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A cuisine is a style of
cooking Cooking, cookery, or culinary arts is the art, science, and craft of using heat In thermodynamics Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with heat, Work (thermodynamics), work, and temperature, and their relation to energy ...

cooking
characterized by distinctive
ingredient An ingredient is a substance that forms part of a mixture In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the Chemical element, elements that make up m ...
s,
techniques Technique or techniques may refer to: Music * The Techniques, a Jamaican rocksteady vocal group of the 1960s *Technique (band), a British female synth pop band in the 1990s *Technique (album), ''Technique'' (album), by New Order, 1989 *Techniques ( ...
and
dishes Dish, dishes or DISH may refer to: Culinary * Dish (food), something prepared to be eaten * Dishware, plates and bowls for eating, cutting boards, silverware Communications * Dish antenna a type of antenna * Dish Network, a satellite television ...
, and usually associated with a specific
culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and Norm (social), norms found in human Society, societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, Social norm, customs, capabilities, and habits of the individuals i ...

culture
or geographic region. Regional
food preparation Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional Nutrition is the biochemical Biochemistry or biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organism In biology, an organism (from Anci ...

food preparation
traditions, customs and ingredients often combine to create dishes unique to a particular region. A cuisine is primarily influenced by the ingredients that are available locally or through trade, they can even be made into distinct ingredients themselves when they become popular within a region, take for example
Japanese rice Japanese rice refers to a number of short-grain cultivars of Japonica rice including ordinary rice (''uruchimai'') and glutinous rice (''mochigome''). Ordinary Japanese rice, or ''uruchimai'' ( 粳米), is the staple of the Japanese diet and c ...
in
Japanese cuisine Japanese cuisine encompasses the regional and traditional foods of Japan, which have developed through centuries of political, economic, and social changes. The traditional cuisine of Japan (Japanese: ) is based on rice with miso soup and othe ...
and
New Mexico chile New is an adjective referring to something recently made, discovered, or created. New or NEW may refer to: Music * New, singer of K-pop group The Boyz Boyz or The Boyz may refer to: Music Bands *The Boyz (German band), a German boy band of th ...
in
New Mexican cuisine New Mexican cuisine is the cuisine of the Southwestern US state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The ...
.
Religious Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchange is voluntary/involuntary. Etymology ...

Religious
food laws can also exercise a strong influence on cuisine, such as
Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent. These religions, which include Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, ...
in
Indian cuisine Indian cuisine consists of a variety of regional and traditional cuisines native to the Indian subcontinent. Given the diversity in soil, climate, culture, ethnic groups, and occupations, these cuisines vary substantially and use locally avai ...

Indian cuisine
,
Sikhism Sikhism () or Sikhi ( pa, ਸਿੱਖੀ ', , from pa, ਸਿੱਖ, lit=disciple', 'seeker', or 'learner, translit=Sikh, label=none)''Sikhism'' (indigenously known as ''Sikhī'') originated from the word ''Sikh'', which comes from the Sanskr ...
in
Punjabi cuisine Punjabi cuisine is a culinary Culinary arts, in which ''culinary Culinary arts, in which '' culinary'' means "related to cooking Cooking or cookery is the art, science, and craft of using heat to Outline of food preparation, prepare fo ...
,
Buddhism Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and ...
in
East Asian cuisine This is a list of Asian cuisines, by region. A cuisine is a characteristic style of cooking practices and traditions, usually associated with a specific culture or region. Asia, being the largest, most populous and culturally diverse continent, has ...

East Asian cuisine
,
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or ex ...
in
Middle Eastern cuisine Middle Eastern cuisine or West Asian cuisine includes Arab The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, : , Arabic pronunciation: , plural ar, عَرَبٌ, : , Arabic pronunciation: ) are an mainly inhabiting the . In mod ...
, and
Halal ''Halal'' (; ar, حلال, ); is an Arabic word that translates to "permissible" in English. In the Quran The Quran (, ; ar, القرآن, translit=al-Qurʼān, lit=the recitation, ), also romanized Qur'an or Koran, is the central rel ...

Halal
in
Arab cuisine Arab cuisine ( ar, المطبخ العربي) is the cuisine of the Arabs, defined as the various regional cuisines spanning the Arab world, from the Maghreb to the Fertile Crescent and the Arabian Peninsula. These cuisines are centuries old and r ...
.


