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The head of government is either the highest or second-highest official in the
executive Executive may refer to: Role, title, or function * Executive (government), branch of government that has authority and responsibility for the administration of state bureaucracy * Executive, a senior management role in an organization ** Chief exec ...
branch of a
sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of Institutionalisation, institutionalized social relation, social relatio ...
, a
federated state A federated state (which may also be referred to as a state, a , a region, a , a , a , an , an or a ) is a territorial and al community forming part of a . Such states differ from fully s, in that they do not have full sovereign powers, as th ...
, or a
self-governing colony In the British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other Dependent territory, territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom an ...
,
autonomous region An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subnational administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country sub ...
, or other government who often presides over a
cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transparent glass sheets or transparent polycarbonate sheets * Filing ...
, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments. "Head of government" is often differentiated from "
head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of one's personality, or the social role that one adopts, or a fictional ch ...
" (as in article 7 of the
Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties The Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (VCLT) is an international agreement A treaty is a formal legally binding written agreement between actors in international law International law, also known as public international law and law ...

Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties
, article 1 of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Crimes against Internationally Protected Persons, including Diplomatic Agents and the United Nations protocol list),HEADS OF STATE, HEADS OF GOVERNMENT, MINISTERS FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS
, Protocol and Liaison Service, United Nations (19 October 2012). Retrieved 29 July 2013.
as they may be separate positions, individuals, or roles depending on the country. The authority of a head of government, such as a president, chancellor, or prime minister and the relationship between that position and other state institutions, such as the relation between the head of state and of the legislature, varies greatly among sovereign states, depending largely on the particular system of the government that has been chosen, won, or evolved over time. In most
parliamentary system A parliamentary system or parliamentary democracy is a system of democratic Democrat, Democrats, or Democratic may refer to: *A proponent of democracy Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' an ...
s, including
constitutional monarchies A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated el ...
, the head of government is the ''de facto'' political leader of the government, and is answerable to at least one chamber of the legislature. Although there is often a formal reporting relationship to a
head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of one's personality, or the social role that one adopts, or a fictional ch ...
, the latter usually acts as a
figurehead In politics, a figurehead is a person who ''de jure In law and government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. In the case of its broad associative ...

figurehead
who may take the role of chief executive on limited occasions, either when receiving
constitutional adviceAdvice, in constitutional law, is a formal, and usually binding, instruction given by one constitutional officer of state to another. Particularly in parliamentary system, parliamentary systems of government, Head of state, heads of state often act o ...
from the head of government or under specific provisions in a constitution. In
presidential President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) *President (education), a leader of a college or university *President (government title) President may also refer to: Automobiles * Nissan President, a 1966–2010 Japanese full- ...
republics or in
absolute monarchies Absolute monarchy (or absolutism as doctrine) is a form of monarchy A monarchy is a form of government in which a person, the monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. ...
, the head of state is also usually the head of government. The relationship between that leader and the government, however, can vary greatly, ranging from
separation of powers Separation of powers refers to the division of a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' ( ...
to
autocracy Autocracy is a system of government in which supreme power over a State (polity), state is concentrated in the hands of one person, whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints nor regularized mechanisms of popular control (ex ...
, according to the constitution (or other basic laws) of the particular state. In
semi-presidential system A semi-presidential system, or dual executive system, is a system of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state. In the case of its broad associative definition, g ...
s, the head of government may answer to both the head of state and the legislature with the specifics provided by each country's constitution. A modern example is the present French government, which originated as the
French Fifth Republic The Fifth Republic (french: Cinquième République) is France's current republic, republican system of government. It was established 4 October 1958 by Charles de Gaulle under the Constitution of France, Constitution of the Fifth Republic.. The ...
in 1958. In France, the
president President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...
, the head of state, appoints the
prime minister A prime minister or a premier is the head of the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transpa ...
, who is the head of government. However, the president must choose someone who can act effectively as an executive, but who also enjoys the support of France's legislature, the
National Assembly In politics, a national assembly is either a unicameral In government, unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or legislative chamber, parliamentary chamber. Thus, a ''unicameral parliam ...
, to be able to pass legislation. In some cases, the head of state may represent one political party but the majority in the National Assembly is of a different party. Given that the majority party has greater control over state funding and
primary legislation In parliamentary systems and presidential systems of government, primary legislation and secondary legislation, the latter also called delegated legislation or subordinate legislation, are two forms of law, created respectively by the legislature ...
, the president is in effect forced to choose a prime minister from the opposition party to ensure an effective, functioning legislature. In this case, known as
cohabitation Cohabitation is an arrangement where two people are not married but live together. They are often involved in a romantic Romantic may refer to: Genres and eras * The Romantic era, an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement of t ...
, the prime minister, along with the cabinet, controls domestic policy, with the president's influence largely restricted to foreign affairs. In
directorial system A directorial republic is a country ruled by a college of several people who jointly exercise the powers of a head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), dependi ...
s, the executive responsibilities of the head of government are spread among a group of people. A prominent example is the
Swiss Federal Council The Federal Council (german: Bundesrat, french: Conseil fédéral, it, Consiglio federale, rm, Cussegl federal) is the seven-member executive council that constitutes the federal government of the Swiss Confederation and serves as the collecti ...
, where each member of the council heads a department and also votes on proposals relating to all departments.


