle of several years. Distinct
liturgical colours Liturgical colours are those specific colours used for vestment according to the Neo-Gallican Rite of Versailles Elevation The elevation of a geographic location (geography), location is its height above or below a fixed reference point, most ...
may be used in connection with different seasons of the liturgical year. The dates of the festivals vary somewhat among the different churches, although the sequence and logic is largely the same.


Liturgical cycle

The liturgical cycle divides the year into a series of seasons, each with their own mood,
theological Theology is the systematic study of the nature of the divine and, more broadly, of religious belief. It is taught as an academic discipline An academic discipline or academic field is a subdivision of knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity ...
emphases, and modes of
prayer Prayer is an invocation or act that seeks to activate a rapport with an object of worship through deliberate communication. In the narrow sense, the term refers to an act of supplication or intercession directed towards a deity or a deified an ...

prayer
, which can be signified by different ways of decorating churches, colours of
parament Paraments or Parements (from Late Latin Late Latin ( la, Latinitas serior) is the scholarly name for the written Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. L ...
s and
vestment Vestments are liturgical Liturgy is the customary public worship Worship is an act of religion, religious wikt:devotion, devotion usually directed towards a deity. For many, worship is not about an emotion, it is more about a recognition ...
s for clergy,
scriptural Religious texts, also known as scripture, scriptures, holy writ, or holy books, are the texts which various religious traditions consider to be sacred Sacred describes something that is dedicated or set apart for the service or worship of ...

scriptural
readings, themes for preaching and even different traditions and practices often observed personally or in the home. In churches that follow the liturgical year, the scripture passages for each Sunday (and even each day of the year in some traditions) are specified in a
lectionary A lectionary ( la, lectionarium) is a book or listing that contains a collection of scripture Religious texts, also known as scripture, scriptures, holy writ, or holy books, are the texts which various religious traditions consider to be sac ...
. After the
Protestant Reformation The Reformation (alternatively named the Protestant Reformation or the European Reformation) was a major movement within Western Christianity Western Christianity is one of two sub-divisions of Christianity Christianity is an Abra ...
, Anglicans and Lutherans continued to follow the lectionary of the
Roman Rite #REDIRECT Roman Rite The Roman Rite ( la, Ritus Romanus) is the main liturgical rite of the Latin or Western Church, the largest of the sui iuris particular Churches that make up the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred ...
. Following a decision of the
Second Vatican Council The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, commonly known as the , or , was the 21st ecumenical council An ecumenical council (or oecumenical council; also general council) is a conference of ecclesiastical dignitaries and theological e ...
, the
Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...

Catholic Church
revised that lectionary in 1969, adopting a three-year cycle of readings for Sundays and a two-year cycle for weekdays. Adaptations of the revised Roman Rite lectionary were adopted by Protestants, leading to the publication in 1994 of the
Revised Common Lectionary The Revised Common Lectionary is a lectionary of lection, readings or pericopes from the Bible for use in Christian worship, making provision for the liturgical year with its pattern of observances of festivals and seasons. It was preceded by the Co ...
for Sundays and major feasts, which is now used by many Protestant denominations, including also Methodists,
Reformed Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformat ...
, United, etc. This has led to a greater awareness of the traditional Christian year among Protestants, especially among
mainline Mainline, ''Main line'', or ''Main Line'' may refer to: Transportation Railway * Main line (railway), the principal artery of a railway system * Main Line of Public Works, a railroad and canal system in Pennsylvania ** Main Line (Pennsylvania R ...
denominations.


Biblical calendars

Scholars are not in agreement about whether the calendars used by the Jews before the
Babylonian exile The Babylonian captivity or Babylonian exile is the period in Jewish history during which a number of people from the ancient Kingdom of Judah were captives in Babylon, the capital of the Neo-Babylonian Empire. After the Battle of Carchemish in ...
were
solar Solar may refer to: Astronomy * Of or relating to the Sun. ** A solar telescope 175px, The Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope at Roque de los Muchachos Observatory, La Palma in the Canary Islands. A solar telescope is a special purpose telescope used ...
(based on the return of the same relative position between the sun and the earth),
lunisolar A lunisolar calendar is a calendar A calendar is a system of organizing days. This is done by giving names to periods of time, typically days, weeks, months and years. A calendar date, date is the designation of a single, specific day wit ...
(based on months that corresponded to the cycle of the moon, with periodic additional months to bring the calendar back into agreement with the solar cycle) like the present-day
Jewish calendar The Hebrew calendar (Hebrew: , ), also called Jewish calendar, is a lunisolar calendar used today for Jewish religious observance, and as an official calendar of the state of Israel. It determines the dates for Jewish holidays and the appropri ...
of
Hillel II Hillel II (Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites, Judeans and their ance ...
, or
lunar Lunar most commonly means "of or relating to the Moon The Moon is Earth's only natural satellite. At about one-quarter the diameter of Earth (comparable to the width of Australia (continent), Australia), it is the largest natural satellite ...
, such as the
Hijri calendar The Hijri calendar ( ar, ٱلتَّقْوِيم ٱلْهِجْرِيّ '), also known as the Lunar Hijri calendar and (in English) as the Islamic, Muslim or Arabic calendar, is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 lunar months in a year of 354 or ...
. The first month of the Hebrew year was called אביב (Aviv), evidently adopted by
Moses Moses he, מֹשֶׁה, ''Mōše''; also known as Moshe Rabbenu ( he, מֹשֶׁה רַבֵּנוּ "Moshe our Teacher"); syr, ܡܘܫܐ, ''Mūše''; ar, موسى '; el, Mωϋσῆς, ' () is considered the most important prophet in Judais ...

Moses
from Ipip as the eleventh month of the non-lunar
Egyptian calendar The ancient Egyptian calendar – a civil calendar – was a solar calendar A solar calendar is a calendar A calendar is a system of organizing days. This is done by giving names to periods of time, typically days, weeks, months and ...
(that is also the origin of Abib as the tenth month of the non-lunar Ethiopian calendar), meaning the month of green ears of grain. Having to occur at the appropriate time in the spring, it thus was originally part of a tropical calendar. At about the time of the
Babylonian exile The Babylonian captivity or Babylonian exile is the period in Jewish history during which a number of people from the ancient Kingdom of Judah were captives in Babylon, the capital of the Neo-Babylonian Empire. After the Battle of Carchemish in ...
, when using the Babylonian civil calendar, the Jews adopted the term ניסן (
Nisan ''Nisan'' (or ''Nissan''; he, נִיסָן, Hebrew language#Modern Hebrew, Standard ''Nisan'' Tiberian vocalization, Tiberian ''Nîsān'') in the Hebrew and the Babylonian calendars, is the month of the barley ripening and first month of spri ...
) as the name for the month, based on the Babylonian name Nisanu. Thomas J Talley says that the adoption of the Babylonian term occurred even before the exile. In the earlier calendar, most of the months were simply called by a number (such as "the fifth month"). The Babylonian-derived names of the month that are used by Jews are: #
Nisan ''Nisan'' (or ''Nissan''; he, נִיסָן, Hebrew language#Modern Hebrew, Standard ''Nisan'' Tiberian vocalization, Tiberian ''Nîsān'') in the Hebrew and the Babylonian calendars, is the month of the barley ripening and first month of spri ...
(March–April) #
Iyar Iyar ( he, אִייָר or , Standard Standard may refer to: Flags * Colours, standards and guidons * Standard (flag), a type of flag used for personal identification Norm, convention or requirement * Standard (metrology), an object that ...
(April–May) #
Sivan ''Sivan'' (Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites, Judeans and their ...

Sivan
(May–June) #
Tammuz Dumuzid ( sux, 𒌉𒍣𒉺𒇻, ''Dumuzid sipad'') or Dumuzi, later known by the alternative form Tammuz,; he, תַּמּוּז, Transliterated Hebrew: ', Tiberian Hebrew: '; ar, تمّوز '; akk, Duʾzu, ' is an List of Mesopotamian deiti ...
(June–July) # Av (July–August) #
Elul Elul ( he, אֱלוּל, Hebrew language#Modern Hebrew, Standard ''ʾElūl'', Tiberian vocalization, Tiberian ''ʾĔlūl'') is the twelfth month of the Jewish civil year and the sixth month of the ecclesiastical year on the Hebrew calendar. It i ...
(August–September) #
Tishrei Tishrei () or Tishri (; he, ''tīšrē'' or ''tīšrī''; from Akkadian language, Akkadian ''tašrītu'' "beginning", from ''šurrû'' "to begin") is the first month of the civil year (which starts on 1 Tishrei) and the seventh month of the e ...
(September–October) #
Marcheshvan Marcheshvan ( he, מַרְחֶשְׁוָן, Hebrew language#Modern Hebrew, Standard , Tiberian vocalization, Tiberian , Yemenite Hebrew, Yemenite ; from Akkadian language, Akkadian , literally, 'eighth month'), sometimes shortened to Cheshvan (, ...
(October–November) #
Kislev Kislev or Chislev (: כִּסְלֵו, ''Kīslev'' ''Kīslēw''), also 'Chisleu' in the King James (authorized English) Bible, is the third month of the civil year and the ninth month of the ecclesiastical year on the . In the its name was A ...
(November–December) #
Tevet Tevet ( he, טֵבֵת, ''Tevet''; ; ''Ṭeveth''; ''Teves''; from Akkadian language, Akkadian ) is the fourth month of the civil year and the tenth month of the ecclesiastical year on the Hebrew calendar. It follows Kislev and precedes Shevat ...
(December–January) #
Shevat Shevat (Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites, Judeans and their ances ...
(January–February) #
Adar 1 Adar ( he, אֲדָר ; from Akkadian language, Akkadian ''adaru'') is the sixth month of the civil year and the twelfth month of the ecclesiastical year on the Hebrew calendar, roughly corresponding to the month of March in the Gregorian calenda ...
(February; only during leap years) #
Adar Adar ( he, אֲדָר ; from Akkadian language, Akkadian ''adaru'') is the sixth month of the civil year and the twelfth month of the ecclesiastical year on the Hebrew calendar, roughly corresponding to the month of March in the Gregorian calend ...
(February–March) In Biblical times, the following Jewish religious feasts were celebrated: *
Pesach Passover, also called Pesach (; he, פֶּסַח '), is a major Jewish holidays, Jewish holiday that celebrates the The Exodus, exodus of the Israelites from slavery in Ancient Egypt, Egypt, which occurs on the 15th day of the Hebrew calendar, ...

