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The Valencian Community ( ca-valencia, Comunitat Valenciana, es, Comunidad Valenciana), or simply Valencia ( ca-valencia, València, link=no, es, Valencia, link=no), is an
autonomous community In Spain, an autonomous community ( es, comunidad autónoma) is a first-level political divisions of Spain, political and administrative division, created in accordance with the Spanish Constitution of 1978, Spanish constitution of 1978, with the ...

autonomous community
of
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...

Spain
. It is the fourth most populous Spanish
autonomous community In Spain, an autonomous community ( es, comunidad autónoma) is a first-level political divisions of Spain, political and administrative division, created in accordance with the Spanish Constitution of 1978, Spanish constitution of 1978, with the ...

autonomous community
after
Andalusia Andalusia (, ; es, Andalucía ) is the southernmost autonomous community eu, autonomia erkidegoa ca, comunitat autònoma gl, comunidade autónoma oc, comunautat autonòma an, comunidat autonoma ast, comunidá autónoma , alt_name ...
,
Catalonia Catalonia (; ca, Catalunya ; Aranese, Aranese Occitan: ''Catalonha'' ; es, Cataluña ) is an Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community in the northeastern corner of Spain, designated as a ''nationalities and regions of Spain, na ...

Catalonia
and
Madrid Madrid ( , ) is the capital and most populous city of Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_ ...
with more than five million inhabitants.Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Madrid, 2020. Its
homonym In linguistics, homonyms, broadly defined, are words which are homographs (words that share the same spelling, regardless of pronunciation) or homophones (words that share the same pronunciation, regardless of spelling), or both. For example, acco ...
ous capital
Valencia Valencia ( va, València) is the capital of the Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Valencian Community, Valencia and the Municipalities of Spain, third-largest city in Spain after Madrid and Barcelona, surpassing 800,000 ...

Valencia
is the third largest city and metropolitan area in Spain. It is located along the
Mediterranean The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western Europe, Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa ...
coast on the east side of the
Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese Aragonese or Aragones may refer to: * Something related to Aragon, an autonomous community and former kingdom in Spain * the Aragonese people, those originating from or living in the historical region ...

Iberian Peninsula
. It borders with
Catalonia Catalonia (; ca, Catalunya ; Aranese, Aranese Occitan: ''Catalonha'' ; es, Cataluña ) is an Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community in the northeastern corner of Spain, designated as a ''nationalities and regions of Spain, na ...

Catalonia
to the north,
Aragon Aragon ( or , Spanish and an, Aragón , ca, Aragó ) is an autonomous community In Spain, an autonomous community ( es, comunidad autónoma) is a first-level political divisions of Spain, political and administrative division, created in acc ...

Aragon
and
Castilla–La Mancha Castilla–La Mancha (, , ), or Castile La Mancha, is an Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Spain. Comprising the provinces of Province of Albacete, Albacete, Province of Ciudad Real, Ciudad Real, Province of Cuenca, Cuenca, ...
to the west, and
Murcia Murcia (, , ) is a city in south-eastern Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map ...
to the south. The Valencian Community consists of three
provinces A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are g ...

provinces
which are Castellón,
Valencia Valencia ( va, València) is the capital of the Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Valencian Community, Valencia and the Municipalities of Spain, third-largest city in Spain after Madrid and Barcelona, surpassing 800,000 ...
and
Alicante Alicante (, also , ca-valencia, Alacant, italics=no ) is a city and municipalities of Spain, municipality in the Valencian Community, Spain. It is the capital of the province of Alacant and a historic Mediterranean Sea, Mediterranean port. The ...
. According to Valencia's
Statute of Autonomy Nominally, a Statute of Autonomy ( es, Estatuto de Autonomía, ca, Estatut d'Autonomia, gl, Estatuto de Autonomía, ast, Estatutu d' Autonomía, eu, Autonomia Estatutua) is a law hierarchically located under the constitution A constitutio ...
, the Valencian people are a ''
nationality Nationality is a of a person in , establishing the person as a subject, a ''national'', of a . It affords the state jurisdiction over the person and affords the person the protection of the state against other states. Article 15 of the stat ...
''. Their origins date back to the
Aragonese Aragonese or Aragones may refer to: * Something related to Aragon, an autonomous community and former kingdom in Spain * the Aragonese people, those originating from or living in the historical region of Aragon, in north-eastern Spain * the Aragone ...
reconquest of the
Moorish '' of Alfonso X, c. 1285 The term Moor is an Endonym and exonym, exonym first used by Christian Europeans to designate the Muslims, Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily and Malta during the Middle Ages. The Moors in ...

Moorish
Taifa of Valencia The Taifa of Valencia () was a medieval Moorish taifa kingdom which existed, in and around Valencia, Spain during four distinct periods: from 1010 to 1065, from 1075 to 1099, from 1145 to 1147 and last from 1229 to 1238 when it was finally c ...
, which was taken by
James I of Aragon James I the Conqueror ( es, Jaime el Conquistador, ca, Jaume el Conqueridor; 2 February 1208 – 27 July 1276) was King of Aragon This is a list of the kings and queens of Aragon. The Kingdom of Aragon was created sometime between ...
in 1238 during the
Reconquista The ' (Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variants of the Portug ...

Reconquista
. The newly founded
Kingdom of Valencia The Kingdom of Valencia ( ca-valencia, Regne de València, ; es, Reino de Valencia; la, Regnum Valentiae), located in the eastern shore of the Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese and Occitan: ''Peninsula Iberica'' ...
was granted wide
self-government __NOTOC__ Self-governance, self-government, or self-rule is the ability of a person or group to exercise all necessary functions of regulation without intervention from an external authority (sociology), authority. It may refer to personal con ...
under the
Crown of Aragon The Crown of Aragon (; an, Corona d'Aragón; ca, Corona d'Aragó; es, Corona de Aragón)' ()' (, , )' ()' (). was a composite monarchy A composite monarchy (or composite state) is a historical category, introduced by H. G. Koenigsberger ...
. Valencia experienced its Golden Age in the 15th century, as it became the Crown's economic capital. Self-government continued after the unification of the Spanish Kingdom, but was eventually suspended in 1707 by
Philip V of Spain Philip V ( es, Felipe; 19 December 1683 – 9 July 1746) was King of Spain from 1 November 1700 to 14 January 1724, and again from 6 September 1724 to his death in 1746. Philip instigated many important reforms in Spain, most especially the centra ...

Philip V of Spain
as a result of the
Spanish War of Succession The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) was an early-18th-century European war, triggered by the death in November 1700 of the childless Charles II of Spain. It established the principle that dynastic rights were secondary to maintain ...
. Valencian nationalism resurged towards the end of the 19th century, which led to the modern conception of the ''Valencian Country''.Preamble on Valencian Statutes of Autonomy 1982 and 2006: "''Aprovada la Constitució Espanyola, va ser, en el seu marc, on la tradició valenciana provinent de l'històric Regne de València es va trobar amb la concepció moderna del País Valencià i va donar origen a l'autonomia valenciana'' ..
Preamble of Valencian Statute of Autonomy (reformed in 2006)
/ref> Self-government under the ''
Generalitat Valenciana The Generalitat Valenciana () is the generic name covering the different self-government institutions under which the Spanish autonomous community of Valencia Valencia (), officially València ( ), is the capital of the Autonomous communit ...
'' was finally reestablished in 1982 after
Spanish transition to democracy The Spanish transition to democracy, known in Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map ...
. Many Valencian people speak
Valencian Valencian () or Valencian language () is the official, historical and traditional name used in the Valencian Community (Spain), and extra-officially in the Carche, El Carche comarca in Región de Murcia, Murcia (Spain), to refer to the Romance ...
, a
Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin between the third and eighth centuries. They are a subgroup of the Italic languages in the Indo-European languages, Indo- ...
which is the region's own co-official language, also known as Catalan in other regions. Valencian was repressed and persecuted during Franco's dictatorship (1939–1975) in favor of
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...

Spanish
. Since it regained official status in 1982 in the Valencian
Statute of Autonomy Nominally, a Statute of Autonomy ( es, Estatuto de Autonomía, ca, Estatut d'Autonomia, gl, Estatuto de Autonomía, ast, Estatutu d' Autonomía, eu, Autonomia Estatutua) is a law hierarchically located under the constitution A constitutio ...
, Valencian has been implemented in public administration and the education system, leading to a dramatic increase in knowledge of its formal standard. According to the general survey from 2015, Valencian is understood by almost the entire population living within the Valencian Community and is spoken by a wide majority, but almost half of the population cannot write it. As of 2020, the population of the Valencian Community comprised 10.63% of the
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...

Spanish
population.


Etymology

Valencia was founded by the
Romans Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, ...

Romans
under the name of '' Valentia Edetanorum'', or simply ''Valentia'', which translates to "strength" or "valour", in full "strength of the '' Edetani''" (note that the centre of ''Edetania'' was '' Edeta'', an important old Iberian settlement 25 km north of Valencia, in what is now modern day
Llíria Llíria (; es, Liria) is a medium-sized town off the CV35 motorway network. A controlled-access highway is a type of highway A highway is any public or private road or other public way on land. It is used for major roads, but als ...
, other important nearby settlements included '' Arse''–''Saguntum'', '' Saetabis'' and '' Dianium''). With the establishment of the
Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", ...

Muslim
Taifa of Valencia The Taifa of Valencia () was a medieval Moorish taifa kingdom which existed, in and around Valencia, Spain during four distinct periods: from 1010 to 1065, from 1075 to 1099, from 1145 to 1147 and last from 1229 to 1238 when it was finally c ...
, during the period, the name developed to (''Balansīyya''), which eventually became ''Valencia'' (Spanish) and ''València'' (Valencian) after the . The older spellings ''Valençia'', ''Ualençia'' and ''Ualència'' are also found in pre-reform Spanish and Valencian texts.