Titles of respective heads of government

A common title for many heads of government is prime minister. This is used as a formal title in many states, but also informally a generic term to describe whichever office is considered the principal minister under an otherwise styled
head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of one's personality, or the social role that one adopts, or a fictional ch ...
, as ''minister'' —
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an appa ...
for servants or subordinates — is a common title for members of a government (but many other titles are in use, e.g.
chancellor Chancellor ( la, links=no, cancellarius) is a title of various official positions in the governments of many nations. The original chancellors were the ' of Roman courts of justice—ushers, who sat at the ''cancelli'' or lattice work screens of ...

chancellor
and secretary of state). Formally the head of state can also be the head of government as well (
ex officio An ''ex officio'' member is a member of a body (notably a board, committee, council) who is part of it by virtue of holding another office. The term ''ex officio An ''ex officio'' member is a member of a body (notably a board, committee, council) ...
or by ad hoc cumulation, such as a ruling monarch exercising all powers himself) but otherwise has formal precedence over the Head of Government and other ministers, whether he is their actual political superior (ruling monarch, executive president) or rather theoretical or ceremonial in character (constitutional monarch, non-executive president). Various constitutions use different titles, and even the same title can have various multiple meanings, depending on the constitutional order and political system of the state in question.


As political chief

In addition to prime minister, titles used for the democratic model, where there is an elected legislative body checking the Head of government, include the following. Some of these titles relate to governments below the national level (e.g., states or provinces).


Alternate English terms and renderings

*
Chancellor Chancellor ( la, links=no, cancellarius) is a title of various official positions in the governments of many nations. The original chancellors were the ' of Roman courts of justice—ushers, who sat at the ''cancelli'' or lattice work screens of ...

Chancellor
(primarily in German-speaking countries; today used in
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the and by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inhabitants, as of 31 December 2019 makes it the , according to population within city l ...

Germany
and
Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked A landlocked country is a country that does not have territory connected to an ocean or whose coastli ...

Austria
) * * Chief Minister (often subnational) *
Chief Executive A chief executive officer (CEO), chief administrator officer, or just chief executive (CE), is one of a number of corporate executives A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company A company, abbreviated as co ...
(often subnational) * First Minister (often subnational) *
Minister-President A minister-president or minister president is the head of government The head of government is either the highest or second-highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, auton ...
*
Premier Premier is a title for the head of government The head of government is either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, autonomous region, or other g ...

Premier
(from French ''premier ministre'') *
President of the Council of Ministers The President of the Council of Ministers or sometimes Chairman (in English, sometimes called informally Prime Minister) is the most senior member of the cabinet in the executive Executive may refer to: Role, title, or function * Executive (gover ...
* President of the Council of State * President of the Executive Council * President of the Government *
Prime minister A prime minister or a premier is the head of the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transpa ...
* State Counsellor (used exclusively in
Myanmar Myanmar, ); UK pronunciations: US pronunciations incl. . Note: Wikipedia's IPA conventions require indicating /r/ even in British English although only some British English speakers pronounce r at the end of syllables. As John C. Wells, John ...

Myanmar
) *
State President The State President of the Republic of South Africa ( af, Staatspresident) was the head of state of South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over Demographics o ...
(used exclusively in South Africa)


Equivalent titles in other languages

*
Albanian Albanian may refer to: *Pertaining to Albania in Southeast Europe; in particular: **Albanians, an ethnic group native to the Balkans **Albanian language **Albanian culture **Demographics of Albania, includes other ethnic groups within the country ...

Albanian
: '' Kryeministër'' *
Bengali Bengali or Bengalee, or Bengalese may refer to: *something of, from, or related to Bengal, a large region in South Asia * Bengalis, an ethnic and linguistic group of the region * Bengali language, the language they speak ** Bengali alphabet, the wr ...
: For the
Prime Minister of Bangladesh A prime number (or a prime) is a natural number greater than 1 that is not a Product (mathematics), product of two smaller natural numbers. A natural number greater than 1 that is not prime is called a composite number. For example, 5 is prime ...
''Pradan Mantri'' (official); ''Sarkar Pradhan'' (lit: Head of the Government, informal); ''Sangsad Neta'' (lit: Leader of the parliament; only in parliament) *
Basque Basque may refer to: * Basques The Basques ( or ; eu, euskaldunak ; es, vascos ; french: basques ) are a Southern European ethnic group, characterised by the Basque language, a Basque culture, common culture and shared genetic ancestry to th ...
: ** Leader of the
Basque Country Image:Euskal Herriaren terminologia.png, Map showing the geographical and political divisions of the Basque Country Basque Country may refer to: *Basque Country (autonomous community) (''Euskal Autonomia Erkidegoa'' in Basque; ''Comunidad Autónoma ...
(Spain): ''
Eusko Jaurlaritzako lehendakaria
Eusko Jaurlaritzako lehendakaria
'' (literally, 'President of the Basque Government') ** Leader of
Navarre Navarre (; es, Navarra ; eu, Nafarroa ), officially the Chartered Community of Navarre ( es, Comunidad Foral de Navarra, links=no ; eu, Nafarroako Foru Komunitatea, links=no ), is a Fuero, foral autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous co ...