Pesach
(Passover) – 14
Nisan ''Nisan'' (or ''Nissan''; he, נִיסָן, Hebrew language#Modern Hebrew, Standard ''Nisan'' Tiberian vocalization, Tiberian ''Nîsān'') in the Hebrew and the Babylonian calendars, is the month of the barley ripening and first month of spri ...
(sacrifice of a lamb), 15 Nisan ( Passover seder) * Chag HaMatzot (Unleavened Bread) – 15–21 Nisan * Reishit Katzir (Firstfruits) – 16 Nisan *
Shavuot (''Ḥag HaShavuot'' or ''Shavuos'') , nickname = English: "Feast of Weeks" , observedby = Jews Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO; ) is an international sta ...

Shavuot
(Weeks) – Fiftieth day counted from Passover, normally 6–7
Sivan ''Sivan'' (Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites, Judeans and their ...

Sivan
*
Rosh Hashanah Rosh HaShanah ( he, רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה, ), literally meaning "head fthe year", is the Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO; ) is an international stan ...
(Trumpets) – 1–2
Tishrei Tishrei () or Tishri (; he, ''tīšrē'' or ''tīšrī''; from Akkadian language, Akkadian ''tašrītu'' "beginning", from ''šurrû'' "to begin") is the first month of the civil year (which starts on 1 Tishrei) and the seventh month of the e ...
*
Yom Kippur Yom Kippur (; he, יוֹם כִּיפּוּר, Yōm Kīpūr, , ; plural , ) is the holiest day of the year in Judaism Judaism is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semi ...
(Atonement) – 10 Tishrei *
Sukkot or ("Booths, Tabernacles") , observedby = Jew Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2International Organization for Standardization, ISO 259 is a series of international standards for the romanization of Hebrew, romanization of Heb ...

Sukkot
(Tabernacles) – 15–21 Tishrei *
Chanukah or English translation: "Establishing" or "Dedication" (of the Temple in Jerusalem) , nickname = , observedby = Jews , begins = 25 Kislev , ends = 2 Tevet or 3 Tevet , celebrations = L ...

Chanukah
(Dedication) – 25
Kislev Kislev or Chislev (: כִּסְלֵו, ''Kīslev'' ''Kīslēw''), also 'Chisleu' in the King James (authorized English) Bible, is the third month of the civil year and the ninth month of the ecclesiastical year on the . In the its name was A ...
–2/3
Tevet Tevet ( he, טֵבֵת, ''Tevet''; ; ''Ṭeveth''; ''Teves''; from Akkadian language, Akkadian ) is the fourth month of the civil year and the tenth month of the ecclesiastical year on the Hebrew calendar. It follows Kislev and precedes Shevat ...
(instituted in 164 BC) *
Purim Purim (; Hebrew: ; , "Cleromancy, lots", from the word , , translated as 'lot' in the Book of Esther, perhaps related to Akkadian language, Akkadian , "stone, urn"; also called the Festival of Lots) is a Jewish holiday which commemorates the savi ...

Purim
(Lots) – 14–15
Adar Adar ( he, אֲדָר ; from Akkadian language, Akkadian ''adaru'') is the sixth month of the civil year and the twelfth month of the ecclesiastical year on the Hebrew calendar, roughly corresponding to the month of March in the Gregorian calend ...
(instituted in c. 400 BC)


Eastern Christianity


East Syriac Rite

The Liturgical Calendar of the
East Syriac Rite The East Syriac Rite or East Syrian Rite, also called the Edessan Rite, Assyrian Rite, Persian Rite, Chaldean Rite, Nestorian Rite, Babylonian Rite or Syro-Oriental Rite, is an Eastern Christian liturgical rite that employs the Liturgy of Addai ...
is fixed according to the flow of salvation history. With a focus upon the historical life of Jesus Christ, believers are led to the eschatological fulfillment (i.e. the heavenly bliss) through this special arrangement of liturgical seasons. The liturgical year is divided into 8 seasons of approximately 7 weeks each but adjusted to fit the solar calendar. The arrangement of the Seasons in the Liturgical Year is based on seven central events on celebrations of the Salvation History. They are: # Nativity of Christ #
Epiphany Epiphany may refer to: * Epiphany (feeling), an experience of sudden and striking insight Religion * Epiphany (holiday), a Christian holiday celebrating the revelation of God the Son as a human being in Jesus Christ ** Epiphany season, or Epiphan ...
of Christ #
Resurrection Resurrection or anastasis is the concept of coming back to life after death. In a number of religions, a Dying-and-rising deity, dying-and-rising god is a deity which dies and resurrects. Reincarnation is a similar process hypothesized by ot ...
of Christ #
Pentecost The Christian holiday of Pentecost is celebrated on the 50th day (the seventh Sunday) from Easter Sunday Easter,Traditional names for the feast in English are "Easter Day", as in the ''Book of Common Prayer A book is a medium for rec ...
# Transfiguration #
Glorious Cross
Glorious Cross
#
Parousia Parousia (; el, παρουσία) is an ancient Greek word meaning presence, arrival, or official visit. Classical usage From the Ptolemaic period to the second century of the common era "parousia" was used in the East as a technical expression t ...
(the Dedication of Church after Christ's second coming) One of the oldest available records mentioning the liturgical cycle of east-syriac rite is handwritten manuscript named 'Preface to Hudra' written by Rabban Brick-Iso in 14th century. The manuscript mentions that the liturgical year is divided into nine seasons starting from Subara and ends with Qudas Edta. Catholic churches of east-syriac rite maintains the same liturgical calender till date except that many consider 7th and 8th seasons as a single one. The biblical reading and prayers during Mass and
Liturgy of the Hours The Liturgy of the Hours (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the pow ...
vary according to different seasons in the liturgical calendar.


Liturgical Calendar

The various seasons of the liturgical calendar of
Syro-Malabar Church lat, Ecclesia Syrorum-Malabarensium , native_name_lang=, image = St. Thomas' Cross (Chennai, St. Thomas Mount).jpg , caption = The ''Mar Thoma Sliva'' or ''Saint Thomas Cross Saint Thomas Christian crosses are a ...
and
Chaldean Catholic Church , native_name_lang = syc , image = , imagewidth = , alt = , caption = , abbreviation = , type = , main_classification = Eastern Catholic , orientation ...
are given below.


=Annunciation (Subara)

= Weeks of Annunciation (
Subara The Season of Annunciation or Season of Announcements (also known by various Syriac transliterations, such as Subara, Subbara, or Suboro), is a liturgical year, liturgical season in Syriac Christianity. It is equivalent to the season of Advent in ...
) is the first season of the liturgical year. The liturgical year begins with the commemoration of biblical events leading to the annunciation and birth of Jesus as expected savior in the old testament. The season begins on the Sunday just before the first of December and ends with the feast of
Epiphany Epiphany may refer to: * Epiphany (feeling), an experience of sudden and striking insight Religion * Epiphany (holiday), a Christian holiday celebrating the revelation of God the Son as a human being in Jesus Christ ** Epiphany season, or Epiphan ...
that is the Feast of the Baptism of Jesus. The faithful practice abstinence during December 1–25 in preparation for Christmas; this period is called "25 days Lent". Feasts celebrated during this season *
Feast of the Immaculate Conception The Solemnity of the Immaculate Conception, also called Immaculate Conception Day, celebrates the belief in the sinless lifespan and Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary Mary; arc, ܡܪܝܡ, translit=Mariam; la, Maria; he, מִר ...
of
Mary, mother of Jesus According to the gospels of Gospel of Matthew, Matthew and Gospel of Luke, Luke in the New Testament, Mary; arc, ܡܪܝܡ, translit=Mariam; ar, مريم, translit=Maryam; el, Μαρία, translit=María; la, Maria; cop, Ⲙⲁⲣⲓ ...
(December 8) * Feast of Miraculous Cross of Mylapore (
Saint Thomas Christian cross Saint Thomas Christian crosses are ancient crosses associated with the community of Ancient Christianity in the Indian Subcontinent, Indian subcontinent, who trace their origins to the evangelism of Thomas the Apostle in the 1st century Anno Do ...
) (December 18) in
Syro Malabar Church syr, , native_name_lang=, image = Mar Thoma Sliva.jpg , caption = The ''Mar Thoma Sliva'' or '' Saint Thomas Cross'', the symbol of the Syro-Malabar Church. , type = Particular church ('' sui iuris ...
* Nativity of Our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ or
Christmas Christmas is an annual festival commemorating Nativity of Jesus, the birth of Jesus Christ, observed primarily on December 25 as a religious and cultural celebration among billions of people Observance of Christmas by country, around the world ...

