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Animation is a method in which
figures
figures
are manipulated to appear as moving images. In
traditional animation on the reverse side of an already inked cel. Traditional animation (or classical animation, cel animation, hand-drawn animation, 2D animation or just 2D) is an animation technique in which each frame is drawn by hand. The technique was the domina ...
, images are drawn or painted by hand on transparent celluloid sheets to be photographed and exhibited on
film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art used to simulate experiences that communicate ideas, stories, perceptions, feelings, beauty, or atmosphere through the use of moving images. These image ...

film
. Today, most animations are made with
computer-generated imagery Computer-generated imagery (CGI) is the application of computer graphics to create or contribute to images in art, printed media, video games, simulators, computer animation and VFX in films, television programs, shorts, commercials, and videos ...
(CGI).
Computer animation " technique Computer animation is the process used for digitally generating animated images. The more general term computer-generated imagery (CGI) encompasses both static scenes and dynamic images, while computer animation ''only'' refers to movi ...
can be very detailed
3D animation Animation is a method in which figures are manipulated to appear as moving images. In traditional animation, images are drawn or painted by hand on transparent celluloid sheets to be photographed and exhibited on film. Today, most animations are ...
, while 2D computer animation (which may have the look of traditional animation) can be used for stylistic reasons, low bandwidth, or faster
real-time rendering Real-time computer graphics or real-time rendering is the sub-field of computer graphics focused on producing and analyzing images in real time. The term can refer to anything from rendering an application's graphical user interface (GUI) to rea ...
s. Other common animation methods apply a
stop motion Stop motion is an animated filmmaking technique in which objects are physically manipulated in small increments between individually photographed frames so that they will appear to exhibit independent motion or change when the series of frames is p ...
technique to two and three-dimensional objects like paper cutouts,
puppet A puppet is an object, often resembling a human, animal or mythical figure, that is animated or manipulated by a person called a puppeteer. The puppeteer uses movements of their hands, arms, or control devices such as rods or strings to move ...

puppet
s, or clay figures. Commonly, the effect of animation is achieved by a rapid succession of sequential images that minimally differ from each other. The illusion—as in motion pictures in general—is thought to rely on the
phi phenomenon The term phi phenomenon is used in a narrow sense for an apparent motion that is observed if two nearby optical stimuli are presented in alternation with a relatively high frequency. In contrast to beta movement, seen at lower frequencies, the stim ...
and
beta movement The term Beta movement is used for the optical illusion of apparent motion in which the very short projection of one figure and a subsequent very short projection of a more or less similar figure in a different position are experienced as one figur ...

beta movement
, but the exact causes are still uncertain. Analog mechanical animation media that rely on the rapid display of sequential images include the
phénakisticope
phénakisticope
,
zoetrope A zoetrope is one of several pre-film animation devices that produce the illusion of motion by displaying a sequence of drawings or photographs showing progressive phases of that motion. It was basically a cylindrical variation of the phénakist ...

zoetrope
,
flip book A flip book or flick book is a booklet with a series of images that very gradually change from one page to the next, so that when the pages are viewed in quick succession, the images appear to animate by simulating motion or some other change. O ...
,
praxinoscope 300px, The Théâtre Optique, 1892. This ultimate elaboration of the device used long strips with hundreds of narrative images. The praxinoscope was an animation device, the successor to the zoetrope. It was invented in France in 1877 by Charles- ...
, and film.
Television Television (TV), sometimes shortened to tele or telly, is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome (black and white), or in color, and in two or three dimensions and sound. The term can refer to a televisi ...

Television
and
video Video is an electronic medium for the recording, copying, playback, broadcasting, and display of moving visual media. Video was first developed for mechanical television systems, which were quickly replaced by cathode ray tube (CRT) systems wh ...
are popular electronic animation media that originally were analog and now operate digitally. For display on the computer, techniques like
animated GIF#REDIRECT GIF ...
and
Flash animation 300px, Simple animation in Flash MX: a square moving across the screen in a motion tween, one of the basic functions of Flash. Onion skinning is used to show the apparent motion of the square. Adobe Flash animation or Adobe Flash cartoon is an ani ...
were developed. Animation is more pervasive than many people know. Apart from
short films A short film is any motion picture that is short enough in running time not to be considered a feature film. The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences defines a short film as "an original motion picture that has a running time of 40 minutes or ...
,
feature films A feature film, or feature-length film, is a narrative film (motion picture or "movie") with a running time long enough to be considered the principal or sole presentation in a commercial entertainment program. The term ''feature film'' originall ...
,
television series upright=1.35, A live television show set and cameras A television show – or simply TV show – is any content produced for viewing on a television set which can be broadcast via over-the-air, satellite, cable, - excluding breaking news, advertise ...
, animated GIFs, and other media dedicated to the display of moving images, animation is also prevalent in
video game A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface or input device such as a joystick, controller, keyboard, or motion sensing device to generate visual feedback for a player. This feedback is shown on a video ...
s,
motion graphics Motion graphics (sometimes mograph) are pieces of animation or digital footage which create the illusion of motion or rotation, and are usually combined with audio for use in multimedia projects. Motion graphics are usually displayed via electro ...
,
user interface 300px, The Reactable, an example of a tangible_user_interface">Reactable,_an_example_of_a_tangible_user_interface_ In_the_industrial_design.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="tangible user interface ">tangible user i ...
s, and
visual effects Visual effects (sometimes abbreviated VFX) is the process by which imagery is created or manipulated outside the context of a live action shot in filmmaking and video production. The integration of live action footage and CG elements to create re ...
. The physical movement of image parts through simple mechanics—for instance moving images in
magic lantern The magic lantern, also known by its Latin name ''laterna magica'', is an early type of image projector that used pictures—paintings, prints, or photographs—on transparent plates (usually made of glass), one or more lenses, and a light sou ...

magic lantern
shows—can also be considered animation. The mechanical manipulation of three-dimensional puppets and objects to emulate living beings has a very long history in
automata automaton. An automaton (; plural: automata or automatons) is a relatively self-operating machine, or a machine or control mechanism designed to automatically follow a predetermined sequence of operations, or respond to predetermined instructi ...

automata
. Electronic automata were popularized by
Disney The Walt Disney Company, commonly known as Disney (), is an American diversified multinational mass media and entertainment conglomerate headquartered at the Walt Disney Studios complex in Burbank, California. Disney was originally founded o ...
as
animatronics Animatronics refers to mechatronic puppets. They are a modern variant of the automaton and are often used for the portrayal of characters in films and in theme park attractions. Before the term "animatronics" became common, they were usually ...
.
Animator An animator is an artist who creates multiple images, known as frames, which give an illusion of movement called animation when displayed in rapid sequence. Animators can work in a variety of fields including film, television, and video games. A ...
s are artists who specialize in creating animation.


Etymology

The word "animation" stems from the Latin "animātiōn", stem of "animātiō", meaning "a bestowing of life". The primary meaning of the English word is "liveliness" and has been in use much longer than the meaning of "moving image medium".


