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Urdu (; ur, ,
ALA-LC ALA-LC ( American Library Association - Library of Congress) is a set of standards for romanization, the representation of text in other writing system A writing system is a method of visually representing verbal communication Communicati ...
:
) is an
Indo-Aryan language The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages form a major language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages h ...
spoken chiefly in
South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-cultural terms. The region consists of the countries of Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lan ...

South Asia
. It is the official national language and ''
lingua franca A lingua franca (; ; for plurals see ), also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vehicular language, or link language, is a language or dialect The term dialect (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a ...
'' of
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, e ...

Pakistan
. In India, Urdu is an Eighth Schedule language whose status, function, and cultural heritage is recognized by the
Constitution of India The Constitution of India (IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation of Brahmic family, Indic scripts as employed by Sanskrit and related Indic lan ...

Constitution of India
; Quote: "The Eighth Schedule recognizes India’s national languages as including the major regional languages as well as others, such as Sanskrit and Urdu, which contribute to India’s cultural heritage. ... The original list of fourteen languages in the Eighth Schedule at the time of the adoption of the Constitution in 1949 has now grown to twenty-two." Quote: "As Mahapatra says: “It is generally believed that the significance for the Eighth Schedule lies in providing a list of languages from which Hindi is directed to draw the appropriate forms, style and expressions for its enrichment” ... Being recognized in the Constitution, however, has had significant relevance for a language's status and functions. it has some form of official status in several Indian states. In
Nepal Nepal (; ne, :ne:नेपाल, नेपाल ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal ( ne, सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल ), is a landlocked country in S ...

Nepal
, Urdu is a registered regional dialect. Urdu has been described as a
Persianised Persianization (), or Persification (), is a sociological Sociology is the study of society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, social interaction, or a large social group sharing ...
standard Standard may refer to: Flags * Colours, standards and guidons * Standard (flag), a type of flag used for personal identification Norm, convention or requirement * Standard (metrology), an object that bears a defined relationship to a unit of ...
register A register is an authoritative list of one kind of information. Register or registration may refer to: Arts entertainment, and media Music * Register (music), the relative "height" or range of a note, melody, part, instrument, etc. * ''Regis ...
of the
Hindustani language Hindustani (; Devanagari Devanagari ( ; , , Sanskrit pronunciation: ), also called Nagari (''Nāgarī'', ),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, , page 83 is a left-to-right abugida . ''M ...
. Urdu and
Hindi Hindi ( Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST/ ISO 15919: ''Hindī''), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi ( Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST/ ISO 15919: ''Mānak Hindī''), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in ...

Hindi
share a common
Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language of South Asia belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It arose in South Asia ...

Sanskrit
and
Prakrit The Prakrits (; Early Brahmi sa, 𑀧𑁆𑀭𑀸𑀓𑀾𑀢, ''prākṛta''; Devanagari sa, प्राकृत, ; psu, 𑀧𑀸𑀉𑀤, ; pka, ; Kannada: ''pāgada'') are a group of vernacular Middle Indo-Aryan languages used in I ...
derived vocabulary base, phonology, syntax as well as grammar, making them mutually intelligible in colloquial speech. While formal Urdu draws literary, political and technical vocabulary from Persian, formal Hindi draws these from
Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language of South Asia belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It arose in South Asia ...

Sanskrit
. Urdu was chosen as the language of East India Company rule across northern India in 1837 when the Company chose it to replace Persian, the court language of the Indo-Islamic empires. Religious, social, and political factors arose during the colonial period that advocated for a distinction between Urdu and Hindi, leading to the Hindi–Urdu controversy. Urdu became a literary language in the 18th century and two similar standard forms came into existence in
Delhi Delhi (; ''Dillī''; ''Dillī''; ''Dêhlī''), officially the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, is a city and a union territory of India containing New Delhi, the capital of India. * * * Straddling the Yamuna river, but primarily ...
and
Lucknow Lucknow (, ) is the capital city of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, and is also the administrative headquarters of the eponymous district and division. It is the List of cities in India by population, fourteenth-most populous city and ...

Lucknow
; since 1947 a third standard has arisen in
Karachi Karachi (; ur, ; ; ALA-LC romanization, ALA-LC: , , ) is the List of cities in Pakistan by population, largest city in Pakistan and the List of largest cities, twelfth-largest city in the world. It is the capital of the Pakistani province of ...