Christmas
(December 25) * Feast of
Holy Infants
Holy Infants
(December 28) * Feast of Name Iso (January 1) * Feast of
Mary, mother of Jesus According to the gospels of Gospel of Matthew, Matthew and Gospel of Luke, Luke in the New Testament, Mary; arc, ܡܪܝܡ, translit=Mariam; ar, مريم, translit=Maryam; el, Μαρία, translit=María; la, Maria; cop, Ⲙⲁⲣⲓ ...
(last Friday of Season)


=Epiphany (Denha)

= Weeks of Epiphany begins on the Sunday closest to the feast of
Epiphany Epiphany may refer to: * Epiphany (feeling), an experience of sudden and striking insight Religion * Epiphany (holiday), a Christian holiday celebrating the revelation of God the Son as a human being in Jesus Christ ** Epiphany season, or Epiphan ...
and runs to the beginning of Great Fast. The word ''denha'' in Syriac means sunrise. Church considers the baptism of Jesus in Jordan as the first historical event when the Holy Trinity is revealed to humans in the humanity of Jesus Christ. Thus the season commemorates the manifestation or revelation of Jesus and Trinity to the world. During the season the church celebrates the feasts of Saints in connection with the manifestation of the Lord. Feasts celebrated during the period *Feast of
Epiphany Epiphany may refer to: * Epiphany (feeling), an experience of sudden and striking insight Religion * Epiphany (holiday), a Christian holiday celebrating the revelation of God the Son as a human being in Jesus Christ ** Epiphany season, or Epiphan ...
or Feast of Baptism of the Lord (January 6) *Feast of
Saint John the Baptist John the Baptist ''Yohanān HaMatbil''; la, Ioannes Baptista; grc-gre, Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτιστής, ''Iōánnēs ho baptistḗs'' or , ''Iōánnēs ho baptízōn'', or , ''Iōánnēs ho pródromos'';Wetterau, Bruce. ''World history' ...

Saint John the Baptist
on first Friday of Epiphany *Feast of Apostles
Peter (Kepha)
Peter (Kepha)
and
Paul Paul may refer to: *Paul (given name), a given name (includes a list of people with that name) *Paul (surname), a list of people People Christianity *Paul the Apostle (AD 5–67), also known as Saul of Tarsus or Saint Paul, early Christian mi ...
on second Friday of Epiphany *Feast of
Evangelists Evangelists may refer to: * Evangelism, Evangelists (Christianity), Christians who specialize in evangelism * Four Evangelists, the authors of the four Gospel accounts in the New Testament * ''The Evangelists'', a controversial play See also

...

Evangelists
on third Friday of Epiphany *Feast of Saint Stephan on fourth Friday of Epiphany *Feast of Fathers of Church on fifth Friday of Epiphany *Feast of Patron Saint of Church on sixth Friday of Epiphany *Feast of all departed faithful on last Friday of Epiphany


=Great Fast (Sawma Rabba)

= During these weeks the faithful meditate over the 40 days fast of Jesus and the culmination of his public life in passion, death and burial. The season begins 50 days before Easter on Peturta Sunday and comprises the whole period of
Great Lent Great Lent, or the Great Fast, (Greek Language, Greek: Μεγάλη Τεσσαρακοστή or Μεγάλη Νηστεία, meaning "Great 40 Days," and "Great Fast," respectively) is the most important fasting season in the church year in the ...
and culminates on
Resurrection Sunday
Resurrection Sunday
. Word Peturta in Syriac means "looking back" or "reconciliation". Faithful enter the weeks of Great Fast, celebrating the memory of all the Faithful Departed on the last Friday of Denha. According to the ecclesial tradition, the weeks of Great Fast is also an occasion to keep up the memory of the beloved Departed through special prayers, renunciation, almsgiving, and so on and thus prepare oneself for a good death and resurrection in Jesus Christ. During the fast faithful of
Syro Malabar Church syr, , native_name_lang=, image = Mar Thoma Sliva.jpg , caption = The ''Mar Thoma Sliva'' or '' Saint Thomas Cross'', the symbol of the Syro-Malabar Church. , type = Particular church ('' sui iuris ...
do not use meat, fish, egg, many dairy products, and most favorite food items, and also avoid sexual contacts on all days including Sundays and Feast days. Before European colonization, Indian Nasranis used to have food only once a day (after 3:00 pm) on all days during Great Fast. - Feasts in the Lenten Season *Peturta Sunday on First Sunday of Great Fast * Ash Monday or
Clean Monday Clean Monday ( el, Καθαρά Δευτέρα), also known as Pure Monday, Ash Monday, Monday of Lent or Green Monday, is the first day of Great Lent Great Lent, or the Great Fast, (Greek Language, Greek: Μεγάλη Τεσσαρακο ...
on the first day (Monday) of Great Fast * Lazarus Friday on the sixth Friday of Great Fast *
Oshana Sunday
Oshana Sunday
on the seventh Sunday of Great Fast * Thursday of Pesha * Friday of Passion or
Good Friday Good Friday is a Christian holiday commemorating the crucifixion of Jesus and his death at Calvary. It is observed during Holy Week as part of the Paschal Triduum. It is also known as Holy Friday, Great Friday, Great and Holy Friday (also Holy ...
*
Great Saturday Holy Saturday ( la, Sabbatum Sanctum), also known as Great and Holy Saturday (also Holy and Great Saturday), the Great Sabbath, Hallelujah Saturday (in Portugal and Brazil), Saturday of the Gloria and Black Saturday (in the Philippines) or Easte ...
or Saturday of Light The following feasts are always in the Lenten Season: *Feast of Mar
Cyril of Jerusalem Cyril of Jerusalem ( el, Κύριλλος Α΄ Ἱεροσολύμων, ''Kýrillos A Ierosolýmon''; la, Cyrillus Hierosolymitanus; 313 386 AD) was a theologian of the early Church. About the end of 350 AD he succeeded Maximus Maximus (Helle ...

Cyril of Jerusalem
(March 18) *Feast of
Saint Joseph Joseph (; el, Ἰωσήφ, translit=Ioséph) was a 1st-century Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and nation originating from the Israelites Israelit ...

Saint Joseph
(March 19) *
Feast of the Annunciation The Feast of the Annunciation, contemporarily the Solemnity of the Annunciation, and also called Lady Day In the Western liturgical year The liturgical year, also known as the church year or Christian year, as well as the kalendar, cons ...
(March 25)


=Resurrection (Qyamta)

= The weeks of Great Resurrection begin on the
Resurrection Sunday
Resurrection Sunday
and run to the feast of
Pentecost The Christian holiday of Pentecost is celebrated on the 50th day (the seventh Sunday) from Easter Sunday Easter,Traditional names for the feast in English are "Easter Day", as in the ''Book of Common Prayer A book is a medium for rec ...
. The Church celebrates the Resurrection of our Lord during these seven weeks: Jesus’ victory over death, sin, suffering and Satan. The church also commemorates various events that occurred after the resurrection of Christ, such as the visits of Jesus to the Apostles and the ascension of Jesus. According to eastern Christianity, the Feast of Resurrection is the most important and the greatest feast in a liturgical year. Therefore, the season commemorating the resurrection of Christ is also of prime importance in the church liturgy. The first week of the season is celebrated as the 'Week of weeks' as it is the week of the resurrection of Christ. Feasts celebrated during the period: * Feast of
Resurrection of Christ The resurrection of Jesus, or anastasis, is the Christian belief that God God, in monotheistic thought, is conceived of as the supreme being, creator, and principal object of faith Faith, derived from Latin ''fides'' and Old French ''f ...

Resurrection of Christ
*Feast of All Confessors (Saints) on the first Friday of
Qyamta , which Christian symbol, symbolizes the empty tomb, with the Paschal greeting "Christ is risen!" File:Velika noč - jedila hren šunka pirhi potica.jpg, A Slovenian Easter breakfast with ham and nut roll is eaten before going to an Easter church s ...
* New Sunday or St. Thomas Sunday on the second Sunday of Qyamta * Feast of
Ascension of Jesus The Ascension of Jesus ( anglicized from the Vulgate la, ascensio Iesu, lit=ascent of Jesus) is Christian teaching that Christ Jesus; he, יֵשׁוּעַ, ''Yeshua, Yēšū́aʿ''; ar, عيسى, ʿĪsā ( 4 BC AD 30 / 33), also ref ...
on the sixth Friday of Qyamta The following feasts are always in the season of resurrection: *Feast of
Saint George Saint George (Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approxi ...

Saint George
(April 24) *Feast of
Mark the Evangelist Mark the Evangelist ( la, Marcus; el, Μᾶρκος, Mârkos; Aramaic Aramaic (: ''Arāmāyā''; : ; : ; ) is a language that originated among the in the ancient , at the end of the , and later became one of the most prominent langua ...

Mark the Evangelist
(April 25) *Feast of
Saint Joseph Joseph (; el, Ἰωσήφ, translit=Ioséph) was a 1st-century Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and nation originating from the Israelites Israelit ...