Navarre
(Spain): ''Nafarroako Gobernuko lehendakaria'' (literally, 'President of the Government of Navarra') ** president, generically: ''
Lehendakari The President of the Basque Government ( eu, Eusko Jaurlaritzako lehendakaria, es, presidente del Gobierno Vasco), usually known in the Basque language as the Lehendakari ( eu, lehendakari, es, lendakari), is the head of government of the Basqu ...

Lehendakari
'' *
Bulgarian Bulgarian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Bulgaria * Bulgarians, a South Slavic ethnic group * Bulgarian language, a Slavic language * Bulgarian alphabet * A citizen of Bulgaria, see Demographics of Bulgaria * Bulg ...

Bulgarian
: Министър-председател (transliteration: ''Ministar-predsedatel'', literally 'Minister President') *
Catalan Catalan may refer to: Catalonia From, or related to Catalonia: * Catalan language, a Romance language * Catalans, an ethnic group formed by the people from, or with origins in, Catalonia * Països Catalans, territories where Catalan is spoken * C ...
: ** For
Andorra Andorra (, ; ), officially the Principality of Andorra ( ca, Principat d'Andorra), is a sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed from Old French Old French ( ...

Andorra
: '' Cap de Govern del Principat d'Andorra'' (literally: 'Head of Government of the Principality of Andorra') ** For the
Balearic Islands The Balearic Islands ( , also , ; ca, Illes Balears ; es, Islas Baleares ) are an archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea contai ...

Balearic Islands
(Spain): '' President/-a del Govern Balear'' ** For
Catalonia Catalonia (; ca, Catalunya ; Aranese, Aranese Occitan: ''Catalonha'' ; es, Cataluña ) is an Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community in the northeastern corner of Spain, designated as a ''nationalities and regions of Spain, na ...

Catalonia
(Spain): '' President/-a de la Generalitat de Catalunya'' (literally: 'President of the Generalitat of Catalonia') ** For
Valencia Valencia ( va, València) is the capital of the Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Valencian Community, Valencia and the Municipalities of Spain, third-largest city in Spain after Madrid and Barcelona, surpassing 800,000 ...

Valencia
(Spain): '' President/-a de la Generalitat Valenciana'' (literally: 'President of the Valencian Generalitat') ** The terms 'head of government' and 'prime minister', generically: ''cap de govern'' and ''primer ministre'' or ''primera ministra'', respectively * Chinese: ** For the Premier of China: 总理 (''zǒnglǐ'') *
Czech Czech may refer to: * Anything from or related to the Czech Republic The Czech Republic, also known by its short-form name Czechia and formerly known as Bohemia, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A countr ...
: '' Předseda vlády'' (literally: 'Chairman of the Government') *
Danish Danish may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Denmark * A national or citizen of Denmark, also called a "Dane", see Demographics of Denmark * Danish people or Danes, people with a Danish ancestral or ethnic identity * Danis ...
: '' Statsminister'' (literally: 'Minister of the State') *
Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle * Dutch Castle Places * ...
: ** For the head of government of the
Netherlands ) , national_anthem = ( en, "William of Nassau") , image_map = EU-Netherlands.svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = BES islands location map.svg , map_caption2 = , image_map3 ...

Netherlands
: ''
Minister-President A minister-president or minister president is the head of government The head of government is either the highest or second-highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, auton ...
'', ''Eerste Minister'' (literally, 'First Minister') or ''Premier'' ** For the head of government of
Belgium Belgium ( nl, België ; french: Belgique ; german: Belgien ), officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe. The region's countries and territories vary depending on cont ...

Belgium
, and as the term 'prime minister' generically: '' Eerste Minister'' or ''Premier'' *
Estonian Estonian may refer to: *Something of, from, or related to Estonia, a country in the Baltic region in northern Europe *Estonians, people from Estonia, or of Estonian descent *Estonian language *Estonian cuisine *Estonian culture See also

* * La ...
: '' Peaminister'' *
Finnish Finnish may refer to: * Something or someone from, or related to Finland * Finnish culture * Finnish people or Finns, the primary ethnic group in Finland * Finnish language, the national language of the Finnish people * Finnish cuisine See also

...
: '' Pääministeri'' *
Filipino Filipino may refer to: * Something from or related to the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, ...
** For the head of state and government (President) of the
Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republ ...

Philippines
: '' Pangulo ng Pilipinas'' * French: ** For France,
Belgium Belgium ( nl, België ; french: Belgique ; german: Belgien ), officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe. The region's countries and territories vary depending on cont ...