History


Before cinematography

Hundreds of years before the introduction of true animation, people from all over the world enjoyed shows with moving figures that were created and manipulated manually in
puppetry Puppetry is a form of theatre or performance that involves the manipulation of puppets – inanimate objects, often resembling some type of human or animal figure, that are animated or manipulated by a human called a puppeteer. Such a performance ...
,
automata automaton. An automaton (; plural: automata or automatons) is a relatively self-operating machine, or a machine or control mechanism designed to automatically follow a predetermined sequence of operations, or respond to predetermined instructi ...

automata
,
shadow play Shadow play, also known as shadow puppetry, is an ancient form of storytelling and entertainment which uses flat articulated cut-out figures (shadow puppets) which are held between a source of light and a translucent screen or scrim. The cut-out s ...
, and the
magic lantern The magic lantern, also known by its Latin name ''laterna magica'', is an early type of image projector that used pictures—paintings, prints, or photographs—on transparent plates (usually made of glass), one or more lenses, and a light sou ...

magic lantern
. The multi-media
phantasmagoria Phantasmagoria (, also fantasmagorie, fantasmagoria) was a form of horror theatre that (among other techniques) used one or more magic lanterns to project frightening images such as skeletons, demons, and ghosts onto walls, smoke, or semi-tran ...
shows that were very popular in West-European theatres from the late 18th century through the first half of the 19th century, featured lifelike projections of moving ghosts and other frightful imagery in motion. In 1833, the stroboscopic disc (better known as the
phénakisticope
phénakisticope
) introduced the principle of modern animation with sequential images that were shown one by one in quick succession to form an optical illusion of motion pictures. Series of sequential images had occasionally been made over thousands of years, but the stroboscopic disc provided the first method to represent such images in fluent motion and for the first time had artists creating series with a proper systematic breakdown of movements. The stroboscopic animation principle was also applied in the
zoetrope A zoetrope is one of several pre-film animation devices that produce the illusion of motion by displaying a sequence of drawings or photographs showing progressive phases of that motion. It was basically a cylindrical variation of the phénakist ...

zoetrope
(1866), the
flip book A flip book or flick book is a booklet with a series of images that very gradually change from one page to the next, so that when the pages are viewed in quick succession, the images appear to animate by simulating motion or some other change. O ...
(1868) and the
praxinoscope 300px, The Théâtre Optique, 1892. This ultimate elaboration of the device used long strips with hundreds of narrative images. The praxinoscope was an animation device, the successor to the zoetrope. It was invented in France in 1877 by Charles- ...
(1877). The average 19th-century animation contained about 12 images that were displayed as a continuous loop by spinning a device manually. The flip book often contained more pictures and had a beginning and end, but its animation would not last longer than a few seconds. The first to create much longer sequences seems to have been Charles-Émile Reynaud, who between 1892 and 1900 had much success with his 10- to 15-minute-long ''
Pantomimes Lumineuses Pantomime (; informally panto) is a type of musical comedy stage production designed for family entertainment. It was developed in England and is performed throughout the United Kingdom, Ireland and (to a lesser extent) in other English-speaking ...
''.


Silent era

When
cinematography Cinematography (from ancient Greek κίνημα, ''kìnema'' "movement" and γράφειν, ''gràphein'' "to write") is the art of motion-picture photography and filming either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by mea ...

cinematography
eventually broke through in 1895 after animated pictures had been known for decades, the wonder of the realistic details in the new medium was seen as its biggest accomplishment. Animation on film was not commercialized until a few years later by manufacturers of optical toys, with
chromolithography '', 6 April 1883. Chromolithography is a unique method for making multi-colour printmaking, prints. This type of colour printing stemmed from the process of lithography, and includes all types of lithography that are printed in colour. When chromo ...
film loops (often traced from live-action footage) for adapted toy magic lanterns intended for kids to use at home. It would take some more years before animation reached movie theaters. After earlier experiments by movie pioneers J. Stuart Blackton,
Arthur Melbourne-Cooper Arthur Melbourne Cooper (15 April 1874 – 28 November 1961) was a British photographer and early filmmaker best known for his pioneering work in stop-motion animation. He produced over three hundred films between 1896 and 1915, of which an estimat ...
,
Segundo de Chomón Segundo Víctor Aurelio Chomón y Ruiz (also ''Chomont'' or ''Chaumont'', ; 17 October 1871 – 2 May 1929) was a pioneering Spanish film director, cinematographer and screenwriter. He produced many short films in France while working for Path ...
, and Edwin S. Porter (among others), Blackton's ''The Haunted Hotel'' (1907) was the first huge
stop motion Stop motion is an animated filmmaking technique in which objects are physically manipulated in small increments between individually photographed frames so that they will appear to exhibit independent motion or change when the series of frames is p ...
success, baffling audiences by showing objects that apparently moved by themselves in full photographic detail, without signs of any known stage trick.
Émile Cohl Émile Cohl (; 4 January 1857 – 20 January 1938), born Émile Eugène Jean Louis Courtet, was a French caricaturist of the largely forgotten Incoherent Movement, cartoonist, and animator, called "The Father of the Animated Cartoon" and "The Oldes ...
's '' Fantasmagorie'' (1908) is the oldest known example of what became known as traditional (hand-drawn) animation. Other great artistic and very influential short films were created by
Ladislas Starevich Ladislas Starevich (russian: Владисла́в Алекса́ндрович Старе́вич, pl, Władysław Starewicz; August 8, 1882 – February 26, 1965) was a Polish-Russian stop-motion animator notable as the author of the first puppet- ...
with his puppet animations since 1910 and by
Winsor McCay Zenas Winsor McCay ( – July 26, 1934) was an American cartoonist and animator. He is best known for the comic strip ''Little Nemo'' (1905–14; 1924–26) and the animated film ''Gertie the Dinosaur'' (1914). For contractual reasons, he work ...

Winsor McCay
with detailed drawn animation in films such as ''
Little Nemo Little Nemo is a fictional character created by American cartoonist Winsor McCay. He originated in an early comic strip by McCay, ''Dream of the Rarebit Fiend'', before receiving his own spin-off series, ''Little Nemo in Slumberland''. The ful ...
'' (1911) and ''
Gertie the Dinosaur ''Gertie the Dinosaur'' is a 1914 animated short film by American cartoonist and animator Winsor McCay. It is the earliest animated film to feature a dinosaur. McCay first used the film before live audiences as an interactive part of his vaudev ...
'' (1914). During the 1910s, the production of animated "
cartoons A cartoon is a type of illustration, sometimes animated, typically in a non-realistic or semi-realistic style. The specific meaning has evolved over time, but the modern usage usually refers to either: an image or series of images intended for ...
" became an industry in the US. Successful producer
John Randolph Bray John Randolph Bray (August 25, 1879 – October 10, 1978) was an American animator. Work Bray became interested in animation in the early years of moving pictures. By 1914, he opened a New York area studio specifically organized to make animated ...
and animator
Earl Hurd Earl Hurd (September 14, 1880 – September 28, 1940) was a pioneering American animator and film director. He is noted for creating and producing the silent ''Bobby Bumps'' animated short subject series for early animation producer J.R. Bray's Bray ...
, patented the
cel animation on the reverse side of an already inked cel. Traditional animation (or classical animation, cel animation, hand-drawn animation, 2D animation or just 2D) is an animation technique in which each frame is drawn by hand. The technique was the domina ...
process that dominated the animation industry for the rest of the century.
Felix the Cat Felix the Cat is a funny-animal cartoon character created in 1919 by Pat Sullivan and Otto Messmer during the silent film era. An anthropomorphic black cat with white eyes, a black body, and a giant grin, he is one of the most recognized cartoon ...
, who debuted in 1919, became the first animated superstar.


