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Deuterium (or hydrogen-2, symbol or deuterium, also known as heavy hydrogen) is one of two
stable isotopes The term stable isotope has a meaning similar to stable nuclide, but is preferably used when speaking of nuclides of a specific element. Hence, the plural form stable isotopes usually refers to isotope Isotopes are variants of a particular c ...
of
hydrogen Hydrogen is the chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol H and atomic number 1. Hydrogen is the lightest element. At standard temperature and pressure, standard conditions hydrogen is a gas of diatomic molecules having the che ...

hydrogen
(the other being
protium
protium
, or hydrogen-1). The
nucleus ''Nucleus'' (plural nuclei) is a Latin word for the seed inside a fruit. It most often refers to: *Atomic nucleus, the very dense central region of an atom *Cell nucleus, a central organelle of a eukaryotic cell, containing most of the cell's DNA ...
of a deuterium
atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that can be touched are ultimately composed of ato ...

atom
, called a deuteron, contains one
proton A proton is a subatomic particle, symbol or , with a positive electric charge of +1''e'' elementary charge and a mass slightly less than that of a neutron. Protons and neutrons, each with masses of approximately one atomic mass unit, are collecti ...

proton
and one
neutron The neutron is a subatomic particle, symbol or , which has a neutral (not positive or negative) charge, and a mass slightly greater than that of a proton. Protons and neutrons constitute the nuclei of atoms. Since protons and neutrons behav ...

neutron
, whereas the far more common protium has no neutrons in the nucleus. Deuterium has a
natural abundance In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, from ''phýsis'' 'nature'), , is the natural science that studies matter, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spa ...

natural abundance
in Earth's
oceans The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approximately 71% of the surface of the Earth.
oceans
of about one atom in of hydrogen. Thus deuterium accounts for approximately 0.0156% (0.0312% by mass) of all the naturally occurring hydrogen in the oceans, while protium accounts for more than 99.98%. The abundance of deuterium changes slightly from one kind of natural water to another (see
Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water (VSMOW) is an isotopic standard for water. Despite the name, VSMOW is pure water with no salt or other chemicals found in the oceans. The VSMOW standard was promulgated by the International Atomic Energy Agency ...
). The name ''deuterium'' is derived from the Greek , meaning "second", to denote the two particles composing the nucleus. Deuterium was discovered and named in 1931 by
Harold Urey Harold Clayton Urey ( ; April 29, 1893 – January 5, 1981) was an American physical chemist Physical chemistry is the study of macroscopic The macroscopic scale is the length scale on which objects or phenomena are large enough to be visib ...

Harold Urey
. When the neutron was discovered in 1932, this made the nuclear structure of deuterium obvious, and Urey won the
Nobel Prize The Nobel Prizes ( ; sv, Nobelpriset ; no, Nobelprisen ) are five separate prizes that, according to Alfred Nobel Alfred Bernhard Nobel ( , ; 21 October 1833 – 10 December 1896) was a Swedish chemist, engineer, inventor, busines ...
in 1934 "for his discovery of heavy hydrogen". Soon after deuterium's discovery, Urey and others produced samples of "
heavy water Heavy water (deuterium oxide, , ) is a form of water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an , transparent, tasteless, odorless, and , which is the main constituent of 's and the s of all known living organisms (in which it acts as a ). I ...

heavy water
" in which the deuterium content had been highly concentrated. Deuterium is destroyed in the interiors of stars faster than it is produced. Other natural processes are thought to produce only an insignificant amount of deuterium. Nearly all deuterium found in nature was produced in the
Big Bang The Big Bang theory A theory is a rational Rationality is the quality or state of being rational – that is, being based on or agreeable to reason Reason is the capacity of consciously making sense of things, applying logic ...

Big Bang
13.8 billion years ago, as the basic or primordial ratio of hydrogen-1 to deuterium (about 26 atoms of deuterium per million hydrogen atoms) has its origin from that time. This is the ratio found in the gas giant planets, such as Jupiter. The analysis of deuterium–protium ratios in comets found results very similar to the mean ratio in Earth's oceans (156 atoms of deuterium per million hydrogen atoms). This reinforces theories that much of Earth's ocean water is of cometary origin. The deuterium–protium ratio of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, as measured by the ''
Rosetta Rosetta or Rashid (; ar, رشيد ' ; french: Rosette  ; cop, ⲣⲁϣⲓⲧ ''Rashit'', Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from a ...
'' space probe, is about three times that of Earth water. This figure is the highest yet measured in a comet. Deuterium–protium ratios thus continue to be an active topic of research in both astronomy and climatology.


Differences from common hydrogen (protium)


Chemical symbol

Deuterium is frequently represented by the
chemical symbol Chemical symbols are the abbreviations used in chemistry Chemistry is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, suc ...
D. Since it is an isotope of
hydrogen Hydrogen is the chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol H and atomic number 1. Hydrogen is the lightest element. At standard temperature and pressure, standard conditions hydrogen is a gas of diatomic molecules having the che ...

hydrogen
with
mass number The mass number (symbol ''A'', from the German word ''Atomgewicht'' tomic weight, also called atomic mass number or nucleon number, is the total number of s and s (together known as s) in an . It is approximately equal to the of the expre ...
2, it is also represented by .
IUPAC The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC ) is an international federation of National Adhering OrganizationsNational Adhering Organizations in chemistry are the organizations that work as the authoritative power over chemist ...
allows both D and , although is preferred. A distinct chemical symbol is used for convenience because of the isotope's common use in various scientific processes. Also, its large mass difference with
protium
protium
(1H) (deuterium has a mass of , compared to the
mean There are several kinds of mean in mathematics, especially in statistics. For a data set, the ''arithmetic mean'', also known as arithmetic average, is a central value of a finite set of numbers: specifically, the sum of the values divided by ...
hydrogen
atomic weight Relative atomic mass (symbol: ''A'') or atomic weight is a dimensionless physical quantity A physical quantity is a physical property of a material or system that can be Quantification (science), quantified by measurement. A physical quantity ...
of , and protium's mass of ) confers non-negligible chemical dissimilarities with protium-containing compounds, whereas the isotope weight ratios within other chemical elements are largely insignificant in this regard.