Saint Joseph
, the worker (May 1) *Feasts of
Saint Philip
Saint Philip
and Saint James the apostles (May 3)


=Apostles (Slihe)

= Weeks of apostles (
Slihe The Season of Apostles (also known by various Syriac transliterations, such as Slihe and Shleehe) is a liturgical season in East Syriac Rite, East Syriac Christianity. The season begins with the feast of Pentecost and continues for seven weeks. It i ...
) starts on the feast of
Pentecost The Christian holiday of Pentecost is celebrated on the 50th day (the seventh Sunday) from Easter Sunday Easter,Traditional names for the feast in English are "Easter Day", as in the ''Book of Common Prayer A book is a medium for rec ...
, fiftieth day of the
Resurrection Sunday
Resurrection Sunday
. During these days the church commemorates the inauguration of church and the acts of apostles and church fathers through which the foundation of the church was laid. Church meditates on the virtues of the early church: fellowship, breaking of bread and sharing of wealth, and the
fruits In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the ...
and
gifts A gift or a present is an item given to someone without the expectation of payment or anything in return. An item is not a gift if that item is already owned by the one to whom it is given. Although gift-giving might involve an expectation o ...
of
Holy Spirit In Abrahamic religions, the Holy Spirit is an aspect or agent of God in Abrahamic religions, God, by means of which God communicates with people or acts on them. In Judaism, it refers to the divine force, quality, and influence of God over the ...

Holy Spirit
. The spread of the church all over the world as well as her growth is also remembered during this season. Feast celebrated during the season: *Feast of
Pentecost The Christian holiday of Pentecost is celebrated on the 50th day (the seventh Sunday) from Easter Sunday Easter,Traditional names for the feast in English are "Easter Day", as in the ''Book of Common Prayer A book is a medium for rec ...
on first Sunday of Slihe * Feast of Friday of Gold: The first commemoration of the first miracle of apostles done by
Saint Peter Saint Peter; he, שמעון בר יונה, Šimʿōn bar Yōnāh; ar, سِمعَان بُطرُس, translit=Simʿa̅n Buṭrus; grc-gre, Πέτρος, Petros; cop, Ⲡⲉⲧⲣⲟⲥ, Petros; lat, Petrus; ar, شمعون الصفـا, Sham ...
. The following feasts are commemorated in the season of Slihe *Feast of Mar Aphrem (June 10) *Feast of the Apostles
Peter Peter may refer to: People * List of people named Peter, a list of people and fictional characters with the given name * Peter (given name) ** Saint Peter (died 60s), apostle of Jesus, leader of the early Christian Church * Peter (surname), a sur ...

Peter
and
Paul Paul may refer to: *Paul (given name), a given name (includes a list of people with that name) *Paul (surname), a list of people People Christianity *Paul the Apostle (AD 5–67), also known as Saul of Tarsus or Saint Paul, early Christian mi ...

Paul
(June 29) *Feast of Mar Thoma, founding father of east Syriac churches (July 3) *Feast of Mar Quriaqos and Yolitha (July 15)


=Qaita (Summer)

= Along the weeks of Qaita maturity and fruitfulness of church are commemorated. The Syriac word Qaita means “summer” and it is a time of harvest for the Church. The fruits of the Church are those of holiness and martyrdom. While the sprouting and infancy of the Church were celebrated in 'the Weeks of the Apostles,' her development in different parts of the world by reflecting the image of the heavenly Kingdom and giving birth to many saints and martyrs are proclaimed during this season. Fridays of this Season are set apart for honoring Saints and Martyrs. Feast celebrated during the season: *Feast of twelve of
apostles upright=1.35, Jesus and his Twelve Apostles, Chi-Rho symbol ☧, Catacombs of Domitilla">Chi_Rho.html" ;"title="fresco with the Chi Rho">Chi-Rho symbol ☧, Catacombs of Domitilla, Rome In Christian theology and ecclesiology, apostles, parti ...

apostles
and Nusardeil on the first Sunday of Qaita. (Nusardeil is a Persian word which means “God-given New Year Day”.) *Feast of Mar Jacob of Nisibis on the first Friday of Qaita. *Feast of
Mar Mari Saint Mari, also known as Mares and originally named Palut, is a saint of the Church of the East. He was converted by Thaddeus of Edessa, or Addai, and is said to have had Mar Aggai as his spiritual director. Missionary work He is believed to ...
on the second Friday of Qaita. *Feast of Marta Simoni and her Seven Children on the fifth Friday of Qaita. *Feast of Shemon Bar Sabbae, Mar Shimun Bar Sabbai and Companions on the sixth Friday of Qaita. *Feast of martyr Mar Quardag on the seventh Friday of Qaita. The following feasts are commemorated in the season of Qaita *Feast of seventy disciples of Jesus (July 27) *Feast of Saint Alphonsa in Syro Malabar Catholic Church (July 28) *Feast of Transfiguration of Jesus (August 6) *Feast of Assumption of Mary (August 15)


=Eliyah-Sliba-Moses

= The name of the seasons of Eliyah-Sliba-Moses takes their origin from the feast of the transfiguration of Jesus. And the seasons revolve around the exaltation of the cross on the feast of the Cross , feast of the glorious cross on September 14. During the seasons of Eliyah and Sliba church reminds the faithful of the heavenly bliss which is promised to be inherited at the end of earthly life and the church commemorates the exaltic experience of the bliss through various sacraments. While during the season of Moses church meditates upon the end of time and the last judgment. Many at times the season of Moses is regarded as a distinct and separate season from the other two since it has a distinct theme. The season of Eliyah has a length of one to three Sundays. Season of Sliba starts on Sunday on or after the feast of the glorious cross and has a length of three to four weeks. The first Sunday of Sliba is always considered as the fourth Sunday of the combined season. The season of Moses always has four weeks. Feast celebrated during the seasons: *feast of the Cross , Feast of the glorious Cross The following feasts are commemorated in the seasons of Eliyah-Sliba-Moses * Feast of Nativity of Mary on September 8 and the eight-day fast in preparation for the feast


=Dedication of the church (Qudas Edta)

= The weeks of the dedication of the church is the last liturgical season in the East Syriac rite. It consists of four weeks and ends on the Saturday before Sunday between November 27 and December 3. The theme of the season is that the church is presented by Christ as his eternal bride before his father at the heavenly bride chamber. The period has its origin in the feast of the dedication of the church of Sephelcure or the Jewish feast of Hanukkah. However, the season was officially instituted by Patriarch Isho-Yahb III of Seleucia-Ctesiphon (647–657) by separating it from the season of Moses. Feasts celebrated during the season: * Feast of dedication of the church on 1st Sunday of Qudas Edta * Feast of Christ the King on last Sunday of Qudas Edta (Celebrated only in eastern catholic churches of the rite since pope Pius XI instituted it in Roman-rite).


Eastern Orthodox Church

The liturgical year in the Eastern Orthodox Church is characterized by alternating fasting, fasts and calendar of saints, feasts, and is in many ways similar to the Catholic year. However, Church New Year (Indiction) traditionally begins on September 1 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics), September 1 (Old Style and New Style dates, Old Style or New Style), rather than the first Sunday of Advent. It includes both feasts on the Eastern Orthodox Church calendar, Fixed Cycle and the Paschal Cycle (or Moveable Cycle). The most important feast day by far is the Feast of Easter, Pascha (Easter) – the Feast of Feasts. Then the Great Feasts, Twelve Great Feasts, which commemorate various significant events in the lives of Jesus Christ and of the Theotokos (Virgin Mary). The majority of Orthodox Christians (Russians, in particular) follow the Julian Calendar in calculating their ecclesiastical feasts, but many (including the Ecumenical Patriarchate and the Church of Greece), while preserving the Julian calculation for feasts on the Paschal Cycle, have adopted the Revised Julian Calendar (at present coinciding with the Gregorian Calendar) to calculate those feasts which are fixed according to the calendar date. Between 1900 and 2100, there is a thirteen-day difference between the dates of the Julian and the Revised Julian and Gregorian calendars. Thus, for example, where Christmas is celebrated on December 25 O.S. (Old Style and New Style dates, Old Style), the celebration coincides with December 25 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics), January 7 in the Revised Calendar. The computation of the day of Easter, Pascha (Easter) is, however, always computed according to a lunar calendar based on the Julian Calendar, even by those churches which observe the Revised Calendar. There are four fasting seasons during the year: The most important fast is
Great Lent Great Lent, or the Great Fast, (Greek Language, Greek: Μεγάλη Τεσσαρακοστή or Μεγάλη Νηστεία, meaning "Great 40 Days," and "Great Fast," respectively) is the most important fasting season in the church year in the ...
which is an intense time of fasting, almsgiving and prayer, extending for forty days prior to Palm Sunday and Holy Week, as a preparation for Easter, Pascha. The Nativity Fast (Winter Lent) is a time of preparation for the Feast of the Nativity of Jesus, Nativity of Christ (Christmas), but whereas Advent in the West lasts only four weeks, Nativity Fast lasts a full forty days. The Apostles' Fast is variable in length, lasting anywhere from eight days to six weeks, in preparation for the Feast of Saints Peter and Paul (June 29 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics), June 29). The Dormition Fast lasts for two weeks from August 1 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics), August 1 to August 14 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics), August 14 in preparation for the Feast of the Dormition of the Theotokos (August 15 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics), August 15). The liturgical year is so constructed that during each of these fasting seasons, one of the Great Feasts occurs, so that fasting may be tempered with joy. In addition to these fasting seasons, Orthodox Christians fast on Wednesdays and Fridays throughout the year (and some Orthodox monastery, monasteries also observe Monday as a fast day). Certain fixed days are always fast days, even if they fall on a Saturday or Sunday (in which case the fast is lessened somewhat, but not abrogated altogether); these are: The Decollation of St. John the Baptist, the Exaltation of the Cross and the day before the Epiphany (January 5). There are several fast-free periods, when it is forbidden to fast, even on Wednesday and Friday. These are: the week following Pascha, the week following
Pentecost The Christian holiday of Pentecost is celebrated on the 50th day (the seventh Sunday) from Easter Sunday Easter,Traditional names for the feast in English are "Easter Day", as in the ''Book of Common Prayer A book is a medium for rec ...
, the period from the Nativity of Christ until January the 5th and the first week of the Triodion (the week following the 17th Sunday before Pentecost).