Golden age of US animation

In 1928, ''
Steamboat Willie ''Steamboat Willie'' is a 1928 American animated short film directed by Walt Disney and Ub Iwerks. It was produced in black-and-white by Walt Disney Studios and was released by Celebrity Productions. The cartoon is considered the debut of Mickey ...
'', featuring
Mickey Mouse Mickey Mouse is a cartoon character created in 1928 by Walt Disney and Ub Iwerks at The Walt Disney Studios, who serves as the mascot of the Walt Disney Company. An anthropomorphic mouse who typically wears red shorts, large yellow shoes, and ...
and
Minnie Mouse Minnie Mouse is a cartoon character created in 1928 at Walt Disney Animation Studios. As the longtime sweetheart of Mickey Mouse, she is an anthropomorphic mouse with white gloves, a bow, polka-dotted dress, and low-heeled shoes occasionally with ...
, popularized film with synchronized sound and put
Walt Disney Walter Elias Disney (; December 5, 1901December 15, 1966) was an American entrepreneur, animator, writer, voice actor, and film producer. A pioneer of the American animation industry, he introduced several developments in the production of ca ...
's studio at the forefront of the animation industry. In 1932, Disney also introduced the innovation of full color (in ''
Flowers and Trees ''Flowers and Trees'' is a 1932 ''Silly Symphonies'' cartoon produced by Walt Disney, directed by Burt Gillett, and released to theatres by United Artists on July 30, 1932. It was the first commercially released film to be produced in the full-co ...
'') as part of a three-year-long exclusive deal with
Technicolor Technicolor is a series of color motion picture processes, the first version dating to 1916, and followed by improved versions over several decades. It was the second major color process, after Britain's Kinemacolor (used between 1908 and 1914), ...
. The enormous success of Mickey Mouse is seen as the start of the
golden age of American animation The golden age of American animation was a period in the history of U.S. animation that began with the popularization of sound cartoons in 1928 and gradually ended in the late 1960s, where theatrical animated shorts began losing popularity to the ...
that would last until the 1960s. The United States dominated the world market of animation with a plethora of cel-animated theatrical shorts. Several studios would introduce characters that would become very popular and would have long-lasting careers, including
Walt Disney Productions The Walt Disney Company, commonly known as Disney (), is an American diversified multinational mass media and entertainment conglomerate headquartered at the Walt Disney Studios complex in Burbank, California. Disney was originally founded o ...
'
Goofy Goofy is a funny animal cartoon character created in 1932 at Walt Disney Animation Studios. Goofy is a tall, anthropomorphic dog who typically wears a turtle neck and vest, with pants, shoes, white gloves, and a tall hat originally designed as a ...
(1932) and
Donald Duck Donald Fauntleroy Duck is a cartoon character created in 1934 at Walt Disney Animation Studios. Donald is an anthropomorphic white duck with a yellow-orange bill, legs, and feet. He typically wears a sailor shirt and cap with a bow tie. Donald ...
(1934), Warner Bros. Cartoons'
Looney Tunes ''Looney Tunes'' is an American animated comedy short film series produced by Warner Bros. from 1930 to 1969 along with its sister series, ''Merrie Melodies'', during the golden age of American animation.Daffy Duck Daffy Duck is an animated cartoon character created by Warner Bros. Styled as an anthropomorphic black duck, the character has appeared in cartoon series such as ''Looney Tunes'' and ''Merrie Melodies'', in which he usually has been depicted as a ...
(1937),
Bugs Bunny Bugs Bunny is an animated cartoon character, created in the late 1930s by Leon Schlesinger Productions (later Warner Bros. Cartoons) and voiced originally by Mel Blanc. Bugs is best known for his starring roles in the ''Looney Tunes'' and ''Merr ...
(1938/1940),
Tweety Tweety is a yellow canary in the Warner Bros. ''Looney Tunes'' and ''Merrie Melodies'' series of animated cartoons. The name "Tweety" is a play on words, as it originally meant "sweetie", along with "tweet" being an English onomatopoeia for the ...
(1941/1942),
Sylvester the Cat Sylvester James Pussycat, Sr. is a fictional character, an anthropomorphic tuxedo cat in the ''Looney Tunes'' and ''Merrie Melodies'' series of cartoons. Most of his appearances have him often chasing Tweety, Speedy Gonzales, or Hippety Hopper. He ...
(1945), Wile E. Coyote and Road Runner (1949),
Fleischer Studios Fleischer Studios () was an American corporation that originated as an animation studio located at 1600 Broadway, New York City, New York. It was founded in 1921 as Inkwell Studios, Inc. and Out of the Inkwell Films by brothers Max Fleischer and ...
/
Paramount Cartoon Studios Famous Studios (renamed Paramount Cartoon Studios in 1956) was the first animation division of the film studio Paramount Pictures from 1942 to 1967. Famous was founded as a successor company to Fleischer Studios, after Paramount seized control of t ...
'
Betty Boop Betty Boop is an animated cartoon character created by Max Fleischer, with help from animators including Grim Natwick.Pointer (2017) She originally appeared in the ''Talkartoon'' and ''Betty Boop'' film series, which were produced by Fleischer S ...
(1930),
Popeye Popeye the Sailor is a fictional American cartoon character created by Elzie Crisler Segar.Superman Superman is a fictional superhero who first appeared in American comic books published by DC Comics. The character was created by writer Jerry Siegel and artist Joe Shuster, and first appeared in the comic book ''Action Comics'' #1 (cover-date ...
(1941) and
Casper Casper may refer to: People * Casper (given name) * Casper (surname) * Casper (Maya ruler) (422–487?), ruler of the Mayan city of Palenque * Tok Casper, first known king of Maya city-state Quiriguá in Guatemala, ruling beginning in 426 * David ...
(1945),
MGM cartoon studio The Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer cartoon studio (also known as MGM Cartoons) was the in-house division of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM) film studio in Hollywood during the Golden Age of American animation. The studio was responsible for producing animated shor ...
's
Tom and Jerry ''Tom and Jerry'' is an American animated media franchise and series of comedy short films created in 1940 by William Hanna and Joseph Barbera. Best known for its 161 theatrical short films by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, the series centers on the riva ...

Tom and Jerry
(1940) and
Droopy Droopy is an animated character from the golden age of American animation. He is an anthropomorphic dog with a droopy face, hence his name. He was created in 1943 by Tex Avery for theatrical cartoon shorts produced by the Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer carto ...
,
Walter Lantz Productions Walter Lantz Productions was an American animation studio. It was in operation from 1928 to 1973, and was the principal supplier of animation for Universal Studios, now part of the media conglomerate NBCUniversal, owned by Comcast. Nowadays the com ...
/ Universal Studio Cartoons'
Woody Woodpecker Woody Woodpecker is a cartoon anthropomorphic woodpecker that has appeared in theatrical short films produced by the Walter Lantz Studio and distributed by Universal Studios between 1940 and 1972. He was created in 1940 by Lantz and storyboard ...
(1940),
Terrytoons Terrytoons was an animation studio in New Rochelle, New York, that produced animated cartoons for theatrical release from 1929 to 1972 (and briefly returned between 1987 and 1996 for television in name only). Terrytoons was founded by Paul Terry, F ...
/
20th Century Fox 20th Century Studios, Inc. (also known as 20th Century for short, and nicknamed 20th Pictures, formerly Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation) is an American film studio that is a subsidiary of Walt Disney Studios, a division of The Walt Dis ...
's
Mighty Mouse Mighty Mouse is an American animated anthropomorphic superhero mouse character created by the Terrytoons studio for 20th Century Fox. The character was originally called Super Mouse, and made his debut in the 1942 short ''The Mouse of Tomorrow''. ...
(1942) and
United Artists United Artists Corporation (UA), currently doing business as United Artists Digital Studios, is an American digital production company. Founded in 1919 by D. W. Griffith, Charlie Chaplin, Mary Pickford, and Douglas Fairbanks, the studio ...
' Pink Panther (1963).


Animated features before CGI

In 1917, Italian-Argentine director
Quirino Cristiani Quirino Cristiani (July 2, 1896 – August 2, 1984) was an Italian-born Argentine animation director and cartoonist, responsible for the world's first two animated feature films as well as the first animated feature film with sound, even though the ...

