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Analysis is the process of breaking a complex topic or
substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote the base or owner of attributes * Chemical substance, a material with a definite chemical composition * Matter, anything that has mass and takes up space * Substance th ...
into smaller parts in order to gain a better understanding of it. The technique has been applied in the study of
mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers ( and ), formulas and related structures (), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (), and quantities and their changes ( and ). There is no general consensus abo ...
and
logic Logic is an interdisciplinary field which studies truth and reasoning Reason is the capacity of consciously making sense of things, applying logic Logic (from Ancient Greek, Greek: grc, wikt:λογική, λογική, label=none, lit ...

logic
since before
Aristotle Aristotle (; grc-gre, Ἀριστοτέλης ''Aristotélēs'', ; 384–322 BC) was a Greek philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental quest ...

Aristotle
(384–322 B.C.), though ''analysis'' as a formal concept is a relatively recent development. The word comes from the
Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the used in and the from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods: (), Dark Ages (), the period (), and the period (). Ancient Greek was the language of an ...
ἀνάλυσις (''analysis'', "a breaking-up" or "an untying;" from ''ana-'' "up, throughout" and ''lysis'' "a loosening"). From it also comes the word's plural, ''analyses''. As a formal concept, the method has variously been ascribed to
Alhazen Ḥasan Ibn al-Haytham (Latinization of names, Latinized as Alhazen ; full name ; ) was a Muslim Arab Mathematics in medieval Islam, mathematician, Astronomy in the medieval Islamic world, astronomer, and Physics in the medieval Islamic world, ...
,
René Descartes René Descartes ( or ; ; Latinisation of names, Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, Mathematics, mathematician, and scientist who invented analytic geometry, linking the previously sep ...

René Descartes
(''
Discourse on the Method ''Discourse on the Method of Rightly Conducting One's Reason and of Seeking Truth in the Sciences'' (french: Discours de la Méthode Pour bien conduire sa raison, et chercher la vérité dans les sciences) is a philosophical Philosophy ...
''), and
Galileo Galilei Galileo di Vincenzo Bonaiuti de' Galilei (; 15 February 1564 – 8 January 1642) was an Italian astronomer An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who focuses their studies on a specific question or field outside the ...

Galileo Galilei
. It has also been ascribed to
Isaac Newton Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of s ...

Isaac Newton
, in the form of a practical method of physical discovery (which he did not name).


Applications


Science

The field of
chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a with other . ...

chemistry
uses analysis in at least three ways: to identify the components of a particular
chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that can be ...
(qualitative analysis), to identify the proportions of components in a
mixture In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the Chemical element, elements that make up matter to the chemical compound, compounds composed of atoms, ...

mixture
(quantitative analysis), and to break down
chemical process In a scientific Science (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through ...
es and examine
chemical reaction A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the chemical transformation of one set of chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and t ...

chemical reaction
s between elements of
matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that can be touched are ultimately composed of atoms, which are made up of interacting subatomic particl ...
. For an example of its use, analysis of the concentration of elements is important in managing a
nuclear reactor A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a fission nuclear chain reaction or nuclear fusion reactions. Nuclear reactors are used at nuclear power plants for electricity generation and in nucle ...

nuclear reactor
, so
nuclear scientist Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies atomic nuclei and their constituents and interactions. Other forms of nuclear matter are also studied. Nuclear physics should not be confused with atomic physics, which studies the atom as a wh ...

nuclear scientist
s will analyse
neutron activation Neutron activation is the process in which neutron radiation induced radioactivity, induces radioactivity in materials, and occurs when atomic nucleus, atomic nuclei capture free neutrons, becoming heavier and entering excited states. The excited n ...
to develop discrete measurements within vast samples. A
matrix Matrix or MATRIX may refer to: Science and mathematics * Matrix (mathematics), a rectangular array of numbers, symbols, or expressions * Matrix (logic), part of a formula in prenex normal form * Matrix (biology), the material in between a eukaryoti ...
can have a considerable effect on the way a chemical analysis is conducted and the quality of its results. Analysis can be done manually or with a device. Chemical analysis is an important element of
national security National security or national defence is the security and Defence (military), defence of a sovereign state, nation state, including its Citizenship, citizens, economy, and institutions, which is regarded as a duty of government. Originally c ...
among the major world powers with materials Types of Analysis: A) Qualitative Analysis: It is concerned with which components are in a given sample or compound. Example: Precipitation reaction B) Quantitative Analysis: It is to determine the quantity of individual component present in a given sample or compound. Example:To find concentration by uv-spectrophotometer.