Spectroscopy

In
quantum mechanics Quantum mechanics is a fundamental theory A theory is a reason, rational type of abstraction, abstract thinking about a phenomenon, or the results of such thinking. The process of contemplative and rational thinking is often associated with ...
the energy levels of electrons in atoms depend on the
reduced massIn physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, from ''phýsis'' 'nature'), , is the natural science that studies matter, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spac ...

reduced mass
of the system of electron and nucleus. For the
hydrogen atom #REDIRECT Hydrogen atom A hydrogen atom is an atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday o ...

hydrogen atom
, the role of reduced mass is most simply seen in the
Bohr model
Bohr model
of the atom, where the reduced mass appears in a simple calculation of the
Rydberg constant In spectroscopy Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that can be touched ar ...
and Rydberg equation, but the reduced mass also appears in the
Schrödinger equation The Schrödinger equation is a linear Linearity is the property of a mathematical relationship (''function Function or functionality may refer to: Computing * Function key A function key is a key on a computer A computer is a ma ...
, and the
Dirac equation In particle physics, the Dirac equation is a relativistic wave equation derived by British physicist Paul Dirac in 1928. In its Dirac equation#Covariant form and relativistic invariance, free form, or including Dirac equation#Comparison with t ...
for calculating atomic energy levels. The reduced mass of the system in these equations is close to the mass of a single electron, but differs from it by a small amount about equal to the ratio of mass of the electron to the atomic nucleus. For hydrogen, this amount is about 1837/1836, or 1.000545, and for deuterium it is even smaller: 3671/3670, or 1.0002725. The energies of spectroscopic lines for deuterium and light hydrogen (
hydrogen-1 Hydrogen Hydrogen is the chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol H and atomic number 1. Hydrogen is the lightest element. At standard temperature and pressure, standard conditions hydrogen is a gas of diatomic molecules h ...

hydrogen-1
) therefore differ by the ratios of these two numbers, which is 1.000272. The wavelengths of all deuterium spectroscopic lines are shorter than the corresponding lines of light hydrogen, by a factor of 1.000272. In astronomical observation, this corresponds to a blue Doppler shift of 0.000272 times the speed of light, or 81.6 km/s. The differences are much more pronounced in vibrational spectroscopy such as
infrared spectroscopy Infrared spectroscopy (IR spectroscopy or vibrational spectroscopy) is the measurement of the interaction of infrared radiation with matter by absorption spectroscopy, absorption, emission spectrum, emission, or reflection (physics), reflection. ...

infrared spectroscopy
and
Raman spectroscopy 450px, Energy-level diagram showing the states involved in Raman spectra. Raman spectroscopy (); (named after Indian physicist C. V. Raman) is a spectroscopic technique typically used to determine vibrational modes of molecules, although rotatio ...
, and in rotational spectra such as
microwave spectroscopyMicrowave spectroscopy is the spectroscopy method that employs microwaves, i.e. electromagnetic radiation at GHz frequencies, for the study of matter. In molecular physics In the field of molecular physics, microwave spectroscopy is commonly used t ...
because the
reduced massIn physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, from ''phýsis'' 'nature'), , is the natural science that studies matter, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spac ...

reduced mass
of the deuterium is markedly higher than that of protium. In
nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, most commonly known as NMR spectroscopy or magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), is a technique to observe local magnetic fields around . The sample is placed in a magnetic field and the NMR signal is pr ...
, deuterium has a very different
NMR Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a physical phenomenon A phenomenon (; plural phenomena) is an observable In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, from ...
frequency (e.g. 61 MHz when protium is at 400 MHz) and is much less sensitive. Deuterated solvents are usually used in protium NMR to prevent the solvent from overlapping with the signal, although
deuterium NMR Deuterium NMR is NMR spectroscopy Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, most commonly known as NMR spectroscopy or magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), is a spectroscopic technique to observe local magnetic fields around atomic nuclei. The ...
on its own right is also possible.


Big Bang nucleosynthesis

Deuterium is thought to have played an important role in setting the number and ratios of the elements that were formed in the
Big Bang The Big Bang theory A theory is a rational Rationality is the quality or state of being rational – that is, being based on or agreeable to reason Reason is the capacity of consciously making sense of things, applying logic ...

Big Bang
. Combining
thermodynamics Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with heat, Work (thermodynamics), work, and temperature, and their relation to energy, entropy, and the physical properties of matter and radiation. The behavior of these quantities is governed b ...

thermodynamics
and the changes brought about by cosmic expansion, one can calculate the fraction of
protons A proton is a subatomic particle, symbol or , with a positive electric charge Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field. There are two types of electric cha ...
and
neutrons The neutron is a subatomic particle In physical sciences, subatomic particles are smaller than atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass ...

neutrons
based on the temperature at the point that the universe cooled enough to allow formation of
nuclei ''Nucleus'' (plural nuclei) is a Latin word for the seed inside a fruit. It most often refers to: *Atomic nucleus, the very dense central region of an atom *Cell nucleus, a central organelle of a eukaryotic cell, containing most of the cell's DNA ...
. This calculation indicates seven protons for every neutron at the beginning of
nucleogenesis Nucleosynthesis is the process that creates new atomic nuclei from pre-existing nucleons (protons and neutrons) and nuclei. According to current theories, the first nuclei were formed a few minutes after the Big Bang, through nuclear reactions in a ...
, a ratio that would remain stable even after nucleogenesis was over. This fraction was in favor of protons initially, primarily because the lower mass of the proton favored their production. As the Universe expanded, it cooled.
Free neutron The neutron is a subatomic particle, symbol or , which has a neutral (not positive or negative) charge, and a mass slightly greater than that of a proton. Protons and neutrons constitute the atomic nucleus, nuclei of atoms. Since protons and ...

Free neutron
s and protons are less stable than
helium Helium (from el, ἥλιος, helios Helios; Homeric Greek: ), Latinized as Helius; Hyperion and Phaethon are also the names of his father and son respectively. often given the epithets Hyperion ("the one above") and Phaethon ("the shining" ...

helium
nuclei, and the protons and neutrons had a strong energetic reason to form
helium-4 Helium-4 () is a stable isotope of the element helium. It is by far the more abundant of the two naturally occurring isotopes of helium, making up about 99.99986% of the helium on Earth. Its nucleus is identical to an alpha particle, and consists ...

helium-4
. However, forming helium-4 requires the intermediate step of forming deuterium. Through much of the few minutes after the Big Bang during which nucleosynthesis could have occurred, the temperature was high enough that the mean energy per particle was greater than the binding energy of weakly bound deuterium; therefore any deuterium that was formed was immediately destroyed. This situation is known as the deuterium bottleneck. The bottleneck delayed formation of any helium-4 until the Universe became cool enough to form deuterium (at about a temperature equivalent to 100
keV In physics Physics is the that studies , its , its and behavior through , and the related entities of and . "Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular suc ...
). At this point, there was a sudden burst of element formation (first deuterium, which immediately fused to helium). However, very shortly thereafter, at twenty minutes after the Big Bang, the Universe became too cool for any further
nuclear fusion Nuclear fusion is a nuclear reaction, reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei are combined to form one or more different atomic nuclei and subatomic particles (neutrons or protons). The difference in mass between the reactants and products ...

nuclear fusion
and nucleosynthesis to occur. At this point, the elemental abundances were nearly fixed, with the only change as some of the
radioactive Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay, radioactivity, radioactive disintegration or nuclear disintegration) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of s and s ...

radioactive
products of Big Bang nucleosynthesis (such as
tritium Tritium ( or , ) or hydrogen-3 (symbol T or H) is a rare and radioactive Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay, radioactivity, radioactive disintegration or nuclear disintegration) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucl ...

tritium
) decay. The deuterium bottleneck in the formation of helium, together with the lack of stable ways for helium to combine with hydrogen or with itself (there are no stable nuclei with mass numbers of five or eight) meant that an insignificant amount of carbon, or any elements heavier than carbon, formed in the Big Bang. These elements thus required formation in stars. At the same time, the failure of much nucleogenesis during the Big Bang ensured that there would be plenty of hydrogen in the later universe available to form long-lived stars, such as our Sun.