Quirino Cristiani
made the first feature-length film ''
El Apóstol ''El Apóstol'' (English: ''The Apostle'') is a 1917 lost Argentine animated film using cutout animation. Many historians consider it the world's first animated feature film. It was directed and produced by Italian-Argentine immigrants Quirino Cris ...
'' (now lost), which became a critical and commercial success. It was followed by Cristiani's '' Sin dejar rastros'' in 1918, but one day after its premiere the film was confiscated by the government. After working on it for three years,
Lotte Reiniger Charlotte "Lotte" Reiniger (2 June 1899 – 19 June 1981) was a German film director and the foremost pioneer of silhouette animation. Her best known films are ''The Adventures of Prince Achmed'', from 1926—thought to be one of the oldest surviv ...
released the German feature-length
silhouette animation Silhouette animation is animation in which the characters are only visible as black silhouettes. This is usually accomplished by backlighting articulated cardboard cut-outs, though other methods exist. It is partially inspired by, but for a number o ...
'' Die Abenteuer des Prinzen Achmed'' in 1926, the oldest extant animated feature. In 1937, Walt Disney Studios premiered their first animated feature, ''
Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs "Snow White" is a 19th-century German fairy tale that is today known widely across the Western world. The Brothers Grimm published it in 1812 in the first edition of their collection ''Grimms' Fairy Tales'' and numbered as Tale 53. The original Ge ...
'', still one of the highest-grossing traditional animation features .* Total prior to 50th anniversary reissue: * 1987 and 1993 grosses from North America: The Fleischer studios followed this example in 1939 with ''
Gulliver's Travels ''Gulliver's Travels'', or ''Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World. In Four Parts. By Lemuel Gulliver, First a Surgeon, and then a Captain of Several Ships'' is a 1726 prose satire by the Irish writer and clergyman Jonathan Swift, s ...
'' with some success. Partly due to foreign markets being cut off by the Second World War, Disney's next features ''
Pinocchio Pinocchio ( , ) is a fictional character and the protagonist of the children's novel ''The Adventures of Pinocchio'' (1883) by Italian writer Carlo Collodi of Florence, Tuscany. Pinocchio was carved by a woodcarver named Geppetto in a Tuscan vil ...
'', ''
Fantasia Fantasia may refer to: Film and television * ''Fantasia'' (1940 film), an animated musical film produced by Walt Disney * ''Fantasia'' (2004 film), a Hong Kong comedy film * ''Fantasia'' (2014 film), a Chinese film * "Fantasia" (''Eureka Seven'' ...
'' (both 1940) and Fleischer Studios' second animated feature '' Mr. Bug Goes to Town'' (1941/1942) failed at the box office. For decades afterwards Disney would be the only American studio to regularly produce animated features, until
Ralph Bakshi Ralph Bakshi (born October 29, 1938) is an American director of animated and live-action films. In the 1970s, he established an alternative to mainstream animation through independent and adult-oriented productions. Between 1972 and 2015, he direc ...

Ralph Bakshi
became the first to also release more than a handful features. Sullivan-Bluth Studios began to regularly produce animated features starting with ''
An American Tail ''An American Tail'' is a 1986 American animated musical adventure comedy-drama film directed by Don Bluth from a screenplay by Judy Freudberg and Tony Geiss and a story by David Kirschner, Freudberg and Geiss. The film features the voices of Phi ...
'' in 1986. Although relatively few titles became as successful as Disney's features, other countries developed their own animation industries that produced both short and feature theatrical animations in a wide variety of styles, relatively often including
stop motion Stop motion is an animated filmmaking technique in which objects are physically manipulated in small increments between individually photographed frames so that they will appear to exhibit independent motion or change when the series of frames is p ...
and
cutout animation Cutout animation is a form of stop-motion animation using flat characters, props and backgrounds cut from materials such as paper, card, stiff fabric or photographs. The props would be cut out and used as puppets for stop motion. The world's earl ...
techniques. Russia's
Soyuzmultfilm Soyuzmultfilm ( rus, Союзмультфильм, p=səjʉsmʊlʲtˈfʲilʲm , ''Union Cartoon'') is a Russian animation studio based in Moscow. Launched in 1936, the studio has produced more than 1,500 cartoons. Soyuzmultfilm specializes in the crea ...
animation studio, founded in 1936, produced 20 films (including shorts) per year on average and reached 1,582 titles in 2018. China, Czechoslovakia / Czech Republic, Italy, France and Belgium were other countries that more than occasionally released feature films, while Japan became a true powerhouse of animation production, with its own recognizable and influential
anime is hand-drawn and computer animation originating from Japan. In Japan and in Japanese, (a term derived from the English word ''animation'') describes all animated works, regardless of style or origin. However, outside of Japan and in Englis ...
style of effective
limited animationLimited animation is a process in the overall technique of traditional animation of creating animated cartoons that does not redraw entire frames but variably reuses common parts between frames. Early history The use of budget-cutting and time-savin ...
.


Animation on television

Animation became very popular on television since the 1950s, when television sets started to become common in most developed countries. Cartoons were mainly programmed for children, on convenient time slots, and especially US youth spent many hours watching
Saturday-morning cartoon "Saturday-morning cartoon" is a colloquial term for the original animated series programming that was typically scheduled on Saturday mornings in the United States on the "Big Three" television networks. The genre's popularity had a broad peak from ...
s. Many classic cartoons found a new life on the small screen and by the end of the 1950s, production of new animated cartoons started to shift from theatrical releases to TV series.
Hanna-Barbera Productions Hanna-Barbera Productions, Inc. ( ), also variously known as H-B Enterprises, H-B Production Co., and Hanna-Barbera Cartoons, Inc., was an American animation studio and production company founded in 1957 by ''Tom and Jerry'' creators and former ...
was especially prolific and had huge hit series, such as ''
The Flintstones ''The Flintstones'' is an American animated sitcom produced by Hanna-Barbera Productions. The series takes place in a romanticized Stone Age setting and follows the activities of the title family, the Flintstones, and their next-door neighbors, ...
'' (1960–1966) (the first
prime time The prime time or the peak time is the block of broadcast programming taking place during the middle of the evening for a television show. It is more targeted towards both men and women. It is used by the major television networks to broadcast th ...
animated series), ''
Scooby-Doo ''Scooby-Doo'' is an American animated franchise comprising many animated television series produced from 1969 to the present, as well as their derivative media. Writers Joe Ruby and Ken Spears created the original series, ''Scooby-Doo, Where A ...
'' (since 1969) and Belgian co-production ''
The Smurfs ''The Smurfs'' (french: Les Schtroumpfs; nl, De Smurfen) is a Belgian comic franchise centered on a fictional colony of small, blue, humanoid creatures who live in mushroom-shaped houses in the forest. ''The Smurfs'' was first created and intro ...
'' (1981–1989). The constraints of American television programming and the demand for an enormous quantity resulted in cheaper and quicker
limited animationLimited animation is a process in the overall technique of traditional animation of creating animated cartoons that does not redraw entire frames but variably reuses common parts between frames. Early history The use of budget-cutting and time-savin ...
methods and much more formulaic scripts. Quality dwindled until more daring animation surfaced in the late 1980s and in the early 1990s with hit series such as ''
The Simpsons ''The Simpsons'' is an American animated sitcom created by Matt Groening for the Fox Broadcasting Company. The series is a satirical depiction of American life, epitomized by the Simpson family, which consists of Homer, Marge, Bart, Lisa, and M ...
'' (since 1989) as part of a "renaissance" of American animation. While US animated series also spawned successes internationally, many other countries produced their own child-oriented programming, relatively often preferring
stop motion Stop motion is an animated filmmaking technique in which objects are physically manipulated in small increments between individually photographed frames so that they will appear to exhibit independent motion or change when the series of frames is p ...
and
puppetry Puppetry is a form of theatre or performance that involves the manipulation of puppets – inanimate objects, often resembling some type of human or animal figure, that are animated or manipulated by a human called a puppeteer. Such a performance ...
over cel animation. Japanese
anime is hand-drawn and computer animation originating from Japan. In Japan and in Japanese, (a term derived from the English word ''animation'') describes all animated works, regardless of style or origin. However, outside of Japan and in Englis ...
TV series became very successful internationally since the 1960s, and European producers looking for affordable cel animators relatively often started co-productions with Japanese studios, resulting in hit series such as ''
Barbapapa ''Barbapapa'' is a 1970 children's picture book by the French-American couple Annette Tison and Talus Taylor, who lived in Paris, France. Barbapapa is both the title character and the name of his "species". The book was the first of a series of chil ...
'' (The Netherlands/Japan/France 1973–1977), '' Wickie und die starken Männer/小さなバイキング ビッケ (Vicky the Viking)'' (Austria/Germany/Japan 1974), and ''
The Jungle Book ''The Jungle Book'' (1894) is a collection of stories by the English author Rudyard Kipling. Most of the characters are animals such as Shere Khan the tiger and Baloo the bear, though a principal character is the boy or "man-cub" Mowgli, who ...
'' (Italy/Japan 1989).