Naming controversy

"Valencian Community" is the standard translation of the official name in Valencian recognized by the Statute of Autonomy of 1982 (''Comunitat Valenciana''). This is the name most used in public administration, tourism, the media and Spanish written language. However, the variant of "Valencian Country" (''País Valencià'') that emphasizes the nationality status of the Valencian people is still the preferred one by left-wing parties, civil associations, Valencian written language and major Valencian public institutions. "Valencian Community" is a
neologism A neologism (; from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appro ...
that was specifically adopted after democratic transition in order to solve the conflict between two competing names: "Valencian Country" and "Former Kingdom of Valencia". On one hand, "Valencian Country" represented the modern conception of nationality that resurged in the 19th century. It became well-established during the
Second Spanish Republic The Spanish Republic ( es, link=no, República Española), commonly known as the Second Spanish Republic ( es, link=no, Segunda República Española), was the form of government in Spain from 1931 to 1939. The Republic was proclaimed on 14 Apri ...
and later on with the works of
Joan Fuster Joan Fuster i Ortells (; 23 November 1922 – 21 June 1992) was an influential Catalan writer. He is considered a major writer in Valencian Valencian (; endonym An endonym (from Greek: , 'inner' + , 'name'; also known as autonym) is a com ...

Joan Fuster
in the 1960s, implying the existence of the "Catalan Countries" (''
Països Catalans Catalan Countries ( ca, Països Catalans, ) refers to those territories where the Catalan language , former president of Catalonia, discussing individual identity, collective identity and language. Catalan (; Endonym, autonym: ; ), known i ...
''). This nationalist subtext was opposed by anti-Catalan blaverists, who proposed "Former Kingdom of Valencia" (''Antic Regne de València'') instead, in order to emphasize Valencian independence from Catalonia. Currently, blaverists have accepted the official denomination. The autonomous community can be homonymously identified with its capital "Valencia". However, this could be disregarding of the provinces of Alicante and Castellón. Other more anecdotal translations have included "Land of Valencia", "Region of Valencia" and "Valencian Region". The term "Region", however, carries negative connotations among many Valencians because it could deny their nationality status.


History

The pre-Roman autochthonous people of the Valencian Community were the
Iberians The Iberians ( la, Hibērī, from el, Ἴβηρες, ''Iberes'') were a set of people that Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic ...
, who were divided in several groups (the ''
ContestaniImage:Tolmo de Minateda.jpg, Eastern side of Tolmo de Minateda hill near Hellín. The Contestani were an ancient Iberians, Iberian (Pre-Ancient Rome, Roman) people of the Iberian peninsula (the Roman Hispania). They are believed to have spoken the I ...
'', the '' Edetani'', the ''
Ilercavones The Ilercavones were an ancient Iberian statuette, 2nd to 4th centuries BC, found in Edeta. The Iberians ( la, Hibērī, from el, Ίβηρες, ''Iberes'') were a set of people that Ancient Greece, Greek and ancient Rome, Roman sources (amon ...
'' and the ''
Bastetani The Bastetani or Bastuli were an ancient Iberian (pre-Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ancient Rome *'' ...
''). The Greeks established
colonies In political science, a colony is a territory subject to a form of foreign rule. Though dominated by the foreign colonizers, colonies remain separate from the administration of the original country of the colonizers, the metropole, metropolitan ...
in the coastal towns of ''
Saguntum Sagunto ( ca-valencia, Sagunt) is a city in Eastern Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , nati ...
'' and '''' beginning in the 5th century BC, where they traded and mixed with the local Iberian populations. After the end of the
First Punic War The First Punic War (264–241 BC) was the first of three wars fought between Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (m ...
between
Carthage Carthage was the capital city of the ancient , on the eastern side of the in what is now . Carthage was the most important trading hub of the Ancient Mediterranean and one of the most affluent cities of the . The city developed from a n colony ...

Carthage
and
Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, Italy).svg , map_caption = The te ...

Rome
in 241 BC, which established their limits of influence in the Ebro river, the
Carthaginians The Punics, Carthaginians or Western Phoenicians, were a group of peoples in the Western Mediterranean who traced their origins to the Phoenicians. In modern scholarship, the term 'Punic' – the Latin equivalent of the Greek-derived term 'Phoen ...
occupied the whole region. The dispute over the hegemony of ''
Saguntum Sagunto ( ca-valencia, Sagunt) is a city in Eastern Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , nati ...
'', a Hellenized Iberian coastal city with diplomatic contacts with Rome, destroyed by
Hannibal Hannibal (; xpu, 𐤇𐤍𐤁𐤏𐤋, ''Ḥannibaʿl''; 247 – between 183 and 181 BC) was a Carthaginian general and statesman who commanded the forces of Carthage Carthage was the capital city of the ancient , on the eastern ...

Hannibal
in 219 BC, ignited the
Second Punic War The Second Punic War, which lasted from 218 to 201BC, was the second of three wars fought between Carthage Carthage was the capital city of the ancient , on the eastern side of the in what is now . Carthage was the most important trading ...

Second Punic War
, which ended with the incorporation of the region to the Roman Empire. The Romans founded the city of '' Valentia'' in 138 BC, which, over the centuries overtook ''Saguntum'' in importance. After the
Fall of the Western Roman Empire The fall of the Western Roman Empire (also called the fall of the Roman Empire or the fall of Rome) was the loss of central political control in the Western Roman Empire The Western Roman Empire comprises the western provinces of the Ro ...
, during the
Barbarian Invasions The Migration Period, also known as the Barbarian Invasions (from the Roman and Greek perspective), is a term sometimes used for the period in the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the ...
in the 5th century AD, the region was first invaded by the
Alans The Alans or Alāns (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power o ...

Alans
and finally ruled by the
Visigoths The Visigoths (; la, Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, Wisi) were an early Germanic people The Germanic peoples were a historical group of people living in Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe between Western Europe a ...
(see
Valencian Gothic , in Alfauir (Valencia Valencia (), officially València ( ), is the capital of the Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Valencian Community, Valencia and the Municipalities of Spain, third-largest city in Spain after Ma ...
), until the arrival of the
Arabs The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, ISO 233 The international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technica ...
in 711, which left a broad impact in the region, still visible in today's Valencian landscape and culture. After the fall of the Caliphate of Cordova, two main independent
taifas The ''taifas'' (singular ''taifa'', from ar, طائفة ''ṭā'ifa'', plural طوائف ''ṭawā'if'', a party, band or faction) were the independent Muslim principalities of the Iberian Peninsula (modern Portugal and Spain), referred to by ...

taifas
were established at the region,
Valencia Valencia ( va, València) is the capital of the Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Valencian Community, Valencia and the Municipalities of Spain, third-largest city in Spain after Madrid and Barcelona, surpassing 800,000 ...
and Dénia, along with the small and short living taifas of
Orihuela Orihuela (, Valencian: ) is a city and municipality located at the feet of the Sierra de Orihuela mountains in the province of Alicante (province), Alicante, Spain. The city of Orihuela had a population of 33,943 inhabitants at the beginning of 2 ...
, Alpuente, Jérica and
Sagunt Sagunto ( ca-valencia, Sagunt) is a city in Eastern Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map ...
and the short Christian conquest of Valencia by
El Cid Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar (c. 1043 – 10 July 1099) was a Castilian knight and warlord in medieval Spain In many ways, the history of Spain is marked by waves of conquerors who brought their distinct cultures to the peninsula. After the passage ...

El Cid
. However, the origins of present-day Valencia date back to the
Kingdom of Valencia The Kingdom of Valencia ( ca-valencia, Regne de València, ; es, Reino de Valencia; la, Regnum Valentiae), located in the eastern shore of the Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese and Occitan: ''Peninsula Iberica'' ...
, which came into existence in the 13th century.
James I of Aragon James I the Conqueror ( es, Jaime el Conquistador, ca, Jaume el Conqueridor; 2 February 1208 – 27 July 1276) was King of Aragon This is a list of the kings and queens of Aragon. The Kingdom of Aragon was created sometime between ...
led the and colonization of the existing
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or ex ...
ic
taifa The ''taifas'' (singular ''taifa'', from ar, طائفة ''ṭā'ifa'', plural طوائف ''ṭawā'if'', a party, band or faction) were the independent Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, ا ...
s with Aragonese and Catalan colonizers in 1208; they founded the Kingdom of Valencia as a third independent country within the
Crown of Aragon The Crown of Aragon (; an, Corona d'Aragón; ca, Corona d'Aragó; es, Corona de Aragón)' ()' (, , )' ()' (). was a composite monarchy A composite monarchy (or composite state) is a historical category, introduced by H. G. Koenigsberger ...
in 1238. The kingdom developed intensively in the 14th and 15th centuries, which are considered the Golden Age of the Valencian culture, with significant works like the
chivalric romance As a literary genre of high culture, heroic romance or chivalric romance is a type of prose Prose is a form of written (or spoken) language that usually exhibits a natural speech, natural flow of speech and Syntax, grammatical structure—an ...
of Tirant lo Blanch. Valencia developed into an important kingdom in Europe economically through the silk trade. It also rose to power politically with the rise of the Crown of Aragon, (within which the Kingdom of Valencia had achieved the largest population and the greatest economic power at that time) and the ascension of the Valencian House of Borja in Rome (see Route of the Borjas, Route of the Monasteries and Route of the Classics). After a slow decline following the
dynastic union A dynastic union is a type of federation with only two different states that are governed under the same dynasty, with their boundaries, their laws, and their interests remaining distinct from each other. It differs from a personal union in that ...
of the Crown of Aragon with the Kingdom of Castile, Valencia's successful status came to a definite end with the
Expulsion of the Moriscos The Expulsion of the Moriscos ( es, Expulsión de los moriscos) was decreed by King Philip III of Spain on April 9, 1609. The Morisco Moriscos (, ; pt, mouriscos ; Spanish for "Moorish") were former Muslims and their descendants whom the R ...
in 1609 by the Hispanic Monarchy, which represented the loss of up to one third of the population of the Kingdom of Valencia and took the main agricultural labor force away. In 1707, in the context of the
War of the Spanish Succession The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) was an early-18th-century European war, triggered by the death in November 1700 of the childless Charles II of Spain. It established the principle that dynastic rights were secondary to maintaini ...
, and by means of the ''Nova Planta'' decrees, king
Philip V of Spain Philip V ( es, Felipe; 19 December 1683 – 9 July 1746) was King of Spain from 1 November 1700 to 14 January 1724, and again from 6 September 1724 to his death in 1746. Philip instigated many important reforms in Spain, most especially the centra ...