Karachi
. Deccani, an older form used in the south, became a court language of the Deccan Sultanates in the 16th century. According to research done in 2021 estimates, Urdu is the , with approximately 61.9 million who speak it as their native language. According to
Ethnologue ''Ethnologue: Languages of the World'' (stylized as Ethnoloɠue) is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world. It was first issued in 1951, and is now ...
's 2018 estimates, Urdu is the 10th most widely spoken language in the world, with 230 million ''total'' speakers, including those who speak it as a second language.


History

Urdu, like
Hindi Hindi ( Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST/ ISO 15919: ''Hindī''), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi ( Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST/ ISO 15919: ''Mānak Hindī''), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in ...

Hindi
, is a form of
Hindustani Hindustani may refer to: * something of, from, or related to Hindustan (another name of India) * Hindustani language, an Indo-Aryan language, whose two official norms are Hindi and Urdu * Fiji Hindi, a variety of Eastern Hindi spoken in Fiji, and i ...
. Some linguists have suggested that the earliest forms of Urdu evolved from the medieval (6th to 13th century) Apabhraṃśa register of the preceding
Shauraseni language Shauraseni Prakrit (, ) was a Middle Indo-Aryan language and a Dramatic Prakrit. Shauraseni was the chief language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed lan ...
, a
Middle Indo-Aryan language The Middle Indo-Aryan languages (or Middle Indic languages, sometimes conflated with the Prakrits, which are a stage of Middle Indic) are a historical group of languages of the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan family. They are the descendants of ...
that is also the ancestor of other modern Indo-Aryan languages.


Origins

In the Delhi region of India the native language was
Khariboli The Kauravi ( hi, कौरवी, ur, ), also known as Khariboli or the Delhi dialect, is any of several Central Indo-Aryan dialects spoken in and around Delhi. It is believed to have initially developed contemporaneously with the neighbour ...
, whose earliest form is known as
Old Hindi Old Hindi ( hi, पुरानी हिन्दी, ur, پرانی ہندی; ''Purānī Hindī'') was the earliest stage of the Delhi dialect (Khariboli) of the Hindustani language Hindustani may refer to: * something of, from, or related to ...
(or Hindavi). It belongs to the
Western Hindi The Central Indo-Aryan languages or Hindi languages are a group of related language varieties spoken across North India and Central India. These language varieties form the central part of the Indo-Aryan language family, itself a part of th ...

Western Hindi
group of the Central Indo-Aryan languages. The contact of the Hindu and Muslim cultures during the period of Islamic conquests and in the Indian subcontinent (12th to 16th centuries) led to the development of Hindustani as a product of a composite Ganga-Jamuni tehzeeb. In cities such as Delhi, the Indian language Old Hindi began to acquire many Persian loanwords and continued to be called "Hindi" and later, also "Hindustani". In
southern India South India is a region located in the southern part of India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous coun ...

southern India
(especially in
Golkonda Golconda Fort, also known as Golkonda (Telugu language, Telugu: "shepherds' hill"), is a fortified citadel and an early capital city of the Qutb Shahi dynasty (c. 1512–1687), located in Hyderabad district, India, Hyderabad, Telangana, India. ...

Golkonda
and
Bijapur Bijapur, officially known as Vijayapura, is the district headquarters of Bijapur district of Karnataka state of India. It is also the headquarters for Bijapur Taluka. Bijapur city is well known for its historical monuments of architectural im ...
), a form of the language flourished in medieval India and is known as
Dakhini Deccani (also known as Deccani Urdu and Deccani Hindi) or Dakni, Dakhni, Dakhini, Dakkhani and Dakkani (, ''dekanī'' or ''dakhanī''), is a variety of Hindustani spoken in the Deccan region of India India (Hindi: ), officially the Repu ...
, which contains loanwords from
Telugu Telugu may refer to: * Telugu language, a major Dravidian language of India *Telugu people, an ethno-linguistic group of India * Telugu script, used to write the Telugu language ** Telugu (Unicode block), a block of Telugu characters in Unicode ...
and
Marathi Marathi may refer to: *Marathi people, an Indo-Aryan ethno-linguistic group of Maharashtra, India *Marathi language, the Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Marathi people *Palaiosouda, also known as Marathi, a small island in Greece See also