Switch from cel animation to computer animation

Computer animation " technique Computer animation is the process used for digitally generating animated images. The more general term computer-generated imagery (CGI) encompasses both static scenes and dynamic images, while computer animation ''only'' refers to movi ...
was gradually developed since the 1940s. 3D wireframe animation started popping up in the mainstream in the 1970s, with an early (short) appearance in the sci-fi thriller ''
Futureworld ''Futureworld'' is a 1976 American science fiction thriller film directed by Richard T. Heffron and written by Mayo Simon and George Schenck. It is a sequel to the 1973 Michael Crichton film ''Westworld'', and is the second installment in the '' ...
'' (1976). ''
The Rescuers Down Under ''The Rescuers Down Under'' is a 1990 American animated adventure film produced by Walt Disney Feature Animation and released by Walt Disney Pictures. The 29th Disney animated feature film, the film is the sequel to the 1977 film ''The Rescuers'', ...
'' was the first feature film to be completely created digitally without a camera. It was produced in a style that's very similar to traditional cel animation on the
Computer Animation Production System The Computer Animation Production System (CAPS) was a digital ink and paint system used in animated feature films, the first at a major studio, designed to replace the expensive process of transferring animated drawings to cels using India ink or xe ...
(CAPS), developed by
The Walt Disney Company The Walt Disney Company, commonly known as Disney (), is an American diversified multinational mass media and entertainment conglomerate headquartered at the Walt Disney Studios complex in Burbank, California. Disney was originally founded o ...
in collaboration with
Pixar Pixar Animation Studios () is an American computer animation studio known for its critically and commercially successful feature films. It is based in Emeryville, California, and is a subsidiary of Walt Disney Studios owned by The Walt Disney Co ...
in the late 1980s. The so-called 3D style, more often associated with computer animation, has become extremely popular since Pixar's ''
Toy Story ''Toy Story'' is a 1995 American computer-animated comedy film produced by Pixar Animation Studios and released by Walt Disney Pictures. The first installment in the '' Toy Story'' franchise, it was the first entirely computer-animated featur ...
'' (1995), the first computer-animated feature in this style. Most of the cel animation studios switched to producing mostly computer animated films around the 1990s, as it proved cheaper and more profitable. Not only the very popular 3D animation style was generated with computers, but also most of the films and series with a more traditional hand-crafted appearance, in which the charming characteristics of cel animation could be emulated with software, while new digital tools helped developing new styles and effects.


Economic status

In 2008, the animation market was worth US$68.4 billion. Animated feature-length films returned the highest
gross margin Gross margin is the difference between revenue and cost of goods sold (COGS), divided by revenue. Gross margin is expressed as a percentage. Generally, it is calculated as the selling price of an item, less the cost of goods sold (e. g. production ...
s (around 52%) of all
film genre A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art used to simulate experiences that communicate ideas, stories, perceptions, feelings, beauty, or atmosphere through the use of moving images. These image ...
s between 2004 and 2013. Animation as an art and industry continues to thrive as of the early 2020s.


Education, propaganda and commercials

The clarity of animation makes it a powerful tool for instruction, while its total malleability also allows exaggeration that can be employed to convey strong emotions and to thwart reality. It has therefore been widely used for other purposes than mere entertainment. During World War II, animation was widely exploited for propaganda. Many American studios, including Warner Bros. and Disney, lent their talents and their cartoon characters to convey the public of certain war values. Some countries, including China, Japan and the United Kingdom, produced their first feature-length animation for their war efforts. Animation has been very popular in television commercials, both due to its graphic appeal, and the humour it can provide. Some animated characters in commercials have survived for decades, such as
Snap, Crackle and Pop Snap, Crackle and Pop are the cartoon mascots of Kellogg's crisped-rice breakfast cereal Rice Krispies. History The elf-likeKellogg'"Snap! Crackle! Pop!"2007. Accessed 20 August 2010. characters were originally designed by illustrator Vernon Gran ...
in advertisements for Kellogg's cereals. The legendary animation director
Tex Avery Frederick Bean "Tex" Avery (February 26, 1908 – August 26, 1980) was an American animator and director, known for producing and directing animated cartoons during the golden age of American animation. His most significant work was for the Warner ...
was the producer of the first
Raid RAID (; "Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks" or "Redundant Array of Independent Disks") is a data storage virtualization technology that combines multiple physical disk drive components into one or more logical units for the purposes of data red ...
" Kills Bugs Dead" commercials in 1966, which were very successful for the company.


Spin-off enterprises: other media, merchandise and theme parks

Apart from their success in movie theaters and television series, many cartoon characters would also prove extremely lucrative when licensed for all kinds of merchandise and for other media. Animation has traditionally been very closely related to
comic book A comic book, also called comic magazine or (in the United Kingdom and Ireland) simply comic, is a publication that consists of comics art in the form of sequential juxtaposed panels that represent individual scenes. Panels are often accompanie ...
s. While many comic book characters found their way to the screen (which is often the case in Japan, where many
manga Manga (Japanese: 漫画 ) are comics or graphic novels originating from Japan. Most manga conform to a style developed in Japan in the late 19th century, and the form has a long prehistory in earlier Japanese art. The term ''manga'' is used i ...
are adapted into
anime is hand-drawn and computer animation originating from Japan. In Japan and in Japanese, (a term derived from the English word ''animation'') describes all animated works, regardless of style or origin. However, outside of Japan and in Englis ...
), original animated characters also commonly appear in comic books and magazines. Somewhat similarly, characters and plots for
video game A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface or input device such as a joystick, controller, keyboard, or motion sensing device to generate visual feedback for a player. This feedback is shown on a video ...
s (an interactive animation medium) have been derived from films and vice versa. Some of the original content produced for the screen can be used and marketed in other media. Stories and images can easily be adapted into children's books and other printed media. Songs and music have appeared on records and as streaming media. While very many animation companies commercially exploit their creations outside moving image media,
The Walt Disney Company The Walt Disney Company, commonly known as Disney (), is an American diversified multinational mass media and entertainment conglomerate headquartered at the Walt Disney Studios complex in Burbank, California. Disney was originally founded o ...
is the best known and most extreme example. Since first being licensed for a children's writing tablet in 1929, their
Mickey Mouse Mickey Mouse is a cartoon character created in 1928 by Walt Disney and Ub Iwerks at The Walt Disney Studios, who serves as the mascot of the Walt Disney Company. An anthropomorphic mouse who typically wears red shorts, large yellow shoes, and ...
mascot has been depicted on an enormous amount of products, as have many other Disney characters. This may have influenced some pejorative use of Mickey's name, but licensed Disney products sell well, and the so-called
Disneyana Disneyana is a term for a wide variety of collectible toys, books, animation cels, theme-park souvenirs, ephemera and other items produced and/or licensed by The Walt Disney Company. Examples range from products featuring virtually every Disney cha ...
has many avid collectors, and even a dedicated Disneyana fanclub (since 1984).
Disneyland Disneyland Park, originally Disneyland, is the first of two theme parks built at the Disneyland Resort in Anaheim, California, opened on July 17, 1955. It is the only theme park designed and built to completion under the direct supervision of ...
opened in 1955 and features many attractions that were based on Disney's cartoon characters. Its enormous success spawned several other Disney theme parks and resorts. Disney's earnings from the theme parks have relatively often been higher than those from their movies.