Philip V of Spain
abolished the Kingdom of Valencia, and the rest of states belonging to the former
Crown of Aragon The Crown of Aragon (; an, Corona d'Aragón; ca, Corona d'Aragó; es, Corona de Aragón)' ()' (, , )' ()' (). was a composite monarchy A composite monarchy (or composite state) is a historical category, introduced by H. G. Koenigsberger ...
and which had retained some autonomy, and subordinated it to the structure of the
Kingdom of Castile The Kingdom of Castile (; es, Reino de Castilla, la, Regnum Castellae) was a large and powerful state on the Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese language, Aragonese and Occitan language, Occitan: ''Peninsula Iberic ...
and its laws and customs. As a result of this, the institutions and laws created by the Law of Valencia (''Furs de València'') were abolished and the usage of the Valencian language in official instances and education was forbidden. Consequently, with the
House of Bourbon The House of Bourbon (, also ; ) is a European of French origin, a branch of the , the royal . Bourbon kings first ruled France and in the 16th century. By the 18th century, members of the held thrones in , , , and . Spain and have monarchs ...

House of Bourbon
, a new Kingdom of Spain was formed implementing a more centralized government and absolutist regime than the former
Habsburg Spain Habsburg Spain is a contemporary historiographical term referred to the Spain of the 16th and 17th centuries (1516–1700) when it was ruled by kings from the House of Habsburg (also associated with its role in the history of Central and Eastern ...
. The first attempt to gain
self-government __NOTOC__ Self-governance, self-government, or self-rule is the ability of a person or group to exercise all necessary functions of regulation without intervention from an external authority (sociology), authority. It may refer to personal con ...
, or autonomous government, for the Valencian Community in modern-day Spain was during the
Second Spanish Republic The Spanish Republic ( es, link=no, República Española), commonly known as the Second Spanish Republic ( es, link=no, Segunda República Española), was the form of government in Spain from 1931 to 1939. The Republic was proclaimed on 14 Apri ...
, in 1936, but the
Civil War A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine publis ...

Civil War
broke out and the autonomist project was suspended. In 1977, after
Franco Franco may refer to: Name * Franco (name), includes a list of people with the name * Francisco Franco (1892–1975), Spanish general and dictator of Spain from 1939 to 1975 * Franco Luambo (1938–1989), Congolese musician, the "Grand Maître" ...
's dictatorship Valencia started to be partially autonomous with the creation of the Council of the Valencian Country (''Consell del País Valencià''), and in 1982 the self-government was finally extended into a
Statute of Autonomy Nominally, a Statute of Autonomy ( es, Estatuto de Autonomía, ca, Estatut d'Autonomia, gl, Estatuto de Autonomía, ast, Estatutu d' Autonomía, eu, Autonomia Estatutua) is a law hierarchically located under the constitution A constitutio ...
(''Estatut d'Autonomia'') creating several self-government institutions under the
Generalitat Valenciana The Generalitat Valenciana () is the generic name covering the different self-government institutions under which the Spanish autonomous community of Valencia Valencia (), officially València ( ), is the capital of the Autonomous communit ...
. The first democratically elected
President of the Generalitat Valenciana The president of the Valencian Government ( ca-valencia, President de la Generalitat Valenciana) is the head of the Generalitat Valenciana The Generalitat Valenciana () is the generic name covering the different self-government institutions unde ...
,
Joan Lerma Joan Lerma i Blasco (born 15 July 1951 in Valencia, Spain) is a Spain, Spanish politician for the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE), who served as the first democratically elected President of the Valencian Government since the restoration ...

Joan Lerma
, took office in 1982 as part of the transition to autonomy. The Valencian Statute of Autonomy make clear that Valencia is intended to be the modern conception of self-government of the Valencian Community from the first autonomist movements during
Second Spanish Republic The Spanish Republic ( es, link=no, República Española), commonly known as the Second Spanish Republic ( es, link=no, Segunda República Española), was the form of government in Spain from 1931 to 1939. The Republic was proclaimed on 14 Apri ...
, but also joining it to the traditional conception of Valencian identity, as being the successor to the historical Kingdom of Valencia. In fact, after a bipartisan reform of the Valencian Statute of Autonomy in 2006, it records the foral civil law, using the traditional conception of a kingdom, and, on the other hand, it also recognizes Valencia as a
nationality Nationality is a legal identification of a person in international law International law, also known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of rules, norms, and standards generally recognized as binding between nation ...
, in accordance with the modern conception.


Geography


Relief

The inland part of the territory is craggy, with some of the highest peaks in the Valencia and Castellón provinces forming part of the . The mountains in the Province of Alicante are in turn a part of the Subbaetic Range. The most emblematic mountain of the Valencian Community is the Penyagolosa, in the Alcalatén area. It is widely thought to be the highest peak with 1,813 m, but actually the highest peak is the ''Calderón'' (1,839 m) located in the
Rincón de Ademuz Rincón de Ademuz is Spain, Spanish Comarques of the Valencian Community, comarca constituted as an exclave of both the Valencian Community and the Valencia (province), Valencia province located between the provinces of Province of Cuenca, Cuenca (C ...
, a Valencian
exclave An enclave is a territory (or a part of one) that is entirely surrounded by the territory of one other state. Enclaves may also exist within territorial waters. ''Enclave'' is sometimes used improperly to denote a territory that is only partly ...

exclave
between
Aragon Aragon ( or , Spanish and an, Aragón , ca, Aragó ) is an autonomous community In Spain, an autonomous community ( es, comunidad autónoma) is a first-level political divisions of Spain, political and administrative division, created in acc ...

Aragon
and
Castilla–La Mancha Castilla–La Mancha (, , ), or Castile La Mancha, is an Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Spain. Comprising the provinces of Province of Albacete, Albacete, Province of Ciudad Real, Ciudad Real, Province of Cuenca, Cuenca, ...
. The most emblematic mountain in the southern part of the territory is the (1,558 m). The rather thin coastal strip is a very
fertile Fertility is the capability to produce offspring through reproduction following the onset of sexual maturity. The fertility rate is the average number of children born by a female during her lifetime and is quantified Demography, demographicall ...
plain mainly free of remarkable mountains except those around the
Cap de la Nau , Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North ...

Cap de la Nau
area in northern Alicante province and the
Peñíscola Peníscola () or Peñíscola (), anglicised as Peniscola, is a municipality in the Province of Castellón, Valencian Community, Spain. The town is located on the Costa del Azahar, north of the Serra d'Irta along the Mediterranean coast. It is a pop ...
(''Peníscola'') area in the Castellón province. Typical of this coastal area are wetlands and marshlands such as '''' close to Valencia, '' El Fondo'' in
Elche Elche ( ca-valencia, Elx) is a city and municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, f ...
(''Elx'') and
Crevillent Crevillent ( es, Crevillente) is a town and municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regiona ...
, ''La Marjal'' near Pego, Albufera of Gayanes in Gayanes or ''El Prat'' in Cabanes, also the former wetlands and
salt evaporation pond A salt evaporation pond is a shallow artificial salt pan designed to extract salts from sea water Seawater, or salt water, is water from a sea or ocean. On average, seawater in the world's oceans has a salinity of about 3.5% (35 g/l, ...

salt evaporation pond
s in the
Santa Pola Santa Pola (Valencian Valencian (; endonym An endonym (from Greek: , 'inner' + , 'name'; also known as autonym) is a common, internal name A name is a term used for identification by an external observer. They can identify a class or ...
and
Torrevieja Torrevieja () or Torrevella () is a seaside city and municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national ...
area. All of them are key
Ramsar site A Ramsar site is a wetland A wetland is a distinct ecosystem An ecosystem (or ecological system) consists of all the organisms and the physical environment with which they interact. These biotic and abiotic components are linked toge ...
s which make Valencia of high relevance for both migratory and resident seabirds and waterbirds. There are many important
coastal dunes A dune is a landform A landform is a natural or artificial feature of the solid surface of the Earth or other planetary body A planet is an astronomical body Astronomy (from el, ἀστρονομία, literally meaning the ...
in the ''Saler'' area near the Albufera and in the Guardamar area, both of them were planted with thousands of trees during the 19th century in order to fix the dunes, thus forming now protected areas of remarkable ecologic value. In addition to mainland Valencia, the Valencian territory administers the tiny
Columbretes Islands The Columbretes Islands ( ca-valencia, Les Columbretes, or ''Els Columbrets'' (), are a group of small uninhabited islets of volcanic origin, in the Mediterranean Sea, off Orpesa. Administratively they belong to Castellón de la Plana in the Val ...
and the coastal inhabited islet of
Tabarca Tabarca (, ), officially Nueva Tabarca and also known as ''Isla Plana'' (Spanish language, Spanish) and as ''Nova Tabarca'' and ''Illa Plana'' in Valencian, is an islet located in the Mediterranean Sea, close to the town of Santa Pola, in the pr ...

Tabarca
.


Climate

Valencia has a generally mild climate, heavily influenced by the neighbouring Mediterranean sea. Still, there are important differences between areas: *Typical
Mediterranean climate A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by dry summers and mild, wet winters. The climate Climate is the long-term pattern of weather Weather is the state of the atmosphere, describing for example the degre ...
(
Köppen Köppen is a German surname. Notable people with the surname include: * Bernd Köppen (born 1951), German pianist and composer * Carl Köppen (1833-1907), German military advisor in Meiji (era), Meiji era Japan * Edlef Köppen (1893–1939), Germa ...
''Csa''). It roughly goes along the coastal plain from the northernmost border through the Benidorm area (cities included here are, amongst others,
Castellón de la Plana Castellón de la Plana (), Castelló de la Plana (official) (), or simply Castellón or Castelló, is the capital city of the province of Castellón, in the Valencian Community (Spain). It is located in the east of the Iberian Peninsula, on the C ...