...
. An early literary tradition of Hindavi was founded by
Amir Khusrau Abu'l Hasan Yamīn ud-Dīn Khusrau (1253–1325 AD) ( Urdu:ابوالحسن یامین الدّین خُسرو), better known as Amīr Khusrau Dehlavī (Urdu: امیر خُسرو دہلوی), was an Indian Sufi singer, musician, poet and schola ...
in the late 13th century. From the 13th century until the end of the 18th century the language now known as Urdu was called ''Hindi'', ''Hindavi'', ''Hindustani'', ''Dehlavi'', ''Lahori,'' and ''Lashkari''. By the end of the reign of
Aurangzeb Muhi-ud-Din Muhammad (3 November 16183 March 1707), commonly known by the sobriquet (Persian language, Persian: "Ornament of the Throne") or by his regnal title (Persian: "Conqueror of the World"), was the sixth Mughal emperor, who ruled ov ...
in the early 18th century, the common language around Delhi began to be referred to as ''Zaban-e-Urdu'', a name derived from the
Turkic Turkic may refer to: * anything related to the country of Turkey * Turkic languages, a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages ** Turkic alphabets (disambiguation) ** Turkish language, the most widely spoken Turkic language * T ...

Turkic
word ''ordu'' (army) or ''orda'' and is said to have arisen as the "language of the camp", or "''Zaban-i-Ordu''" or natively "''Lashkari Zaban''". The Turko-Afghan
Delhi Sultanate The Delhi Sultanate was an Islamic empire based in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526).
established
Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated with the Iranian peoples ** Persian language, an Iranian ...
as its official language in India, a policy continued by the
Mughal Empire The Mughal Empire, Mogul or Moghul Empire, was an Early modern period, early modern empire in South Asia. Quote: "Although the first two Timurid emperors and many of their noblemen were recent migrants to the subcontinent, the dynasty and the ...
, which extended over most of northern
South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-cultural terms. The region consists of the countries of Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lan ...

South Asia
from the 16th to 18th centuries and cemented Persian influence on Hindustani. The name ''Urdu'' was first introduced by the poet Ghulam Hamadani Mushafi around 1780. As a literary language, Urdu took shape in courtly, elite settings. While Urdu retained the grammar and core Indo-Aryan vocabulary of the local Indian dialect Khariboli, it adopted the
Nastaleeq Nastaʼlīq (; fa, , ) is one of the main calligraphic hands used in writing the Persian alphabet and the Urdu alphabet The Urdu alphabet (), is the right-to-left alphabet An alphabet is a standardized set of basic written sy ...
writing system – which was developed as a style of Persian calligraphy.


Other historical names

Throughout the history of the language, Urdu has been referred with several other names: Hindi, Hindavi, Rekhta, Urdu-e-Muallah,
Dakhini Deccani (also known as Deccani Urdu and Deccani Hindi) or Dakni, Dakhni, Dakhini, Dakkhani and Dakkani (, ''dekanī'' or ''dakhanī''), is a variety of Hindustani spoken in the Deccan region of India India (Hindi: ), officially the Repu ...
, Lahori, Gujjari, Moors, Lahori, and Dehlavi. Several works of Sufi writer like
Ashraf Jahangir Semnani Sultan Sayyid Makhdoom Ashraf Jahangir Semnani ( ur, سلطن سئد مخدم اسرف جہانگر سمنن), ( hi, सुल्तान सय्यद मखदूम अशरफ जहांगीर सीमनानी)‎ (1285–138 ...
had used the same name for Urdu language. Shah
Abdul Qadir Raipuri Shah Abdul Qadir Raipuri شاہ عبد القادر رائے پوری (born 1878 / 1295AH) was a spiritual reformer and well known guide of Islam. Life His father Hafiz Ahmed was born in Toha Moharram Khan of Photohar of Chakwal District, Chakwa ...
was the first person who translated Quran into Urdu language and he used Hindi to for the language. Urdu is a Turkic word meaning Horde. During Shahjahan's time when the capital was relocated to Delhi he named it
Shahjahanabad Old Delhi or Purani Dilli is an area part of the greater city of Delhi, India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most ...

Shahjahanabad
and the Bazar of the town was named as Urdu e Muallah. It was in the Akbar era when the word Rekhta was used for the language for the first time. It was originally a Persian word meant to create a mixture. A poem composed of both Indian and Persian vocabulary was called Rekhta. Khusru was the first person to use the same word for Poetry.