Abundance

Deuterium occurs in trace amounts naturally as deuterium
gas Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter In physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space ...

gas
, written 2 or D2, but most of the naturally occurring atoms in the
Universe The universe ( la, universus) is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxy, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy. The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological description of the development ...

Universe
are bonded with a typical atom, a gas called
hydrogen deuteride Hydrogen deuteride is a diatomic molecule substance or compound of two isotopes of hydrogen: the majority isotope 1H (hydrogen-1, protium) and 2H (deuterium). Its proper molecular formula is H2H, but for simplification, it is usually written as HD ...

hydrogen deuteride
(HD or ). The existence of deuterium on Earth, elsewhere in the
Solar System The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies. The International Astronomical Union, the authoritative body regarding astronomical nomenclature, specifies capitalizing the names of all individual astronomical objects but uses mixed "Sola ...

Solar System
(as confirmed by planetary probes), and in the spectra of
star A star is an astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma Plasma or plasm may refer to: Science * Plasma (physics), one of the four fundamental states of matter * Plasma (mineral) or heliotrope, a mineral aggregate * Quark ...

star
s, is also an important datum in
cosmology Cosmology (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appro ...
. Gamma radiation from ordinary nuclear fusion dissociates deuterium into protons and neutrons, and there are no known natural processes other than the
Big Bang nucleosynthesis In physical cosmology Physical cosmology is a branch of cosmology concerned with the study of cosmological models. A cosmological model, or simply cosmology, provides a description of the largest-scale structures and dynamics of the univer ...
that might have produced deuterium at anything close to its observed natural abundance. Deuterium is produced by the rare
cluster decay Cluster decay, also named heavy particle radioactivity or heavy ion radioactivity, is a rare type of nuclear decay in which an atomic nucleus emits a small "cluster" of neutron The neutron is a subatomic particle, symbol or , which has a ...
, and occasional absorption of naturally occurring neutrons by light hydrogen, but these are trivial sources. There is thought to be little deuterium in the interior of the Sun and other stars, as at these temperatures the
nuclear fusion reaction 400 px, The nuclear binding energy curve. The formation of nuclei with masses up to iron-56 releases energy, as illustrated above. Nuclear fusion is the process by which two or more atoms are combined to form one or more atomic nuclei and subat ...
s that consume deuterium happen much faster than the proton-proton reaction that creates deuterium. However, deuterium persists in the outer solar atmosphere at roughly the same concentration as in Jupiter, and this has probably been unchanged since the origin of the Solar System. The natural abundance of deuterium seems to be a very similar fraction of hydrogen, wherever hydrogen is found, unless there are obvious processes at work that concentrate it. The existence of deuterium at a low but constant primordial fraction in all hydrogen is another one of the arguments in favor of the
Big Bang The Big Bang theory A theory is a rational Rationality is the quality or state of being rational – that is, being based on or agreeable to reason Reason is the capacity of consciously making sense of things, applying logic ...

Big Bang
theory over the
Steady State theory In cosmology Cosmology (from Ancient Greek, Greek κόσμος, ''kosmos'' "world" and -λογία, ''-logia'' "study of") is a branch of astronomy concerned with the studies of the origin and evolution of the universe, from the Big Bang to ...
of the Universe. The observed ratios of hydrogen to helium to deuterium in the universe are difficult to explain except with a Big Bang model. It is estimated that the abundances of deuterium have not evolved significantly since their production about 13.8 billion years ago. Measurements of Milky Way galactic deuterium from ultraviolet spectral analysis show a ratio of as much as 23 atoms of deuterium per million hydrogen atoms in undisturbed gas clouds, which is only 15% below the
WMAP The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), originally known as the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP and Explorer 80), was a NASA The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; ) is an independent agencies of the United Sta ...

WMAP
estimated primordial ratio of about 27 atoms per million from the Big Bang. This has been interpreted to mean that less deuterium has been destroyed in star formation in our galaxy than expected, or perhaps deuterium has been replenished by a large in-fall of primordial hydrogen from outside the galaxy. In space a few hundred light years from the Sun, deuterium abundance is only 15 atoms per million, but this value is presumably influenced by differential adsorption of deuterium onto carbon dust grains in interstellar space. The abundance of deuterium in the atmosphere of
Jupiter Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the List of Solar System objects by size, largest in the Solar System. It is a gas giant with a mass more than two and a half times that of all the other planets in the Solar System combined, but ...

Jupiter
has been directly measured by the Galileo space probe as 26 atoms per million hydrogen atoms. ISO-SWS observations find 22 atoms per million hydrogen atoms in Jupiter. and this abundance is thought to represent close to the primordial solar system ratio. This is about 17% of the terrestrial deuterium-to-hydrogen ratio of 156 deuterium atoms per million hydrogen atoms. Cometary bodies such as and
Halley's Comet Halley's Comet or Comet Halley, officially designated 1P/Halley, is a List of periodic comets, short-period comet visible from Earth every 75–76 years. Halley is the only known short-period comet that is regularly visible to the naked eye fro ...

Halley's Comet
have been measured to contain relatively more deuterium (about 200 atoms D per million hydrogens), ratios which are enriched with respect to the presumed protosolar nebula ratio, probably due to heating, and which are similar to the ratios found in Earth seawater. The recent measurement of deuterium amounts of 161 atoms D per million hydrogen in Comet
103P/Hartley Comet Hartley 2, designated as 103P/Hartley by the Minor Planet Center, is a small periodic comet with an orbital period of 6.46 years. It was discovered by Malcolm Hartley in 1986 at the Schmidt Telescope Unit, Siding Spring Observatory, Austra ...
(a former
Kuiper belt The Kuiper belt () is a circumstellar disc A circumstellar disc (or circumstellar disk) is a torus, pancake or ring-shaped accumulation of matter composed of gas, Cosmic dust, dust, planetesimals, asteroids, or collision fragments in orbit ar ...
object), a ratio almost exactly that in Earth's oceans, emphasizes the theory that Earth's surface water may be largely comet-derived. Most recently the deuterium–protium (D–H) ratio of 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko as measured by ''Rosetta'' is about three times that of Earth water, a figure that is high. This has caused renewed interest in suggestions that Earth's water may be partly of asteroidal origin. Deuterium has also been observed to be concentrated over the mean solar abundance in other terrestrial planets, in particular Mars and Venus.


