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A found object (a
loan translation In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languag ...

loan translation
from the French ''objet trouvé''), or found art, is
art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and intelligence allowing the use ...

art
created from undisguised, but often modified, items or
products Product may refer to: Business * Product (business), an item that serves as a solution to a specific consumer problem. * Product (project management), a deliverable or set of deliverables that contribute to a business solution Mathematics * Produc ...
that are not normally considered materials from which art is made, often because they already have a non-art function.
Pablo Picasso Pablo Ruiz Picasso (25 October 1881 – 8 April 1973) was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker 300px, Rembrandt, ''Self-portrait'', etching">Self-portrait.html" ;"title="Rembrandt, ''Self-portrait">Rembrandt, ''Self-portrait'', et ...

Pablo Picasso
first publicly utilized the idea when he pasted a printed image of chair caning onto his painting titled ''Still Life with Chair Caning'' (1912).
Marcel Duchamp Henri-Robert-Marcel Duchamp (, , ; 28 July 1887 – 2 October 1968) was a French painter, sculptor, chess player, and writer whose work is associated with Cubism Cubism is an early-20th-century avant-garde The avant-garde (; In 'advanc ...

Marcel Duchamp
is thought to have perfected the concept several years later when he made a series of ready-mades, consisting of completely unaltered everyday objects selected by Duchamp and designated as art. The most famous example is ''
Fountain A fountain, from the "fons" ( "fontis"), meaning source or , is a decorative reservoir for discharging into a basin to supply . It is also a structure that jets water into the air for a decorative or dramatic effect. Fountains were original ...
'' (1917), a standard urinal purchased from a hardware store and displayed on a pedestal, resting on its side. In its strictest sense the term "ready-made" is applied exclusively to works produced by Marcel Duchamp, who borrowed the term from the
clothing industry Clothing industry or garment industry summarizes the types of trade Trade involves the transfer of goods from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money. Economists refer to a system A system is a group of Interaction, ...
(french: prêt-à-porter, translation=
ready-to-wear Ready-to-wear (or ''prêt-à-porter'') is often abbreviated RTW ("off-the-rack" or "off-the-peg" in casual use). It is the term for ready-made garments, sold in finished condition in standardized sizes, as distinct from made-to-measure or besp ...
, link=no) while living in New York, and especially to works dating from 1913 to 1921. Found objects derive their identity as art from the designation placed upon them by the artist and from the social history that comes with the object. This may be indicated by either its anonymous wear and tear (as in collages of
Kurt Schwitters Kurt Hermann Eduard Karl Julius Schwitters (20 June 1887 – 8 January 1948) was a German artist who was born in Hanover Hanover (; german: Hannover ; nds, Hannober) is the capital and largest city of the German States of Germany, state of ...
) or by its recognizability as a consumer icon (as in the sculptures of
Haim SteinbachHaim Steinbach (born Rehovot Rehovot ( he, רְחוֹבוֹת) is a city in the Central District of Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל; ar, إِسْرَائِيل), officially known as the State of Israel ( he, מְדִינַת ...
). The context into which it is placed is also a highly relevant factor. The idea of dignifying commonplace objects in this way was originally a shocking challenge to the accepted distinction between what was considered ''art'' as opposed to ''not art''. Although it may now be accepted in the art world as a viable practice, it continues to arouse questioning, as with the
Tate Gallery Tate is an institution that houses, in a network of four art galleries, the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' ...
's
Turner Prize The Turner Prize, named after the English painter J. M. W. Turner, is an annual prize presented to a British visual artist. Between 1991 and 2016, only artists under the age of 50 were eligible (this restriction was removed for the 2017 award). ...
exhibition of
Tracey Emin Tracey Emin, CBE The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry, rewarding contributions to the arts and sciences, work with charitable and welfare organisations, and public service outside the civil servi ...
's ''
My Bed ''My Bed'' is a work by the English artist Tracey Emin Tracey Emin, CBE The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry, rewarding contributions to the arts and sciences, work with charitable and welfare ...
'', which consisted literally of a transposition of her unmade and disheveled bed, surrounded by shed clothing and other bedroom detritus, directly from her bedroom to the Tate. In this sense the artist gives the audience time and a stage to contemplate an object. As such, found objects can prompt philosophical reflection in the observer ranging from disgust to indifference to nostalgia to empathy. As an art form, found objects tend to include the artist's output—at the very least an idea about it, i.e. the artist's designation of the object as art—which is nearly always reinforced with a title. There is usually some degree of modification of the found object, although not always to the extent that it cannot be recognized, as is the case with ready-mades. Recent critical theory, however, would argue that the mere designation and relocation of any object, ready-mades included, constitutes a modification of the object because it changes our perception of its utility, its lifespan, or its status.