Colonial period

Urdu, which was often referred to by the British administrators in India as the Hindustani language, was promoted in
colonial India Colonial India was the part of the Indian subcontinent that was under the jurisdiction of European colonial powers during the Age of Discovery. European power was exerted both by conquest and trade, especially in spice trade, spices. The search ...
by British policies to counter the previous emphasis on Persian. In colonial India, "ordinary Muslims and Hindus alike spoke the same language in the United Provinces in the nineteenth century, namely Hindustani, whether called by that name or whether called Hindi, Urdu, or one of the regional dialects such as
Braj Braj, also known as Brij or Brijbhoomi, is a region in India on both sides of the Yamuna river with its centre at Mathura district, Mathura-Vrindavan in Uttar Pradesh state encompassing the area which also includes Palwal and Ballbhgarh in Har ...
or
Awadhi Awadhi (; अवधी; 𑂃𑂫𑂡𑂲) is an Central Zone (Hindi), Eastern Hindi language of the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch spoken in North India, northern India. It is primarily spoken in the Awadh region of present-day Uttar Pr ...
." Elites from Muslim and Hindu religious communities wrote the language in the Perso-Arabic script in courts and government offices, though Hindus continued to employ the Devanagari script in certain literary and religious contexts while Muslims used the Perso-Arabic script. in Pollock (2003) Urdu replaced
Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated with the Iranian peoples ** Persian language, an Iranian ...
as the official language of India in 1837 and was made co-official, along with English. In colonial Indian Islamic schools, Muslims taught Persian and Arabic as the languages of Indo-Islamic civilisation; the British, in order to promote literacy among Indian Muslims and attract them to attend government schools, started to teach Urdu written in the Perso-Arabic script in these governmental educational institutions and after this time, Urdu began to be seen by Indian Muslims as a symbol of their religious identity. Hindus in northwestern India, under the
Arya Samaj Arya Samaj (Hindi: आर्य समाज, "Noble Society") is a monotheistic Indian Hindu reform movement that promotes values of based on the belief in the infallible authority of the Vedas. The samaj was founded by Maharishi Dayanand Sara ...
agitated against the sole use of the Perso-Arabic script and argued that the language should be written in the native
Devanagari Devanagari ( ; , , Sanskrit pronunciation: ), also called Nagari (''Nāgarī'', ),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, , page 83 is a left-to-right abugida . ''May Śiva protect those who take ...
script, which triggered a backlash against the use of Hindi written in Devanagari by the Anjuman-e-Islamia of Lahore. Hindi in the Devanagari script and Urdu written in the Perso-Arabic script established a sectarian divide of "Urdu" for Muslims and "Hindi" for Hindus, a divide that was formalised with the into the Dominion of India and the Dominion of Pakistan after
independence upright=1.0, Pedro I of Brazil, Pedro surrounded by a crowd in São Paulo after breaking the news of Independence of Brazil, Brazil's independence on September 7, 1822. Independence is a condition of a person, nation, country, or Sovereign state ...
(though there are Hindu poets who continue to write in Urdu, including Gopi Chand Narang and
Gulzar Sampooran Singh Kalra (born 18 August 1934), known professionally as Gulzar or Gulzar Saab , is an Indian lyricist, poet, author, screenwriter, and film director. He started his career with music director S.D. Burman as a lyricist in the 1963 ...

Gulzar
).


Post-Partition

Urdu was chosen as an official language of Pakistan in 1947 as it was already the ''lingua franca'' for Muslims in north and northwest British India, although Urdu had been used as a literary medium for colonial Indian writers from the
Bombay Presidency The Bombay Presidency, also known as Bombay and Sind from 1843 to 1936 and the Bombay Province, was an administrative subdivision (presidency) of British India The provinces of India, earlier presidencies of British India and still earl ...
,
Bengal Bengal (; Bengali language, Bengali: ', ) is a geopolitical, cultural and historical region in South Asia, specifically in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal, predominantly covering present-day Bang ...
,
Orissa Province Orissa Province was a province of British India The provinces of India, earlier presidencies of British India and still earlier, presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in India India (Hindi: ), offi ...
, and
Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu (; ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper ...
as well. In 1973, Urdu was recognised as the sole national language of Pakistan – although English and regional languages were also granted official recognition. Following the 1979
Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a federal socialist state A socialist state, socialist republic, or socialist country, sometimes referred to as a workers' state or workers' republic, is a ...
and subsequent arrival of millions of
Afghan refugeesAfghan refugees are nationals of Afghanistan who left their country as a result of major wars or persecution. The Soviet war of Afghanistan in the 1980s marks the first wave of internal displacement and refugee flow from Afghanistan to neighboring ...
who have lived in Pakistan for many decades, many Afghans, including those who moved back to Afghanistan, have also become fluent in Hindi-Urdu, an occurrence aided by exposure to the Indian media, chiefly Hindi-Urdu
Bollywood Hindi cinema, often known as Bollywood and formerly as ''Bombay cinema'', is the Indian Hindi-language film industry based in Mumbai (formerly Bombay). The term is a portmanteau of "Bombay" and "Cinema of the United States, Hollywood". The ...