Criticism

Criticism of animation has been common in media and cinema since its inception. With its popularity, a large amount of criticism has arisen, especially animated feature-length films. Many concerns of cultural representation, psychological effects on children have been brought up around the animation industry, which has remained rather politically unchanged and stagnant since its inception into mainstream culture.


Awards

As with any other form of media, animation has instituted awards for excellence in the field. The original awards for animation were presented by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences for animated shorts from the year 1932, during the 5th Academy Awards function. The first winner of the 5th Academy Awards, Academy Award was the short ''Flowers and Trees'', a production by
Walt Disney Productions The Walt Disney Company, commonly known as Disney (), is an American diversified multinational mass media and entertainment conglomerate headquartered at the Walt Disney Studios complex in Burbank, California. Disney was originally founded o ...
. The Academy Award for a feature-length animated motion picture was only instituted for the year 2001, and awarded during the 74th Academy Awards in 2002. It was won by the film ''Shrek'', produced by DreamWorks Animation, DreamWorks and Pacific Data Images. Walt Disney Animation Studios, Disney Animation and
Pixar Pixar Animation Studios () is an American computer animation studio known for its critically and commercially successful feature films. It is based in Emeryville, California, and is a subsidiary of Walt Disney Studios owned by The Walt Disney Co ...
has produced the most films either to win or be nominated for the award. ''Beauty and the Beast (1991 film), Beauty and the Beast'' was the first animated film nominated for Best Picture. ''Up (2009 film), Up'' and ''Toy Story 3'' also received Best Picture nominations after the Academy expanded the number of nominees from five to ten. * Academy Award for Best Animated Feature * Academy Award for Best Animated Short Film Several other countries have instituted an award for the best-animated feature film as part of their national film awards: Africa Movie Academy Award for Best Animation (since 2008), BAFTA Award for Best Animated Film (since 2006), César Award for Best Animated Film (since 2011), Golden Rooster Award for Best Animation (since 1981), Goya Award for Best Animated Film (since 1989), Japan Academy Prize for Animation of the Year (since 2007), National Film Award for Best Animated Film (since 2006). Also since 2007, the Asia Pacific Screen Award for Best Animated Feature Film has been awarded at the Asia Pacific Screen Awards. Since 2009, the European Film Awards have awarded the European Film Award for Best Animated Film. The Annie Award is another award presented for excellence in the field of animation. Unlike the Academy Awards, the Annie Awards are only received for achievements in the field of animation and not for any other field of technical and artistic endeavour. They were re-organized in 1992 to create a new field for Best Animated Feature. The 1990s winners were dominated by Walt Disney; however, newer studios, led by Pixar & DreamWorks, have now begun to consistently vie for this award. The list of awardees is as follows: * Annie Award for Best Animated Feature * Annie Award for Best Animated Short Subject * Annie Award for Best Animated Television Production


Production

The creation of non-trivial animation works (i.e., longer than a few seconds) has developed as a form of filmmaking, with certain unique aspects. Traits common to both live-action and animated Feature film, feature-length films are labor intensity and high production costs. The most important difference is that once a film is in the production phase, the marginal cost of one more shot is higher for animated films than live-action films. It is relatively easy for a director to ask for one more take during principal photography of a live-action film, but every take on an animated film must be manually rendered by animators (although the task of rendering slightly different takes has been made less tedious by modern computer animation). It is pointless for a studio to pay the salaries of dozens of animators to spend weeks creating a visually dazzling five-minute scene if that scene fails to effectively advance the plot of the film. Thus, animation studios starting with Disney began the practice in the 1930s of maintaining story departments where storyboard artists develop every single scene through storyboards, then handing the film over to the animators only after the production team is satisfied that all the scenes make sense as a whole. While live-action films are now also storyboarded, they enjoy more latitude to depart from storyboards (i.e., real-time improvisation). Another problem unique to animation is the requirement to maintain a film's consistency from start to finish, even as films have grown longer and teams have grown larger. Animators, like all artists, necessarily have individual styles, but must subordinate their individuality in a consistent way to whatever style is employed on a particular film. Since the early 1980s, teams of about 500 to 600 people, of whom 50 to 70 are animators, typically have created feature-length animated films. It is relatively easy for two or three artists to match their styles; synchronizing those of dozens of artists is more difficult. This problem is usually solved by having a separate group of visual development artists develop an overall look and palette for each film before the animation begins. Character designers on the visual development team draw model sheets to show how each character should look like with different facial expressions, posed in different positions, and viewed from different angles. On traditionally animated projects, maquettes were often sculpted to further help the animators see how characters would look from different angles. Unlike live-action films, animated films were traditionally developed beyond the synopsis stage through the storyboard format; the storyboard artists would then receive credit for writing the film. In the early 1960s, animation studios began hiring professional screenwriters to write screenplays (while also continuing to use story departments) and screenplays had become commonplace for animated films by the late 1980s.


Techniques


Traditional animation

Traditional animation (also called cel animation or hand-drawn animation) was the process used for most animated films of the 20th century. The individual frames of a traditionally animated film are photographs of drawings, first drawn on paper. To create the illusion of movement, each drawing differs slightly from the one before it. The animators' drawings are traced or photocopied onto transparent acetate sheets called cels, which are filled in with paints in assigned colors or tones on the side opposite the line drawings. The completed character cels are photographed one-by-one against a painted background by a rostrum camera onto motion picture film. The traditional cel animation process became obsolete by the beginning of the 21st century. Today, animators' drawings and the backgrounds are either scanned into or drawn directly into a computer system. Various software programs are used to color the drawings and simulate camera movement and effects. The final animated piece is output to one of several delivery media, including traditional 35 mm movie film, 35 mm film and newer media with digital video. The "look" of traditional cel animation is still preserved, and the character animators' work has remained essentially the same over the past 70 years. Some animation producers have used the term "tradigital art, tradigital" (a play on the words "traditional" and "digital") to describe cel animation that uses significant computer technology. Examples of traditionally animated feature films include ''
Pinocchio Pinocchio ( , ) is a fictional character and the protagonist of the children's novel ''The Adventures of Pinocchio'' (1883) by Italian writer Carlo Collodi of Florence, Tuscany. Pinocchio was carved by a woodcarver named Geppetto in a Tuscan vil ...
'' (United States, 1940), ''Animal Farm (1954 film), Animal Farm'' (United Kingdom, 1954), ''Lucky and Zorba'' (Italy, 1998), and ''The Illusionist (2010 film), The Illusionist'' (British-French, 2010). Traditionally animated films produced with the aid of computer technology include ''The Lion King'' (US, 1994), ''The Prince of Egypt'' (US, 1998), ''Akira (1988 film), Akira'' (Japan, 1988), ''Spirited Away'' (Japan, 2001), ''The Triplets of Belleville'' (France, 2003), and ''The Secret of Kells'' (Irish-French-Belgian, 2009).