Factors that affect a cuisine

Some factors that have an influence on a region's cuisine include the area's
climate Climate is the long-term pattern of weather Weather is the state of the atmosphere An atmosphere (from the greek words ἀτμός ''(atmos)'', meaning 'vapour', and σφαῖρα ''(sphaira)'', meaning 'ball' or 'sphere') is a la ...

climate
, the trade among different countries,
religious Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchange is voluntary/involuntary. Etymology ...
or
sumptuary Sumptuary laws (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the R ...
laws and culinary culture exchange. For example, a
tropical The tropics are the region of Earth surrounding the Equator. They are delimited in latitude by the Tropic of Cancer in the Northern Hemisphere at N and the Tropic of Capricorn in the Southern Hemisphere at S; these latitudes correspond to ...

tropical
diet may be based more on fruits and vegetables, while a polar diet might rely more on meat and fish. The area's climate, in large measure, determines the native foods that are available. In addition, climate influences food preservation. For example, foods preserved for winter consumption by
smoking Smoking is a practice in which a substance is burned and the resulting smoke Smoke is a collection of airborne and es emitted when a material undergoes or , together with the quantity of air that is or otherwise mixed into the ma ...
, curing, and
pickling Pickling is the process of preserving or extending the shelf life of food Food is any substance consumed to provide Nutrient, nutritional support for an organism. Food is usually of plant, animal or Fungus, fungal origin, and contains ess ...
have remained significant in world cuisines for their altered gustatory properties. The trade among different countries also largely affects a region's cuisine. Dating back to the ancient spice trade, seasonings such as
cinnamon Cinnamon is a spice A spice is a seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Records, Warner Bros. The band's first do ...

cinnamon
,
cassia Cassia typically refers to cassia bark, the spice made from the bark of East Asian evergreen trees. Cassia may also refer to: Plants ;Cinnamon trees * ''Cinnamomum cassia'' (, ''ròuguì''), the cassia or Chinese cinnamon, found in southern China ...

cassia
,
cardamom Cardamom (), sometimes cardamon or cardamum, is a spice made from the seeds of several plants in the genus (biology), genera ''Elettaria'' and ''Amomum'' in the family Zingiberaceae. Both genera are native to the Indian subcontinent and Indone ...

cardamom
,
ginger Ginger (''Zingiber officinale'') is a flowering plant Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: ...

ginger
, and
turmeric Turmeric (pronounced , also ) is a flowering plant Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: ...
were important items of commerce in the earliest evolution of trade, and India was a global market for this. Cinnamon and cassia found their way to the
Middle East The Middle East ( ar, الشرق الأوسط, ISO 233 The international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technical task whi ...

Middle East
at least 4,000 years ago. Certain foods and food preparations are required or proscribed by the religiousness or sumptuary laws, such as Islamic dietary laws and Jewish dietary laws. Culinary culture exchange is also an important factor for cuisine in many regions: Japan's first substantial and direct exposure to the West came with the arrival of European missionaries in the second half of the 16th century. At that time, the combination of Spanish and Portuguese game frying techniques with an East Asian method for cooking vegetables in oil led to the development of ''
tempura is a typical Japanese cuisine, Japanese dish usually consisting of seafood, meat and vegetables that have been Batter (cooking), battered and deep frying, deep fried. The dish was introduced by the Portuguese people, Portuguese in Nagasaki throu ...

tempura
'', the "popular Japanese dish in which seafood and many different types of vegetables are coated with batter and deep fried".


History

Cuisine dates back to the
Antiquity Antiquity or Antiquities may refer to Historical objects or periods Artifacts * Antiquities, objects or artifacts surviving from ancient cultures Eras Any period before the European Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages ...

Antiquity
. As food began to require more planning, there was an emergence of meals that situated around culture.