Bollywood
films and songs. There have been attempts to purge Urdu of native
Prakrit The Prakrits (; Early Brahmi sa, 𑀧𑁆𑀭𑀸𑀓𑀾𑀢, ''prākṛta''; Devanagari sa, प्राकृत, ; psu, 𑀧𑀸𑀉𑀤, ; pka, ; Kannada: ''pāgada'') are a group of vernacular Middle Indo-Aryan languages used in I ...
and
Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language of South Asia belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It arose in South Asia ...

Sanskrit
words, and Hindi of Persian loanwords – new vocabulary draws primarily from Persian and Arabic for Urdu and from Sanskrit for Hindi. English has exerted a heavy influence on both as a co-official language. A movement towards the hyper-Persianisation of an Urdu emerged in Pakistan since its independence in 1947 which is "as artificial as" the hyper-Sanskritised Hindi that has emerged in India; hyper-Persianisation of Urdu was prompted in part by the increasing Sanskritisation of Hindi. However, the style of Urdu spoken on a day-to-day basis in Pakistan is akin to neutral Hindustani that serves as the ''lingua franca'' of the northern Indian subcontinent. Since at least 1977, some commentators such as journalist
Khushwant Singh Khushwant Singh (born Khushal Singh, 2 February 1915 – 20 March 2014) was an Indian author An author is the creator or originator of any written work such as a book or play, and is also considered a writer. More broadly defined, an author ...
have characterised Urdu as a "dying language", though others, such as Urdu poet
Gulzar Sampooran Singh Kalra (born 18 August 1934), known professionally as Gulzar or Gulzar Saab , is an Indian lyricist, poet, author, screenwriter, and film director. He started his career with music director S.D. Burman as a lyricist in the 1963 ...

Gulzar
, have disagreed with this assessment and state that Urdu "is the most alive language and moving ahead with times" in India. This phenomenon pertains to the decrease in relative and absolute numbers of native Urdu speakers as opposed to speakers of other languages; declining (advanced) knowledge of Urdu's Perso-Arabic script, Urdu vocabulary and grammar; the role of translation and transliteration of literature from and into Urdu; the shifting cultural image of Urdu and socio-economic status associated with Urdu speakers (which negatively impacts especially their employment opportunities in both countries), the ''de jure'' legal status and ''de facto'' political status of Urdu, how much Urdu is used as language of instruction and chosen by students in higher education, and how the maintenance and development of Urdu is financially and institutionally supported by governments and NGOs. In India, although Urdu is not and never was used exclusively by Muslims (and Hindi never exclusively by Hindus), the ongoing Hindi–Urdu controversy and modern cultural association of each language with the two religions has led to fewer Hindus using Urdu. In the 20th century, Indian Muslims initially more or less gradually collectively embraced Urdu (for example, 'post-independence Muslim politics of
Bihar Bihar (; ) is a states and union territories of India, state in eastern India. It is the list of states and union territories of India by population, third-largest state by population and list of states and union territories of India by area, ...
saw a mobilisation around the Urdu language as tool of empowerment for minorities especially coming from weaker socio-economic backgrounds'), but in the early 21st century an increasing percentage of Indian Muslims began switching to Hindi due to socio-economic factors, such as Urdu being abandoned as the language of instruction in much of India, and having limited employment opportunities compared to Hindi, English and regional languages. The number of Urdu speakers in India fell 1.5% between 2001 and 2011 (then 5.08 million Urdu speakers), especially in the most Urdu-speaking states of
Uttar Pradesh Uttar Pradesh (; 'Northern Province') is a state in northern India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous ...