Production

Deuterium is produced for industrial, scientific and military purposes, by starting with ordinary water—a small fraction of which is naturally-occurring
heavy water Heavy water (deuterium oxide, , ) is a form of water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an , transparent, tasteless, odorless, and , which is the main constituent of 's and the s of all known living organisms (in which it acts as a ). I ...

heavy water
—and then separating out the heavy water by the Girdler sulfide process, distillation, or other methods. In theory, deuterium for heavy water could be created in a nuclear reactor, but separation from ordinary water is the cheapest bulk production process. The world's leading supplier of deuterium was
Atomic Energy of Canada Limited Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL; french: Énergie atomique du Canada limitée (''EACL'')) is a Canadian Canadians (french: Canadiens) are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, legal, historic ...
until 1997, when the last heavy water plant was shut down. Canada uses heavy water as a
neutron moderator In nuclear engineering Nuclear engineering is the branch of engineering Engineering is the use of scientific method, scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehi ...
for the operation of the
CANDU reactor The CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium) is a Canadian pressurized heavy-water reactor design used to generate electric power. The acronym refers to its deuterium Deuterium (or hydrogen-2, symbol or , also known as heavy hydrogen) is one of two ...
design. Another major producer of heavy water is India. All but one of India's atomic energy plants are pressurised heavy water plants, which use natural (i.e., not enriched) uranium. India has eight heavy water plants, of which seven are in operation. Six plants, of which five are in operation, are based on D–H exchange in ammonia gas. The other two plants extract deuterium from natural water in a process that uses hydrogen sulphide gas at high pressure. While India is self-sufficient in heavy water for its own use, India now also exports reactor-grade heavy water.


Properties


Physical properties

Compared to hydrogen in its natural composition on Earth, pure deuterium (D2) has a higher
melting point The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature Temperature ( ) is a physical quantity that expresses hot and cold. It is the manifestation of thermal energy Thermal radiation in visible light can b ...

melting point
(18.72 K vs 13.99 K), a higher
boiling point The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure 280px, The ''pistol test tube'' experiment. The tube contains alcohol and is closed with a piece of cork. By heating the alcohol, the vapors fill in the space, inc ...
(23.64 K vs 20.27 K), a higher
critical Critical or Critically may refer to: *Critical, or critical but stable, medical state Medical state is a term used to describe a hospital A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treatment with specialized medical and nursing s ...
temperature (38.3 K vs 32.94 K) and a higher critical pressure (1.6496 MPa vs 1.2858 MPa). The physical properties of deuterium compounds can exhibit significant
kinetic isotope effect In physical organic chemistry, a kinetic isotope effect (KIE) is the change in the reaction rate of a chemical reaction A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the chemical transformation of one set of chemical substances to another. ...
s and other physical and chemical property differences from the protium analogs. D2O, for example, is more
viscous The viscosity of a fluid In physics Physics is the that studies , its , its and behavior through , and the related entities of and . "Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, ...

viscous
than . Chemically, there are differences in bond energy and length for compounds of heavy hydrogen isotopes compared to protium, which are larger than the isotopic differences in any other element. Bonds involving deuterium and
tritium Tritium ( or , ) or hydrogen-3 (symbol T or H) is a rare and radioactive Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay, radioactivity, radioactive disintegration or nuclear disintegration) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucl ...

tritium
are somewhat stronger than the corresponding bonds in protium, and these differences are enough to cause significant changes in biological reactions. Pharmaceutical firms are interested in the fact that deuterium is harder to remove from carbon than protium. Deuterium can replace protium in water molecules to form heavy water (D2O), which is about 10.6% denser than normal water (so that ice made from it sinks in ordinary water). Heavy water is slightly toxic in
eukaryotic Eukaryotes () are organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interact ...
animals, with 25% substitution of the body water causing cell division problems and sterility, and 50% substitution causing death by cytotoxic syndrome (bone marrow failure and gastrointestinal lining failure).
Prokaryotic A prokaryote () is a single-celled organism A unicellular organism, also known as a single-celled organism, is an organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual conti ...
organisms, however, can survive and grow in pure heavy water, though they develop slowly. Despite this toxicity, consumption of heavy water under normal circumstances does not pose a
health threatA health risk assessment (also referred to as a health risk appraisal and health & well-being assessment) is one of the most widely used screening tools in the field of health promotion and is often the first step in multi-component health promotion ...

health threat
to humans. It is estimated that a person might drink of heavy water without serious consequences. Small doses of heavy water (a few grams in humans, containing an amount of deuterium comparable to that normally present in the body) are routinely used as harmless metabolic tracers in humans and animals.


Quantum properties

The deuteron has
spin Spin or spinning may refer to: Businesses * or South Pacific Island Network * , an American scooter-sharing system * , a chain of table tennis lounges Computing * , 's tool for formal verification of distributed software systems * , a Mach-like ...
+1 ("
triplet state In quantum mechanics Quantum mechanics is a fundamental Scientific theory, theory in physics that provides a description of the physical properties of nature at the scale of atoms and subatomic particles. It is the foundation of all quantum p ...

triplet state
") and is thus a
boson In quantum mechanics Quantum mechanics is a fundamental theory A theory is a reason, rational type of abstraction, abstract thinking about a phenomenon, or the results of such thinking. The process of contemplative and rational thinkin ...

boson
. The
NMR Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a physical phenomenon A phenomenon (; plural phenomena) is an observable In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, from ...
frequency of deuterium is significantly different from common light hydrogen.
Infrared spectroscopy Infrared spectroscopy (IR spectroscopy or vibrational spectroscopy) is the measurement of the interaction of infrared radiation with matter by absorption spectroscopy, absorption, emission spectrum, emission, or reflection (physics), reflection. ...

Infrared spectroscopy
also easily differentiates many deuterated compounds, due to the large difference in IR absorption frequency seen in the vibration of a chemical bond containing deuterium, versus light hydrogen. The two stable isotopes of hydrogen can also be distinguished by using
mass spectrometry Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique that is used to measure the mass-to-charge ratio The mass-to-charge ratio (''m''/''Q'') is a physical quantity A physical quantity is a physical property of a material or system that can be Quant ...
. The triplet deuteron nucleon is barely bound at EB = , and none of the higher energy states are bound. The singlet deuteron is a virtual state, with a negative binding energy of . There is no such stable particle, but this virtual particle transiently exists during neutron-proton inelastic scattering, accounting for the unusually large neutron scattering cross-section of the proton.