Belgium
and Canada:
Prime Minister of France The prime minister of France (french: link=no, Premier ministre français), officially the prime minister of the French Republic, is the head of government The head of government is either the highest or second-highest official in the Exe ...
;
Prime Minister of Belgium german: Premierminister von Belgien , insignia = State Coat of Arms of Belgium.svg , insigniasize = 100px , insigniacaption = Coat of arms of Belgium, Coat of arms , insigniaalt = , flag ...
;
Prime Minister of Canada The prime minister of Canada (french: premier ministre du Canada, link=no) is the first minister of the Crown '' File:서봉총 금관 금제드리개.jpg, The Seobongchong Golden Crown of Ancient Silla, which is 339th National Treasu ...
: ''Premier Ministre'' or ''Première Ministre'', also as the term 'prime minister' generically. ** For
Switzerland , french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_type = Federalism, Federal semi-direct democracy under an assembly-independent Directorial system, directorial republic , leader_title1 = Fe ...

Switzerland
: '' Conseil Fédéral'' (literally, the 'Federal Council', considered the head of government as a group) *
GalicianGalician may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Galicia (Spain) ** Galician language ** Galician people ** Gallaeci, a large Celtic tribal federation who inhabited Gallaecia (currently Galicia (Spain) * Something of, from, or related to ...
(Spain): '' Presidente/-a da Xunta de Galicia'' (literally, 'President of the Council of Galicia') * German: ** For Germany and
Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked A landlocked country is a country that does not have territory connected to an ocean or whose coastli ...

Austria
:
Chancellor of Germany The chancellor of Germany, officially the Federal Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (german: Bundeskanzler(in) der Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is the head of the federal government of Germany The Federal Cabinet or Federal Govern ...
;
Chancellor of Austria The Federal Chancellor of Austria () is the head of government of the Austria, Republic of Austria. The position corresponds to that of Prime minister, Prime Minister in several other parliamentary democracies. Current officeholder is Karl Neha ...
: Bundeskanzler (masc.) / Bundeskanzlerin (fem.) ** For
Switzerland , french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_type = Federalism, Federal semi-direct democracy under an assembly-independent Directorial system, directorial republic , leader_title1 = Fe ...

Switzerland
: '' Schweizerischer Bundesrat'' (literally, the 'Swiss Federal Council', considered the head of government as a group) ** The term 'head of government,' generically: ''Regierungschef/-in'' ** The term 'prime minister,' generically: ''Ministerpräsident/-in''; or ''Premierminister/-in'' ** historically: ''Leitender Minister'' ('Senior Minister') *
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
: Πρωθυπουργός (transliteration: ''Prothipourgos'') *
Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as one of the spoken languages of the Israelites and their longest-survivi ...
: ראש הממשלה (transliteration: ''Rosh HaMemshala'') *
Hindi/Hindustani/Urdu
Hindi/Hindustani/Urdu
: ** The term 'head of government', generically: शासनप्रमुख (translit. ''Śāsanapramukha''), literally:'Chief of government' ** The term 'Prime Minister', generically: प्रधानमन्त्री (translit. ''Pradhānamantrī''), literally:'Chief of Ministers/Prime Minister' ** The other Hindustani term generically used for 'Prime Minister'(now used officially only in Pakistan with Urdu as official language) : वज़ीर-ए-आज़म/ (translit. ''Wazīr-ē-Āzam''), lit.:'Grand Vizier/Prime Minister' ** For '
Prime Minister of India The prime minister of India (), officially the prime minister of the Republic of India is the head of government, head of the executive branch of the government of India. The prime minister is the presiding member of the Union Council of M ...

Prime Minister of India
' : भारतीय प्रधानमन्त्री/भारत के प्रधानमन्त्री (translit. ''Bhāratiya Pradhānamantrī/Bhārat Kē Pradhānamantrī), translation:'Indian Prime Minister/Prime Minister of India'(this term is used by the Government of the Union and the State Governments of India, under the umbrella of "Hindi Language"); '' ** For '
Prime Minister of Pakistan A prime number (or a prime) is a natural number In mathematics, the natural numbers are those numbers used for counting (as in "there are ''six'' coins on the table") and total order, ordering (as in "this is the ''third'' largest city i ...
': / (translit. ''Wazīr-ē-Āzam Pākistān/Pākistān Kē Wazīr-ē-Āzam''), This is the term used in
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
and
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, fifth-most populous country, with a popul ...

Pakistan
under the umbrella of
Urdu Urdu (; ur, , ALA-LC ALA-LC (American Library Association The American Library Association (ALA) is a nonprofit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonpr ...

Urdu
, the
Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, North India. Hindi has been described as a Standard la ...