Evolution of cuisine

Cuisines evolve continually, and new cuisines are created by innovation and cultural interaction. One recent example is
fusion cuisine is an Indian-Chinese fusion dish, consisting of fried cauliflower. The dish is popular throughout India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by ...
, which combines elements of various
culinary Culinary arts, in which ''wikt:culinary, culinary'' means "related to cooking", are the cuisine arts of outline of food preparation, food preparation, cooking, and presentation of food, usually in the form of meals. People working in this field&n ...
traditions while not being categorized per any one cuisine style, and generally refers to the innovations in many contemporary restaurant cuisines since the 1970s. ''
Nouvelle cuisine ''Nouvelle cuisine'' (; ) is an approach to cooking and food presentation in French cuisine. In contrast to cuisine classique, an older form of haute cuisine ''Haute cuisine'' (; ) or ''grande cuisine'' is the cuisine of "high-level" establi ...
'' (New cuisine) is an approach to cooking and food presentation in
French cuisine French cuisine () consists of the cooking traditions and practices from France. French cuisine developed throughout the centuries influenced by the many surrounding cultures of Spain, Italy, Switzerland, Germany and Belgium, in addition to ...
that was popularized in the 1960s by the food critics
Henri Gault Henri Gault (Pacy-sur-Eure, 4 November 1929 - 9 July 2000) was a French food journalist. He was co-founder of the Gault Millau guides with Christian Millau, and invented the phrase "nouvelle cuisine", though later he claimed to regret it.The Guardia ...
, who invented the phrase, and his colleagues
André Gayot
André Gayot
and
Christian Millau Christian Dubois-Millot, pen name Christian Millau (30 December 1928 – 5 August 2017), was a French food critic and author. Born in Paris, he began his career as a journalist in the "interior policy" department of ''Le Monde'' newspaper. In 1965 ...
in a new restaurant guide, the Gault-Millau, or ''Le Nouveau Guide''.
Molecular cuisine of juices and other liquids is a technique of molecular gastronomy. Molecular gastronomy is the Science, scientific approach of nutrition Nutrition is the biochemical and physiological process by which an organism In biology, an org ...
, is a modern style of cooking which takes advantage of many technical innovations from the scientific disciplines (molecular cooking). The term was coined in 1999 by the French INRA chemist
Hervé ThisHervé This (; born 5 June 1955 in Suresnes Suresnes () is a commune in the western suburbs of Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an esti ...

Hervé This
because he wanted to distinguish it from the name
Molecular gastronomy of juices and other liquids is a technique of molecular gastronomy. Molecular gastronomy is the Science, scientific approach of nutrition from the perspective of physics and chemistry. The physical properties: force, Vector (mathematics and phys ...
(a scientific activity) that was introduced by him and the late
Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' u ...
physicist
Nicholas Kurti Nicholas Kurti, ( hu, Kürti Miklós) (14 May 1908 – 24 November 1998) was a Hungarian-born British physicist A physicist is a scientist A scientist is a person who conducts Scientific method, scientific research to advance knowledge in an ...
in 1988. It is also named as multi sensory cooking, modernist cuisine, culinary physics, and experimental cuisine by some chefs. Besides, international trade brings new foodstuffs including ingredients to existing cuisines and leads to changes. The introduction of
hot pepper The chili pepper (also chile, chile pepper, chilli pepper, or chilli), from Nahuatl ''Aztec cuisine, chīlli'' (), is the fruit#Berries, berry-fruit of plants from the genus ''Capsicum'' which are members of the Solanaceae, nightshade family, ...

hot pepper
to China from South America around the end of the 17th century, greatly influencing
Sichuan cuisine Sichuan cuisine, alternatively romanized as Szechwan cuisine or Szechuan cuisine (, Standard Mandarin Standard Chinese, in linguistics known as Standard Northern Mandarin, Standard Beijing Mandarin or simply Mandarin, is a Mandarin Chinese ...
, which combines the original taste (with use of
Sichuan pepper Sichuan pepper () (also Szechuan pepper, Szechwan pepper, Chinese prickly ash, Chinese pepper, rattan pepper, and mala pepper) is a spice commonly used in the Sichuan cuisine of China's southwestern Sichuan Province. When eaten it produces a ting ...

Sichuan pepper
) with the taste of newly introduced hot pepper and creates a unique mala () flavor that's mouth-numbingly spicy and pungent.


Global cuisine

A
global cuisine A global cuisine is a cuisine that is practiced around the world. A cuisine is a characteristic style of cooking practices and traditions, often associated with a specific region, country or culture. To become a global cuisine, a local, regional or ...
is a cuisine that is practiced around the world, and can be categorized according to the common use of major foodstuffs, including
grain A grain is a small, hard, dry seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Records, Warner Bros. The band's first double album ...

grain
s,
produce Produce is a generalized term for many farm-produced crops, including fruits and vegetables (grains, oats, etc. are also sometimes considered ''produce''). More specifically, the term ''produce'' often implies that the products are wikt:fresh, fr ...

produce
and cooking
fat In nutrition Nutrition is the biochemical Biochemistry or biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms. A sub-discipline of both chemistry and biology, biochemistry may be divided ...

fat
s.