Isotopes

Chemists can use
isotope analysis Isotope analysis is the identification of isotopic signature, the abundance of certain stable isotopes and chemical elements within organic and inorganic compounds. Isotopic analysis can be used to understand the flow of energy through a food w ...
to assist analysts with issues in
anthropology Anthropology is the of ity, concerned with , , , and , in both the present and past, including . studies patterns of behaviour, while studies cultural meaning, including norms and values. studies how language influences social life. studi ...
,
archeology Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. Archaeology is often considered a branch of socio-cultural anthropology, but archaeologists also draw from biological, geological ...

archeology
,
food chemistry Food chemistry is the study of chemical A chemical substance is a form of matter having constant chemical composition and characteristic properties. Some references add that chemical substance cannot be separated into its constituent elements b ...

food chemistry
,
forensics Forensic science, also known as criminalistics, is the application of to and , mainly—on the criminal side—during , as governed by the legal standards of and . Forensic scientists collect, preserve, and analyze scientific during the c ...

forensics
,
geology Geology (from the γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is a branch of concerned with both the liquid and , the of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time. Geology can ...

geology
, and a host of other questions of
physical science Physical science is a branch of natural science that studies abiotic component, non-living systems, in contrast to life science. It in turn has many branches, each referred to as a "physical science", together called the "physical sciences". D ...
. Analysts can discern the origins of natural and man-made isotopes in the study of
environmental radioactivity Environmental radioactivity is produced by radioactive materials in the human Ecosystem, environment. While some radioisotopes, such as strontium-90 (90Sr) and technetium-99 (99Tc), are only found on Earth as a result of human activity, and some, ...
.


Business

*
Financial statement analysis Financial statement analysis (or financial analysis) is the process of reviewing and analyzing a company's financial statement Financial statements (or financial reports) are formal records of the financial activities and position of a business ...
 – the analysis of the accounts and the economic prospects of a firm *
Fundamental analysis Fundamental analysis, in accounting and finance, is the analysis of a business's financial statement Financial statements (or financial reports) are formal records of the financial activities and position of a business, person, or other entity. ...
 – a stock valuation method that uses financial analysis *
Gap analysis In management Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business, a not-for-profit organization, or government body. Management includes the activities of setting the strategy of an organizatio ...
– involves the comparison of actual performance with potential or desired performance of an organization *
Business analysis Business analysis is a research discipline Discipline is Action (philosophy), action or inaction that is regulation, regulated to be in accordance (or to achieve accord) with a particular system of governance. Discipline is commonly applied t ...
– involves identifying the needs and determining the solutions to business problems *
Price analysisIn marketing Marketing is the process of intentionally stimulating demand for and purchases of goods and services; potentially including selection of a target audience; selection of certain attributes or themes to emphasize in advertising; opera ...
– involves the breakdown of a price to a unit figure *
Market analysis Market is a term used to describe concepts such as: *Market (economics) A market is a composition of systems, institutions, procedures, social relations or infrastructures whereby parties engage in Exchange (economics), exchange. While parties m ...
– consists of suppliers and customers, and price is determined by the interaction of
supply and demand In microeconomics Microeconomics is a branch of that studies the behavior of individuals and in making decisions regarding the allocation of and the interactions among these individuals and firms. Microeconomics focuses on the study ...

supply and demand
*
Technical analysis In finance, technical analysis is an analysis methodology for forecasting the direction of prices through the study of past market data, primarily price and volume. Behavioral economics and Quantitative analysis (finance), quantitative analysis us ...