Nuclear properties (the deuteron)


Deuteron mass and radius

The nucleus of deuterium is called a deuteron. It has a mass of (just over ). The
charge radius The rms charge radius is a measure of the size of an atomic nucleus The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of s and s at the center of an , discovered in 1911 by based on the 1909 . After the discovery of the neutron in ...
of the deuteron is . Like the proton radius, measurements using
muon The muon (; from the Greek alphabet, Greek letter mu (letter), mu (μ) used to represent it) is an elementary particle similar to the electron, with an electric charge of −1 ''e'' and a spin-½, spin of 1/2, but with a much greater ma ...

muon
ic deuterium produce a smaller result: .


Spin and energy

Deuterium is one of only five stable
nuclide A nuclide (or nucleide, from nucleus ''Nucleus'' (plural nuclei) is a Latin word for the seed inside a fruit. It most often refers to: *Atomic nucleus, the very dense central region of an atom *Cell nucleus, a central organelle of a eukaryotic c ...

nuclide
s with an odd number of protons and an odd number of neutrons. (, , , , ; also, the long-lived radioactive nuclides

, , , occur naturally.) Most odd-odd nuclei are unstable with respect to
beta decay In , beta decay (''β''-decay) is a type of in which a (fast energetic or ) is emitted from an , transforming the original to an of that nuclide. For example, beta decay of a transforms it into a by the emission of an electron accompanie ...

beta decay
, because the decay products are even-even, and are therefore more strongly bound, due to nuclear pairing effects. Deuterium, however, benefits from having its proton and neutron coupled to a spin-1 state, which gives a stronger nuclear attraction; the corresponding spin-1 state does not exist in the two-neutron or two-proton system, due to the
Pauli exclusion principle The Pauli exclusion principle is the quantum mechanical principle which states that two or more identical fermion In particle physics Particle physics (also known as high energy physics) is a branch of physics Physics (from grc ...
which would require one or the other identical particle with the same spin to have some other different quantum number, such as orbital angular momentum. But orbital angular momentum of either particle gives a lower
binding energy In physics and chemistry, binding energy is the smallest amount of energy In physics Physics is the that studies , its , its and behavior through , and the related entities of and . "Physical science is that department of know ...

binding energy
for the system, primarily due to increasing distance of the particles in the steep gradient of the nuclear force. In both cases, this causes the and
dineutron Neutronium (sometimes shortened to neutrium, also referred to as neutrite) is a hypothetical substance composed purely of neutrons. The word was coined by scientist Andreas von Antropoff in 1926 (before the discovery of the neutron) for the hypothet ...
nucleus to be . The proton and neutron making up deuterium can be
dissociated Dissociation in chemistry Chemistry is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an oc ...
through
neutral current Weak neutral current interactions are one of the ways in which subatomic particles can interact by means of the weak force. These interactions are mediated by the boson In quantum mechanics Quantum mechanics is a fundamental Scientific ...

neutral current
interactions with
neutrino A neutrino ( or ) (denoted by the Greek letter ) is a fermion In particle physics, a fermion is a particle that follows Fermi–Dirac statistics and generally has half odd integer spin: spin 1/2, Spin (physics)#Higher spins, spin 3/2, etc. T ...

neutrino
s. The
cross section Cross section may refer to: * Cross section (geometry), the intersection of a 3-dimensional body with a plane * Cross section (electronics), a common sample preparation technique in electronics * Cross section (geology), the intersection of a 3-dim ...
for this interaction is comparatively large, and deuterium was successfully used as a neutrino target in the
Sudbury Neutrino Observatory Artist's concept of SNO's detector. (Courtesy of SNO) The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) was a neutrino observatory A neutrino detector is a physics apparatus which is designed to study neutrinos. Because neutrinos only Weak interaction, wea ...
experiment. Diatomic deuterium (D2) has ortho and para nuclear spin isomers like diatomic hydrogen, but with , which occur because the deuteron is a
boson In quantum mechanics Quantum mechanics is a fundamental theory A theory is a reason, rational type of abstraction, abstract thinking about a phenomenon, or the results of such thinking. The process of contemplative and rational thinkin ...

boson
with nuclear spin equal to one.


Isospin singlet state of the deuteron

Due to the similarity in mass and nuclear properties between the proton and neutron, they are sometimes considered as two symmetric types of the same object, a
nucleon In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during ...
. While only the proton has an electric charge, this is often negligible due to the weakness of the
electromagnetic interaction Electromagnetism is a branch of physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space and time, and the related ...
relative to the strong nuclear interaction. The symmetry relating the proton and neutron is known as
isospin In nuclear physics Nuclear physics is the field of physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space and time ...
and denoted ''I'' (or sometimes ''T''). Isospin is an
SU(2) In mathematics, the special unitary group of degree , denoted , is the Lie group In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure ...
symmetry, like ordinary
spin Spin or spinning may refer to: Businesses * or South Pacific Island Network * , an American scooter-sharing system * , a chain of table tennis lounges Computing * , 's tool for formal verification of distributed software systems * , a Mach-like ...
, so is completely analogous to it. The proton and neutron, each of which have iso spin-, form an isospin doublet (analogous to a spin doublet), with a "down" state (↓) being a neutron and an "up" state (↑) being a proton. A pair of nucleons can either be in an antisymmetric state of isospin called Singlet state, singlet, or in a symmetric state called Spin triplet, triplet. In terms of the "down" state and "up" state, the singlet is :\frac\Big( , \rangle - , \rangle\Big)., which can also be written :\frac\Big( , p n \rangle - , n p \rangle\Big). This is a nucleus with one proton and one neutron, i.e. a deuterium nucleus. The triplet is : \left( \begin , \rangle\\ \frac( , \rangle + , \rangle )\\ , \rangle \end \right) and thus consists of three types of nuclei, which are supposed to be symmetric: a deuterium nucleus (actually a highly excited state of it), a nucleus with two protons, and a nucleus with two neutrons. These states are not stable.