Hindi
term being, पाकिस्तानी प्रधानमन्त्री/पाकिस्तान के प्रधानमन्त्री (translit.''Pākistānī Pradhānamantrī/Pākistān Kē Pradhānamantrī)'' ** Historically, various terms like ''Pradhānamantrī'', ''Pradhān'', ''Pantapradhān'', ''Sadr-ē-Riyāsat'', ''Sadr'', ''Wazīr-ē-Āzam'', ''Wazīr-ē-Ālā'', ''Mahāmantrī'', ''Wazīr-ē-Khazānā'', ''Pēśwā'', ''Dīwān'', ''Dīwān Sāhib'', ''Dīwān Bahādur'', ''Dīwān Pramukh'', ''Sadr-ul-Maham'', Pantapramukh, ''Ālāmantrī'', etc. have been used by various Empires, Kingdoms and Princely States of India as a title for the Prime Minister, some of these titles were also used by the sovereign of various kingdoms. *
HungarianHungarian may refer to: * Hungary, a country in Central Europe * Kingdom of Hungary, state of Hungary, existing between 1000 and 1946 * Hungarians, ethnic groups in Hungary * Hungarian algorithm, a polynomial time algorithm for solving the assignmen ...
: '' Miniszterelnök'' * Irish: Leader of Ireland: ''
Taoiseach The Taoiseach is the prime minister A prime minister or a premier is the head of the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a p ...
'' * Italian: ** For the head of government of Italy: '' Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri della Repubblica Italiana'' (literally, 'President of the Council of Ministers of the Italian Republic') ** When referring to other prime ministers: ''Primo ministro'' or ''Prima ministra'' (masculine and feminine forms; literally 'prime minister') ** For
Switzerland , french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_type = Federalism, Federal semi-direct democracy under an assembly-independent Directorial system, directorial republic , leader_title1 = Fe ...

Switzerland
: '' Consiglio Federale'' (literally, the 'Federal Council', considered the head of government as a group) * Japanese: ** For the head of government of Japan (Prime Minister): 首相 (''Shushō'') *
Khmer
Khmer
: ** For the Prime Minister of
Cambodia Cambodia (; also Kampuchea ; km, កម្ពុជា, ), officially the Kingdom of Cambodia, is a country located in the southern portion of the Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is in area, bordered by Thailand to Cambodia–T ...

Cambodia
: នាយករដ្ឋមន្ត្រី (''Neayuk rothmontrey'') *
Korean Korean may refer to: People and culture * Koreans, ethnic group originating in the Korean Peninsula * Korean cuisine * Korean culture * Korean language **Korean alphabet, known as Hangul or Chosŏn'gŭl **Korean dialects and the Jeju language **S ...
: ** For the President of
South Korea South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (ROK), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korea, Korean Peninsula and sharing a Korean Demilitarized Zone, land border with North Korea. Its western border is for ...

South Korea
: ''Daetongryung'' * Latvian: ** For the head of government of
Latvia Latvia ( or ; lv, Latvija ; ltg, Latveja; liv, Leţmō), officially known as the Republic of Latvia ( lv, Latvijas Republika, links=no, ltg, Latvejas Republika, links=no, liv, Leţmō Vabāmō, links=no), is a country in the Baltic re ...

Latvia
: '' Ministru prezidents'' (literally, 'Minister President') ** When referring to other prime ministers: ''Premjerministrs'' *
Lithuanian Lithuanian may refer to: * Lithuanians Lithuanians ( lt, lietuviai, singular ''lietuvis/lietuvė'') are a Balts, Baltic ethnic group. They are native to Lithuania, where they number around 2,561,300 people. Another million or more make up the Lith ...
: '' Ministras pirmininkas'' *
Malay Malay may refer to: Languages * Malay language or Bahasa Melayu, a major Austronesian language spoken in Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei and Singapore ** History of the Malay language#Old Malay, the Malay language from the 4th to the 14th century ** ...
: In
Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions ...

Malaysia
, the head of government of the constituent states are expressed in the Malay language (either
Ketua Menteri In Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is the United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern Asia, southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions that are geographic ...
, "chief minister" in the Malaysian states without a monarchy (
Malacca Malacca, officially the State of Malacca, is a Federated state, state in Malaysia located in the southern region of the Malay Peninsula, next to the Strait of Malacca. Its capital is Malacca City, dubbed the Historic City, which has been liste ...

Malacca
, Penang,
Sabah Sabah () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Co ...

Sabah
and
Sarawak Sarawak (; ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...

Sarawak
), or
Menteri Besar In Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia. The federation, federal constitutional monarchy consists of States and federal territories of Malaysia, thirteen states and three federal territories, separated by the South China Se ...
"first minister" in the sultanates and other monarchic states). *
Maltese Maltese may refer to: * Someone or something of, from, or related to Malta * Maltese alphabet * Maltese cuisine * Maltese culture * Maltese language, the Semitic language spoken by Maltese people * Maltese people, people from Malta or of Maltese ...
: In
Malta Malta ( , , ), officially known as the Republic of Malta ( mt, Repubblika ta' Malta ) and formerly Melita, is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea. It lies south of Italy, east of Tunisi ...