Castellón de la Plana
(''Castelló de la Plana''),
Gandia Gandia ( es, Gandía) is a city and municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws ...

Gandia
and
Valencia Valencia ( va, València) is the capital of the Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Valencian Community, Valencia and the Municipalities of Spain, third-largest city in Spain after Madrid and Barcelona, surpassing 800,000 ...

Valencia
). It covers in various grades the lower inland areas. In this area, winters are mild, summers are long, dry and hot; rainfall occurs mostly during spring and autumn, usually totalling around 600 mm. with a remarkably wetter micro climate in the
Marina Alta Marina Alta (, "Upper Marina") is a central comarques of the Valencian Community, central and coastal ''Comarques of the Valencian Community, comarca'' of the autonomous community of Spain, autonomous community of Valencian Community, Valencia, Sp ...
and the
Safor Safor () is a ''Comarques of the Valencian Community, comarca'' within the province of Valencia (province), Valencia, Spain. The capital is the city of Gandia, but also includes the towns of Oliva, Piles, Valencia, Piles and Daimús, among others. ...
''comarques'' just north of
Cap de la Nau , Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North ...

Cap de la Nau
cape, which accumulates an average of up to 1000 mm. due to an
orographic lift Orographic lift occurs when an air mass In meteorology Meteorology is a branch of the (which include and ), with a major focus on . The study of meteorology dates back , though significant progress in meteorology did not begin until t ...
phenomenon. *
Mediterranean climate A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by dry summers and mild, wet winters. The climate Climate is the long-term pattern of weather Weather is the state of the atmosphere, describing for example the degre ...
with continental influences (
Köppen Köppen is a German surname. Notable people with the surname include: * Bernd Köppen (born 1951), German pianist and composer * Carl Köppen (1833-1907), German military advisor in Meiji (era), Meiji era Japan * Edlef Köppen (1893–1939), Germa ...
''Csa'') and Mediterranean highland climate (
Köppen Köppen is a German surname. Notable people with the surname include: * Bernd Köppen (born 1951), German pianist and composer * Carl Köppen (1833-1907), German military advisor in Meiji (era), Meiji era Japan * Edlef Köppen (1893–1939), Germa ...
''Csb''). These are the innermost lands and those at a higher elevation (cities included here are, amongst others,
Alcoy Alcoy () or Alcoi () is an industrial and university city, region and Municipalities of Spain, municipality located in the Valencian Community, Spain. The Serpis river crosses the municipal boundary of Alcoi. The local authority reported a popula ...
, Morella, Requena and
Villena Villena () is a city in Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map ...
). Here winters are cool to cold, especially at night (a few days of snow are not unusual), summers mild to hot and rainfall more evenly distributed through the year. The lower registered temperatures in the Valencian Community were in these inland areas during the cold wave of 1956. Temperatures plunged to nearly −20 °C; as in (−19 °C) and Castellfort (–17 °C). *
Hot semi-arid climate A semi-arid climate, semi-desert climate, or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate. There are different kinds of semi-arid climates, depending ...
(
Köppen Köppen is a German surname. Notable people with the surname include: * Bernd Köppen (born 1951), German pianist and composer * Carl Köppen (1833-1907), German military advisor in Meiji (era), Meiji era Japan * Edlef Köppen (1893–1939), Germa ...
''BSh''), although in zones at the interior the average temperatures are slightly lower, being BSh in the
Köppen climate classification The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by German-Russian climate science, climatologist Wladimir Köppen (1846–1940) in 1884, with several later modifications by ...
. It roughly goes along the coastal plain from
Villajoyosa La Vila Joiosa (), is a coastal town and municipality in the Province of Alicante Alicante ( ca-valencia, Alacant) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle ...
through the southernmost border of the territory (cities included here are, amongst others,
Alicante Alicante (, also , ca-valencia, Alacant, italics=no ) is a city and municipalities of Spain, municipality in the Valencian Community, Spain. It is the capital of the province of Alacant and a historic Mediterranean Sea, Mediterranean port. The ...

Alicante
,
Benidorm Benidorm (; ; ) is a town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of the world. Origin and ...

Benidorm
,
Elche Elche ( ca-valencia, Elx) is a city and municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, f ...
,
Orihuela Orihuela (, Valencian: ) is a city and municipality located at the feet of the Sierra de Orihuela mountains in the province of Alicante (province), Alicante, Spain. The city of Orihuela had a population of 33,943 inhabitants at the beginning of 2 ...

Orihuela
and
Torrevieja Torrevieja () or Torrevella () is a seaside city and municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national ...
). Summers are hot and dry, winters are mild and its most prominent feature is a very scarce precipitation, typically below 300 mm. per year which is most likely to happen during spring and autumn. The reason for this lack of precipitation is the marked
rain shadow A rain shadow is an area of significantly reduced rainfall behind a mountainous region, on the side facing away from prevailing winds, known as its Windward and leeward#Meteorological significance, leeward side. Evaporation, Evaporated moistu ...

rain shadow
effect caused by hills to the west of the Alicante province (and, to a lesser degree, those in the northern part of the province which, in turn, enhance the inverse orographic lift effect around
Cap de la Nau , Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North ...

Cap de la Nau
).


Hydrography

There are only two major rivers: the
Segura Segura (, ; Latin: ''Thader'', Arabic language, Arabic: ''شقورة'', ''War-Alabiat'') is a medium-sized river in southeastern Spain. It has its source in the Sierra de Segura. Course The river begins at Santiago Pontones (Jaén Province, ...

Segura
in the Province of Alicante, whose source is in
Andalusia Andalusia (, ; es, Andalucía ) is the southernmost autonomous community eu, autonomia erkidegoa ca, comunitat autònoma gl, comunidade autónoma oc, comunautat autonòma an, comunidat autonoma ast, comunidá autónoma , alt_name ...
, and the
Júcar file:Spanien Jucar Ventano del Diablo2.jpg, left The Júcar () or Xúquer () is a river on the Iberian Peninsula of Spain. The river runs for approximately 509 km from its source at Ojuelos de Valdeminguete, on the eastern flank of the Montes ...

Júcar
(''Xúquer'') in Province of Valencia, whose source is in
Castilla–La Mancha Castilla–La Mancha (, , ), or Castile La Mancha, is an Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Spain. Comprising the provinces of Province of Albacete, Albacete, Province of Ciudad Real, Ciudad Real, Province of Cuenca, Cuenca, ...
. Both are subjected to very intense human regulation for cities, industries and, especially, agricultural consumption. The river Turia (''Túria'') is the third largest and has its source in
Aragon Aragon ( or , Spanish and an, Aragón , ca, Aragó ) is an autonomous community In Spain, an autonomous community ( es, comunidad autónoma) is a first-level political divisions of Spain, political and administrative division, created in acc ...

Aragon
. Most
rivers A river is a natural flowing watercourse A watercourse is the channel Channel, channels, channeling, etc., may refer to: Geography * Channel (geography), in physical geography, a landform consisting of the outline (banks) of the path ...
in the area, such as the
Vinalopó The Vinalopó () is a small river flowing through the Province of Alicante, Alicante province, of Spain. It flows from north to south and, with a length of 81 km., it is the longest of the rivers which flows for its entire length within the ...
, are usually short, have little current (due to agricultural usage, climatic reasons or both) and are often completely dry during the summer. Other Valencian rivers are the
Serpis The Serpis () is a short coastal river in the provinces of Alicante and Valencia Valencia (), officially València ( ), is the capital of the Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Valencian Community, Valencia and the Munic ...

Serpis
and Sénia.


Demographics


Urbanization

The estimate population according to the Instituto Nacional de Estadística (Spain), INE in January 2020 is 5,057,353 ranking the fourth most populous in Spain. The list of largest cities is topped by Valencia, the third largest city in Spain overall: Valencian population traditionally concentrated in localities with
fertile Fertility is the capability to produce offspring through reproduction following the onset of sexual maturity. The fertility rate is the average number of children born by a female during her lifetime and is quantified Demography, demographicall ...
cultivation and growing lowlands by the most important rivers (
Júcar file:Spanien Jucar Ventano del Diablo2.jpg, left The Júcar () or Xúquer () is a river on the Iberian Peninsula of Spain. The river runs for approximately 509 km from its source at Ojuelos de Valdeminguete, on the eastern flank of the Montes ...

Júcar
, Turia,
Segura Segura (, ; Latin: ''Thader'', Arabic language, Arabic: ''شقورة'', ''War-Alabiat'') is a medium-sized river in southeastern Spain. It has its source in the Sierra de Segura. Course The river begins at Santiago Pontones (Jaén Province, ...

Segura
,
Vinalopó The Vinalopó () is a small river flowing through the Province of Alicante, Alicante province, of Spain. It flows from north to south and, with a length of 81 km., it is the longest of the rivers which flows for its entire length within the ...
), also in harbour cities important to the agricultural trade. In actuality, population is particularly dense along the coast as well as in central and southern regions of the territory, and more sparse around the inner and northern regions. Important historical cities include Sagunto, Sagunt and Dénia in Roman Empire, Roman times;
Valencia Valencia ( va, València) is the capital of the Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Valencian Community, Valencia and the Municipalities of Spain, third-largest city in Spain after Madrid and Barcelona, surpassing 800,000 ...

Valencia
,
Alicante Alicante (, also , ca-valencia, Alacant, italics=no ) is a city and municipalities of Spain, municipality in the Valencian Community, Spain. It is the capital of the province of Alacant and a historic Mediterranean Sea, Mediterranean port. The ...

Alicante
, Xàtiva,
Orihuela Orihuela (, Valencian: ) is a city and municipality located at the feet of the Sierra de Orihuela mountains in the province of Alicante (province), Alicante, Spain. The city of Orihuela had a population of 33,943 inhabitants at the beginning of 2 ...

Orihuela
,
Elche Elche ( ca-valencia, Elx) is a city and municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, f ...
,
Gandia Gandia ( es, Gandía) is a city and municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws ...