Pascha

The greatest feast is Pascha. Easter for both East and West is calculated as the first Sunday after the full moon that falls on or after March 21 (nominally the day of the March equinox, vernal equinox), but the Orthodox calculations are based on the Julian calendar, whose March 21 corresponds at present with April 3 of the Gregorian calendar, and on calculations of the date of full moon different from those used in the West (see computus for further details). The date of Pascha is central to the entire ecclesiastical year, determining not only the date for the beginning of Great Lent and Pentecost, but affecting the cycle of moveable feasts, of scriptural readings and the Octoechos (liturgy), Octoechos (texts chanted according to the eight ecclesiastical modes) throughout the year. There are also a number of lesser feasts throughout the year that are based upon the date of Pascha. The moveable cycle begins on the Zacchaeus Sunday (the first Sunday in preparation for Great Lent or the 33rd Sunday after Pentecost as it is known), though the cycle of the Octoechos continues until Palm Sunday. The date of Pascha affects the following liturgical seasons: *The period of the Triodion (the Sundays before Great Lent, Cheesefare Week, Palm Sunday, and Holy Week) *The period of the Pentecostarion (Sunday of Pascha through the Sunday After Pentecost which is also called the Sunday of all saints)


The twelve Great Feasts

Some of these feasts follow the Fixed Cycle, and some follow the Moveable (Paschal) Cycle. Most of those on the Fixed Cycle have a period of preparation called a Afterfeast, Forefeast, and a period of celebration afterward, similar to the Western Octave (liturgical), Octave, called an Afterfeast. Great Feasts on the Paschal Cycle do not have Forefeasts. The lengths of Forefeasts and Afterfeasts vary, according to the feast. * Nativity of the Theotokos (September 8 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics), September 8) ** birth of the Theotokos to Joachim and Saint Anne, Anna * Exaltation of the Cross, Elevation of the Cross (September 14 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics), September 14) ** the rediscovery of the original Christian Cross, Cross on which Christ was crucified * Presentation of Mary, Entrance of the Theotokos into the Temple (November 21 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics), November 21) ** the entry of the Theotokos into the Temple around the age of 3 * Nativity of Our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ (December 25 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics), December 25) ** the birth of Jesus, or
Christmas Christmas is an annual festival commemorating Nativity of Jesus, the birth of Jesus Christ, observed primarily on December 25 as a religious and cultural celebration among billions of people Observance of Christmas by country, around the world ...

Christmas
* Theophany (January 6 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics), January 6) ** the baptism of Jesus Christ, Christ's blessing of the water, and the revealing of Christ as God * Presentation of Jesus at the Temple, Presentation of Our Lord in the Temple (February 2 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics), February 2) ** Christ's presentation as an infant in the Temple by the Theotokos and Saint Joseph, Joseph. * Annunciation of the Theotokos (March 25 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics), March 25) ** Archangel Gabriel, Gabriel's announcement to the Theotokos that she will conceive the Christ, and her wilful agreement thereto
Note: In Eastern practice, should this feast fall during Holy Week or on Pascha itself, the feast of the Annunciation is not transferred to another day. In fact, the conjunction of the feasts of the Annunciation and Pascha (''dipli Paschalia'', el, διπλή Πασχαλιά) is considered an extremely festive event.
* Palm Sunday, Entry into Jerusalem (Sunday before Easter, Pascha) ** known in the West as Palm Sunday. * Ascension of Jesus, Ascension (40 days after Pascha) ** Christ's ascension into Heaven following his resurrection. *
Pentecost The Christian holiday of Pentecost is celebrated on the 50th day (the seventh Sunday) from Easter Sunday Easter,Traditional names for the feast in English are "Easter Day", as in the ''Book of Common Prayer A book is a medium for rec ...
(50 days after Pascha) ** The
Holy Spirit In Abrahamic religions, the Holy Spirit is an aspect or agent of God in Abrahamic religions, God, by means of which God communicates with people or acts on them. In Judaism, it refers to the divine force, quality, and influence of God over the ...

Holy Spirit
comes and indwells the Twelve Apostles, apostles and other Christian believers. * Transfiguration of Jesus, Transfiguration of Our Lord (August 6 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics), August 6) ** Christ's Transfiguration as witnessed by Peter, James and John. * Dormition of the Theotokos (August 15 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics), August 15) ** The falling asleep of the Theotokos (cf. the Assumption of Mary in Western Christianity)


Other feasts

Some additional feasts are observed with as though they were Great Feasts: * The Protection of the Mother of God (October 1), especially among the Russian Orthodox * The Feast of Saint James the Just (October 23) * The Feast of Saint Demetrius of Thessaloniki (October 26) * The Feast of the Holy Archangels Michael (archangel), Michael and Gabriel (archangel), Gabriel (November 8) * The Feast of Saint Nicholas, the Bishop of Myra in Lycia (December 6) * The Feast of the Conception of Saint Mary, Mary by Saints Joachim and Saint Anne, Anne (December 9) * The Feast of Saint Spiridon (December 12) * The Feast of Saint Stephen the Deacon (December 27) * The Feast of Saint Basil the Great and the Circumcision of Christ (January 1) * The Feast of the Three Holy Hierarchs: Basil the Great, Gregory the Theologian and John Chrysostom (January 30) * The Feast of the Forty Martyrs of Sebaste (March 9) * The Feast of Saint Patrick (March 17) * The Feast of
Saint George Saint George (Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approxi ...

Saint George
(April 23) * The Feast of the Holy Emperors Constantine I, Constantine and Helena (Empress), Helen (May 21) * The Nativity of Saint John the Baptist (June 24) * The Feast of Saints Peter and Paul (June 29) * The Feast of Saint Elijah the Prophet (July 20) * The Feast of Saint Christina of Bolsena the Great Martyr (July 24) * The Beheading of St. John the Baptist (August 29) * Beginning of the Indiction-Ecclesiastical Year (September 1) * The Patron Saint, Patronal Feast of a church or monastery Every day throughout the year commemorates some saint or some event in the lives of Christ or the Theotokos. When a feast on the moveable cycle occurs, the feast on the fixed cycle that was set for that calendar day is transferred, with the Proper (liturgy), propers of the feast often being chanted at Compline on the nearest convenient day.


Cycles

In addition to the Fixed and Moveable Cycles, there are a number of other Weekly cycle, liturgical cycles in the ecclesiastical year that affect the celebration of the divine services. These include, the Canonical Hours#Daily Cycle of services, Daily Cycle, the Canonical Hours#Liturgical cycles, Weekly Cycle, the Cycle of Matins Gospels, and the Octoechos (liturgy), Octoechos.


Oriental Orthodox and P'ent'ay Evangelical Churches


Western Christianity

Western Christian liturgical calendars are based on the cycle of the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church, including Lutheran, Anglican, and other Protestant calendars since this cycle pre-dates the Reformation. Generally, the liturgical seasons in western Christianity are Advent,
Christmas Christmas is an annual festival commemorating Nativity of Jesus, the birth of Jesus Christ, observed primarily on December 25 as a religious and cultural celebration among billions of people Observance of Christmas by country, around the world ...

Christmas
, Ordinary Time (Time after
Epiphany Epiphany may refer to: * Epiphany (feeling), an experience of sudden and striking insight Religion * Epiphany (holiday), a Christian holiday celebrating the revelation of God the Son as a human being in Jesus Christ ** Epiphany season, or Epiphan ...
), Lent, Easter, and Ordinary Time (Time after
Pentecost The Christian holiday of Pentecost is celebrated on the 50th day (the seventh Sunday) from Easter Sunday Easter,Traditional names for the feast in English are "Easter Day", as in the ''Book of Common Prayer A book is a medium for rec ...
). Some Protestant traditions do not include Ordinary Time: every day falls into a denominated season. Vanderbilt University Professor Hoyt L. Hickman, with regard to the calendars of the Western Christians Churches that use the
Revised Common Lectionary The Revised Common Lectionary is a lectionary of lection, readings or pericopes from the Bible for use in Christian worship, making provision for the liturgical year with its pattern of observances of festivals and seasons. It was preceded by the Co ...
, including Presbyterians, Methodists, Anglicans/Episcopalians, Lutherans and some Baptists, among others, states that: Protestant Churches, with exception of the Lutheran and Anglican, generally observe fewer feasts with regard to the saints, than the aforementioned liturgical denominations, in addition to the Catholic and Orthodox Churches.


Denominational specifics


Catholic Church

The
Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...

Catholic Church
sets aside certain days and seasons of each year to recall and celebrate various events in the life of Christ. In its
Roman Rite #REDIRECT Roman Rite The Roman Rite ( la, Ritus Romanus) is the main liturgical rite of the Latin or Western Church, the largest of the sui iuris particular Churches that make up the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred ...
the liturgical year begins with Advent, the time of preparation for both the celebration of Jesus' birth, and his expected second coming at the end of time. This season lasts until Christmas Eve on December 24.Barry, ''One Faith, One Lord'' (2001), p. 116
Christmas Christmas is an annual festival commemorating Nativity of Jesus, the birth of Jesus Christ, observed primarily on December 25 as a religious and cultural celebration among billions of people Observance of Christmas by country, around the world ...