Regional cuisines

Regional cuisine Regional cuisine is cuisine A cuisine is a style of cooking characterized by distinctive ingredients, techniques and dishes, and usually associated with a specific culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social ...
s can vary based on availability and usage of specific ingredients, local cooking traditions and practices, as well as overall
cultural Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior Social behavior is behavior Behavior (American English) or behaviour (British English; American and British English spelling differences#-our, -or, see spelling diff ...

cultural
differences."The American Food Revolutions: Cuisines in America."Eldrbarry.net
Accessed June 2011.
Such factors can be more-or-less uniform across wide swaths of territory, or vary intensely within individual regions. For example, in Central and North South America, corn (
maize Maize ( ; ''Zea mays'' subsp. ''mays'', from es, maíz after tnq, mahiz), also known as corn (North American North America is a continent in the Northern Hemisphere and almost entirely within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be ...

maize
), both fresh and dried, is a staple food, and is used in many different ways. In northern Europe,
wheat Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food. The many species of wheat together make up the genus ''Triticum''; the most widely grown is common wheat Common wheat (''Triticum aestivum'' ...

wheat
,
rye Rye (''Secale cereale'') is a grass Poaceae () or Gramineae () is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as grasses. It includes the cereal grasses, bamboo Bamboos are a diverse group of ev ...

rye
, and fats of animal origin predominate, while in southern Europe
olive oil Olive oil is a liquid fat obtained from olive The olive, botanical name ''Olea europaea'', meaning "European olive", is a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomi ...

olive oil
is ubiquitous and
rice Rice is the seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Records, Warner Bros. The band's first double album, it was relea ...

rice
is more prevalent. In Italy, the cuisine of the north, featuring
butter Butter is a dairy product Dairy products or milk products are a type of food Food is any substance consumed to provide Nutrient, nutritional support for an organism. Food is usually of plant, animal or Fungus, fungal origin, and contai ...

butter
and rice, stands in contrast to that of the south, with its wheat
pasta Pasta (, ; ) is a type of food typically made from an unleavened dough of wheat flour mixed with water or eggs, and formed into sheets or other shapes, then cooked by boiling or baking. Rice flour, or legumes such as beans or lentils, are so ...

pasta
and olive oil. In some parts of China, rice is the staple, while in others this role is filled by
noodle Noodles are a type of food Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional Nutrition is the biochemical Biochemistry or biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organism ...

noodle
s and
bread Bread is a staple food prepared from a dough of flour and water, usually by baking. Throughout recorded history, it has been a prominent food in large parts of the world. It is one of the oldest man-made foods, having been of significant impor ...

bread
. Throughout the Middle East and Mediterranean, common ingredients include
lamb Lamb or The Lamb may refer to: * A young sheep * Lamb and mutton, the meat of sheep Arts and media Film, television, and theatre * The Lamb (1915 film), ''The Lamb'' (1915 film), a silent film starring Douglas Fairbanks Sr. in his screen debut * ...
, olive oil,
lemon The lemon, ''Citrus limon'', is a species of small evergreen In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise ...

lemon
s,
peppers Pepper or peppers may refer to: Food and spice * Piperaceae or the pepper family, a large family of flowering plant ** Black pepper * ''Capsicum'' or pepper, a genus of flowering plants in the nightshade family Solanaceae ** Bell pepper ** Chili p ...

peppers
, and rice. The
vegetarianism Vegetarianism is the practice of abstaining from the consumption of meat Meat is animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biological kingdom Animalia. With few exc ...
practiced in much of India has made
pulses A legume () is a plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy into chemical energy that, through cellular respiration, can ...
(crops harvested solely for the dry seed) such as
chickpea The chickpea or chick pea (''Cicer arietinum'') is an annual Annual may refer to: *Annual publication, periodical publications appearing regularly once per year **Yearbook **Literary annual *Annual plant *Annual report *Annual giving *Annual, Mo ...

chickpea
s and
lentil The lentil (''Lens culinaris'' or ''Lens esculenta'') is an edible legume A legume () is a plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, co ...
s as important as wheat or rice. From India to Indonesia, the extensive use of
spice A spice is a seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Records, Warner Bros. The band's first double album, it was releas ...

spice
s is characteristic;
coconut The coconut tree (''Cocos nucifera'') is a member of the palm tree family (biology), family (Arecaceae) and the only living species of the genus ''Cocos''. The term "coconut" (or the archaic "cocoanut") can refer to the whole coconut palm, t ...

coconut
s and
seafood Seafood is any form of sea life regarded as food by humans, prominently including fish Fish are , , -bearing animals that lack with . Included in this definition are the living , s, and and as well as various extinct related groups. ...

seafood
are also used throughout the region both as foodstuffs and as
seasoning Seasoning is the process of adding herbs In general use, herbs are a widely distributed and widespread group of plants, excluding vegetables Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans or other animals as food. The origina ...

seasoning
s.


African cuisine

African cuisine Traditionally, the various cuisines of Africa use a combination of locally available fruits, cereal grains and vegetables, as well as milk and meat products, and do not usually have food imported. In some parts of the continent, the traditional di ...