Approximated wavefunction of the deuteron

The deuteron wavefunction must be antisymmetric if the isospin representation is used (since a proton and a neutron are not identical particles, the wavefunction need not be antisymmetric in general). Apart from their isospin, the two nucleons also have spin and spatial distributions of their wavefunction. The latter is symmetric if the deuteron is symmetric under Parity (physics), parity (i.e. have an "even" or "positive" parity), and antisymmetric if the deuteron is antisymmetric under parity (i.e. have an "odd" or "negative" parity). The parity is fully determined by the total orbital angular momentum of the two nucleons: if it is even then the parity is even (positive), and if it is odd then the parity is odd (negative). The deuteron, being an isospin singlet, is antisymmetric under nucleons exchange due to isospin, and therefore must be symmetric under the double exchange of their spin and location. Therefore, it can be in either of the following two different states: *Symmetric spin and symmetric under parity. In this case, the exchange of the two nucleons will multiply the deuterium wavefunction by (−1) from isospin exchange, (+1) from spin exchange and (+1) from parity (location exchange), for a total of (−1) as needed for antisymmetry. *Antisymmetric spin and antisymmetric under parity. In this case, the exchange of the two nucleons will multiply the deuterium wavefunction by (−1) from isospin exchange, (−1) from spin exchange and (−1) from parity (location exchange), again for a total of (−1) as needed for antisymmetry. In the first case the deuteron is a spin triplet, so that its total spin ''s'' is 1. It also has an even parity and therefore even orbital angular momentum ''l'' ; The lower its orbital angular momentum, the lower its energy. Therefore, the lowest possible energy state has , . In the second case the deuteron is a spin singlet, so that its total spin ''s'' is 0. It also has an odd parity and therefore odd orbital angular momentum ''l''. Therefore, the lowest possible energy state has , . Since gives a stronger nuclear attraction, the deuterium ground state is in the , state. The same considerations lead to the possible states of an isospin triplet having , or , . Thus the state of lowest energy has , , higher than that of the isospin singlet. The analysis just given is in fact only approximate, both because isospin is not an exact symmetry, and more importantly because the strong nuclear interaction between the two nucleons is related to angular momentum in spin–orbit interaction that mixes different ''s'' and ''l'' states. That is, ''s'' and ''l'' are not constant in time (they do not commutativity, commute with the Hamiltonian (quantum mechanics), Hamiltonian), and over time a state such as , may become a state of , . Parity is still constant in time so these do not mix with odd ''l'' states (such as , ). Therefore, the quantum state of the deuterium is a Quantum superposition, superposition (a linear combination) of the , state and the , state, even though the first component is much bigger. Since the total angular momentum ''j'' is also a good quantum number (it is a constant in time), both components must have the same ''j'', and therefore . This is the total spin of the deuterium nucleus. To summarize, the deuterium nucleus is antisymmetric in terms of isospin, and has spin 1 and even (+1) parity. The relative angular momentum of its nucleons ''l'' is not well defined, and the deuteron is a superposition of mostly with some .


Magnetic and electric multipoles

In order to find theoretically the deuterium magnetic dipole moment μ, one uses the formula for a nuclear magnetic moment :\mu = \frac\bigl\langle(l,s),j,m_jj \,\bigr, \, \vec\cdot \vec \,\bigl, \,(l,s),j,m_jj\bigr\rangle with :\vec = g^\vec + g^\vec g(l) and g(s) are g-factor (physics), g-factors of the nucleons. Since the proton and neutron have different values for g(l) and g(s), one must separate their contributions. Each gets half of the deuterium orbital angular momentum \vec and spin \vec. One arrives at :\mu = \frac \Bigl\langle(l,s),j,m_jj \,\Bigr, \left(\frac\vec _p + \frac\vec (_p + _n)\right)\cdot \vec \,\Bigl, \, (l,s),j,m_jj \Bigr\rangle where subscripts p and n stand for the proton and neutron, and . By using the same identities as Nuclear magnetic moment#Calculating the magnetic moment, here and using the value , we arrive at the following result, in units of the nuclear magneton μN :\mu = \frac\left[(_p + _n)\big(j(j+1) - l(l+1) + s(s+1)\big) + \big(j(j+1) + l(l+1) - s(s+1)\big)\right] For the , state (), we obtain :\mu = \frac(_p + _n) = 0.879 For the , state (), we obtain :\mu = -\frac(_p + _n) + \frac = 0.310 The measured value of the deuterium magnetic dipole moment, is , which is 97.5% of the value obtained by simply adding moments of the proton and neutron. This suggests that the state of the deuterium is indeed to a good approximation , state, which occurs with both nucleons spinning in the same direction, but their magnetic moments subtracting because of the neutron's negative moment. But the slightly lower experimental number than that which results from simple addition of proton and (negative) neutron moments shows that deuterium is actually a linear combination of mostly , state with a slight admixture of , state. The electric dipole is zero Nuclear shell model, as usual. The measured electric quadrupole of the deuterium is . While the order of magnitude is reasonable, since the deuterium radius is of order of 1 femtometer (see below) and its electric charge is e, the above model does not suffice for its computation. More specifically, the electric quadrupole does not get a contribution from the ''l'' =0 state (which is the dominant one) and does get a contribution from a term mixing the ''l'' =0 and the ''l'' =2 states, because the electric quadrupole operator (quantum mechanics), operator does not Commutative property#Non-commuting operators in quantum mechanics, commute with angular momentum. The latter contribution is dominant in the absence of a pure contribution, but cannot be calculated without knowing the exact spatial form of the nucleons wavefunction inside the deuterium. Higher magnetic and electric multipole moments cannot be calculated by the above model, for similar reasons.


Applications

Deuterium has a number of commercial and scientific uses. These include:


Nuclear reactors

Deuterium is used in Heavy water reactor, heavy water moderated fission reactors, usually as liquid D2O, to slow neutrons without the high neutron absorption of ordinary hydrogen. This is a common commercial use for larger amounts of deuterium. In research reactors, liquid D2 is used in cold sources to moderate neutrons to very low energies and wavelengths appropriate for neutron scattering, scattering experiments. Experimentally, deuterium is the most common nuclide used in
nuclear fusion Nuclear fusion is a nuclear reaction, reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei are combined to form one or more different atomic nuclei and subatomic particles (neutrons or protons). The difference in mass between the reactants and products ...

nuclear fusion
reactor designs, especially in combination with
tritium Tritium ( or , ) or hydrogen-3 (symbol T or H) is a rare and radioactive Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay, radioactivity, radioactive disintegration or nuclear disintegration) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucl ...

tritium
, because of the large reaction rate (or nuclear cross section) and high energy yield of the D–T reaction. There is an even higher-yield D–Helium-3, fusion reaction, though the Fusion energy gain factor, breakeven point of D– is higher than that of most other fusion reactions; together with the scarcity of , this makes it implausible as a practical power source until at least D–T and D–D fusion reactions have been performed on a commercial scale. Commercial nuclear fusion is not yet an accomplished technology.