Technical analysis
– the study of price action in securities markets in order to forecast future prices * Opportunity analysis – consists of customers trends within the industry, customer demand and experience determine purchasing behavior


Computer science

*
Requirements analysis In systems engineering and software engineering, requirements analysis focuses on the tasks that determine the needs or conditions to meet the new or altered product or project, taking account of the possibly conflicting requirements of the v ...
– encompasses those tasks that go into determining the needs or conditions to meet for a new or altered product, taking account of the possibly conflicting requirements of the various stakeholders, such as beneficiaries or users. *
Competitive analysis (online algorithm)Competitive analysis is a method invented for analyzing online algorithms, in which the performance of an online algorithm (which must satisfy an unpredictable sequence of requests, completing each request without being able to see the future) is co ...
– shows how online algorithms perform and demonstrates the power of randomization in algorithms *
Lexical analysis In computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the architectures of its computation as well as practical techniques for their application. Computer science is the study of , , ...
– the process of processing an input sequence of characters and producing as output a sequence of symbols *
Object-oriented analysis and design Object-oriented analysis and design (OOAD) is a technical approach for analyzing and designing an application, system, or business by applying object-oriented programming, as well as using visual modeling throughout the software development proces ...
 – à la Booch *
Program analysis (computer science) In computer science, program analysis is the process of automatically analyzing the behavior of computer programs regarding a property such as correctness, robustness, safety and liveness. Program analysis focuses on two major areas: program opti ...
 – the process of automatically analysing the behavior of computer programs *
Semantic analysis (computer science) In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hardware , hardware and sof ...
 – a pass by a compiler that adds semantical information to the parse tree and performs certain checks *
Static code analysis Static program analysis is the analysis of computer software that is performed without actually executing programs, in contrast with dynamic analysis, which is analysis performed on programs while they are executing. In most cases the analysis is ...
 – the analysis of computer software that is performed without actually executing programs built from that * Structured systems analysis and design methodology – à la Yourdon *
Syntax analysis In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis includ ...
 – a process in compilers that recognizes the structure of programming languages, also known as parsing *
Worst-case execution timeThe worst-case execution time (WCET) of a computational task is the maximum length of time the task could take to execute on a specific computer hardware, hardware platform. What it is used for Worst case execution time is typically used in relia ...
 – determines the longest time that a piece of software can take to run


Economics

*
Agroecosystem analysisAgroecosystem analysis is a thorough analysis of an agricultural Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farmi ...
*
Input–output model In economics Economics () is a social science that studies the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and Consumption (economics), consumption of goods and services. Economics focuses on the behav ...
if applied to a region, is called Regional Impact Multiplier System


Engineering

Analysts in the field of
engineering Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The discipline of engineering encompasses a broad range of more speciali ...

engineering
look at
requirements In product development In business Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling Product (business), products (such as goods and services). Simply put, it is "any activity or enterprise e ...
,
structures A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A sy ...
, mechanisms,
systems A system is a group of interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is described by its boundaries, structure and purpose and expres ...
and
dimensions In physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space and time, and the related entities of energy and force ...
.
Electrical engineers
Electrical engineers
analyse
systems A system is a group of interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is described by its boundaries, structure and purpose and expres ...
in
electronics The field of electronics is a branch of physics and electrical engineering that deals with the emission, behaviour and effects of electrons The electron is a subatomic particle In physical sciences, subatomic particles are smaller than ...
.
Life cycles Life cycle, life-cycle, or lifecycle may refer to: Science and academia *Biological life cycle, the sequence of life stages that an organism undergoes from birth to reproduction ending with the production of the offspring *Life-cycle hypothesis, ...
and system failures are broken down and studied by engineers. It is also looking at different factors incorporated within the design.