African cuisine
s use a combination of locally available
fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the ...

fruit
s,
cereal A cereal is any Poaceae, grass cultivated (grown) for the edible components of its grain (botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis), composed of the endosperm, cereal germ, germ, and bran. The term may also refer to the resulting grain ...

cereal
s and
vegetable Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans or other animals as food. The original meaning is still commonly used and is applied to plants collectively to refer to all edible plant matter, including the edible flower, flowers, ...

vegetable
s, as well as
milk Milk is a nutrient A nutrient is a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote the base or owner of attributes * Chemical substance, a material with a definite chemical composition * Matter, any ...

milk
and
meat Meat is animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals Heterotroph, consume organic material, Cellular respiratio ...

meat
products. In some parts of the continent, the traditional diet features a preponderance of milk,
curd Curd is obtained by coagulating Coagulation, also known as clotting, is the process by which blood changes from a liquid to a gel, forming a thrombus, blood clot. It potentially results in hemostasis, the cessation of blood loss from a dama ...

curd
and
whey Whey is the liquid remaining after milk Milk is a nutrient A nutrient is a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote the base or owner of attributes * Chemical substance, a material with a ...

whey
products. In much of tropical Africa, however, cow's milk is rare and cannot be produced locally (owing to various diseases that affect livestock). The continent's diverse demographic makeup is reflected in the many different eating and drinking habits, dishes, and preparation techniques of its manifold populations. File:Alicha 1.jpg, Typical
Ethiopian Ethiopians are the native inhabitants of Ethiopia, as well as the global diaspora of Ethiopia. Ethiopians constitute Ethiopians#Component Ethnicities, several component ethnic groups, many of which are closely related to ethnic groups in neighbo ...
and
Eritrean cuisine Eritrean cuisine is based on Eritrea Eritrea ( ), officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in Eastern Africa, with its capital at Asmara. It is bordered by Ethiopia in the south, Sudan in the west, and Djibouti in the southeast. Th ...
: ''
Injera Injera (Amharic Amharic ( or ; (Amharic: ), ', ) is an Ethiopian Semitic languages, Ethiopian Semitic language, which is a subgrouping within the Semitic languages, Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic languages. It is spoken as a first lang ...

Injera
'' (thin pancake-like bread) and several kinds of ''wat'' (stew) File:Iftar.jpg, A
Ramadan , type = islam , longtype = Islam, Religious , image = Ramadan montage.jpg , caption=From top, left to right: A crescent moon over Sarıçam, Turkey, marking the beginning of the Islamic month of Ramadan. Ramadan Quran reading in Bandar Torkaman, I ...

Ramadan
dinner in
Tanzania Tanzania (; ), officially the United Republic of Tanzania ( sw, Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a country in East Africa East Africa or Eastern Africa is the eastern subregion of the Africa Africa is the world's second-larges ...

Tanzania
File:Yassapoulet.JPG,
Yassa Yassa (alternatively: ''Yasa'', ''Yasaq'', ''Jazag'', ''Zasag'', mn, Их засаг, ''Ikh Zasag'') is/was the oral law code of the Mongols declared in public in Bokhara Bukhara (; Uzbek: /; Tajik: Бухоро, ) is the fifth-largest cit ...
is a popular dish throughout
West Africa West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of Africa. The United Nations defines Western Africa as the 17 countries of Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania ...

West Africa
prepared with chicken or
fish Fish are aquatic Aquatic means relating to water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere and the ...
. Chicken yassa is pictured. File:Spices1.jpg, Spices at central market in
Agadir Agadir ( ar, أكادير or ar, أݣادير or ar, أغادير, ʾagādīr; shi, ⴰⴳⴰⴷⵉⵔ, agadir) is a major city in Morocco ) , image_map = Morocco (orthographic projection, WS claimed).svg , map_caption ...

Agadir
,
Morocco ) , image_map = Morocco (orthographic projection, WS claimed).svg , map_caption = Location of Morocco in northwest Africa.Dark green: Undisputed territory of Morocco.Lighter green: Western Sahara, a United Nations lis ...

Morocco


Asian cuisines

Asian cuisine Asian cuisine includes several major regional cuisines: Central Asian Central Asia is a region in Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and Northern Hemisphere, ...
s are many and varied, and include
East Asian cuisine This is a list of Asian cuisines, by region. A cuisine is a characteristic style of cooking practices and traditions, usually associated with a specific culture or region. Asia, being the largest, most populous and culturally diverse continent, has ...