Gandia
, and Villarreal (''Vila-real'') later on in history and, more recently, Alzira, Valencia, Alzira and
Castellón de la Plana Castellón de la Plana (), Castelló de la Plana (official) (), or simply Castellón or Castelló, is the capital city of the province of Castellón, in the Valencian Community (Spain). It is located in the east of the Iberian Peninsula, on the C ...

Castellón de la Plana
. Another set of noncoastal cities increased significantly in numbers due to Industrialisation, industrialization in the 20th century, including
Alcoy Alcoy () or Alcoi () is an industrial and university city, region and Municipalities of Spain, municipality located in the Valencian Community, Spain. The Serpis river crosses the municipal boundary of Alcoi. The local authority reported a popula ...
, Elda, Ontinyent, Petrer,
Villena Villena () is a city in Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map ...
, and La Vall d'Uixó. Furthermore, traditionally small fishing towns like Benidorm and Torrevieja have increased in population significantly, more remarkably during summertime, due to seasonal migration of tourists.


Metropolitan areas

In more recent years, concentration in provincial capitals and its metropolitan areas has augmented considerably (e.g. Torrent, Valencia, Torrent, Mislata, Paterna, Burjassot, San Vicente del Raspeig/Sant Vicent del Raspeig, San Vicente del Raspeig, etc.). Besides Valencia, Alicante-Elche is the eighth most populous urban agglomeration in Spain. According to the INE, the largest metropolitan areas are:


Government


Institutions of government: ''La Generalitat''

In the process whereby democracy was restored in Spain between 1975 and 1978, the nationalism, nationalist and regionalism (politics), regionalist parties pressed to grant home rule to certain territories in Spain. The constitution of 1978 opened a legal way for autonomous communities to be formed from provinces with common historical and cultural links. In recognition of the Valencian Community as a ''
nationality Nationality is a of a person in , establishing the person as a subject, a ''national'', of a . It affords the state jurisdiction over the person and affords the person the protection of the state against other states. Article 15 of the stat ...
'' of Spain, and in accordance to the second article of the Spanish Constitution which grants autonomy to the "Nationalities and regions of Spain, ''nationalities'' and regions" that compose the Spanish nation, Valencia was granted self-government and constituted itself as an autonomous community in 1982, with the promulgation of its first
Statute of Autonomy Nominally, a Statute of Autonomy ( es, Estatuto de Autonomía, ca, Estatut d'Autonomia, gl, Estatuto de Autonomía, ast, Estatutu d' Autonomía, eu, Autonomia Estatutua) is a law hierarchically located under the constitution A constitutio ...
, the basic organic law, later approved by the General Courts of Spain. All autonomous communities were organized politically within a parliamentary system; that is, the executive branch of government. The "President" is dependent on the direct support of the legislative power, whose members elect him by majority. A new Statute of Autonomy was promulgated in 2006. The government of Valencia is represented by the
Generalitat Valenciana The Generalitat Valenciana () is the generic name covering the different self-government institutions under which the Spanish autonomous community of Valencia Valencia (), officially València ( ), is the capital of the Autonomous communit ...
(statutorily referred to simply as ''La Generalitat'') constituted by three institutions: * the Corts Valencianes (Valencian parliament), the legislature, which is to be integrated by a minimum of ninety-two representatives (''diputats'') elected through universal suffrage by proportional representation for a four-year period; * the
President of the Generalitat Valenciana The president of the Valencian Government ( ca-valencia, President de la Generalitat Valenciana) is the head of the Generalitat Valenciana The Generalitat Valenciana () is the generic name covering the different self-government institutions unde ...
elected by the Courts from which s/he must obtain the vote of confidence; the current President is Ximo Puig (from the Socialist Party of the Valencian Country). The Vice President is Mónica Oltra (from Coalició Compromís, Compromís, a Valencianism, Valencianist party). * the Council of the Generalitat Valenciana (Valencian government), a collegiate institution with executive powers, integrated by the President him/herself and the cabinet members appointed by him/her. The Generalitat can also be integrated by the institutions that the Valencian Courts create. The Courts have approved the creation of the ''Síndic de Greuges of the Valencian Community, Síndic de Greuges'' (Ombudsman), the ''Sindicatura de Comptes of the Valencian Community, Sindicatura de Comptes'' (Public Audit Office), the ''Valencian Council of Culture, Consell Valencià de Cultura'' (Valencian Council of Culture), the ''Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua'' (Valencian Academy of the Language), the ''Consell Jurídic Consultiu'' (Juridic and Consultative Council) and the ''Comité Econòmic i Social'' (Social and Economic Committee). The current government is formed by a left coalition between the Socialist Party of the Valencian Country and Coalició Compromís, Compromís, with also the support of Podemos (Spanish political party), Podemos.


Administrative divisions

Prior to the 1833 territorial division of Spain Valencia was divided into four administrative 1822 territorial division of Spain, provinces of Spain: Province of Alicante, Alicante, Province of Castellón, Castellón, Province of Valencia, Valencia and Province of Játiva, Xàtiva. From 1833, the current three-province system was consolidated: *Province of Alicante, Alicante, capital:
Alicante Alicante (, also , ca-valencia, Alacant, italics=no ) is a city and municipalities of Spain, municipality in the Valencian Community, Spain. It is the capital of the province of Alacant and a historic Mediterranean Sea, Mediterranean port. The ...

Alicante
*Province of Castellón, Castellón, capital: Castellón de la Plana, Castellón de la Plana *Province of Valencia, Valencia; capital:
Valencia Valencia ( va, València) is the capital of the Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Valencian Community, Valencia and the Municipalities of Spain, third-largest city in Spain after Madrid and Barcelona, surpassing 800,000 ...

Valencia
The Valencian Community is further divided into 34 ''comarcas of Spain, comarques'' (including the city of Valencia) and 542 municipalities of the Valencian Community, municipalities (141 in the Province of Alicante, 135 in the Province of Castellón, and 266 in the Province of Valencia).


Economy

Valencia is long and narrow, running mainly north–south; historically, its rather steep and irregular terrain has made communications and the exploitation of the soil difficult, although the soil of the coastal plain is particularly
fertile Fertility is the capability to produce offspring through reproduction following the onset of sexual maturity. The fertility rate is the average number of children born by a female during her lifetime and is quantified Demography, demographicall ...
. This coastal axis has facilitated connections with Europe, either by sea through the Mediterranean, or by land through
Catalonia Catalonia (; ca, Catalunya ; Aranese, Aranese Occitan: ''Catalonha'' ; es, Cataluña ) is an Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community in the northeastern corner of Spain, designated as a ''nationalities and regions of Spain, na ...

Catalonia
. The Valencian territory has few natural resources; the only important mineral deposit is the marble quarried in Alicante province. Hydrological resources (see #Geography, Geography above) are also lacking: the demand for water exceeds the supply, with this imbalance especially serious in Alicante province. In particularly severe drought years, the problem is managed through occasional nocturnal restrictions during summer and exploitation of aquifers. Valencia's water needs result in harsh contention with neighbouring regions such as
Castilla–La Mancha Castilla–La Mancha (, , ), or Castile La Mancha, is an Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Spain. Comprising the provinces of Province of Albacete, Albacete, Province of Ciudad Real, Ciudad Real, Province of Cuenca, Cuenca, ...
and Catalonia. Agriculture—more specifically, citrus cultivation for the export market—was responsible for Valencia's first economic boom in the late 19th century, after centuries of slow development and even decay. Although in absolute terms the agricultural sector has continued to grow, the boom in the secondary sector, secondary and tertiary sectors during the Spanish miracle of the 1960s, has meant that its relative importance has decreased over time. The provinces of Province of Castellón, Castellón and Valencia still have thousands of hectares of citrus-producing groves and citrus continues to be a major source of income on the countryside. Province of Alicante also grows citrus, but its agriculture is more diversified with a higher presence of vegetables, especially in the Vega Baja del Segura area. Though the low insulation rate and overall stable weather during the summer may pose a threat to water supplies for agriculture and human consumption, conversely this climate allows tourism to be the province's main industry. Very dense residential housing along the coast, occupied by locals, people from inland Spain and from other EU countries (mostly from the British Isles, Benelux, Germany and Scandinavia), boosts the summertime population (and hydrological demands). In 2004, Valencia's GDP was 93.9% of the European Union average, although this figure may be too low because of the important presence of foreign residents either from other regions of Europe or as economic immigrants, who are not properly represented in the official statistics. As in all of Spain, there was significant growth in the years immediately following 2004, at least until the 2008–13 Spanish financial crisis. In 2008, the Valencia Country generated 9.7% of the Spanish GDP. In L of human resources, the unemployment rate was over 21% in 2009, and even greater among women, and the rate of activity reached 56.8% in 2002. The typical Valencian business is a small-to-medium-sized company, mainly family-owned and operated, although there are some multinationals. In addition to tourism, the Valencian Community has significant exports, and it ranks second in this respect among the Spanish autonomous communities, constituting 12% of the national total. Major exports include agricultural products, ceramic tiles, marble products and cars (Ford Motor Company, Ford has an assembly line in Almussafes), which make the port of Valencia one of the busiest in Europe.


Unemployment

The unemployment rate stood at 15.6% in 2018 and was higher than the national average.


Language

Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...