Malta
, the head of government is "Prim Ministru". * Māori: ''Pirimia'', (literally, 'Premier', the former title for the Prime Minister of New Zealand.) * Norwegian language, Norwegian: ''Prime Minister of Norway, Statsminister'' * Polish language, Polish: ** For the head of government of Poland: ''Prime Minister of Poland, Prezes Rady Ministrów'' ('President of Council of Ministers', literally: 'Chairman of the Council of Ministers') ** For the term 'prime minister' in general: ''Premier'' (also, informally, to the head of government of Poland) * Portuguese language, Portuguese: ** For Brazil: ''President of Brazil, Presidente/-a da República Federativa do Brasil'' (literally, 'President of the Federal Republic of Brazil') ** For Portugal and as the term 'prime minister' in general: ''Prime Minister of Portugal, Primeiro-ministro'' or ''Primeira-ministra'' (masculine and feminine forms, literally 'prime minister' or 'first minister') * Romanian language, Romanian: ''Prime Minister of Romania, Prim-ministru'' * Russian: Prime Minister of Russia, ''Prem'yer-ministr'' * Sinhala language, Sinhalese: Prime Minister of Sri Lanka, ශ්‍රී ලංකා අග්‍රාමාත්‍ය ''Shri Lanka Agramathya'' (literally: 'Sri Lanka Prime Minister') * Slovak language, Slovak: ''Prime Minister of Slovakia, Predseda vlády'' (literally: 'Chairman of the Government') * Slovene language, Slovene: ''Prime Minister of Slovenia, Predsednik Vlade'' (literally: 'Chairman of the Government') * Spanish: ** For the head of government of Spain: ''Prime Minister of Spain, Presidente/-a del gobierno de España'' (literally: 'President of the Government') ** When referring to other prime ministers: ''Primer ministro'' or ''Primera Ministra'' (masculine and feminine forms; literally 'prime minister') ** The term 'head of government', generically: ''jefe del gobierno'' * Swahili language, Swahili: ''Sultan'' * Swedish language, Swedish: ''Prime Minister of Sweden, Statsminister'' ("prime minister", literally: "state minister") * Thai language, Thai: ** For the head of government (Prime Minister) of Thailand: ''Nayok rathamontri'' * Turkish language, Turkish: ''Prime Minister of Turkey, Başbakan''


Under a dominant head of state

In a broader sense, a head of government can be used loosely when referring to various comparable positions under a dominant head of state (especially is the case of ancient or feudal eras, so the term "head of government", in this case, could be considered a contradiction in terms). In this case, the prime minister serves at the pleasure of the monarch and holds no more power than the monarch allows. Some such titles are diwan, mahamantri, pradhan, wasir or vizier. However, just because the head of state is the ''de jure'' dominant position does not mean that he/she will not always be the ''de facto'' political leader. A skilled head of government like 19th-century German statesman Otto von Bismarck, Minister President of Prussia and later
Chancellor of Germany The chancellor of Germany, officially the Federal Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (german: Bundeskanzler(in) der Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is the head of the federal government of Germany The Federal Cabinet or Federal Govern ...
under German Emperor, Emperor/King of Prussia, King Wilhelm I, German Emperor, Wilhelm I, serves as an example showing that possession of formal powers does not equal political influence.


Indirectly referred as the head of state

In some cases, the head of state is a
figurehead In politics, a figurehead is a person who ''de jure In law and government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. In the case of its broad associative ...

figurehead
whilst the head of the government leads the ruling party. In some cases a head of government may even pass on the title in hereditary fashion. Such titles include the following: * Mayor of the palace of the Merovingian kingdoms * Nawab wasir of the Mughal Empire (also governor of Awadh) * Peshwa of Satara State, Satara and the Maratha empire * ''Shōgun'' in feudal Japan * Sultan in the original case of the Seljuk Turks who made the caliphs of Baghdad their puppets; later both styles were often used for absolute rulers in Nepal


Combined heads of state and government

In some models the head of state and head of government are one and the same. These include: * President (government title), President (chief executive) * An Absolute monarchy, absolute monarch reigning and Direct rule over Northern Ireland, ruling without a separate principal minister * Chief magistrate * Führer (used in Nazi Germany for Adolf Hitler) * Supreme leader * A Governor (United States), State Governor in the United States (subnational executives) An alternative formula is a single chief political body (e.g., presidium) which collectively leads the government and provides (e.g. by turns) the ceremonial Head of state. The only state in which this system is currently employed is
Switzerland , french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_type = Federalism, Federal semi-direct democracy under an assembly-independent Directorial system, directorial republic , leader_title1 = Fe ...

Switzerland
but other countries such as Uruguay National Council of Government (Uruguay), have employed it in the past. This system is described as the
directorial system A directorial republic is a country ruled by a college of several people who jointly exercise the powers of a head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), dependi ...
. * Sultan of Brunei * King of Saudi Arabia ''See Head of state for further explanation of these cases.''