Uttar Pradesh
(c. 8% to 5%) and Bihar (c. 11.5% to 8.5%), even though the number of Muslims in these two states grew in the same period. Although Urdu is still very prominent in early 21st-century Indian pop culture, ranging from
Bollywood Hindi cinema, often known as Bollywood and formerly as ''Bombay cinema'', is the Indian Hindi-language film industry based in Mumbai (formerly Bombay). The term is a portmanteau of "Bombay" and "Cinema of the United States, Hollywood". The ...

Bollywood
to social media, knowledge of the Urdu script and the publication of books in Urdu have steadily declined, while policies of the Indian government do not actively support the preservation of Urdu in professional and official spaces. In part because the Pakistani government proclaimed Urdu the national language at Partition, the Indian state and some religious nationalists began to regard Urdu as a 'foreign' language, to be viewed with suspicion. Urdu advocates in India disagree whether it should be allowed to write Urdu in the
Devanagari Devanagari ( ; , , Sanskrit pronunciation: ), also called Nagari (''Nāgarī'', ),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, , page 83 is a left-to-right abugida . ''May Śiva protect those who take ...
and
Latin script Latin script, also known as Roman script, is a set of graphic signs (Writing system#General properties, script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet. This is derived from a form of the Cumae alphabet, Cumaean Greek version of the ...

Latin script
(
Roman Urdu Roman Urdu ( ur, ) is the name used for the Urdu language written with the Latin script, also known as the Roman script. According to the Urdu scholar Habib R. Sulemani: "Roman Urdu is strongly opposed by the traditional Arabic alphabet, Arabi ...
) to allow its survival, or whether this will only hasten its demise and that the language can only be preserved if expressed in the Perso-Arabic script. Indian poet and writer
Gulzar Sampooran Singh Kalra (born 18 August 1934), known professionally as Gulzar or Gulzar Saab , is an Indian lyricist, poet, author, screenwriter, and film director. He started his career with music director S.D. Burman as a lyricist in the 1963 ...

Gulzar
(who is popular in both countries and both language communities, but writes only in Urdu (script) and has difficulties reading Devanagari, so he lets others 'transcribe' his work), maintained in 2003 that there is a single united Hindustani language, and the Urdu script should be abandoned in favour of Devanagari to make the differences and conflicts between groups disappear so that "the language of the people will prevail". For Pakistan, Willoughby & Aftab (2020) argued that Urdu originally had the image of a refined elite language of the Enlightenment, progress and emancipation, which contributed to the success of the independence movement. But after , when it was chosen as the national language of Pakistan to unite all inhabitants with one linguistic identity, it faced serious competition primarily from Bengali (spoken by 56% of the total population, mostly in
East Pakistan East Pakistan was a Pakistani province established in 1955 by the One Unit Policy, renaming the province as such from East Bengal , common_name = East Bengal , status = Province of the Dominion of Pakistan , p1 = ...
until that attained independence in 1971 as
Bangladesh Bangladesh (; bn, বাংলাদেশ, ), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, eighth-most populous country in the world, with a populati ...
), and after 1971 from English. Both pro-independence elites that formed the leadership of the
Muslim LeagueMuslim League may refer to: Political parties Subcontinent ; British India *All-India Muslim League, Mohammed Ali Jinah, led the demand for the partition of India resulting in the creation of Pakistan. **Punjab Muslim League, a branch of the organi ...
in Pakistan and the Hindu-dominated Congress Party in India had been educated in English during the British colonial period, and continued to operate in English and send their children to English-medium schools as they continued dominate both countries' post-Partition politics. Although the Anglicised elite in Pakistan has made attempts at Urduisation of education with varying degrees of success, no successful attempts were ever made to Urduise politics, the legal system, the army, or the economy, all of which remained solidly Anglophone. Even the regime of
general Zia-ul-Haq Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq (12 August 1924 – 17 August 1988) was a four-star general and became the sixth President of Pakistan after declaring martial law in 1977. He served as the head of state from 1978 until Death and state funeral of Muhammad Z ...
(1977–1988), who came from a middle-class Urdu-speaking family and initially fervently supported a rapid and complete Urduisation of Pakistani society (earning him the honorary title of the 'Patron of Urdu' in 1981), failed to make significant achievements, and by 1987 had abandoned most of his efforts in favour of pro-English policies. Since the 1960s, the Urdu lobby and eventually the Urdu language itself in Pakistan has been associated with religious Islamism and political national conservatism (and eventually the lower and lower-middle classes, alongside regional languages such as Punjabi, Sindhi, and Balochi), while English has been associated with the internationally oriented secular and progressive left (and eventually the upper and upper-middle classes). Despite these governmental attempts at Urduisation, the position and prestige of English only grew stronger in the meantime.