Spanish
(''español'' or ''castellano'') has official status in all of Spain, including the Valencian Community. Aside from it, the
Statute of Autonomy Nominally, a Statute of Autonomy ( es, Estatuto de Autonomía, ca, Estatut d'Autonomia, gl, Estatuto de Autonomía, ast, Estatutu d' Autonomía, eu, Autonomia Estatutua) is a law hierarchically located under the constitution A constitutio ...
recognizes
Valencian Valencian () or Valencian language () is the official, historical and traditional name used in the Valencian Community (Spain), and extra-officially in the Carche, El Carche comarca in Región de Murcia, Murcia (Spain), to refer to the Romance ...
(''valencià'') as the language native (''llengua pròpia'') to the Valencian people, and commends its protection and regulation to the Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua (AVL) under the
Generalitat Valenciana The Generalitat Valenciana () is the generic name covering the different self-government institutions under which the Spanish autonomous community of Valencia Valencia (), officially València ( ), is the capital of the Autonomous communit ...
. ''Valencian'' is the name Valencians use to refer to the Catalan language. In the Late Middle Ages, due to Valencia becoming its own Kingdom of Valencia, kingdom, Valencians popularized the term ''Valencian'' over the term ''Catalan''. Modern Valencian shares similar phonetics, phonetic and lexicon, lexical features than other Western Catalan dialects, which includes seven stressed vowels (being especially remarkable the distinction of vs and vs ), unstressed vowel reduction (normally five); the preservation of voiced palatal approximant, yod () before in the digraph ''ix (digraph), ix''; the addition of ''n'' in the plural of certain terms with etymological ''n''; and a tendency to affrication of ''soft g, g'' (before ''e'' and ''i'') and ''j'' , and ''x'' , especially in initial position. Common specific lexicon includes: ''wikt:granera, granera'' (broom), ''wikt:xiquet, xiquet'' (boy), ''wikt:espill, espill'' (mirror), ''wikt:corder, corder'' (lamb), etc. Valencian Sign Language is widely used by Valencian deaf persons and is also granted protection under the Statute. The
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...

Spanish
spoken in the cities is slighthly affected by Valencian and features phonological history of Spanish coronal fricatives, ''distinción'', i.e. the differentiation of (''s'') and (''c'' before ''e'' and ''i'', and z), and ''yeísmo'' (the merger of –''ll'' in Spanish orthography–into , represented as ''y''). In the south of the Valencian Community the same continuum dialect than Murcian Spanish, Murcian is spoken featuring both ''distinción'' and ''seseo'' (the merger of into ), depending on the speaker and area. In the east, Aragonese language, Aragonese and Manchego influences (mainly lexical) are found in the local Spanish.


Areas of linguistic predominance

Not all of the Valencian territory is historically Valencian-speaking; about 500,000 people, or 10% of the population, live in traditionally Spanish-speaking inner regions. In addition, large numbers of foreign immigrants who have arrived since 2000 have become Spanish speakers. These regions include the areas where
Aragonese Aragonese or Aragones may refer to: * Something related to Aragon, an autonomous community and former kingdom in Spain * the Aragonese people, those originating from or living in the historical region of Aragon, in north-eastern Spain * the Aragone ...
rather than Catalan settlers introduced Castilian-Aragonese language, Aragonese language in the historic
Kingdom of Valencia The Kingdom of Valencia ( ca-valencia, Regne de València, ; es, Reino de Valencia; la, Regnum Valentiae), located in the eastern shore of the Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese and Occitan: ''Peninsula Iberica'' ...
, as well as several Castilian people, Castilian municipalities that were annexed to the Valencian Community in the 19th century. Valencian is traditionally spoken in the more densely populated coastal areas where Catalan settlers introduced their language in the Middle Ages. These areas are delimited for administrative purposes by the Generalitat, that established different areas of linguistic predominance (''predomini lingüístic''). The Valencian area of linguistic predominance suffers in many cases a process of Language shift, linguistic substitution, especially in the cities of Valencia, Spain, Valencia and
Alicante Alicante (, also , ca-valencia, Alacant, italics=no ) is a city and municipalities of Spain, municipality in the Valencian Community, Spain. It is the capital of the province of Alacant and a historic Mediterranean Sea, Mediterranean port. The ...

Alicante
, with populations of 1 million together where Spanish has become predominant in spite of Valencian being the traditional language. Outside these, and the traditional Spanish-speaking areas in the west, Valencian predominates or is on an equal footing.


Knowledge

Most of the population have at least a passive knowledge of Valencian, which allows normal communication in this language across the Valencian Community. Thanks to its implementation in public administration and the education system in recent decades, knowledge of Valencian has increased phenomenally both in absolute and relative terms, most significantly in the case of its written standard. The source also reveals that knowledge varies greatly within the territory, with knowledge in the Province of Alicante being consistently lower than in Castellón and Valencia.


Social use

Despite the increase in knowledge of Valencian, its social use in relative terms is declining, with only a third of the population using it at home according to the Generalitat in 2010. The data collected varies greatly within the Valencian Community, with the percentage of use being over 50% in the regions of
Alcoy Alcoy () or Alcoi () is an industrial and university city, region and Municipalities of Spain, municipality located in the Valencian Community, Spain. The Serpis river crosses the municipal boundary of Alcoi. The local authority reported a popula ...
Gandia Gandia ( es, Gandía) is a city and municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws ...

Gandia
and
Júcar file:Spanien Jucar Ventano del Diablo2.jpg, left The Júcar () or Xúquer () is a river on the Iberian Peninsula of Spain. The river runs for approximately 509 km from its source at Ojuelos de Valdeminguete, on the eastern flank of the Montes ...

Júcar
Turia, approximately 40% in Province of Castellón, Castellón and about 15% in Province of Alicante, Alicante and the
Valencia Valencia ( va, València) is the capital of the Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Valencian Community, Valencia and the Municipalities of Spain, third-largest city in Spain after Madrid and Barcelona, surpassing 800,000 ...

Valencia
metropolitan area.


Valencian language controversy

Despite differences in dialect and denomination, linguists consider Catalan language, Catalan and Valencian language, Valencian two varieties of the same language. They feature relative uniformity in terms of vocabulary, semantics, syntax, morphology and phonology. Mutual intelligibility ranges from 90 to 95%, which is considerably higher than between dialects of an assumed single German language (High German). Furthermore, there is a dialect continuum where speakers at the Catalan–Valencian border share the same dialect. In practice, Catalan and Valencian share the same written standard, as established by the Institut d'Estudis Catalans (IEC) and the Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua (AVL) respectively. Much of the bibliography used in the Valencian education system consists of Catalan works and translations in Catalan with only occasionally some words being swapped for those more commonly used in Valencia. Furthermore, the University of Valencia, Universities of Valencia and University of Alicante, Alicante refer to Valencian studies of language and literature as Catalan Philology. In spite of these arguments, a significant proportion of Valencian population refuse to identify Valencian with Catalan.


Transports


Air

The Valencian Community is served by three international airports: Alicante Airport, Valencia Airport and Castellón–Costa Azahar Airport, Castellón–Costa Azahar Airport. Alicante Airport, located in the south, is mainly tourist-oriented and is currently the busiest airport in the Valencian Community. Valencia Airport is located in the capital and carries more business traffic. The third airport, Castellón–Costa Azahar Airport, Castellón–Costa Azahar Airport, is located in the north of the Valencian territory and has several international connections. This airport was opened in 2011 but its first commercial flight arrived in September 2015, so it has been considered as a white elephant due to its expensive construction and maintenance and relatively less usefulness. A new terminal at Alicante Airport was opened in March 2011. The New Alicante Terminal (NAT) replaced the other two existing terminals T1 and T2, doubling the passenger capacity of the airport to 20m passengers per annum. Valencia airport is also being expanded to serve the higher passenger demand due to new flight connections to the city.


Train

The Valencian Community has an extensive rail system which connects the principal cities with the rest of Spain such as the Euromed (train), Euromed towards
Catalonia Catalonia (; ca, Catalunya ; Aranese, Aranese Occitan: ''Catalonha'' ; es, Cataluña ) is an Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community in the northeastern corner of Spain, designated as a ''nationalities and regions of Spain, na ...

Catalonia
and AVE towards Madrid, or northern and southern Spain, both run by the Spanish national rail company RENFE. In December 2010 the high-speed rail (AVE) Madrid–Valencia opened as part of the Madrid–Levante high-speed rail line. High-speed lines arrive to Valencia-Joaquín Sorolla railway station, Valencia-Joaquín Sorolla, a provisional station located south of the city centre. It is expected that in the coming years the high-speed line Madrid–Valencia will reach the main Estació del Nord (Valencia), Valencia-Estació del Nord through a tunnel under the new :es:Valencia Parque Central, Valencia Parque Central. High-speed rail Madrid–Alicante opened in 2013. There are some medium-range plans for further high-speed connections, like the Valencia–Bilbao link via Zaragoza or the :es:Corredor Mediterráneo, Mediterranean high-speed rail corridor. In addition, the
Generalitat Valenciana The Generalitat Valenciana () is the generic name covering the different self-government institutions under which the Spanish autonomous community of Valencia Valencia (), officially València ( ), is the capital of the Autonomous communit ...
has planned on building a regional high-speed rail along the coast to connect all major coastal cities like Valencia, Gandia, Dénia, Benidorm, Villajoyosa, Alicante and Torrevieja.


Commuter rail and Metro

Cercanías (''Rodalia'' in Valencian) is the commuter rail service that serves all three provincial capitals of Valencia and their metropolitan areas. It is operated by Cercanías Renfe, the commuter rail division of RENFE. While the Valencian-owned company, Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat Valenciana (FGV) operates a tram-train line between
Alicante Alicante (, also , ca-valencia, Alacant, italics=no ) is a city and municipalities of Spain, municipality in the Valencian Community, Spain. It is the capital of the province of Alacant and a historic Mediterranean Sea, Mediterranean port. The ...

Alicante
,
Benidorm Benidorm (; ; ) is a town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of the world. Origin and ...

Benidorm
and Dénia. It also operates the city tram and rapid transit, metro system of
Valencia Valencia ( va, València) is the capital of the Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Valencian Community, Valencia and the Municipalities of Spain, third-largest city in Spain after Madrid and Barcelona, surpassing 800,000 ...

Valencia
(Valencia Metro (Spain), Valencia Metro) and
Alicante Alicante (, also , ca-valencia, Alacant, italics=no ) is a city and municipalities of Spain, municipality in the Valencian Community, Spain. It is the capital of the province of Alacant and a historic Mediterranean Sea, Mediterranean port. The ...

Alicante
(Alicante Tram). There is as well a third new tram and trolleybus system being built in
Castellón de la Plana Castellón de la Plana (), Castelló de la Plana (official) (), or simply Castellón or Castelló, is the capital city of the province of Castellón, in the Valencian Community (Spain). It is located in the east of the Iberian Peninsula, on the C ...