Parliamentary heads of government

In parliamentary systems, government functions along the following lines: * The head of government — usually the leader of the majority party or Coalition government, coalition — forms the government, which is answerable to parliament; * Full answerability of government to parliament is achieved through ** The ability of parliament to pass a vote of no confidence. ** The ability to vote down legislative proposals of the government. ** Control over or ability to vote down fiscal measures and the budget (or Loss of Supply, supply); a government is powerless without control of the state finances. In a bicameral system, it is often the so-called lower house (e.g. the British House of Commons) that exercises the major elements of control and oversight; however, in some (e.g. Australia, Italy), the government is constitutionally or by convention answerable to both chambers/Houses of Parliament. All of these requirements directly impact the Head of government's role. Consequently, they often play a 'day to day' role in parliament, answering questions and defending the government on the 'floor of the House', while in semi-presidential systems they may not be required to play as much of a role in the functioning of parliament.


Appointment

In many countries, the Head of government is commissioned by the Head of state to form a government, on the basis of the strength of party support in the lower house; in some other states, he or she is directly elected by parliament. Many parliamentary systems require ministers to serve in parliament, while others ban ministers from sitting in parliament (they must resign on becoming ministers).


Removal

Heads of government are typically removed from power in a parliamentary system by * Resignation, following: ** Defeat in a general election. ** Defeat in a leadership vote at their party caucus, to be replaced by another member of the same party. ** Defeat in a parliamentary vote on a major issue, e.g., loss of supply, Motion of No Confidence, loss of confidence. (In such cases, a head of government may seek a parliamentary dissolution from the Head of state and attempt to regain support by popular vote.) * Dismissal — some constitutions allow a Head of state (or their designated representative, as is the case in some Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth countries) to dismiss a Head of government, though its use can be controversial, as occurred in 1975 when then Australian Governor-General, Sir John Kerr (governor-general), John Kerr, dismissed Prime Minister Gough Whitlam in the Australian constitutional crisis of 1975, Australian Constitutional Crisis. * Death — in this case, the deputy Head of government typically acts as the head of government until a new head of government is appointed.


First among equals or dominating the cabinet?

Constitutions differ in the range and scope of powers granted to the head of government. Some older constitutions; for example, Australia's Constitution of Australia, 1900 text, and Belgium's Constitution of Belgium, 1830 text; do not mention their prime ministerial offices at all, the offices became a ''de facto'' political reality without a formal constitutional status. Some constitutions make a Prime Minister (first among equals) and that remains the practical reality for the
Prime Minister of Belgium german: Premierminister von Belgien , insignia = State Coat of Arms of Belgium.svg , insigniasize = 100px , insigniacaption = Coat of arms of Belgium, Coat of arms , insigniaalt = , flag ...
and the Prime Minister of Finland. Other states however, make their head of government a central and dominant figure within the cabinet system; Ireland's
Taoiseach The Taoiseach is the prime minister A prime minister or a premier is the head of the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a p ...
, for example, alone can decide when to seek a parliamentary dissolution, in contrast to other countries where this is a cabinet decision, with the Prime Minister just one member voting on the suggestion. In Israel, while the Cabinet of Israel, Government is nominally a collegiate body with a role for the Prime Minister of Israel, Prime Minister, the Israeli Prime Minister is the dominant figure in the executive branch in practice. The Prime Minister of Sweden, under the 1974 Instrument of Government, is a constitutional office with all key executive powers either directly at his or her disposal or indirectly through the collegial Government of Sweden, Government, whose members are all appointed and dismissed at the Prime Minister's sole discretion. Under the Constitution of the United Kingdom, unwritten British constitution, the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Prime Minister's role has evolved, based often on the individual's personal appeal and strength of character, as contrasted between, for example, Winston Churchill as against Clement Attlee, Margaret Thatcher as against John Major. It is alleged that the increased personalisation of leadership in a number of states has led to heads of government becoming themselves "semi-presidential" figures, due in part to media coverage of politics that focuses on the leader and his or her mandate, rather than on parliament; and to the increasing centralisation of power in the hands of the head of government. Such allegations have been made against two recent British Prime ministers: Margaret Thatcher and Tony Blair. They were also made against Italian prime ministers Silvio Berlusconi and Matteo Renzi, Canadian prime minister Pierre Trudeau and Chancellor of Germany (Federal Republic of Germany), Federal Chancellor of West Germany (later all of Germany), Helmut Kohl, when in power.


Official residence

The head of government is often provided with an official residence, often in the same fashion as head of state, heads of state often are. The name of the residence is often used as a metonym or alternative title for 'the government' when the office is politically the highest, e.g. in the UK "Downing Street announced today…" Well-known official residences of heads of government include: * 10 Downing Street in London — Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (who also has a country residence, Chequers) * The Lodge (Australia), The Lodge in Canberra — Prime Minister of Australia (with an additional residence, Kirribilli House, in Sydney) * 24 Sussex Drive in Ottawa —
Prime Minister of Canada The prime minister of Canada (french: premier ministre du Canada, link=no) is the first minister of the Crown '' File:서봉총 금관 금제드리개.jpg, The Seobongchong Golden Crown of Ancient Silla, which is 339th National Treasu ...
(who also has a country residence, Harrington Lake) * Premier House in Wellington — Prime Minister of New Zealand * 7, Lok Kalyan Marg in New Delhi —
Prime Minister of India The prime minister of India (), officially the prime minister of the Republic of India is the head of government, head of the executive branch of the government of India. The prime minister is the presiding member of the Union Council of M ...