Christmas
tide follows, beginning with First Vespers of Christmas on the evening of December 24 and ending with the Feast of the Baptism of the Lord. Traditionally, the end of Christmastide was February 2, or the Presentation of Jesus at the Temple, Feast of the Presentation of the Lord, also known as Candlemas. This feast recounts the 40 days of rest Mary took before being purified and presenting her first-born son to the Temple in Jerusalem. Lent is the period of purification and penance that begins on Ash Wednesday and ends on Maundy Thursday, Holy Thursday. The Holy Thursday evening Mass of the Lord's Supper marks the beginning of the Easter Triduum, which includes
Good Friday Good Friday is a Christian holiday commemorating the crucifixion of Jesus and his death at Calvary. It is observed during Holy Week as part of the Paschal Triduum. It is also known as Holy Friday, Great Friday, Great and Holy Friday (also Holy ...
, Holy Saturday, and Easter Sunday. The days of the Easter Triduum recall Jesus' Last Supper with his disciples, death on the cross, burial, and resurrection. The seven-week liturgical Eastertide, season of Easter immediately follows the Triduum, climaxing at
Pentecost The Christian holiday of Pentecost is celebrated on the 50th day (the seventh Sunday) from Easter Sunday Easter,Traditional names for the feast in English are "Easter Day", as in the ''Book of Common Prayer A book is a medium for rec ...
. This last feast recalls the descent of the Holy Spirit upon Jesus' disciples after the
Ascension of Jesus The Ascension of Jesus ( anglicized from the Vulgate la, ascensio Iesu, lit=ascent of Jesus) is Christian teaching that Christ Jesus; he, יֵשׁוּעַ, ''Yeshua, Yēšū́aʿ''; ar, عيسى, ʿĪsā ( 4 BC AD 30 / 33), also ref ...
. The rest of the liturgical year is commonly known as Ordinary Time. There are many forms of liturgy in the Catholic Church. Even putting aside the many Eastern rites in use, the Latin liturgical rites alone include the Ambrosian Rite, the Mozarabic Rite, and the Cistercian Rite, as well as other forms that have been largely abandoned in favour of adopting the
Roman Rite #REDIRECT Roman Rite The Roman Rite ( la, Ritus Romanus) is the main liturgical rite of the Latin or Western Church, the largest of the sui iuris particular Churches that make up the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred ...
. Of this rite, what is now the "ordinary" or, to use a word employed in th
Letter of Pope Benedict XVI accompanying the motu proprio ''Summorum Pontificum''
the "normal" form is that given to it after the
Second Vatican Council The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, commonly known as the , or , was the 21st ecumenical council An ecumenical council (or oecumenical council; also general council) is a conference of ecclesiastical dignitaries and theological e ...
by Pope Paul VI and Pope John Paul II, while the 1962 Roman Missal form remains authorized, as an "extraordinary" form, for priests of the Latin Church without restriction in private celebrations, and under the conditions indicated in article 5 of the motu proprio ''Summorum Pontificum'' in public celebrations. The liturgical calendar in that form of the Roman Rite (see General Roman Calendar) of 1960 differs in some respects from that of the present ordinary form, as will be noted below, and also from the earlier General Roman Calendar of Pope Pius XII, the still earlier General Roman Calendar of 1954 and the original Tridentine Calendar. These articles can be consulted with regard to the Roman-Rite liturgical year before 1960.


Lutheran Churches


Anglican Church

The Church of England, Mother Church of the Anglican Communion, uses a liturgical year that is in most respects identical to that of the 1969 Catholic Common Lectionary. While the calendars contained within the ''Book of Common Prayer'' and the ''Alternative Service Book'' (1980) have no "Ordinary Time", ''Common Worship'' (2000) adopted the ecumenical 1983
Revised Common Lectionary The Revised Common Lectionary is a lectionary of lection, readings or pericopes from the Bible for use in Christian worship, making provision for the liturgical year with its pattern of observances of festivals and seasons. It was preceded by the Co ...
. The few exceptions are Sundays following Christmas and Feast of the Transfiguration, Transfiguration, observed on the last Sunday before Lent instead of on ''Reminiscere''. In some Anglican traditions (including the Church of England) the Christmas season is followed by an Epiphany season, which begins on the Eve of the Epiphany (on 6 January or the nearest Sunday) and ends on the Presentation of Jesus at the Temple, Feast of the Presentation (on February 2 or the nearest Sunday). Ordinary Time then begins after this period. The ''Book of Common Prayer'' contains within it the traditional Western Eucharistic lectionary which traces its roots to the ''Comes'' of St. Jerome in the 5th century. Its similarity to the ancient lectionary is particularly obvious during Trinity season (Sundays after the Sunday after Pentecost), reflecting that understanding of sanctification.


Reformed Churches

Calvinism, Reformed Christians emphasize weekly celebration of the Lord's day and, while some of them celebrate also what they call the five evangelical feasts, others celebrate no holy days.


Liturgical calendar


Advent

Advent (from the Latin word ''wiktionary:Adventus, adventus'', which means "arrival" or "coming") is the first season of the liturgical year. It begins four Sundays before Christmas, the Sunday falling on or nearest to November 30, and ends on Christmas Eve. Traditionally observed as a "fast", it focuses on preparation for the coming of Christ, not only the coming of the Christ-child at Christmas, but also, in the first weeks, on the eschatology, eschatological final coming of Christ, making Advent "a period for devout and joyful expectation". This season is often marked by the Advent Wreath, a garland of evergreens with four candles. Although the main symbolism of the advent wreath is simply marking the progression of time, many churches attach themes to each candle, most often 'hope', 'faith', 'joy', and 'love'. Other popular devotions during Advent include the use of the Advent Calendar or the Tree of Jesse to count down the days to Christmas. ''Liturgical colour'': violet or purple; blue in some traditions, such as Anglican/Episcopalian, Methodist, and Lutheran.


Christmastide

The Christmas season immediately follows Advent. The traditional Twelve Days of Christmas begin with Christmas Eve on the evening of December 24 and continue until the feast of
Epiphany Epiphany may refer to: * Epiphany (feeling), an experience of sudden and striking insight Religion * Epiphany (holiday), a Christian holiday celebrating the revelation of God the Son as a human being in Jesus Christ ** Epiphany season, or Epiphan ...
. The actual Christmas season continues until the Feast of the Baptism of Christ, which in the present form of the Roman Rite is celebrated on the Sunday after January 6, or the following Monday if that Sunday is Epiphany. In the pre-1970 form, this feast is celebrated on January 13, unless January 13 is a Sunday, in which case the feast of the Holy Family is celebrated instead. Until the suppression of the Octave of the Epiphany in the 1960 reforms, January 13 was the Octave day of the Epiphany, providing the date for the end of the season. Traditionally, the end of Christmastide was February 2, or the Presentation of Jesus at the Temple, Feast of the Presentation of the Lord, also known as Candlemas. This feast recounts the 40 days of rest Mary took before being purified and presenting her first-born son to the Temple in Jerusalem. In medieval times, Candlemas eve (Feb. 1st) marked the day when all Christmas decorations, including the Christmas tree and the Nativity scene, were taken down. However, the tradition of ending Christmastide on Candlemas has slowly waned, except in some pockets of the Hispanic world where Candlemas (or La Fiesta de la Candelaria) is still an important feast and the unofficial end of the Christmas season. ''Liturgical colour'': white


Ordinary Time

"Ordinary" comes from the same root as our word "ordinal", and in this sense means "the counted weeks". In the Catholic Church and in some Protestant traditions, these are the common weeks which do not belong to a proper season. In Latin, these seasons are called the weeks , or "through the year". In the current form of the Roman Rite adopted following the Second Vatican Council, Ordinary Time consists of 33 or 34 Sundays and is divided into two sections. The first portion extends from the day following the Feast of the Baptism of Christ until the day before Ash Wednesday (the beginning of Lent). It contains anywhere from three to eight Sundays, depending on how early or late Easter falls. The main focus in the readings of the Mass is Christ's earthly ministry, rather than any one particular event. The counting of the Sundays resumes following Eastertide; however, two Sundays are replaced by Pentecost and Trinity Sunday, and depending on whether the year has 52 or 53 weeks, one may be omitted. In the pre-1970 form of the Roman Rite, the Time after Epiphany has anywhere from one to six Sundays. As in the current form of the rite, the season mainly concerns Christ's preaching and ministry, with many of his parables read as the Gospel readings. The season begins on January 14 and ends on the Saturday before Septuagesima Sunday. Omitted Sundays after Epiphany are transferred to Time after Pentecost and celebrated between the Twenty-Third and the Last Sunday after Pentecost according to an order indicated in the Code of Rubrics, 18, with complete omission of any for which there is no Sunday available in the current year. Before the 1960 revisions, the omitted Sunday would be celebrated on the Saturday before Septuagesima Sunday, or, in the case of the Twenty-Third Sunday after Pentecost, on the Saturday before the Last Sunday after Pentecost. ''Liturgical colour'': green


Septuagesima/Pre-Lenten Season

Septuagesima (from the Latin word for "seventieth") is a two-and-a-half-week period before Lent. This pre-Lent season is present in the pre-1970 form of the Roman Rite and in some Protestant calendars. It is a transition from the first part of the season ''per annum'' to the season of Lent, and a preparation for the fasting and penance which begin on Ash Wednesday. Although most of the Liturgy of the Hours, Divine Office remains the same as during the season ''per annum'', certain customs of Lent are adopted, including the suppression of the "Alleluia", the replacement of the Alleluia at Mass with the Tract (liturgy), Tract and the Gloria is no longer said on Sundays. In the 1969 reform of the Roman Rite, this intermediate season was removed, with these weeks becoming part of Ordinary Time. ''Liturgical colour'' (where observed): violet or purple