Intelligence

The field of
intelligence Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity for abstraction, logic, understanding, self-awareness, learning, emotional knowledge, reasoning, planning, creativity, critical thinking, and problem-solving. More generally, it can be des ...
employs analysts to break down and understand a wide array of questions.
Intelligence agencies An intelligence agency is a government agency responsible for the collection, Intelligence analysis, analysis, and exploitation of information in support of law enforcement, national security, military, and foreign policy objectives. Means of in ...
may use
heuristics A heuristic (; ), or heuristic technique, is any approach to problem solving Problem solving consists of using generic or ad hoc Ad hoc is a Latin phrase __NOTOC__ This is a list of Wikipedia articles of Latin phrases and their transla ...

heuristics
, inductive and
deductive reasoning Deductive reasoning, also deductive logic, is the process of reasoning Reason is the capacity of consciously applying logic Logic is an interdisciplinary field which studies truth and reasoning Reason is the capacity of consciously making ...
, social network analysis, dynamic network analysis,
link analysis In network theory, link analysis is a data-analysis technique used to evaluate relationships (connections) between nodes. Relationships may be identified among various types of nodes (objects), including organizations, people and Financial transact ...
, and
brainstorming Brainstorming is a creativity technique, group creativity technique by which efforts are made to find a conclusion for a specific problem by gathering a list of ideas spontaneously contributed by its members. In other words, brainstorming is a si ...

brainstorming
to sort through problems they face. Military intelligence may explore issues through the use of
game theory Game theory is the study of mathematical model A mathematical model is a description of a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. ...
,
Red Team A red team is a group that plays the role of an enemy or competitor, and provides security feedback from that perspective. Red teams are used in many fields, especially in cybersecurity, airport security, the military A military, also k ...
ing, and
wargaming A wargame is a type of strategy game that realistically simulates warfare, as opposed to abstract strategy games such as chess Chess is a recreational and competitive board game played between two players. It is sometimes called Western or ...
.
Signals intelligence Signals intelligence (SIGINT) is list of intelligence gathering disciplines, intelligence-gathering by interception of signals, whether communications between people (communications intelligence—abbreviated to COMINT) or from electronic sign ...
applies
cryptanalysis Cryptanalysis (from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is ...
and
frequency analysis In cryptanalysis, frequency analysis (also known as counting letters) is the study of the letter frequencies, frequency of letters or groups of letters in a ciphertext. The method is used as an aid to breaking classical ciphers. Frequency analy ...
to break
codes In communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Lati ...
and
cipher In cryptography, a cipher (or cypher) is an algorithm for performing encryption or decryption—a series of well-defined steps that can be followed as a procedure. An alternative, less common term is ''encipherment''. To encipher or encode i ...

cipher
s.
Business intelligence Business intelligence (BI) comprises the strategies and technologies used by enterprises for the data analysis Data analysis is a process of inspecting, cleansing, transforming, and modelling In general, a model is an informative representat ...
applies theories of
competitive intelligence analysis
competitive intelligence analysis
and
competitor analysis Competitive analysis in marketing Marketing is the process of intentionally stimulating demand for and purchases of goods and services; potentially including selection of a target audience; selection of certain attributes or themes to emphas ...
to resolve questions in the
marketplace fa:بازار A market, or marketplace, is a location where people regularly gather for the purchase and sale of provisions, livestock, and other goods. In different parts of the world, a market place may be described as a ''souk'' (from the ...
.
Law enforcement 'Law enforcement'' is the activity of some members of government who act in an organized manner to enforce the law by discovering, deterrence (legal), deterring, rehabilitation (penology), rehabilitating, or punishment, punishing people who viol ...

Law enforcement
intelligence applies a number of theories in crime analysis.


Linguistics

Linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo ...

Linguistics
looks at individual languages and
language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the ...

language
in general. It breaks language down and analyses its component parts:
theory A theory is a rational Rationality is the quality or state of being rational – that is, being based on or agreeable to reason Reason is the capacity of consciously making sense of things, applying logic Logic (from Ancient Greek, G ...
,
sounds and their meaning
sounds and their meaning
, utterance usage, word origins, the history of words, the meaning of
words In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most lang ...
and word combinations,
sentence construction
sentence construction
, basic construction beyond the sentence level,
stylistics Stylistics, a branch of applied linguistics Applied linguistics is an interdisciplinary field which identifies, investigates, and offers solutions to language-related real-life problems. Some of the academic fields related to applied linguistics ...
, and
conversation Conversation is interactive communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area ...
. It examines the above using statistics and modeling, and
semantics Semantics (from grc, σημαντικός ''sēmantikós'', "significant") is the study of reference Reference is a relationship between objects in which one object designates, or acts as a means by which to connect to or link to, another ...
. It analyses language in context of
anthropology Anthropology is the scientific study of human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread species In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, ...
,
biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanisms, Development ...
,
evolution Evolution is change in the heritable Heredity, also called inheritance or biological inheritance, is the passing on of Phenotypic trait, traits from parents to their offspring; either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, ...
,
geography Geography (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and Solar System, planets. The first person t ...
,
history History (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approxima ...
,
neurology Neurology (from el, , "string, nerve" and the suffix , "study of") is a branch of dealing with . Neurology deals with the diagnosis and treatment of all categories of conditions and disease involving the and s (and their subdivisions, the ...