Prime Minister of India
* Catshuis in The Hague — Prime Minister of the Netherlands * Ballhausplatz in Vienna —
Chancellor of Austria The Federal Chancellor of Austria () is the head of government of the Austria, Republic of Austria. The position corresponds to that of Prime minister, Prime Minister in several other parliamentary democracies. Current officeholder is Karl Neha ...
* Zhongnanhai in Beijing — Premier of the People's Republic of China * Kantei in Tokyo — Prime Minister of Japan * Kramář's Villa in Prague — Prime Minister of the Czech Republic * Palazzo Chigi, Chigi Palace in Rome — Prime Minister of Italy * Hôtel Matignon in Paris—
Prime Minister of France The prime minister of France (french: link=no, Premier ministre français), officially the prime minister of the French Republic, is the head of government The head of government is either the highest or second-highest official in the Exe ...
* Villa Parkowa in Warsaw— Prime Minister of Poland * Federal Chancellery (Berlin), Federal Chancellery in Berlin —
Chancellor of Germany The chancellor of Germany, officially the Federal Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (german: Bundeskanzler(in) der Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is the head of the federal government of Germany The Federal Cabinet or Federal Govern ...
* The Lambermont in Brussels —
Prime Minister of Belgium german: Premierminister von Belgien , insignia = State Coat of Arms of Belgium.svg , insigniasize = 100px , insigniacaption = Coat of arms of Belgium, Coat of arms , insigniaalt = , flag ...
* Palacio de la Moncloa in Madrid — President of the Government of Spain * São Bento Mansion, Palacete de São Bento in Lisbon — Prime Minister of Portugal * Kesäranta in Helsinki — Prime Minister of Finland * Sager House in Stockholm — Prime Minister of Sweden (who also has a country residence, Harpsund) * Grand Kremlin Palace in Moscow — Prime Minister of Russia Similarly, heads of government of federal entities below the level of the
sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of Institutionalisation, institutionalized social relation, social relatio ...
(often without an actual head of state, at least under international law) may also be given an official residence, sometimes used as an opportunity to display aspirations of statehood: * ''Hotel Errera'' in Brussels —
Minister-President A minister-president or minister president is the head of government The head of government is either the highest or second-highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, auton ...
of the Flemish community and region * Bayerische Staatskanzlei, Bavarian State Chancellery – List of Ministers-President of Bavaria, Minister-President of the States of Germany, State of Bavaria * ''Élysette'' in Namur — Minister-President of Wallonia * Bute House, Edinburgh; First Minister of Scotland * Hessische Staatskanzlei, Hesse State Chancellery, Wiesbaden; Minister-President of the State of Hesse * Kazan Kremlin, Kazan – President of Tatarstan * Government House, Hong Kong – Chief Executive of Hong Kong * Macau Government Headquarters – Chief Executive of Macau * Rotes Rathaus, Red City Hall – Governing Mayor of Berlin * Quinta Vigia – President of the Regional Government of Madeira Usually, the residence of the heads of government is not as prestigious and grand as that of the head of state, even if the head of state only performs ceremonial duties. Even the formal representative of the head of state, such as a governor-general, may well be housed in a grander, palace-type residence. However, this is not the case when both positions are combined into one: * The White House (1600 Pennsylvania Avenue) in Washington, D.C. — President of the United States, President of the United States of America * The Blue House (1 Sejongno Jongno-gu) in Seoul — President of South Korea * Istana Nurul Iman in Bandar Seri Begawan — Sultan of Brunei * Palácio da Alvorada in Brasília — President of the Federative Republic of Brazil


Statistics

* World's longest serving unelected head of government: Prince Khalifa bin Salman Al Khalifa, Prime Minister of Bahrain from 1971 to 2020 (').H.R.H. the Prime Minister
Mofa.gov.bh (20 February 2013). Retrieved 12 July 2013. * World's longest serving monarchical head of government: Tage Erlander, Prime Minister of Sweden from 1946 to 1969 ('). * World's longest serving republican head of government: Lee Kuan Yew, Prime Minister of Singapore from 1959 to 1990 (').


See also

* Head of state * Hellenic parliament * List of current heads of state and government * List of current prime ministers by date of assumption of office * European Council * Monarchy of the United Kingdom * Chief executive officer and Chief operating officer * Power behind the throne * Éminence grise * Air transports of heads of state and government * ''Official Portraits (book)'' * ''World Leaders''


Notes and references

* Jean Blondel & Ferdinand Muller-Rommel ''Cabinets in Western Europe'' () {{Portal bar, Politics Executive ministers Government institutions Heads of government,