Lent and Passiontide

Lent is a major penitential season of preparation for Easter. It begins on Ash Wednesday and, if the penitential days of
Good Friday Good Friday is a Christian holiday commemorating the crucifixion of Jesus and his death at Calvary. It is observed during Holy Week as part of the Paschal Triduum. It is also known as Holy Friday, Great Friday, Great and Holy Friday (also Holy ...
and Holy Saturday are included, lasts for forty days, since the six Sundays within the season are not counted. In the Roman Rite, the Gloria in Excelsis Deo and the Te Deum are not used in the Mass and Liturgy of the Hours respectively, except on Solemnities and Feasts, and the Alleluia and verse that usually precede the reading of the Gospel is either omitted or replaced with another acclamation. Lutheran churches make these same omissions. As in Advent, the deacon and subdeacon of the pre-1970 form of the Roman Rite do not wear their habitual dalmatic and tunicle (signs of joy) in Masses of the season during Lent; instead they wear "folded chasubles", in accordance with the ancient custom. In the pre-1970 form of the Roman Rite, the two weeks before Easter form the season of Passiontide, a subsection of the Lenten season that begins with Matins of Ash Wednesday and ends immediately before the Mass of the Easter Vigil. In this form, what used to be officially called Passion Sunday, has the official name of the First Sunday in Passiontide, and Palm Sunday has the additional name of the Second Sunday in Passiontide. In Sunday and ferial Masses (but not on feasts celebrated in the first of these two weeks) the Gloria Patri is omitted at the Introit, Entrance Antiphon and at the Lavabo, as well as in the responds in the Divine Office. In the post-1969 form of the Roman Rite, "Passion Sunday" and "Palm Sunday" are both names for the Sunday before Easter, officially called "Palm Sunday of the Lord's Passion". The former Passion Sunday became a fifth Sunday of Lent. The earlier form reads Matthew's account on Sunday, Mark's on Tuesday, and Luke's on Wednesday, while the post-1969 form reads the Passion only on Palm Sunday (with the three Synoptic Gospels arranged in a three-year cycle) and on
Good Friday Good Friday is a Christian holiday commemorating the crucifixion of Jesus and his death at Calvary. It is observed during Holy Week as part of the Paschal Triduum. It is also known as Holy Friday, Great Friday, Great and Holy Friday (also Holy ...
, when it reads the Passion according to John, as also do earlier forms of the Roman Rite. The veiling of crucifixes and images of the saints with violet cloth, which was obligatory before 1970, is left to the decision of the national bishops' conferences. In the United States, it is permitted but not required, at the discretion of the pastor. In all forms, the readings concern the events leading up to the Last Supper and the betrayal, Passion, and death of Christ. The week before Easter is called Holy Week. In the Roman Rite, feasts that fall within that week are simply omitted, unless they have the rank of Solemnity, in which case they are transferred to another date. The only solemnities inscribed in the General Calendar that can fall within that week are those of St. Joseph and the Annunciation. ''Liturgical colour'': violet or purple. The colour rose may be used, where it is the practice, on Laetare Sunday (4th Sunday of Lent). On Palm Sunday the colour since 1970 is red, by earlier rules violet or purple, with red being used after 1955 for the blessing of the palms.


Easter Triduum

The Easter Triduum consists of Good Friday, Holy Saturday and Easter Sunday. Each of these days begins liturgically not with the morning but with the preceding evening. The triduum begins on the evening before Good Friday with Mass of the Lord's Supper, celebrated with white vestments, and often includes a ritual of ceremonial footwashing. It is customary on this night for a vigil involving private prayer to take place, beginning after the evening service and continuing until midnight. This vigil is occasionally renewed at dawn, continuing until the Good Friday liturgy. During the day of
Good Friday Good Friday is a Christian holiday commemorating the crucifixion of Jesus and his death at Calvary. It is observed during Holy Week as part of the Paschal Triduum. It is also known as Holy Friday, Great Friday, Great and Holy Friday (also Holy ...
Mass is not celebrated in the Catholic Church. Instead a Celebration of the Passion of the Lord is held in the afternoon or evening. It consists of three parts: a Liturgy of the Word that includes the reading of the account of the Passion (Christianity), Passion by John the Evangelist and concludes with a solemn General Intercessions, Universal Prayer. Other churches also have their Good Friday commemoration of the Passion. The colour of vestments varies: no colour, red, or black are used in different traditions. Coloured hangings may be removed. Lutheran churches often either remove colourful adornments and icons, or veil them with drab cloth. The service is usually plain with somber music, ending with the congregation leaving in silence. In the Catholic, some Lutheran, and High Anglican rites, a crucifix (not necessarily the one which stands on or near the altar on other days of the year) is ceremoniously unveiled. Other crucifixes are unveiled, without ceremony, after the service. Holy Saturday commemorates the day during which Christ lay in the tomb. In the Catholic Church, there is no Mass on this day; the Easter Vigil Mass, which, though celebrated properly at the following midnight, is often celebrated in the evening, is an Easter Mass. With no liturgical celebration, there is no question of a liturgical colour. The Easter Vigil is held in the night between Holy Saturday and Easter Sunday, to celebrate the resurrection of Jesus. See also Paschal candle. The liturgical colour is white, often together with gold. In the Roman Rite, during the "Gloria in Excelsis Deo" the organ and bells are used in the liturgy for the first time in 2 days, and the statues, which have been veiled during Passiontide (at least in the Roman Rite through the 1962 version), are unveiled. In Lutheran churches, colours and icons are re-displayed as well.


Eastertide

Easter is the celebration of Death and resurrection of Jesus, Jesus' Resurrection. The date of Easter varies from year to year, according to a lunar-calendar dating system (see computus for details). In the Roman Rite, the Easter season extends from the Easter Vigil through
Pentecost The Christian holiday of Pentecost is celebrated on the 50th day (the seventh Sunday) from Easter Sunday Easter,Traditional names for the feast in English are "Easter Day", as in the ''Book of Common Prayer A book is a medium for rec ...
Sunday. In the pre-1970 form of the rite, this season includes also the Octave (liturgical), Octave of Pentecost, so Eastertide lasts until None (liturgy), None of the following Saturday. In the Roman Rite, the Easter octave allows no other feasts to be celebrated or commemorated during it; a solemnity, such as the Annunciation, falling within it is transferred to the following Monday. If Easter Sunday or Easter Monday falls on 25 April, the Greater Litanies, which in the pre-1970 form of the Roman Rite are on that day, are transferred to the following Tuesday. By a decree of May 5, 2000, the Second Sunday of Easter (the Sunday after Easter Day itself), is known also in the Roman Rite as the Feast of the Divine Mercy. Ascension of Jesus Christ, Ascension Thursday, which celebrates the return of Jesus to heaven following his resurrection, is the fortieth day of Easter, but, in places where it is not observed as a Holy Day of Obligation, the post-1969 form of the Roman rite transfers it to the following Sunday.
Pentecost The Christian holiday of Pentecost is celebrated on the 50th day (the seventh Sunday) from Easter Sunday Easter,Traditional names for the feast in English are "Easter Day", as in the ''Book of Common Prayer A book is a medium for rec ...
is the fiftieth and last day of the Easter season. It celebrates the sending of the
Holy Spirit In Abrahamic religions, the Holy Spirit is an aspect or agent of God in Abrahamic religions, God, by means of which God communicates with people or acts on them. In Judaism, it refers to the divine force, quality, and influence of God over the ...

Holy Spirit
to the Apostle (Christian), Apostles, which traditionally marks the birth of the Church, see also Apostolic Age. ''Liturgical colour'': white, but red on the feast of Pentecost.


Ordinary Time, Time after Pentecost, Time after Trinity, or Kingdomtide

This season, under various names, follows the Easter season and the feasts of Easter, Ascension, and Pentecost. In the post-1969 form of the Roman rite, Ordinary Time resumes on Pentecost Monday, omitting the Sunday which would have fallen on Pentecost. In the earlier form, where Pentecost is celebrated with an octave, the Time after Pentecost begins at Vespers on the Saturday after Pentecost. The Sundays resume their numbering at the point that will make the Sunday before Advent the thirty-fourth, omitting any weeks for which there is no room (present-day form of the Roman Rite) or are numbered as "Sundays after Pentecost" (pre-1970 Roman Rite, Eastern Orthodoxy and some Protestants) or as "Sundays after Trinity" (some Protestants). This season ends on the Saturday before the First Sunday of Advent. Feasts during this season include: * Trinity Sunday, the first Sunday after Pentecost * Corpus Christi (feast), Solemnity of the Most Holy Body and Blood of Christ (Roman Rite and some Anglican and Lutheran traditions), Thursday of the second week after Pentecost, often celebrated on the following Sunday * Sacred Heart, Solemnity of the Most Sacred Heart of Jesus (Roman Rite), Friday of the third week after Pentecost * Assumption of Mary on 15 August * Feast of Christ the King, last Sunday before Advent (Roman Rite, Lutherans, Anglicans) or last Sunday in October (1925–1969 form of the Roman Rite) In the final few weeks of Ordinary Time, many churches direct attention to the coming of the Kingdom of God, thus ending the liturgical year with an eschatology, eschatological theme that is one of the predominant themes of the season of Advent that began the liturgical year. For instance, in the Tridentine Mass, extraordinary form of the Roman Rite, the Gospel of the Last Sunday is and in the ordinary form of the Roman Rite all the last three Sundays of the liturgical year are affected by the theme of the Second Coming. While the Roman Rite adopts no special designation for this final part of Ordinary Time, some denominations do, and may also change the liturgical colour. The Church of England uses the term "Sundays before Advent" for the final four Sundays and permits red vestments as an alternative. The United Methodist Church may use the name "Kingdomtide". The Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod (LCMS) uses the terms "Third-Last, Second-Last and Last Sunday in the Church Year" and does not change from green. The LCMS does not officially celebrate a "Feast of Christ the King." The Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod (WELS) uses the term "Period of End Times" and assigns red vestments to the first and second Sundays.