East Asian cuisine
,
South Asian cuisine Cuisine of the Indian subcontinent includes the cuisine A cuisine is a style of cooking characterized by distinctive ingredients, List of cooking techniques, techniques and dish (food), dishes, and usually associated with a specific culture ...
,
Southeast Asian cuisine This is a list of Asian cuisines, by region. A cuisine is a characteristic style of cooking practices and traditions, usually associated with a specific culture or region. Asia, being the largest, most populous and culturally diverse continent, ha ...
,
Central Asian cuisine Central Asian cuisine has been influenced by Iranian cuisine, Persian, Indian cuisine, Indian, Arab cuisine, Arab, Ottoman cuisine, Turkish, Chinese cuisine, Chinese, Mongolian cuisine, Mongol and Russian cuisine, Russian cultures, as well as the ...
and West Asian cuisine. Ingredients common to East Asia and Southeast Asia (due to
overseas Chinese Overseas Chinese () refers to people of Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by popula ...
influence) include rice, ginger, garlic, sesame seeds, chilies, dried onions, soy, and tofu, with
stir frying Stir frying () is a Chinese cooking technique in which ingredients are fried in a small amount of very hot oil while being stirred or tossed in a wok A wok (; Standard Chinese Standard Chinese (), in linguistics known as Standard No ...
, steaming, and
deep frying Deep frying (also referred to as deep fat frying) is a cooking Cooking, cookery, or culinary arts is the art, science, and craft of using heat In thermodynamics, heat is energy in transfer to or from a thermodynamic system, by mec ...
being common cooking methods. While rice is common to most regional cuisines in Asia, different varieties are popular in the different regions:
Basmati rice Basmati (pronounced ) is a variety of long, slender-grained aromatic rice which is traditionally grown in India and Pakistan.
is popular in South Asia,
Jasmine rice Jasmine rice ( th, wikt:ข้าวหอมมะลิ, ข้าวหอมมะลิ; ; ; ; ; ; literally: Thai fragrant rice) is a long-grain variety of fragrant rice (also known as aromatic rice). Its fragrance, reminiscent of ''pandan'' ...
in Southeast Asia, and long-grain rice in China and short-grain rice in Japan and Korea.
Curry Curry is a variety of dishes originating in the Indian subcontinent. It uses a combination of spices or herbs, usually including ground turmeric Turmeric (pronounced , also or ) is a flowering plant The flowering plants, also known a ...

Curry
is also a common ingredient found in South Asia, Southeast Asia, and East Asia (notably
Japanese curry is commonly served in three main forms: , curry udon Udon ( or ) is a thick noodle made from wheat flour, used in Japanese cuisine Japanese cuisine encompasses the regional and traditional foods of Japan, which have developed through cen ...
); however, they are not popular in West Asian and Central Asian cuisines. Those curry dishes with origins in South Asia usually have a
yogurt Yogurt (; , from tr, yoğurt) also spelled yoghurt, yogourt or yoghourt, is a food produced by bacteria Bacteria (; common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) are ubiquitous, mostly free-living organisms often consisting of one Cell ...

yogurt
base, with origins in Southeast Asia a
coconut milk Coconut milk is an opaque, milky-white liquid extracted from the grated pulp of mature coconuts. The opacity (optics), opacity and rich taste of coconut milk are due to its high coconut oil, oil content, most of which is saturated fat. Coconu ...
base, and in East Asia a stewed meat and vegetable base. South Asian cuisine and Southeast Asian cuisine are often characterized by their extensive use of
spices A spice is a seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Records, Warner Bros. The band's first double album, it was releas ...

spices
and
herbs In general use, herbs are a widely distributed and widespread group of plants, excluding vegetables Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans or other animals as food. The original meaning is still commonly used and is appl ...

herbs
native to the tropical regions of Asia. File:CantoneseRestaurantSeafood.jpg, Due to
Guangdong Guangdong (, ), alternately romanized as Canton Province or Kwangtung, is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, admin ...
's location on the southern coast of China, fresh live seafood is a specialty in
Cantonese cuisine Cantonese or Yue cuisine is the cuisine A cuisine is a style of cooking Cooking or cookery is the art, science, and craft of using heat to Outline of food preparation, prepare food for consumption. Cooking techniques and ingredients v ...
. Such markets selling seafood are found across
East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia, which is defined in both Geography, geographical and culture, ethno-cultural terms. The modern State (polity), states of East Asia include China, Japan, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, and Taiwan. ...