Origin: Duchamp

Marcel Duchamp Henri-Robert-Marcel Duchamp (, , ; 28 July 1887 – 2 October 1968) was a French painter, sculptor, chess player, and writer whose work is associated with Cubism Cubism is an early-20th-century avant-garde The avant-garde (; In 'advanc ...

Marcel Duchamp
coined the term ''ready-made'' in 1915 to describe a common object that had been selected and not materially altered in any way. Duchamp assembled ''
Bicycle Wheel A bicycle wheel is a wheel File:Roue primitive.png, An early wheel made of a solid piece of wood A wheel is a circular component that is intended to rotate on an axle An axle or axletree is a central shaft for a rotating whe ...

Bicycle Wheel
'' in 1913 by attaching a common front wheel and fork to the seat of a common stool. This was not long after his ''
Nude Descending a Staircase Nudity is a state of being in which a human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and intelligence allowing the use of culture, l ...
'' was attracting the attention of critics at the
International Exhibition of Modern Art The Armory Show, also known as the International Exhibition of Modern Art, was a show organized by the Association of American Painters and Sculptors in 1913. It was the first large exhibition of modern art in America, as well as one of the many ...
. In 1917, ''
Fountain A fountain, from the "fons" ( "fontis"), meaning source or , is a decorative reservoir for discharging into a basin to supply . It is also a structure that jets water into the air for a decorative or dramatic effect. Fountains were original ...
'', a urinal signed with the pseudonym "R. Mutt", and generally attributed to Duchamp, confounded the art world. In the same year, Duchamp indicated in a letter to his sister, Suzanne Duchamp, that a female friend was centrally involved in the conception of this work. As he writes: "One of my female friends who had adopted the pseudonym Richard Mutt sent me a porcelain urinal as a sculpture."
Irene Gammel Irene Gammel is a Canadian literary historian, biographer, and curator. She has published numerous books including ''Baroness Elsa'', a groundbreaking cultural biography of New York Dada artist and poet Baroness Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven Elsa ...

Irene Gammel
argues that the piece is more in line with the scatological aesthetics of Duchamp's friend, the
Baroness Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven
Baroness Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven
, than Duchamp's. The other possible, and more probable, "female friend" is Louise Norton (later Varèse), who contributed an essay to ''The Blind Man'' discussing ''Fountain''. Norton, who recently had separated from her husband, was living at the time in an apartment owned by her parents at 110 West 88th Street in New York City, and this address is partially discernible (along with "Richard Mutt") on the paper entry ticket attached to the object, as seen in Stieglitz's photograph. Research by
Rhonda Roland Shearer Rhonda Roland Shearer is an American sculptor, scholar, and journalist, who founded the nonprofit organization Art Science Research Laboratory Art is a diverse range of (products of) human behavior, human activities involving creative imagin ...
indicates that Duchamp may have fabricated his found objects. Exhaustive research of mundane items like snow shovels and bottle racks in use at the time failed to reveal identical matches. The urinal, upon close inspection, is non-functional. However, there are accounts of
Walter Arensberg Walter Conrad Arensberg (April 4, 1878 – January 29, 1954) was an American art collector, critic and poet. His father was part owner and president of a crucible steel company. He majored in English and philosophy at Harvard University. With his w ...
and
Joseph Stella Joseph Stella (born Giuseppe Michele Stella, June 13, 1877 – November 5, 1946) was an Italian-born American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United ...
being with Duchamp when he purchased the original ''Fountain'' at J. L. Mott Iron Works.