Calendar of saints

* In some Protestant traditions, especially those with closer ties to the Lutheran tradition, Reformation Day, Reformation Sunday is celebrated on the Sunday preceding October 31, commemorating the purported day Martin Luther posted the 95 Theses on the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg. The liturgical colour is red, celebrating the
Holy Spirit In Abrahamic religions, the Holy Spirit is an aspect or agent of God in Abrahamic religions, God, by means of which God communicates with people or acts on them. In Judaism, it refers to the divine force, quality, and influence of God over the ...

Holy Spirit
's continuing work in renewing the Church. * Most Western traditions celebrate All Saints' Day (All Hallow's Day) on November 1 or the Sunday following, with the eve of this feast, All Hallow's Eve being October 31. The liturgical colour is white. The following day, November 2, is All Souls' Day. The period including these days is often referred to as Allhallowtide or Allsaintstide. * Saints Days are observed by Lutherans and include the apostles, Virgin Mary and noteworthy figures in the Christian faith. The Confession of St. Peter Week of Prayer for Christian Unity starting on January 18. Conversion of St. Paul ended week of prayer on January 25. Martin Luther King Jr., renewer of society, martyr January 15 (Evangelical Lutheran Church in America only), Presentation of Our Lord and Purification of the Mary Candlemas on February 2. Joseph, Guardian of Jesus St Joseph on March 19, Annunciation March 25, Visitation (Christianity), Visitation of Mary on May 31. * Lutherans also celebrate St John the Baptist or the Beheading of St John the Baptist on June 24, St Mary Magdalene July 22, St. Mary, Mother of Our Lord or the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary on August 15, Holy Cross Day September 14, Francis of Assisi, renewal of the Church St. Francis of Assisi on October 4, and the Holy Innocents, Martyrs December 28. * Lesser Feasts and Commemorations on the Lutheran liturgical calendar include Anthony of Egypt on January 17, Henry, Bishop of Uppsala, martyr Henry (bishop of Finland), Henry of Uppsala on January 19, Timothy, Titus and Silas, missionaries St Timothy, St Titus and St Silas Day on January 26, Ansgar, Bishop of Hamburg, missionary to Denmark and Sweden St Ansgar on February 3, Cyril, monk and Methodius, bishop, missionaries to the Slavs St Cyril and St Methodius on February 14, Gregory the Great on March 12, St Patrick on March 17, Olavus Petri, priest and Laurentius Petri, Bishop of Uppsala, on April 19, St Anselm on April 21, Catherine of Siena on April 29, St Athanasius on May 2, St Monica on May 4, Eric IX of Sweden on May 18, St Boniface on June 5, Basil the Great, Gregory of Nyssa and Gregory of Nazianzus on June 14, Benedict of Nursia on July 11, Birgitta of Sweden on July 23, St Anne, Mother of Mary on July 26, St Dominic on August 8, Augustine of Hippo on August 28, Cyprian, St Cyprian on September 16, Teresa of Avila on October 15, Martin de Porres on November 3, Martin of Tours on November 11, Elizabeth of Hungary on November 17, St Lucy on December 13. There are many other holy days in the Lutheran calendar. * Some traditions celebrate Michaelmas, St. Michael's Day (Michaelmas) on September 29. * Some traditions celebrate Martinmas, St. Martin's Day (Martinmas) on November 11. ''Liturgical colours'': white if the saint was not martyred; red if the saint was martyred


=Hierarchy of feast days

= There are degrees of solemnity of the office of the feast days of saints. In the 13th century, the Roman Rite distinguished three ranks: simple, semidouble and double, with consequent differences in the recitation of the Liturgy of the Hours, Divine Office or Breviary. The simple feast commenced with the chapter (''capitulum'') of First Vespers, and ended with None. It had three lessons and took the psalms of Matins from the ferial office; the rest of the office was like the semidouble. The semidouble feast had two Vespers, nine lessons in Matins, and ended with Compline. The antiphons before the psalms were only intoned. In the Mass, the semidouble had always at least three "orationes" or collects. On a double feast the antiphons were sung in their entirety, before and after the psalms, while in Lauds and Vespers there were no ''suffragia'' of the saints, and the Mass had only one "oratio" (if no commemoration was prescribed). If ordinary double feasts (referred to also as lesser doubles) occurred with feasts of a higher rank, they could be simplified, except the octave days of some feasts and the feasts of the Doctors of the Church, which were transferred. To the existing distinction between major and ordinary or minor doubles, Pope Clement VIII added two more ranks, those of first-class or second-class doubles. Some of these two classes were kept with octaves. This was still the situation when the 1907 articl
Ecclesiastical Feasts
in the Catholic Encyclopedia was written. In accordance with the rules then in force, feast days of any form of double, if impeded by "occurrence" (falling on the same day) with a feast day of higher class, were transferred to another day. Pope Pius X simplified matters considerably in his 1911 Reform of the Roman Breviary by Pope Pius X, reform of the Roman Breviary. In the case of occurrence the lower-ranking feast day could become a Commemoration (liturgy), commemoration within the celebration of the higher-ranking one. Until then, ordinary doubles took precedence over most of the semidouble Sundays, resulting in many of the Sunday Masses rarely being said. While retaining the semidouble rite for Sundays, Pius X's reform permitted only the most important feast days to be celebrated on Sunday, although commemorations were still made until Pope John XXIII's reform of 1960. The division into doubles (of various kinds) semidoubles and simples continued until 1955, when Pope Pius XII abolished the rank of semidouble, making all the previous semidoubles simples, and reducing the previous simples to a mere commemoration in the Mass of another feast day or of the feria on which they fell (see General Roman Calendar of Pope Pius XII). Then, in 1960, Pope John XXIII issued the Code of Rubrics, completely ending the ranking of feast days by doubles etc., and replacing it by a ranking, applied not only to feast days but to all liturgical days, as I, II, III, and IV class days. The Mysterii Paschalis, 1969 revision by Pope Paul VI divided feast days into "solemnities", "feasts" and "memorials", corresponding approximately to Pope John XXIII's I, II and III class feast days. Commemorations were abolished. While some of the memorials are considered obligatory, others are optional, permitting a choice on some days between two or three memorials, or between one or more memorials and the celebration of the feria. On a day to which no obligatory celebration is assigned, the Mass may be of any saint mentioned in the Roman Martyrology for that day.General Instruction of the Roman Missal
355 c


=Assumption of Mary

= Observed by Catholics and some Anglicans on August 15, which is the same as the Eastern and Orthodox feast of the Dormition, the end of the earthly life of the Virgin Mary and, for some, her bodily Assumption into heaven, is celebrated. The Catholic teaching on this feast was defined as dogma on November 1, 1950 by Pope Pius XII in the Papal Bull, ''Munificentissimus Deus''. In other Anglican and Lutheran traditions, as well as a few others, August 15 is celebrated as St. Mary, Mother of the Lord. ''Liturgical colour'': white


Secular observance

Because of the dominance of Christianity in Europe throughout the Middle Ages, many features of the Christian year became incorporated into the secular calendar. Many of its feasts (e.g.,
Christmas Christmas is an annual festival commemorating Nativity of Jesus, the birth of Jesus Christ, observed primarily on December 25 as a religious and cultural celebration among billions of people Observance of Christmas by country, around the world ...

Christmas
, Mardi Gras, Saint Patrick's Day) remain holidays, and are now celebrated by people of all faiths and none — in some cases worldwide. The secular celebrations bear varying degrees of likeness to the religious feasts from which they derived, often also including elements of ritual from Paganism, pagan festivals of similar date.


See also

* Christian worship * Quarter tense


References


Further reading

* Stookey, L. H. ''Calendar: Christ's Time for the Church'', 1996. * Hickman, Hoyt L., et al. ''Handbook of the Christian Year'', 1986. * Webber, Robert E. ''Ancient-Future Time: Forming Spirituality through the Christian Year'', 2004. * Schmemann, Fr. Alexander. ''The Church Year (Celebration of Faith Series, Sermons Vol. 2)'', 1994. * Talley, Thomas J. ''The Origins of the Liturgical Year'', Ed. 2. 1991.


External links

* The Catholic Church's liturgical calendar, fro
US Catholic Bishops
or fro
O.S.V. publishing


— A liturgical calendar of the Catholic Church including the Liturgy of the Hours and the Mass readings.
Greek Orthodox Calendar
– Greek Orthodox Calendar & Online Chapel
Russian Orthodox Calendar
at Holy Trinity Russian Orthodox Church
Lectionary Central
– For the study and use of the traditional Western Eucharistic lectionary (Anglican). {{DEFAULTSORT:Liturgical Year Liturgical calendar, * Christian festivals and holy days, Seasons Christian terminology Types of year