East Asia
. File:Vegetarian Curry.jpeg, Traditional
North Indian North India is a loosely defined region consisting of the northern part of India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest count ...
vegetarian
thali Thali (meaning "plate") or Bhojanam (meaning "full meal") is a round platter used to serve food in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-cultural terms. T ...

thali
with various
curries Curry is a variety of dishes originating in the Indian subcontinent. It uses a combination of spices or herbs, usually including ground turmeric Turmeric (pronounced , also or ) is a flowering plant The flowering plants, also known a ...

curries
from
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
. Various curry dishes are found across
South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia Asia () is 's largest and most populous , located primarily in the and . It shares the continental of with the continent of and the continental landmass of with both Europe and . Asia cov ...

South Asia
. File:Thai market food 01.jpg, A market stall at Thanin market in
Chiang Mai Chiang Mai (, from th, เชียงใหม่ , nod, ), sometimes written as Chiengmai or Chiangmai, is the largest city in northern Thailand Northern Thailand ) , royal_anthem = '' Sansoen Phra Barami''( en, "Glorify ...

Chiang Mai
,
Thailand Thailand ( th, ประเทศไทย), historically known as Siam, () officially the Kingdom of Thailand, is a country in Southeast Asia. It is located at the centre of the Mainland Southeast Asia, Indochinese Peninsula, spanning , wi ...

Thailand
, selling ready-cooked food. Market stalls selling food are found across
Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern Asia, southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions ...

Southeast Asia
. File:Tajik dastarkhan meal.jpg, A feast. A large feast is commonly associated with cultures of
Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia which stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China and Mongolia in the east, and from Afghanistan and Iran in the south to Russia in the north, including the former Soviet Union, Soviet republics of the Sov ...

Central Asia
. File:Assyriancusiene.jpg, Typical Assyrian cuisine; an example of a type of meal found in
West Asia Western Asia, also West Asia, is the westernmost subregion of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and Northern Hemisphere, Northern Hemisphere of the Earth, Hem ...
.


European cuisine

European cuisine European cuisine comprises the cuisine A cuisine is a style of cooking Cooking or cookery is the art, science, and craft of using heat to Outline of food preparation, prepare food for consumption. Cooking techniques and ingredients var ...
(alternatively, "Western cuisine") include the cuisines of
Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of scienc ...

Europe
and other
Western countries The Western world, also known as the West, refers to various region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabita ...

Western countries
. European cuisine includes non-
indigenous Indigenous may refer to: *Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autochthonous people, are culturally distinct ethnic groups who are native to a particular place. The term ' ...

indigenous
cuisines of
North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continen ...

North America
,
Australasia Australasia is a region In geography Geography (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth ...

Australasia
,
Oceania Oceania (, , ) is a geographic region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Eart ...

Oceania
, and
Latin America * ht, Amerik Latin, link=no * pt, América Latina, link=no , image = Latin America (orthographic projection).svg , area = , population = ( est.) , density = , ethnic_groups = , ethnic_groups_year = 2018 , ethnic ...

Latin America
as well. The term is used by
East Asians East Asian people (East Asians) are the people from East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia, which is defined in both Geography, geographical and culture, ethno-cultural terms. The modern State (polity), states of East Asia incl ...
to contrast with
East Asian East Asia is the eastern region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and ...

East Asian
styles of cooking.Leung Man-tao (12 February 2007), "Eating and Cultural Stereotypes", ''Eat and Travel Weekly'', no. 312, p. 76. Hong Kong When used in English, the term may refer more specifically to cuisine ''in'' (
Continental Continental may refer to: Places * Continent * Continental, Arizona, a small community in Pima County, Arizona, US * Continental, Ohio, a small town in Putnam County, US Arts and entertainment * Continental (album), ''Continental'' (album), an alb ...

Continental
) Europe; in this context, a synonym is Continental cuisine, especially in
British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a language variety that has undergone substantial codification of grammar and usage and is employed by a populatio ...
. File:Sunday roast - roast beef 1.jpg, An English
Sunday roast A Sunday roast is a traditional British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people The British people, or Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the Brit ...
with
roast beef Roast beef is a dish Dish, dishes or DISH may refer to: Culinary * Dish (food), something prepared to be eaten * Dishware, plates and bowls for eating, cutting boards, silverware Communications * Dish antenna a type of antenna * Dish Networ ...

roast beef
, roast potatoes, vegetables and
Yorkshire pudding Yorkshire pudding is a baked pudding Pudding is a type of food that can be either a dessert Dessert () is a course Course may refer to: Directions or navigation * Course (navigation), the path of travel * Course (orienteering), a ...
File:Flickr - cyclonebill - Tapas.jpg, A variety of
tapas A tapa () is an appetizer or snack in Spanish cuisine. Tapas may be cold (such as mixed olives and cheese) or hot (such as ''chopitos'', which are Batter (cooking), battered, frying, fried baby Squid (food), squid). In some bars and restaurant ...
: appetizers or snacks in
Spanish cuisine Spanish cuisine consists of the cooking traditions and practices from Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_mo ...
File:German sausages and cheese.jpg, German
sausage A sausage is a type of meat Meat is animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals Heterotroph, consum ...