Development

The use of found objects was quickly taken up by the
Dada Dada () or Dadaism was an art movement An art movement is a tendency or style in art with a specific common philosophy or goal, followed by a group of artists during a specific period of time, (usually a few months, years or decades) or, at ...

Dada
movement, being used by
Man Ray Man Ray (born Emmanuel Radnitzky; August 27, 1890 – November 18, 1976) was an American visual artist who spent most of his career in Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inha ...
and
Francis Picabia Francis Picabia (: born Francis-Marie Martinez de Picabia; 22January 1879 – 30November 1953) was a French avant-garde painter, poet and typographist. After experimenting with Impressionism and Pointillism, Picabia became associated with Cubism. ...

Francis Picabia
who combined it with traditional art by sticking combs onto a painting to represent hair

A well-known work by Man Ray is ''Gift'' (1921)

which is an iron with nails sticking out from its flat underside, thus rendering it useless.
Jose de Creeft José Mariano de Creeft (November 27, 1884 - September 11, 1982) was a Spanish-born American artist, sculptor, and teacher known for modern sculpture in stone, metal, and wood, particularly figural works of women. His 16 ft bronze ''Conservato ...
began making large-scale assemblages in Paris, such as ''Picador'' (1925), made of scrap metal, rubber and other materials. The combination of several found objects is a type of ready-made sometimes known as an assemblage. Another such example is Marcel Duchamp's '' Why Not Sneeze, Rose Sélavy?'', consisting of a small birdcage containing a thermometer, cuttlebone, and 151 marble cubes resembling sugar cubes. By the time of the
Surrealist Surrealism was a cultural movement A cultural movement is a change in the way a number of different disciplines approach their work. This embodies all art forms, the science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") ...

Surrealist
Exhibition of Objects in 1936 a whole range of sub-classifications had been devised—including found objects, ready-made objects, perturbed objects, mathematical objects, natural objects, interpreted natural objects, incorporated natural objects, Oceanic objects, American objects and Surrealist objects. At this time Surrealist leader,
André Breton André Robert Breton (; 18 February 1896 – 28 September 1966) was a French writer and poet. He is known best as the co-founder, leader, principal theorist and chief apologist of surrealism Surrealism was a that developed in Europe in the ...

André Breton
, defined ready-mades as "manufactured objects raised to the dignity of works of art through the choice of the artist". In the 1960s found objects were present in both the
Fluxus Fluxus was an international, interdisciplinary community of artists, composers, designers and poets during the 1960s and 1970s who engaged in experimental art performances which emphasized the artistic process over the finished product. Fluxus ...
movement and in
Pop art
Pop art
.
Joseph Beuys Joseph Heinrich Beuys ( , ; 12 May 1921 – 23 January 1986) was a German artist An artist is a person engaged in an activity related to creating art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities involving creative imagi ...
exhibited modified found objects, such as rocks with a hole in them stuffed with fur and fat, a van with sledges trailing behind it, and a rusty girder. In 1973
Michael Craig-Martin Sir Michael Craig-Martin (born 28 August 1941) is an Irish-born contemporary Contemporary history, in English-language historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic di ...
claimed of his work ''
An Oak Tree ''An Oak Tree'' is a conceptual work of art A work of art, artwork, art piece, piece of art or art object is an artistic creation of aesthetic Aesthetics, or esthetics (), is a branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of beauty and ...
'', "It's not a symbol. I have changed the physical substance of the glass of water into that of an oak tree. I didn't change its appearance. The actual oak tree is physically present, but in the form of a glass of water."