Castellón de la Plana
and its metropolitan area. Additionally both, Valencia metro and Alicante tram are being extended to serve uncovered areas, like the new tram line planned to open in the coming months towards the University of Alicante and San Vicente del Raspeig/Sant Vicent del Raspeig, Sant Vicent del Raspeig.


Ports

By sea, the Valencian Community is served by several ferry routes and cargo ports, and in the major cities, Valencia and Alicante, cruise ships dock on a regular basis. In point 20 of article 149 of the Spanish Constitution of 1978, Spanish Constitution, referring to the exclusive powers of the State, direct reference is made to the ownership of the ports of Public interest, general interest, which in the Valencian case are those of Port of Alicante, Alicante, Port of Castellón, Castellón, Port of Valencia, Valencia, Port of Sagunto, Sagunt and Port of Gandía, Gandia. For this reason, all these ports are managed by the public body, dependent on the Ministry of Development. This body is in charge of executing the port policy of the Government of Spain, government and of coordinating and controlling the efficiency of the port system, made up of 28 Port Authorities that they administer the 46 ports of general interest of the State. There are 3 Port Authorities of the Valencian Community, which manage the 5 Valencian ports of general interest. Thus, the Port of Valencia, Port Authority of Valencia is in charge of managing the ports of Valencia, Port of Sagunto, Sagunt and Port of Gandia, Gandia, while those of Port of Alicante, Alicante and Port of Castellón, Castellón only manage their reference port. In addition to the ports of general interest, there are also other ports, known as the ports of the Generalitat Valenciana. There are currently 35 ports dependent on the Generalitat, of which 16 are managed directly by the Generalitat, while the rest are managed from the private sector through concession. Some of the main ports managed by the Valencian Government are those of Altea, Benicarló, Benidorm, Borriana, Calp, Cullera, Dénia, Tabarca, Xàbia, Moraira, Peníscola, Santa Pola, Torrevieja, La Vila Joiosa, Vinaròs, etc. In the Valencian Community, the body entrusted with the responsibility of creating the necessary infrastructures that allow the development of the Valencian ports network is the Entity of the Transport and Ports Network of the Valencian Community, dependent on the Department of Infrastructure and Transport.


Public services


Education

State Education in Spain and the Valencian Community is free and compulsory from six to sixteen years of age. The current education system is called LOE (in reference to the ''Llei Orgànica d'Educació''). *From three to six years: Preparatory School (''Infantil'', popularly known as ''Preescolar'') *From six to twelve years: Primary School (''Primaria'') *From twelve to sixteen years: Compulsory Secondary School (''Secundaria'') *From sixteen to eighteen years: Post-Secondary School (''Bachillerato'') Children from three to five years old in the Valencian Community have the option of attending the ''infantil'' or preschool, pre-school stage, which is non-compulsory and free for all students. It is regarded as an integral part of the education system with infantil classes in almost every primary school. There are some separate nursery schools. Valencian students aged six to sixteen undergo primary school, primary and secondary school education, which are compulsory and free of charge. Successful students are awarded a Secondary Education Certificate, which is necessary for entering further (optional) education as for their University or Vocational Studies. Once students have finished their ''Batxillerat'' (Spanish: ''Bachillerato''), they can take the PAU exams (''Proves d'Accés a la Universitat''), commonly known as ''Selectiu''. The secondary stage of education is normally referred to by their initials, e.g. ''ESO'' standing for ''Educació Secundària Obligatòria.'' The Valencian Community is home to a number of prestigious universities like the University of Valencia, founded in 1499. At the request of
James I of Aragon James I the Conqueror ( es, Jaime el Conquistador, ca, Jaume el Conqueridor; 2 February 1208 – 27 July 1276) was King of Aragon This is a list of the kings and queens of Aragon. The Kingdom of Aragon was created sometime between ...
, Pope Innocent IV in 1246, authorized by a papal bull the establishment of ''estudis generals'' in Valencia. The University Statutes were passed by the municipal magistrates of Valencia on 30 April 1499; this is considered to be the 'founding' of the university. In 1501, Pope Alexander VI signed the bill of approval and one year later Ferdinand II of Aragon proclaimed the Royal Mandatory Concession. Only very meagre accounts have been preserved of the practical workings of the university. From the time of its foundation the courses included Latin, Greek language, Greek, Hebrew language, Hebrew, Arabic language, Arabic, philosophy, mathematics, physics, theology, Canon law (Catholic Church), Canon law, and medicine. Nowadays the Polytechnic University of Valencia has become one of the most prestigious universities in Spain, according to its technology, investigation, several degrees offering a close relation with some the most important universities in the world such as Cambridge, Oxford and Harvard. Most faculties and colleges are based in the city of Valencia, with some branches in
Gandia Gandia ( es, Gandía) is a city and municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws ...

Gandia
and
Alcoy Alcoy () or Alcoi () is an industrial and university city, region and Municipalities of Spain, municipality located in the Valencian Community, Spain. The Serpis river crosses the municipal boundary of Alcoi. The local authority reported a popula ...
. Other universities are University of Alicante, Miguel Hernández University of Elche, Miguel Hernández University in Elche, Jaume I University and Valencian International University in Castellón de la Plana, Valencia Catholic University Saint Vincent Martyr, Catholic University of Valencia, and Universidad CEU Cardenal Herrera, CEU Cardenal Herrera University in Valencia.


Media

Until its dissolution in November 2013, the public-service Ràdio Televisió Valenciana (RTVV) was the main broadcaster of radio and television in the Valencian Community. The Generalitat Valenciana constituted it in 1984 in order to guarantee the freedom of information of the Valencian people in Valencian, their own language. Prior to its dissolution, the administration of RTVV under the People's Party (Spain), People's Party (PP) had been controversial due to accusations of ideological manipulation and lack of plurality. The news broadcast was accused of giving marginal coverage of the Valencia Metro derailment in 2006 and the indictment of President de la Generalitat Francisco Camps in the Gürtel case, Gürtel scandal in 2009. Supervisors appointed by the PP were accused of sexual harassment. In face of an increasing debt and shrinking audiences that had fallen under 10 and even 5% of share in recent years, RTVV announced in 2012 a plan to shed 70% of its labour. The plan was nullified on 5 November 2013 by the National Court of Spain, National Court after trade unions appealed against it. On that same day, the President de la Generalitat Alberto Fabra announced RTVV would be closed, claiming that reinstating the employees was untenable. On 27 November, the legislative assembly passed the dissolution of RTVV and employees organized to take control of the broadcast, starting a campaign against the PP. Nou TV's last broadcast ended abruptly when Spanish police pulled the plug at 12:19 on 29 November 2013. Having lost all revenues from advertisements and facing high costs from the termination of hundreds of contracts, critics question whether the closure of RTVV has improved the financial situation of the Generalitat, and point out to plans to benefit private-owned media. Currently, the availability of media in the Valencian language is extremely limited. All the other autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous communities in Spain, including the monolingual ones, have public-service broadcasters, with the Valencian Community being the only exception despite being the fourth most populated. In 2016 the renewed Valencian government announced that a new public media corporation was to be created. The Valencian Media Corporation was founded in July 2016, as it started the creation of a new TV channel and radio station, by the name of ''À Punt'' (ɑ̀). In June 2018 the new public TV channel was launched by Valencian Media Corporation, the newly formed agency of the
Generalitat Valenciana The Generalitat Valenciana () is the generic name covering the different self-government institutions under which the Spanish autonomous community of Valencia Valencia (), officially València ( ), is the capital of the Autonomous communit ...
.


Culture


Gastronomy

The Valencian gastronomy is of great variety, although their more international dishes are rice-based ( in Valencian), like the Valencian known worldwide. Rice is a basic ingredient in many of the typical dishes, like the ''arròs a banda'', ''arròs al forn'', ''arròs amb costra'', ''arròs caldós'', ''arròs del senyoret'', ''arròs negre'', among many. Pasta dishes include the ''fideuà''. Its main ingredients are pasta noodles, fish and shellfish. The Valencian Mediterranean climate favors the cultivation of vegetables and citrus fruits, with the cultivation of the orange (fruit), orange ( ca-valencia, taronja, link=no) being perhaps of highest importance as one of the typical fruits of Valencian agriculture. ( in Valencian), production of which has traditionally been centred around Alboraya (''Alboraia''), is a typical drink, accompanied with . Also traditional are the production of coffee liqueur (typical of
Alcoy Alcoy () or Alcoi () is an industrial and university city, region and Municipalities of Spain, municipality located in the Valencian Community, Spain. The Serpis river crosses the municipal boundary of Alcoi. The local authority reported a popula ...
), and (in Marina Baixa and Hoya de Buñol (''Foia de Bunyol'')). Another one is , in Valencian , it is a cocktail made from a base of cava or champagne, orange juice, vodka, and gin. In general, it is served in pitchers of various sizes and is drunk in a broad cocktail glass. It was made for the first time in 1959 by Constante Gil in the bar Café Madrid, in the city of Valencia, Spain, Valencia. The great majority of desserts typical of Valencia have their origin in Arabic times and play an important part in the local festive activities. Some are internationally famous. Xixona is the place of traditional manufacture of ( in Valencian), a soft nougat, consumed during Christmas in Spain and the rest of the Hispanic world. In Casinos, Valencia, Casinos the is typical too but the most important manufacture of the village is or (dragées and sugared almonds). In Xàtiva and the Central comarques of the Valencian Community, Central comarques, the , a dessert elaborated with pumpkin is made.
Orihuela Orihuela (, Valencian: ) is a city and municipality located at the feet of the Sierra de Orihuela mountains in the province of Alicante (province), Alicante, Spain. The city of Orihuela had a population of 33,943 inhabitants at the beginning of 2 ...

Orihuela
and its region have the .