sausage
s and
cheese Cheese is a dairy product Dairy products or milk products are a type of food Food is any substance consumed to provide Nutrient, nutritional support for an organism. Food is usually of plant, animal or Fungus, fungal origin, and conta ...

cheese
File:-2020-09-14 Beef stroganoff, Trimingham.JPG,
Beef Stroganoff Beef Stroganoff or beef Stroganov ( rus, бефстроганов, befstróganov) is a Russian cuisine, Russian dish of Sautéing, sautéed pieces of beef served in a sauce with smetana (dairy product), smetana (sour cream). From its origins in mi ...

Beef Stroganoff
, a famous
Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (россияне), Russian language term ...
dish.


Oceanian cuisine

Oceanian cuisines include Australian cuisine, New Zealand cuisine, and the cuisines from many other islands or island groups throughout Oceania. Australian cuisine consists of immigrant Anglo-Celtic Australians, Anglo-Celtic derived cuisine, and Bushfood prepared and eaten by native Aboriginal Australian peoples, and various newer Asian influences. New Zealand cuisine also consists of European inspired dishes, such as Pavlova (food), Pavlova, and native Maori cuisine. Across Oceania, staples include the Kumura (Sweet potato) and Taro, which was/is a staple from Papua New Guinea to the South Pacific. On most islands in the south pacific, fish are widely consumed because of the proximity to the ocean. File:Australian bush tucker, Alice Springs.jpg, ''Bush Tucker'' (bush foods) harvested at Alice Springs Desert Park in Australia File:Hangi prepare.jpg, A Hāngi being prepared, a New Zealand Māori method of cooking food for special occasions using hot rocks buried in a pit oven. File:Pig on the Samoan Umu.jpg, Samoan ''Earth oven, umu'', an oven of hot rocks above ground


Cuisines of the Americas

The Cuisine of the Americas, cuisines of the Americas are found across Americas, North and South America, and are based on the cuisines of the countries from which the immigration, immigrant people came, primarily
Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of scienc ...

Europe
. However, the traditional European cuisine has been adapted by the addition of many local and native ingredients, and many techniques have been added to traditional foods as well. Native American cuisine is prepared by indigenous populations across the continent, and its influences can be seen on multi-ethnic Latin American cuisine. Many staple foods eaten across the continent, such as Maize, corn (maize), beans, and potatoes have native origins. The regional cuisines are North American cuisine, Mexican cuisine, Central American cuisine, South American cuisine, and Caribbean cuisine. File:Bandeja paisa 30062011.jpg, Bandeja paisa from Peñól de Guatapé in Antioquia Department, Antioquia, Colombia. File:Coco bread wrapped beef patty.jpg, A Jamaican patty wrapped in coco bread. File:Buffalo - Wings at Airport Anchor Bar.jpg, Buffalo wings with blue cheese dressing, served with lager beer. File:001 Tacos de carnitas, carne asada y al pastor.jpg, Tacos filled with several meat types, mainly beef, chicken as food, chicken and pork.


See also

* Culinary art * Diet food * Dish (food) * Food group * Food photography * Food preparation * Food presentation * Foodpairing * Haute cuisine * Kitchen * List of cuisines * List of foods * List of nutrition guides * Meal * Outline of cuisines * Outline of food preparation * Portion size * Recipe * Restaurant * Traditional food * Whole food


References


Further reading

* Albala, Ken (2011)
''Food Cultures of the World Encyclopedia''
Greenwood. * California Culinary Academy (2001). ''In the World Kitchen: Global Cuisine from California Culinary Academy''. Bay Books (CA). . * Laudan, Rachel (2013)
''Cuisine and Empire: Cooking in World History''
University of California Press. * MacVeigh, Jeremy (2008). ''International Cuisine''. Delmar Cengage Learning; 1st edition. . * Nenes, Michael F; Robbins, Joe (2008). ''International Cuisine''. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley, John & Sons; 1st edition. . * Scarparto, Rosario (2000)
''New global cuisine: the perspective of postmodern gastronomy studies''.
Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology. * Zobel, Myron (1962)
''Global cuisine: being the unique recipes of the 84 top restaurants of the world''.
Patron Press.


External links



at the Library of Congress has many volumes on the topic of cuisine. {{Authority control Cuisine, Cooking