Commodity sculpture

In the 1980s, a variation of found objects emerged called ''commodity sculpture'' where commercially mass-produced items would be arranged in the art gallery as sculpture. The focus of this variety of sculpture was on the marketing, display of products. These artists included
Jeff Koons Jeffrey Lynn Koons (; born January 21, 1955) is an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), ...
,
Haim SteinbachHaim Steinbach (born Rehovot Rehovot ( he, רְחוֹבוֹת) is a city in the Central District of Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל; ar, إِسْرَائِيل), officially known as the State of Israel ( he, מְדִינַת ...
, and
Ashley Bickerton Ashley Bickerton (born 1959) is a contemporary artist Contemporary art is the art of today, produced in the second half of the 20th century or in the 21st century. Contemporary artists work in a globally influenced, culturally diverse, and techno ...
(who later moved on to do other kinds of work). One of
Jeff Koons Jeffrey Lynn Koons (; born January 21, 1955) is an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), ...
' early signature works was ''Two Ball 50/50 Tank'', 1985, which consisted of two basketballs floating in water, which half-fills a glass tank.


Trash art

A specific subgenre of found objects is known as trash art or junk art. These works primarily comprise components that have been discarded. Often they come quite literally from the trash. One example of trash art is Trashion, fashion made from trash. Marina DeBris takes trash from the beach and creates dresses, vests, and other clothes. Many organizations sponsor junk art competitions. Trash art may also have a social purpose, of raising awareness of trash. Creating and using trash art can expose people to hazardous substances. For instance, older computer and electronic components can contain lead (in solder and insulation). Jewelry made from these items may require careful handling. In France, trash art became known as "Poubellisme", art made from contents of "poubelles" (trash bins). Spanish artist Francisco de Pajaro ("Art is trash" or "") established in London assembles street art using trash.


Music

Found objects can also be used as musical instruments. It is an important part of the ''
musique concrete Musique is the French word for music Music is the of arranging s in time through the of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the aspects of all human societies. General include common elements such as (which governs and ), ...
'' genre. Found sounds have been used by acts including
Cop Shoot Cop Cop Shoot Cop was a rock music group founded in New York City in 1987. They disbanded in 1996. The band were frequently classified as industrial rock, but were often quite different from many bands so dubbed, with a distinctive instrumental line ...
,
Radiohead Radiohead are an English rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, its Chemical compound, che ...

Radiohead
,
Four Tet Kieran Hebden (born September 1977), best known by the stage name A stage name is a pseudonym used by performers and entertainers such as actors, comedians, singers, and musicians. Such titles are adopted for a wide variety of reasons, and m ...
, The Books, and
Björk Björk Guðmundsdóttir ( ; ; born 21 November 1965) is an Icelandic singer, songwriter, record producer, actress, and DJ. Over her four-decade career, she has developed an eclectic Eclectic may refer to: Music * Eclectic (Eric Johnson an ...

Björk
. The musician
Cosmo Sheldrake Cosmo Sheldrake (born 1990 or 1991) is an English musician, composer, and Record producer, producer. He is the son of parapsychology, parapsychologist Rupert Sheldrake and voice teacher Jill Purce, and the brother of biologist Merlin Sheldrake. He ...

Cosmo Sheldrake
, who uses found sounds from the natural world in his music, has stated that incorporating the “soundscape” of ecosystems into music may be an effective means of communicating important messages about issues such as climate change.