neurology
,
psychology Psychology is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in the real world. ...
, and
sociology Sociology is a social science Social science is the branch The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the scie ...
. It also takes the applied approach, looking at individual language development and clinical linguistics, clinical issues.


Literature

Literary criticism is the analysis of literature. The focus can be as diverse as the analysis of analysis (Homer), Homer or psychoanalytic literary criticism, Freud. While not all literary-critical methods are primarily analytical in nature, the main approach to the teaching of literature in the west since the mid-twentieth century, literary formal analysis or close reading, is. This method, rooted in the academic movement labelled The New Criticism, approaches texts – chiefly short poems such as sonnets, which by virtue of their small size and significant complexity lend themselves well to this type of analysis – as units of discourse that can be understood in themselves, without reference to biographical or historical frameworks. This method of analysis breaks up the text linguistically in a study of prosody (linguistics), prosody (the formal analysis of meter) and phonic effects such as alliteration and rhyme, and cognitively in examination of the interplay of syntactic structures, figurative language, and other elements of the poem that work to produce its larger effects.


Mathematics

Modern mathematical analysis is the study of infinite processes. It is the branch of mathematics that includes calculus. It can be applied in the study of classical mathematics, classical concepts of mathematics, such as real analysis, real numbers, complex analysis, complex variables, Fourier analysis, trigonometric functions, and numerical analysis, algorithms, or of non-classical analysis, non-classical concepts like constructivist analysis, constructivism, harmonic analysis, harmonics, non-standard analysis, infinity, and functional analysis, vectors. Florian Cajori explains in wikiquote:A History of Mathematics, ''A History of Mathematics'' (1893) the difference between modern and ancient mathematical analysis, as distinct from logical analysis, as follows:
The terms ''synthesis'' and ''analysis'' are used in mathematics in a more special sense than in logic. In ancient mathematics they had a different meaning from what they now have. The oldest definition of mathematical analysis as opposed to synthesis is that given in [appended to] Euclid's Elements, Euclid, XIII. 5, which in all probability was framed by Eudoxus of Cnidus, Eudoxus: "Analysis is the obtaining of the thing sought by assuming it and so reasoning up to an admitted truth; synthesis is the obtaining of the thing sought by reasoning up to the inference and proof of it."
The analytic method is not conclusive, unless all operations involved in it are known to be reversible. To remove all doubt, the Greeks, as a rule, added to the analytic process a synthetic one, consisting of a reversion of all operations occurring in the analysis. Thus the aim of analysis was to aid in the discovery of synthetic proofs or solutions.
James Gow uses a similar argument as Cajori, with the following clarification, in hi
''A Short History of Greek Mathematics''
(1884):
The synthetic proof proceeds by shewing that the proposed new truth involves certain admitted truths. An analytic proof begins by an assumption, upon which a synthetic reasoning is founded. The Greeks distinguished ''theoretic'' from ''problematic'' analysis. A theoretic analysis is of the following kind. To ''prove'' that A is B, ''assume'' first that A is B. If so, then, since B is C and C is D and D is E, therefore A is E. If this be known a falsity, A is not B. But if this be a known truth and all the intermediate propositions be wiktionary:convertible#Adjective, convertible, then the reverse process, A is E, E is D, D is C, C is B, therefore A is B, constitutes a synthetic proof of the original theorem. Problematic analysis is applied in all cases where it is proposed to construct a figure which is assumed to satisfy a given condition. The problem is then converted into some theorem which is involved in the condition and which is proved synthetically, and the steps of this synthetic proof taken backwards are a synthetic solution of the problem.