NMR spectroscopy

Deuterium is most commonly used in hydrogen
nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, most commonly known as NMR spectroscopy or magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), is a technique to observe local magnetic fields around . The sample is placed in a magnetic field and the NMR signal is pr ...
(proton NMR) in the following way. NMR ordinarily requires compounds of interest to be analyzed as dissolved in solution. Because of deuterium's nuclear spin properties which differ from the light hydrogen usually present in organic molecules, NMR spectra of hydrogen/protium are highly differentiable from that of deuterium, and in practice deuterium is not "seen" by an NMR instrument tuned for light-hydrogen. Deuterated solvents (including heavy water, but also compounds like deuterated chloroform, CDCl3) are therefore routinely used in NMR spectroscopy, in order to allow only the light-hydrogen spectra of the compound of interest to be measured, without solvent-signal interference. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy can also be used to obtain information about the deuteron's environment in isotopically labelled samples (Deuterium NMR). For example, the flexibility in the tail, which is a long hydrocarbon chain, in deuterium-labelled lipid molecules can be quantified using solid state deuterium NMR. Deuterium NMR spectra are especially informative in the solid state because of its relatively small quadrupole moment in comparison with those of bigger quadrupolar nuclei such as chlorine-35, for example.


Tracing

In chemistry, biochemistry and environmental sciences, deuterium is used as a non-radioactive, Hydrogen isotope biogeochemistry, stable isotopic tracer, for example, in the doubly labeled water test. In chemical reactions and metabolic pathways, deuterium behaves somewhat similarly to ordinary hydrogen (with a few chemical differences, as noted). It can be distinguished from ordinary hydrogen most easily by its mass, using
mass spectrometry Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique that is used to measure the mass-to-charge ratio The mass-to-charge ratio (''m''/''Q'') is a physical quantity A physical quantity is a physical property of a material or system that can be Quant ...
or infrared spectrometry. Deuterium can be detected by femtosecond infrared spectroscopy, since the mass difference drastically affects the frequency of molecular vibrations; deuterium-carbon bond vibrations are found in spectral regions free of other signals. Measurements of small variations in the natural abundances of deuterium, along with those of the stable heavy oxygen isotopes 17O and 18O, are of importance in hydrology, to trace the geographic origin of Earth's waters. The heavy isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in rainwater (so-called meteoric water) are enriched as a function of the environmental temperature of the region in which the precipitation falls (and thus enrichment is related to mean latitude). The relative enrichment of the heavy isotopes in rainwater (as referenced to mean ocean water), when plotted against temperature falls predictably along a line called the global meteoric water line (GMWL). This plot allows samples of precipitation-originated water to be identified along with general information about the climate in which it originated. Evaporative and other processes in bodies of water, and also ground water processes, also differentially alter the ratios of heavy hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in fresh and salt waters, in characteristic and often regionally distinctive ways. The ratio of concentration of 2H to 1H is usually indicated with a delta as δ2H and the geographic patterns of these values are plotted in maps termed as isoscapes. Stable isotopes are incorporated into plants and animals and an analysis of the ratios in a migrant bird or insect can help suggest a rough guide to their origins.


Contrast properties

Neutron scattering techniques particularly profit from availability of deuterated samples: The H and D cross sections are very distinct and different in sign, which allows contrast variation in such experiments. Further, a nuisance problem of ordinary hydrogen is its large incoherent neutron cross section, which is nil for D. The substitution of deuterium atoms for hydrogen atoms thus reduces scattering noise. Hydrogen is an important and major component in all materials of organic chemistry and life science, but it barely interacts with X-rays. As hydrogen (and deuterium) interact strongly with neutrons, neutron scattering techniques, together with a modern deuteration facility, fills a niche in many studies of macromolecules in biology and many other areas.


Nuclear weapons

This is discussed below. It is notable that although most stars, including the Sun, generate energy over most of their lives by fusing hydrogen into heavier elements, such fusion of light hydrogen (protium) has never been successful in the conditions attainable on Earth. Thus, all artificial fusion, including the hydrogen fusion that occurs in so-called hydrogen bombs, requires heavy hydrogen (either tritium or deuterium, or both) in order for the process to work.


Drugs

A deuterated drug is a small molecule medicinal product in which one or more of the
hydrogen Hydrogen is the chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol H and atomic number 1. Hydrogen is the lightest element. At standard temperature and pressure, standard conditions hydrogen is a gas of diatomic molecules having the che ...

hydrogen
atoms contained in the drug molecule have been replaced by deuterium. Because of the
kinetic isotope effect In physical organic chemistry, a kinetic isotope effect (KIE) is the change in the reaction rate of a chemical reaction A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the chemical transformation of one set of chemical substances to another. ...
, deuterium-containing drugs may have significantly lower rates of metabolism, and hence a longer biological half-life, half-life. In 2017, deutetrabenazine became the first deuterated drug to receive FDA approval.


Reinforced essential nutrients

Deuterium can be used to reinforce specific oxidation-vulnerable C-H bonds within essential or conditionally essential nutrients, such as certain amino acids, or polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), making them more resistant to oxidative damage. Deuterated drug, Deuterated polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as linoleic acid, slow down the chain reaction of lipid peroxidation that damage living cells. Deuterated ethyl ester of linoleic acid (RT001), developed by Retrotope, is in a compassionate use trial in infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy and has successfully completed a Phase I/II trial in Friedreich's ataxia.


Thermostabilization

Live vaccines, such as the Polio vaccine, oral poliovirus vaccine, can be stabilized by deuterium, either alone or in combination with other stabilizers such as Magnesium chloride, MgCl2.


Slowing circadian ocillations

Deuterium has been shown to lengthen the period of oscillation of the circadian clock when dosed in rats, hamsters, and Gonyaulax dinoflagellates. In rats, chronic intake of 25% D2O disrupts circadian rhythmicity by lengthening the circadian period of suprachiasmatic nucleus-dependent rhythms in the brain's hypothalamus. Experiments in hamsters also support the theory that deuterium acts directly on the suprachiasmatic nucleus to lengthen the free-running circadian period.


History


Suspicion of lighter element isotopes

The existence of nonradioactive isotopes of lighter elements had been suspected in studies of neon as early as 1913, and proven by mass spectrometry of light elements in 1920. The prevailing theory at the time was that isotopes of an element differ by the existence of additional ''protons'' in the nucleus accompanied by an equal number of ''Discovery of the neutron#Problems of the nuclear electrons hypothesis, nuclear electrons''. In this theory, the deuterium nucleus with mass two and charge one would contain two protons and one nuclear electron. However, it was expected that the element hydrogen with a measured average atomic mass very close to , the known mass of the proton, always has a nucleus composed of a single proton (a known particle), and could not contain a second proton. Thus, hydrogen was thought to have no heavy isotopes.


Deuterium detected

It was first detected spectroscopically in late 1931 by
Harold Urey Harold Clayton Urey ( ; April 29, 1893 – January 5, 1981) was an American physical chemist Physical chemistry is the study of macroscopic The macroscopic scale is the length scale on which objects or phenomena are large enough to be visib ...