Criticism

The found object in art has been a subject of polarised debate in Britain throughout the 1990s due to the use of it by the
Young British Artists The Young British Artists, or YBAs—also referred to as Brit artists and Britart—is a loose group of visual artists who first began to exhibit together in London in 1988. Many of the YBA artists graduated from the BA Fine Art course at Goldsm ...
. It has been rejected by the general public and journalists, and supported by public museums and art critics. In his 2000 Dimbleby lecture, ''Who's afraid of modern art'', Sir Nicholas Serota advocated such kinds of "difficult" art, while quoting opposition such as the ''
Daily Mail The ''Daily Mail'' is a British daily Middle-market newspaper, middle-market newspaper and online newspaper, news websitePeter Wilb"Paul Dacre of the Daily Mail: The man who hates liberal Britain", ''New Statesman'', 19 December 2013 (online ...
'' headline "For 1,000 years art has been one of our great civilising forces. Today, pickled sheep and soiled beds threaten to make barbarians of us all". A more unexpected rejection in 1999 came from artists—some of whom had previously worked with found objects—who founded the Stuckists group and issued a manifesto denouncing such work in favour of a return to painting with the statement "Ready-made art is a polemic of materialism".


Artists

Many modern artists are notable for their use of found objects in their art. These include the following: * Saâdane Afif *
Arman Arman (November 17, 1928 – October 22, 2005) was a French-born American artist. Born Armand Fernandez in Nice Nice ( , ; Niçard: , classical norm, or , nonstandard, ; it, Nizza ; grc, Νίκαια; la, Nicaea) is the seventh most pop ...

Arman
*
Joseph Beuys Joseph Heinrich Beuys ( , ; 12 May 1921 – 23 January 1986) was a German artist An artist is a person engaged in an activity related to creating art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities involving creative imagi ...
* Guillaume Bijl *
George Brecht George Brecht (August 27, 1926 – December 5, 2008), born George Ellis MacDiarmid, was an American conceptual artist and avant-garde The avant-garde (; In 'advance guard' or '', literally 'fore-guard') are people or works that are experim ...
*
Jake and Dinos Chapman Iakovos "Jake" Chapman (born 1966) and Konstantinos "Dinos" Chapman (born 1962) are British visual artists, often known as the Chapman Brothers. Their subject matter tries to be deliberately shocking, including, in 2008, a series of works that a ...
* Greg Colson *
Joseph Cornell Joseph Cornell (December 24, 1903 – December 29, 1972) was an American artist and film maker, one of the pioneers and most celebrated exponents of assemblage. Influenced by the Surrealists, he was also an avant-garde experimental filmmaker. ...
*
Tony Cragg
Tony Cragg
*
Salvador Dalí Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech, 1st Marquess of Dalí of Púbol (; ; ; 11 May 190423 January 1989) was a Spanish surrealist Surrealism was a cultural movement A cultural movement is a change in the way a number of differe ...
* Jack Daws * Marina DeBris *
Jim Dine Jim Dine (born 16 June 1935 in Cincinnati, Ohio) is a contemporary artist whose œuvre extends over sixty years. Dine’s exceptionally diverse practice includes painting, drawing, printmaking (in many forms including lithographs, etchings, gravur ...
*
Mark Divo Mark Divo (born 1966) is a Luxembourg Luxembourg ( ; lb, Lëtzebuerg ; french: link=no, Luxembourg; german: link=no, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, ; french: link=no, Grand-Duché de Luxembourg ; german: link=no, Gro ...
*
Jose de Creeft José Mariano de Creeft (November 27, 1884 - September 11, 1982) was a Spanish-born American artist, sculptor, and teacher known for modern sculpture in stone, metal, and wood, particularly figural works of women. His 16 ft bronze ''Conservato ...
*
Marcel Duchamp Henri-Robert-Marcel Duchamp (, , ; 28 July 1887 – 2 October 1968) was a French painter, sculptor, chess player, and writer whose work is associated with Cubism Cubism is an early-20th-century avant-garde The avant-garde (; In 'advanc ...