Full animation

Full animation refers to the process of producing high-quality traditionally animated films that regularly use detailed drawings and plausible movement, having a smooth animation. Fully animated films can be made in a variety of styles, from more realistically animated works like those produced by the Walt Disney Animation Studios, Walt Disney studio (''The Little Mermaid (1989 film), The Little Mermaid'', ''Beauty and the Beast (1991 film), Beauty and the Beast'', ''Aladdin (1992 Disney film), Aladdin'', ''The Lion King'') to the more 'cartoon' styles of the Warner Bros. Cartoons, Warner Bros. animation studio. Many of the Disney animated features are examples of full animation, as are non-Disney works, ''The Secret of NIMH'' (US, 1982), ''The Iron Giant'' (US, 1999), and ''Nocturna (Film), Nocturna'' (Spain, 2007). Fully animated films are animated at 24 frames per second, with a combination of animation on ones and twos, meaning that drawings can be held for one frame out of 24 or two frames out of 24.


Limited animation

Limited animation involves the use of less detailed or more stylized drawings and methods of movement usually a choppy or "skippy" movement animation. Limited animation uses fewer drawings per second, thereby limiting the fluidity of the animation. This is a more economic technique. Pioneered by the artists at the American studio United Productions of America, limited animation can be used as a method of stylized artistic expression, as in ''Gerald McBoing-Boing'' (US, 1951), ''Yellow Submarine (1968 film), Yellow Submarine'' (UK, 1968), and certain
anime is hand-drawn and computer animation originating from Japan. In Japan and in Japanese, (a term derived from the English word ''animation'') describes all animated works, regardless of style or origin. However, outside of Japan and in Englis ...
produced in Japan. Its primary use, however, has been in producing cost-effective animated content for media for television (the work of Hanna-Barbera, Filmation, and other TV animation studios) and later the Internet (web cartoons).


Rotoscoping

Rotoscoping is a technique patented by Max Fleischer in 1917 where animators trace live-action movement, frame by frame. The source film can be directly copied from actors' outlines into animated drawings, as in ''The Lord of the Rings (1978 film), The Lord of the Rings'' (US, 1978), or used in a stylized and expressive manner, as in ''Waking Life'' (US, 2001) and ''A Scanner Darkly (film), A Scanner Darkly'' (US, 2006). Some other examples are ''Fire and Ice (1983 film), Fire and Ice'' (US, 1983), ''Heavy Metal (film), Heavy Metal'' (1981), and ''The Flowers of Evil (manga), Aku no Hana'' (Japan, 2013).


Live-action/animation

List of films with live action and animation, Live-action/animation is a technique combining hand-drawn characters into live action shots or live-action actors into animated shots. One of the earlier uses was in Koko the Clown when Koko was drawn over live-action footage. Walt Disney and Ub Iwerks created a series of ''Alice Comedies'' (1923–1927), in which a live-action girl enters an animated world. Other examples include ''Allegro Non Troppo'' (Italy, 1976), ''Who Framed Roger Rabbit'' (US, 1988), ''Volere volare'' (Italy 1991), ''Space Jam'' (US, 1996) and ''Osmosis Jones'' (US, 2001).


Stop motion animation

Stop-motion animation is used to describe animation created by physically manipulating real-world objects and photographing them one frame of film at a time to create the illusion of movement. There are many different types of stop-motion animation, usually named after the medium used to create the animation. Computer software is widely available to create this type of animation; traditional stop-motion animation is usually less expensive but more time-consuming to produce than current computer animation. * Puppet animation typically involves stop-motion puppet figures interacting in a constructed environment, in contrast to real-world interaction in model animation. The puppets generally have an armature (sculpture), armature inside of them to keep them still and steady to constrain their motion to particular joints. Examples include ''The Tale of the Fox'' (France, 1937), ''The Nightmare Before Christmas'' (US, 1993), ''Corpse Bride'' (US, 2005), ''Coraline (film), Coraline'' (US, 2009), the films of Jiří Trnka and the adult animated sketch-comedy television series ''Robot Chicken'' (US, 2005–present). ** Puppetoon, created using techniques developed by George Pal, are puppet-animated films that typically use a different version of a puppet for different frames, rather than simply manipulating one existing puppet. * Clay animation, or Plasticine animation (often called ''claymation'', which, however, is a Laika (company), trademarked name), uses figures made of clay or a similar malleable material to create stop-motion animation. The figures may have an armature (sculpture), armature or wire frame inside, similar to the related puppet animation (below), that can be manipulated to pose the figures. Alternatively, the figures may be made entirely of clay, in the films of Bruce Bickford (animator), Bruce Bickford, where clay creatures morph into a variety of different shapes. Examples of clay-animated works include ''The Gumby Show'' (US, 1957–1967), ''Mio Mao'' (Italy, 1974–2005), ''Morph (animation), Morph'' shorts (UK, 1977–2000), ''Wallace and Gromit'' shorts (UK, as of 1989), Jan Švankmajer's ''Dimensions of Dialogue'' (Czechoslovakia, 1982), ''The Trap Door'' (UK, 1984). Films include ''Wallace & Gromit: The Curse of the Were-Rabbit'', ''Chicken Run'' and ''The Adventures of Mark Twain (1985 film), The Adventures of Mark Twain''. ** Strata-cut animation, Strata-cut animation is most commonly a form of clay animation in which a long bread-like "loaf" of clay, internally packed tight and loaded with varying imagery, is sliced into thin sheets, with the animation camera taking a frame of the end of the loaf for each cut, eventually revealing the movement of the internal images within. * Cutout animation is a type of stop-motion animation produced by moving two-dimensional pieces of material paper or cloth. Examples include Terry Gilliam's animated sequences from ''Monty Python's Flying Circus'' (UK, 1969–1974); ''Fantastic Planet'' (France/Czechoslovakia, 1973); ''Tale of Tales (1979 film), Tale of Tales'' (Russia, 1979), The pilot episode of the adult television sitcom series (and sometimes in episodes) of ''South Park'' (US, 1997) and the music video Live for the moment, from Verona Riots band (produced by Alberto Serrano and Nívola Uyá, Spain 2014). **Silhouette animation is a variant of cutout animation in which the characters are backlit and only visible as silhouettes. Examples include ''The Adventures of Prince Achmed'' (Weimar Republic, 1926) and ''Princes et Princesses'' (France, 2000). * Model animation refers to stop-motion animation created to interact with and exist as a part of a live-action world. Intercutting, matte (filmmaking), matte effects and split screens are often employed to blend stop-motion characters or objects with live actors and settings. Examples include the work of Ray Harryhausen, as seen in films, ''Jason and the Argonauts (1963 film), Jason and the Argonauts'' (1963), and the work of Willis H. O'Brien on films, ''King Kong (1933 film), King Kong'' (1933). **Go motion is a variant of model animation that uses various techniques to create motion blur between frames of film, which is not present in traditional stop motion. The technique was invented by Industrial Light & Magic and Phil Tippett to create special effect scenes for the film ''The Empire Strikes Back'' (1980). Another example is the dragon named "Vermithrax" from 1981 film ''Dragonslayer (1981 film), Dragonslayer''. * Object animation refers to the use of regular inanimate objects in stop-motion animation, as opposed to specially created items. ** Graphic animation uses non-drawn flat visual graphic material (photographs, newspaper clippings, magazines, etc.), which are sometimes manipulated frame by frame to create movement. At other times, the graphics remain stationary, while the stop-motion camera is moved to create on-screen action. ** Brickfilm are a subgenre of object animation involving using Lego or other similar brick toys to make an animation. These have had a recent boost in popularity with the advent of video sharing sites, YouTube and the availability of cheap cameras and animation software. * Pixilation involves the use of live humans as stop-motion characters. This allows for a number of surreal effects, including disappearances and reappearances, allowing people to appear to slide across the ground, and other effects. Examples of pixilation include ''The Secret Adventures of Tom Thumb'' and ''Angry Kid'' shorts, and the Academy Award-winning ''Neighbours (1952 film), Neighbours'' by Norman McLaren.