Music

* Musical analysis – a process attempting to answer the question "How does this music work?" **Musical Analysis is a study of how the composers use the notes together to compose music. Those studying music will find differences with each composer's musical analysis, which differs depending on the culture and history of music studied. An analysis of music is meant to simplify the music for you. * Schenkerian analysis **Schenkerian analysis is a collection of music analysis that focuses on the production of the graphic representation. This includes both analytical procedure as well as the notational style. Simply put, it analyzes tonal music which includes all chords and tones within a composition.


Philosophy

* Philosophical analysis – a general term for the techniques used by philosophers **Philosophical analysis refers to the clarification and composition of words put together and the entailed meaning behind them. Philosophical analysis dives deeper into the meaning of words and seeks to clarify that meaning by contrasting the various definitions. It is the study of reality, justification of claims, and the analysis of various concepts. Branches of philosophy include logic, justification, metaphysics, values and ethics. If questions can be answered empirically, meaning it can be answered by using the senses, then it is not considered philosophical. Non-philosophical questions also include events that happened in the past, or questions science or mathematics can answer. * ''Analysis (journal), Analysis'' is the name of a prominent journal in philosophy.


Psychotherapy

* Psychoanalysis – seeks to elucidate connections among unconscious components of patients' mental processes * Transactional analysis **Transactional analysis is used by therapists to try and gain a better understanding of the unconscious. It focuses on understanding and intervening human behavior.


Policy

* Policy Analysis – The use of statistical data to predict the effects of policy decisions made by governments and agencies **Policy analysis includes a systematic process to find the most efficient and effective option to address the current situation. * Qualitative research, Qualitative Analysis– The use of anecdotal evidence to predict the effects of policy decisions or, more generally, influence policy decisions


Signal processing

* Finite element analysis – a computer simulation technique used in engineering analysis * Independent component analysis * Link quality analysis – the analysis of signal quality * Path quality analysis * Fourier analysis


Statistics

In statistics, the term ''analysis'' may refer to any method used for data analysis. Among the many such methods, some are: * Analysis of variance (ANOVA) – a collection of statistical models and their associated procedures which compare means by splitting the overall observed variance into different parts * Boolean analysis – a method to find deterministic dependencies between variables in a sample, mostly used in exploratory data analysis * Cluster analysis – techniques for finding groups (called clusters), based on some measure of proximity or similarity * Factor analysis – a method to construct models describing a data set of observed variables in terms of a smaller set of unobserved variables (called factors) * Meta-analysis – combines the results of several studies that address a set of related research hypotheses * Multivariate analysis – analysis of data involving several variables, such as by factor analysis, regression analysis, or principal component analysis * Principal component analysis – transformation of a sample of correlated variables into uncorrelated variables (called principal components), mostly used in exploratory data analysis * Regression analysis – techniques for analysing the relationships between several predictive variables and one or more outcomes in the data * Scale analysis (statistics) – methods to analyse survey data by scoring responses on a numeric scale * Sensitivity analysis – the study of how the variation in the output of a model depends on variations in the inputs * Sequential analysis – evaluation of sampled data as it is collected, until the criterion of a stopping rule is met * Spatial analysis – the study of entities using geometric or geographic properties * Time-series analysis – methods that attempt to understand a sequence of data points spaced apart at uniform time intervals


Other

* Aura analysis – a technique in which supporters of the method claim that the body's aura, or energy field is analysed * Bowling analysis – Analysis of the performance of cricket players * Lithic analysis – the analysis of stone tools using basic scientific techniques **Lithic analysis is most often used by archeologists in determining which types of tools were used at a given time period pertaining to current artifacts discovered. * Protocol analysis – a means for extracting persons' thoughts while they are performing a task


See also

* Formal analysis * Methodology * Scientific method


References


External links

* * * {{Authority control Analysis, Abstraction Critical thinking skills Emergence Empiricism Epistemological theories Intelligence Mathematical modeling Metaphysics of mind Methodology Ontology Philosophy of logic Rationalism Reasoning Research methods Scientific method Theory of mind