Marcel Duchamp
*
Tracey Emin Tracey Emin, CBE The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry, rewarding contributions to the arts and sciences, work with charitable and welfare organisations, and public service outside the civil servi ...
* Tom Friedman * Victoria Fuller * Jim Gary *
Genco Gulan Genco Gulan ( (born 1969 in Turkey) is a contemporary conceptual artist and theorist, who lives and works in Istanbul. His transmedia contextual work involves painting, found objects, new media, drawings, sculpture, photography, Performance art, p ...
* Louis Hirshman *
Damien Hirst Damien Steven Hirst (; born Damien Steven Brennan, 7 June 1965) is an English artist, entrepreneur, and art collector. He is one of the Young British Artists The Young British Artists, or YBAs—also referred to as Brit artists and Britart— ...
*
Lonnie Holley Lonnie Bradley Holley (born February 10, 1950) sometimes known as The Sand Man, is an United States, American artist, art educator, and musician. He is best known for his assemblages and immersive environments made of found materials. He was born ...
* Irma Hünerfauth *
Jasper Johns Jasper Johns (born May 15, 1930) is an American painter, sculptor, and printmaker 300px, Rembrandt, ''Self-portrait'', etching">Self-portrait.html" ;"title="Rembrandt, ''Self-portrait">Rembrandt, ''Self-portrait'', etching, c.1630 Prin ...
*
Joseph Kosuth Joseph Kosuth (; born January 31, 1945), an American conceptual art Conceptual art, also referred to as conceptualism, is art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities involving creative imagination to express technical pro ...

Joseph Kosuth
* Paweł Kowalewski *
John Lefelhocz
John Lefelhocz
*
Sarah Lucas Sarah Lucas (born 1962) is an English artist. She is part of the generation of Young British Artists who emerged during the 1990s. Her works frequently employ visual puns and bawdy humour by incorporating photography, collage and Found art, found ...
*
David Mach ''Out of Order'' (1989) David Mach (born 18 March 1956) is a Scottish Scottish usually refers to something of, from, or related to Scotland, including: *Scottish Gaelic, a Celtic Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family native t ...
*
Michael Craig-Martin Sir Michael Craig-Martin (born 28 August 1941) is an Irish-born contemporary Contemporary history, in English-language historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic di ...
*
Rodney McMillian Rodney McMillian (born 1969, in Columbia, South Carolina) is an artist based in Los Angeles. McMillian is a Professor of Sculpture at the UCLA School of the Arts and Architecture, UCLA School of Arts and Architecture at the University of California, ...
*
Louise Nevelson Louise Nevelson (September 23, 1899 – April 17, 1988) was an American sculptor known for her monumental, monochromatic, wooden wall pieces and outdoor sculptures. Born in the Poltava Governorate of the Russian Empire (present-day Kyiv Oblast, ...
*
Nam June Paik Nam June Paik (; July 20, 1932 – January 29, 2006) was a Korean American Korean Americans () are Americans Americans are the Citizenship of the United States, citizens and United States nationality law, nationals of the United St ...
* Niki de Saint Phalle *
Pablo Picasso Pablo Ruiz Picasso (25 October 1881 – 8 April 1973) was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker 300px, Rembrandt, ''Self-portrait'', etching">Self-portrait.html" ;"title="Rembrandt, ''Self-portrait">Rembrandt, ''Self-portrait'', et ...

Pablo Picasso
A Magical Metamorphosis of the Ordinary
/ref> *
Robert Rauschenberg Milton Ernest "Robert" Rauschenberg (October 22, 1925 – May 12, 2008) was an American painter and graphic artist whose early works anticipated the Pop art movement. Rauschenberg is well known for his Combines (1954–1964), a group of artwork ...
*
Man Ray Man Ray (born Emmanuel Radnitzky; August 27, 1890 – November 18, 1976) was an American visual artist who spent most of his career in Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inha ...
*
Joe Rush Joe Rush (born 1960) is a British artist. He is the founder of Mutoid Waste Company, a performance arts collective that has performed at Glastonbury Festival. Early life Rush was born in 1960 in London, England. Career In 1980, Rush exhibited ...
*
Leo Sewell Leo Sewell (born ) is an American "found object" artist. His assemblages of recycled material are in over 40 museums and in private collections worldwide. Biography Sewell was born in Annapolis, Maryland, United States and moved to Philadelphia in ...
*
Daniel Spoerri Daniel Spoerri (born 27 March 1930) is a Swiss Swiss may refer to: * the adjectival form of Switzerland *Swiss people Places *Swiss, Missouri *Swiss, North Carolina *Swiss, West Virginia *Swiss, Wisconsin Other uses *Swiss-system tournament, in v ...
*
Kurt Schwitters Kurt Hermann Eduard Karl Julius Schwitters (20 June 1887 – 8 January 1948) was a German artist who was born in Hanover Hanover (; german: Hannover ; nds, Hannober) is the capital and largest city of the German States of Germany, state of ...
* Michelle Stitzlein * Tomoko Takahashi *
Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven Elsa Hildegard Baroness von Freytag-Loringhoven (née Plötz; 12 July 1874 – 14 December 1927) was a German avant-garde, Dadaist artist and poet who worked for several years in Greenwich Village, New York. Her provocative poetry was published ...

Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven
*
Wolf Vostell Wolf Vostell (14 October 1932 – 3 April 1998) was a German painter and sculptor, considered one of the early adopters of video art and installation art Installation art is an artistic genre of three-dimensional works that are often site-sp ...

Wolf Vostell


See also

*
Altered book An altered book is a form of mixed media In visual art The visual arts are art forms such as painting Painting is the practice of applying paint Paint is any pigmented liquid, liquefiable, or solid mastic composition that, a ...
*
Anti-art Anti-art is a loosely used term applied to an array of concepts and attitudes that reject prior definitions of art and question art in general. Somewhat paradoxically, anti-art tends to conduct this questioning and rejection from the vantage point ...
* Assemblage *
Appropriation (art) Appropriation in art is the use of pre-existing objects or images with little or no transformation applied to them. The use of appropriation has played a significant role in the history of the arts (literature, literary, visual arts, visual, music ...
* Classificatory disputes about art *
Collage Collage (, from the french: coller, "to glue" or "to stick together";) is a technique of art creation, primarily used in the visual arts, but in music too, by which art results from an Assemblage (art), assemblage of different forms, thus creat ...

Collage
* Décollage *
Found object (music) Found objects are sometimes used in music, often to add unusual percussive elements to a work. Their use in such contexts is as old as music itself, as the original invention of musical instruments almost certainly developed from the sounds of nat ...
*
Found poetry Found poetry is a type of poetry created by taking words, phrases, and sometimes whole passages from other sources and reframing them (a literary equivalent of a collage Collage (, from the french: coller, "to glue" or "to stick together";) i ...
* Found footage (disambiguation) *
Fluxus Fluxus was an international, interdisciplinary community of artists, composers, designers and poets during the 1960s and 1970s who engaged in experimental art performances which emphasized the artistic process over the finished product. Fluxus ...
, an art movement *
Happening A happening is a performance, event, or Situationist International, situation art, usually as performance art. The term was first used by Allan Kaprow during the 1950s to describe a range of art-related events. History Origins Allan Kaprow fir ...

Happening
* Root carving, ancient Chinese art inspired by the shape of found roots. *
Sound object In musique concrete and electronic music Electronic music is music that employs electronic musical instruments, digital instruments, or electronics, circuitry-based music technology in its creation. It includes both music made using electr ...


References


External links


"Found object"
an
"Readymade"
defined by MOMA
"Found object"
an
"Readymade"
defined by Tate * Betacourt, Michael

* Thompson, Charles

(See section "The medium modifies the message") * den Arend, Lucien

* Iverson, Margaret
"Readymade, found object, photograph"
– An extended examination of the subject
''FAUND''
paper magazine featuring internet image finders
"READYMADE"
fan scarf remix knitting pattern by Schalalala
Hopkins, David, ''A Companion to Dada and Surrealism''
Volume 10 of Blackwell Companions to Art History, John Wiley & Sons, May 2, 2016, {{DEFAULTSORT:Found object Visual arts media Contemporary art Modern art Types of sculpture Repurposing