Valencian symbols

The official Valencian anthem is the Hymn of the Regional Exhibition of 1909 (''Himne de l'Exposició, Himne de l'Exposició Regional de 1909'' in Valencian; commonly known as the ''Himne de València'', "Anthem of Valencia"), in whose composition the old hymn of the City of Valencia of the 16th century is included. The Coat of arms of the Valencian Community, emblem of the Valencian Generalitat (coat of arms) includes the heraldry of King Peter IV of Aragon, representative of the historical
Kingdom of Valencia The Kingdom of Valencia ( ca-valencia, Regne de València, ; es, Reino de Valencia; la, Regnum Valentiae), located in the eastern shore of the Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese and Occitan: ''Peninsula Iberica'' ...
, whose shield is inclined towards the right, or, four bars Gules. The official flag, the Flag of Valencia, Royal Senyera (''Reial Senyera''), also known as ''Senyera Coronada'' (Crowned Senyera) or ''Senyera Tricolor'' (Tricolour Senyera) is the same as Valencia's City flag, which, in turn, is a historical derivation of the ''Senyera'', the heraldic symbol of the
Crown of Aragon The Crown of Aragon (; an, Corona d'Aragón; ca, Corona d'Aragó; es, Corona de Aragón)' ()' (, , )' ()' (). was a composite monarchy A composite monarchy (or composite state) is a historical category, introduced by H. G. Koenigsberger ...
, also used today with few variations in all the former Kingdoms and Counties which were a part of this crown. There are also a number of Valencian private and civil entities such as trade unions, cultural associations, or political partiesSee usage
of ''Senyera'' by political parties United Left (Spain), EUPV, Bloc Nacionalista Valencià, Green Parties, amongst others, whose combined participation in the Autonomous Elections of 2007 achieved 9% of the total votes.
which simply use the ''Senyera'' as Valencian flag. Other symbols are used at different levels by the Valencian society, like the heraldic animals of ''rat-penat'' (a bat) and ''drac alat'' (a winged dragon which was the emblem of James I of Aragon, James I). One of the most recognized and representative Valencian symbols are the music and dance of the ''Muixeranga'', ancient tradition of human towers preserved for the last 4 centuries, during the Festivity of ''La Mare de Déu de la Salut Festival'' of Algemesí, recognized-UNESCO "intangible heritage of humanity". Typical folk music in celebrations is played with the ''tabor (instrument), tabalet'' (a drum) and the ''dolçaina'' (a flute). Valencian traditional costumes and dresses include ''espadrille, espardenyes'' (shoes) and traditional ''falles, fallera'' dresses (the Falles dresses).


Celebrations

* ''Falles'' of
Valencia Valencia ( va, València) is the capital of the Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Valencian Community, Valencia and the Municipalities of Spain, third-largest city in Spain after Madrid and Barcelona, surpassing 800,000 ...

Valencia
– from the 15th to the 19th of March * ''Bonfires of Saint John, Fogueres de Sant Joan'' of
Alicante Alicante (, also , ca-valencia, Alacant, italics=no ) is a city and municipalities of Spain, municipality in the Valencian Community, Spain. It is the capital of the province of Alacant and a historic Mediterranean Sea, Mediterranean port. The ...

Alicante
– from the 19th to the 24th of June * ''Mystery Play of Elche, Misteri'' of
Elche Elche ( ca-valencia, Elx) is a city and municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, f ...
– 14th and 15th of August * ''Muixeranga'': Algemesí – 7th and 8th of September * ''Moros y cristianos, Moros i Cristians'': Moors and Christians of Alcoy, Alcoy – from the 22nd to th 24th of April * ''Tomatina'' of Buñol – last Wednesday in August * ''Magdalena Festival, Magdalena'' of Castellón de la Plana, Castellón – 3rd Saturday of Lent


Valencian Community Day

* October 9: Official day of the Dia de la Comunitat Valenciana, Valencian Community and public holiday in the entire region. This day commemorates the entrance of James I of Aragon, James I to the city of Valencia on the year 1238.


Sports

The wiktionary:autochthonous, autochthonous Valencian sport is the Valencian pilota, which features a professional Valencian Pilota Squad for international matches with related ball games all around the world. This sport has many variants, that may be played at the streets or at special courtfields like the Valencian trinquet, trinquet. It may also be played by teams or on individual challenges. An amazing trait of this sport is that spectators may sit very close or even in the middle of the court. Even while the match is ongoing bookmakers take bets for ''reds'' or ''blues'', since these are the colours players must wear, red being the colour of the strongest team or player. The ''Valencian pilota'' can be traced to the 15th century, but it was abandoned during modern times, this decadence is being fought back with TV broadcasts, new built colleges have courtfields and a new professional players firm, ValNet Association football is the most widely known and played sport. There are teams in every town or village, four of which are currently playing in La Liga, Spanish top professional division: Valencia CF (widely considered one of the most successful clubs in Spanish football history, having won six La Liga titles and 8 Copa del Rey), Villarreal CF, Levante UD and Elche CF. Other historical teams that have been in La Liga in the past are CD Alcoyano, Hércules CF and CD Castellón, CD Castellón. Professional basketball is represented currently in Liga ACB, the top professional division, by Valencia Basket, who won its first league title in 2017. Two more teams, CB Lucentum Alicante and AB Castelló, AB Castellón are present in the second division. Regarding female professional sports, the historical BM Sagunto, now disbanded, dominated the women's professional handball scene in Spain through the 1980s and 1990s, with a total of 27 División de Honor Femenina de Balonmano, Spanish Division of Honour - Women's handball wins, 20 Cup titles and 1 Women's EHF Champions League. Other important women's handball teams are CB Amadeo Tortajada (dissolved in 2009), CBF Elda, CB Mar Alicante and CB Elche. In female basketball, Ros Casares Valencia has been 8 times champion of the Liga Femenina de Baloncesto, Spanish Women's League and 3 times winner of the EuroLeague Women. Motorcycle sport, Motorcycle races are very popular, as the Circuit Ricardo Tormo, Circuit of Valencia race track and its hosted Valencian Community motorcycle Grand Prix, Valencian Community Grand Prix prove. Many Valencian MotoGP pilots such as Héctor Barberá, Héctor Faubel or Nicolás Terol have been competing in different MotoGP classes. Another relevant game is the pigeon sport, with an autochthonous dove race being trained, the ''gavatxut valencià''. Pétanque, Petanca and its variant ''Calitx'' are traditional sports as well, especially in towns or among elders.


Image gallery

File:Alcoi vista aèria.jpg,
Alcoy Alcoy () or Alcoi () is an industrial and university city, region and Municipalities of Spain, municipality located in the Valencian Community, Spain. The Serpis river crosses the municipal boundary of Alcoi. The local authority reported a popula ...
File:Vista de Alicante, España, 2014-07-04, DD 49.JPG, Alicante, Spain, Alicante File:Altea3.jpg, Altea File:Alzira.jpg, Alzira, Valencia, Alzira File:Ares, amb la mola del Castell (II).jpg, Ares del Maestrat File:Cala de Finestrat 2006.JPG, Finestrat File:Calp Beach - panoramio (1).jpg, Rock of Ifac in Calp File:Delta de l'Ebre.jpg, Ebro Delta File:Altamira Elche 01.JPG, Altamira Palace,
Elche Elche ( ca-valencia, Elx) is a city and municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, f ...
File:Palmeral de Elche 07.JPG, Palmeral de Elche, Elche palm grove File:CastilloElda restauracion.jpg, Elda File:Estança del Duc 1.jpg,
Gandia Gandia ( es, Gandía) is a city and municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws ...

Gandia
File:Vall de Uxó.Iglesia del Santo Ángel Custodio.jpg, La Vall d'Uixó File:06 Capella de la Comunió i església de l'Assumpció.jpg, Onda, Castellón, Onda File:La Vila d'Ontinyent.jpg, Ontinyent File:Paterna. Ajuntament.JPG, Paterna File:Vista diurna del casco histórico de Peñíscola.jpg, Peñíscola File:Plaça Major de Sant Mateu.jpg, Sant Mateu File:Sagunt i Vall de Segó.JPG, Sagunt File:PlazaAytoSueca.jpg, Sueca (city), Sueca File:Torrent. Casa de Cultura.JPG, Torrent, Valencia, Torrent File:Torrevieja. Vista desde el dique de Levante.JPG,
Torrevieja Torrevieja () or Torrevella () is a seaside city and municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national ...
File:Orihuela-al-pie-de-la-sierra-que-lleva-su-nombre.jpg,
Orihuela Orihuela (, Valencian: ) is a city and municipality located at the feet of the Sierra de Orihuela mountains in the province of Alicante (province), Alicante, Spain. The city of Orihuela had a population of 33,943 inhabitants at the beginning of 2 ...

Orihuela
, Vega Baja del Segura comarca File:Santa María y Rabal 1.jpg,
Villena Villena () is a city in Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map ...
File:Seu de Xàtiva i núvols.JPG, Xàtiva File:Processó de la Mare de Déu de la Salut d'Algemesí.jpg, Muixeranga human tower at La Mare de Déu de la Salut Festival' of Algemesí File:Mare de Déu de la Salut 15.jpg, Valencian Espadrille, espardenya File:Falleras desfilando en la Falla Illes Canàries-Lo Rat Penat 2017.jpg, Valencian women with traditional dress and hair File:Los Falleros de la Falla Lo Rat Penal se reunen para dar ofrenda a La Virgen 2017.jpg, A historical Valencian men costume the Xaraguell File:Mare de Déu de la Salut 28.jpg, Tabaleter with typical Valencian drums


See also

* List of Valencians


Notes


References


Bibliography

* El llarg camí cap a l'Autonomia Valenciana, de Vicente Ruiz Monrabal. ''Revista Valenciana d'Estudis autonòmics'', núm. 41/42, 3er trimestre de 2003 - 4o trimestre de 2003, p. 372-421. URL
Número 41/42
* ''El valencianisme polític, 1874-1936'', Alfons Cucó i Giner. 1999, Catarroja, Ed. Afers SL. . * ''Història del País Valencià'', Vicente Boix. 1981. Editorial Planeta, . * ''Història del País Valencià'', Antoni Furió i Diego. 2001. Edicions 3i4. .


External links


Official tourism webpage

Valencian Government (Generalitat Valenciana)

Valencian Parliament (Corts Valencianes)
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