Computer animation

Computer animation encompasses a variety of techniques, the unifying factor being that the animation is created digitally on a computer. 2D animation techniques tend to focus on image manipulation while 3D techniques usually build virtual worlds in which characters and objects move and interact. 3D animation can create images that seem real to the viewer.


2D animation

2D computer graphics, 2D animation figures are created or edited on the computer using 2D Raster graphics, bitmap graphics and 2D vector graphics. This includes automated computerized versions of traditional animation techniques, Interpolation, interpolated morphing, onion skinning and interpolated rotoscoping. 2D animation has many applications, including Scanimate, analog computer animation,
Flash animation 300px, Simple animation in Flash MX: a square moving across the screen in a motion tween, one of the basic functions of Flash. Onion skinning is used to show the apparent motion of the square. Adobe Flash animation or Adobe Flash cartoon is an ani ...
, and PowerPoint animation. Cinemagraphs are Still life photography, still photographs in the form of an
animated GIF#REDIRECT GIF ...
file of which part is animated. Final line advection animation is a technique used in 2D animation, to give artists and animators more influence and control over the final product as everything is done within the same department. Speaking about using this approach in ''Paperman'', John Kahrs said that "Our animators can change things, actually erase away the CG underlayer if they want, and change the profile of the arm."


3D animation

3D animation is digitally modeled and manipulated by an animator. The 3D model maker usually starts by creating a 3D polygon mesh for the animator to manipulate. A mesh typically includes many vertices that are connected by edges and faces, which give the visual appearance of form to a 3D object or 3D environment. Sometimes, the mesh is given an internal digital skeletal structure called an Armature (computer animation), armature that can be used to control the mesh by weighting the vertices. This process is called rigging and can be used in conjunction with key frames to create movement. Other techniques can be applied, mathematical functions (e.g., gravity, particle simulations), simulated fur or hair, and effects, fire and fluid animation, water simulations. These techniques fall under the category of 3D dynamics.


=3D terms

= * Cel-shaded animation is used to mimic traditional animation using computer software. Shading looks stark, with less blending of colors. Examples include ''Skyland'' (2007, France), ''The Iron Giant'' (1999, United States), ''Futurama'' (1999, United States) ''Appleseed Ex Machina'' (2007, Japan), ''The Legend of Zelda: The Wind Waker'' (2002, Japan), ''The Legend of Zelda: Breath of the Wild'' (2017, Japan) * Machinima – Films created by screen capturing in video games and virtual worlds. The term originated from the software introduction in the 1980s demoscene, as well as the 1990s recordings of the first-person shooter video game ''Quake (video game), Quake''. * Motion capture is used when live-action actors wear special suits that allow computers to copy their movements into CG characters. Examples include ''The Polar Express (film), Polar Express'' (2004, US), ''Beowulf (2007 film), Beowulf'' (2007, US), ''A Christmas Carol (2009 film), A Christmas Carol'' (2009, US), ''The Adventures of Tintin (film), The Adventures of Tintin'' (2011, US) ''Kochadaiiyaan, kochadiiyan'' (2014, India) *
Computer animation " technique Computer animation is the process used for digitally generating animated images. The more general term computer-generated imagery (CGI) encompasses both static scenes and dynamic images, while computer animation ''only'' refers to movi ...
is used primarily for animation that attempts to resemble real life, using advanced rendering that mimics in detail skin, plants, water, fire, clouds, etc. Examples include ''Up (2009 film), Up'' (2009, US), ''How to Train Your Dragon (film), How to Train Your Dragon'' (2010, US) * Physically based animation is animation using computer simulations.


Mechanical animation

* Animatronics is the use of mechatronics to create machines that seem animate rather than robotic. ** Audio-Animatronics and Autonomatronics is a form of robotics animation, combined with 3-D animation, created by Walt Disney Imagineering for shows and attractions at Disney theme parks move and make noise (generally a recorded speech or song). They are fixed to whatever supports them. They can sit and stand, and they cannot walk. An Audio-Animatron is different from an android (robot), android-type robot in that it uses prerecorded movements and sounds, rather than responding to external stimuli. In 2009, Disney created an interactive version of the technology called Autonomatronics. ** Linear Animation Generator is a form of animation by using static picture frames installed in a tunnel or a shaft. The animation illusion is created by putting the viewer in a linear motion, parallel to the installed picture frames. The concept and the technical solution were invented in 2007 by Mihai Girlovan in Romania. * Chuckimation is a type of animation created by the makers of the television series ''Action League Now!'' in which characters/props are thrown, or chucked from off camera or wiggled around to simulate talking by unseen hands. * The Magic lantern#Moving images, magic lantern used mechanical slides to project moving images, probably since Christiaan Huygens invented this early image projector in 1659.


Other animation styles, techniques, and approaches

* Hydrotechnics: a technique that includes lights, water, fire, fog, and lasers, with high-definition projections on mist screens. * Drawn on film animation: a technique where footage is produced by creating the images directly on film stock; for example, by Norman McLaren, Len Lye and Stan Brakhage. * Paint-on-glass animation: a technique for making animated films by manipulating slow drying oil paints on sheets of glass, for example by Aleksandr Petrov (animator), Aleksandr Petrov. * Erasure animation: a technique using traditional 2D media, photographed over time as the artist manipulates the image. For example, William Kentridge is famous for his charcoal erasure films, and Piotr Dumała for his auteur technique of animating scratches on plaster. * Pinscreen animation: makes use of a screen filled with movable pins that can be moved in or out by pressing an object onto the screen. The screen is lit from the side so that the pins cast shadows. The technique has been used to create animated films with a range of textural effects difficult to achieve with traditional cel animation. * Sand animation: sand is moved around on a back- or front-lighted piece of glass to create each frame for an animated film. This creates an interesting effect when animated because of the light Contrast (vision), contrast. * Flip book: a flip book (sometimes, especially in British English, called a flick book) is a book with a series of pictures that vary gradually from one page to the next, so that when the pages are turned rapidly, the pictures appear to animate by simulating motion or some other change. Flip books are often illustrated books for children, they also be geared towards adults and employ a series of photographs rather than drawings. Flip books are not always separate books, they appear as an added feature in ordinary books or magazines, often in the page corners. Software packages and websites are also available that convert digital video files into custom-made flip books. * Character animation * Multi-sketching * Special effects animation


See also

* 12 basic principles of animation * War film#Animated, Animated war film * Animation department * Architectural animation * Avar (animation variable) * Independent animation * International Animation Day * International Animated Film Association * International Tournée of Animation * List of film-related topics * Motion graphic design * Society for Animation Studies * Wire-frame model


References


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Journal articles

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Books

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External links


The making of an 8-minute cartoon short

"Animando"
a 12-minute film demonstrating 10 different animation techniques (and teaching how to use them).
Bibliography on animation – Websiite "Histoire de la télévision"
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Commonly used programs

Some programs used for video making digitally include FlipaClip, Vyond, and Animaker. {{DEFAULTSORT:Animation Animation, Cartooning Articles containing video clips Film and video technology