Harold Urey
, a chemist at Columbia University. Urey's collaborator, Ferdinand Brickwedde, Distillation, distilled five liters of cryogenics, cryogenically produced liquid hydrogen to of liquid, using the low-temperature physics laboratory that had recently been established at the National Bureau of Standards in Washington, D.C. (now the National Institute of Standards and Technology). The technique had previously been used to isolate heavy isotopes of neon. The cryogenic boiloff technique concentrated the fraction of the mass-2 isotope of hydrogen to a degree that made its spectroscopic identification unambiguous.


Naming of the isotope and Nobel Prize

Urey created the names ''protium'', ''deuterium'', and ''tritium'' in an article published in 1934. The name is based in part on advice from G. N. Lewis who had proposed the name "deutium". The name is derived from the Greek ('second'), and the nucleus to be called "deuteron" or "deuton". Isotopes and new elements were traditionally given the name that their discoverer decided. Some British scientists, such as Ernest Rutherford, wanted the isotope to be called "diplogen", from the Greek ('double'), and the nucleus to be called "diplon". The amount inferred for normal abundance of this heavy isotope of hydrogen was so small (only about 1 atom in 6400 hydrogen atoms in ocean water (156 deuteriums per million hydrogens)) that it had not noticeably affected previous measurements of (average) hydrogen atomic mass. This explained why it hadn't been experimentally suspected before. Urey was able to concentrate water to show partial enrichment of deuterium. Lewis had prepared the first samples of pure heavy water in 1933. The discovery of deuterium, coming before the discovery of the
neutron The neutron is a subatomic particle, symbol or , which has a neutral (not positive or negative) charge, and a mass slightly greater than that of a proton. Protons and neutrons constitute the nuclei of atoms. Since protons and neutrons behav ...

neutron
in 1932, was an experimental shock to theory, but when the neutron was reported, making deuterium's existence more explainable, deuterium won Urey the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1934. Lewis was embittered by being passed over for this recognition given to his former student.


"Heavy water" experiments in World War II

Shortly before the war, Hans von Halban and Lew Kowarski moved their research on neutron moderation from France to Britain, smuggling the entire global supply of heavy water (which had been made in Norway) across in twenty-six steel drums. During World War II, Nazi Germany was known to be conducting experiments using heavy water as moderator for a nuclear reactor design. Such experiments were a source of concern because they might allow them to produce plutonium for an atomic bomb. Ultimately it led to the Allies of World War II, Allied operation called the "Norwegian heavy water sabotage", the purpose of which was to destroy the Vemork deuterium production/enrichment facility in Norway. At the time this was considered important to the potential progress of the war. After World War II ended, the Allies discovered that Germany was not putting as much serious effort into the program as had been previously thought. They had been unable to sustain a chain reaction. The Germans had completed only a small, partly built experimental reactor (which had been hidden away). By the end of the war, the Germans did not even have a fifth of the amount of heavy water needed to run the reactor, partially due to the Norwegian heavy water sabotage operation. However, even if the Germans had succeeded in getting a reactor operational (as the U.S. did with Chicago Pile-1 in late 1942), they would still have been at least several years away from the development of an atomic bomb. The engineering process, even with maximal effort and funding, required about two and a half years (from first critical reactor to bomb) in both the U.S. and U.S.S.R., for example.


In thermonuclear weapons

The 62-ton Ivy Mike device built by the United States and exploded on 1 November 1952, was the first fully successful "hydrogen bomb" (thermonuclear bomb). In this context, it was the first bomb in which most of the energy released came from nuclear reaction stages that followed the primary nuclear fission stage of the atomic bomb. The Ivy Mike bomb was a factory-like building, rather than a deliverable weapon. At its center, a very large cylindrical, insulated vacuum flask or cryostat, held cryogenic liquid deuterium in a volume of about 1000 liters (160 kilograms in mass, if this volume had been completely filled). Then, a conventional atomic bomb (the "primary") at one end of the bomb was used to create the conditions of extreme temperature and pressure that were needed to set off the thermonuclear reaction. Within a few years, so-called "dry" hydrogen bombs were developed that did not need cryogenic hydrogen. Released information suggests that all thermonuclear weapons built since then contain chemical compounds of deuterium and lithium in their secondary stages. The material that contains the deuterium is mostly lithium deuteride, with the lithium consisting of the isotope lithium-6. When the lithium-6 is bombarded with fast
neutron The neutron is a subatomic particle, symbol or , which has a neutral (not positive or negative) charge, and a mass slightly greater than that of a proton. Protons and neutrons constitute the nuclei of atoms. Since protons and neutrons behav ...

neutron
s from the atomic bomb,
tritium Tritium ( or , ) or hydrogen-3 (symbol T or H) is a rare and radioactive Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay, radioactivity, radioactive disintegration or nuclear disintegration) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucl ...

tritium
(hydrogen-3) is produced, and then the deuterium and the tritium quickly engage in thermonuclear fusion, releasing abundant energy,
helium-4 Helium-4 () is a stable isotope of the element helium. It is by far the more abundant of the two naturally occurring isotopes of helium, making up about 99.99986% of the helium on Earth. Its nucleus is identical to an alpha particle, and consists ...

helium-4
, and even more free neutrons.


Modern research

In August 2018, scientists announced the transformation of gaseous deuterium into a Metallic hydrogen, liquid metallic form. This may help researchers better understand Gas giant, giant gas planets, such as Jupiter, Saturn and related exoplanets, since such planets are thought to contain a large quantity of liquid metallic hydrogen, which may be responsible for their observed powerful magnetic fields.


Data for elemental deuterium

Formula: D2 or 2 *Density: at Standard conditions for temperature and pressure, STP (, ). *Atomic weight: . *Mean abundance in ocean water (from Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water, VSMOW) 155.76 ± 0.1 ppm (a ratio of 1 part per approximately 6420 parts), that is, about of the atoms in a sample (by number, not weight) Data at approximately for D2 (triple point): *Density: **Liquid: **Gas: *Viscosity: at (gas phase) *Specific heat capacity at constant pressure ''cp'': **Solid: **Gas:


Antideuterium

An antideuteron is the antimatter counterpart of the nucleus of deuterium, consisting of an antiproton and an antineutron. The antideuteron was first produced in 1965 at the Proton Synchrotron at CERN and the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory. A complete atom, with a positron orbiting the nucleus, would be called ''antideuterium'', but antideuterium has not yet been created. The proposed symbol for antideuterium is , that is, D with an overbar.


See also

*Isotopes of hydrogen *Nuclear fusion *Tokamak *Tritium *Heavy water


References


External links


Nuclear Data Center at KAERI
* * * {{Authority control Environmental isotopes Isotopes of hydrogen Neutron moderators Nuclear fusion fuels Nuclear materials