Demographics and geographic distribution

There are over 100 million native speakers of Urdu in India and Pakistan together: there were 50.8 million Urdu speakers in India (4.34% of the total population) as per the 2011 census; approximately 16 million in Pakistan in 2006. There are several hundred thousand in the United Kingdom, Saudi Arabia, United States, and
Bangladesh Bangladesh (; bn, বাংলাদেশ, ), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, eighth-most populous country in the world, with a populati ...
. However, Hindustani, of which Urdu is one variety, is spoken much more widely, forming the third most commonly spoken language in the world, after
Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat A bureaucrat is a member of a bureaucracy and can compose the administration o ...
and
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
. The
syntax In linguistics, syntax () is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of Sentence (linguistics), sentences (sentence structure) in a given Natural language, language, usually including word order. The term ''syntax'' ...

syntax
(grammar),
morphology Morphology, from the Greek and meaning "study of shape", may refer to: Disciplines * Morphology (archaeology), study of the shapes or forms of artifacts * Morphology (astronomy), study of the shape of astronomical objects such as nebulae, galaxies ...
, and the core vocabulary of Urdu and Hindi are essentially identical – thus linguists usually count them as one single language, while some contend that they are considered as two different languages for socio-political reasons. Owing to interaction with other languages, Urdu has become localised wherever it is spoken, including in Pakistan. Urdu in Pakistan has undergone changes and has incorporated and borrowed many words from regional languages, thus allowing speakers of the language in Pakistan to distinguish themselves more easily and giving the language a decidedly Pakistani flavour. Similarly, the Urdu spoken in India can also be distinguished into many dialects such as the Standard Urdu of
Lucknow Lucknow (, ) is the capital city of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, and is also the administrative headquarters of the eponymous district and division. It is the List of cities in India by population, fourteenth-most populous city and ...

Lucknow
and
Delhi Delhi (; ''Dillī''; ''Dillī''; ''Dêhlī''), officially the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, is a city and a union territory of India containing New Delhi, the capital of India. * * * Straddling the Yamuna river, but primarily ...
, as well as the
Dakhni Deccani (also known as Deccani Urdu and Deccani Hindi) or Dakni, Dakhni, Dakhini, Dakkhani and Dakkani (, ''dekanī'' or ''dakhanī''), is a variety of Hindustani spoken in the Deccan region of India India (Hindi: ), officially the Repu ...
( Deccan) of South India. Because of Urdu's similarity to
Hindi Hindi ( Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST/ ISO 15919: ''Hindī''), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi ( Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST/ ISO 15919: ''Mānak Hindī''), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in ...

Hindi
, speakers of the two languages can easily understand one another if both sides refrain from using literary vocabulary.


Pakistan

Although Urdu is widely spoken and understood throughout Pakistan, only 7% of Pakistan's population spoke Urdu as their native language around 1992. Most of the nearly three million Afghan refugees of different ethnic origins (such as
Pashtun Pashtuns (, or ; ps, پښتانه, ; or Pathans), historically known as Afghans,, ''Afğân'' or Bactrian Abgân - αβγανο are an Iranian ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each o ...

Pashtun
, Tajik, Uzbek, Hazarvi, and Turkmen) who stayed in Pakistan for over twenty-five years have also become fluent in Urdu. Muhajirs since 1947 have historically formed the majority population in the city of
Karachi Karachi (; ur, ; ; ALA-LC romanization, ALA-LC: , , ) is the List of cities in Pakistan by population, largest city in Pakistan and the List of largest cities, twelfth-largest city in the world. It is the capital of the Pakistani province of ...

Karachi
, however. Many newspapers are published in Urdu in Pakistan, including the ''
Daily Jang The ''Daily Jang'' ( ur, ) is an Urdu Urdu (; ur, , ALA-LC: ) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-cult ...
'', ''
Nawa-i-Waqt ''Nawaiwaqt'' ( ur, , ) is an Urdu daily newspaper A newspaper is a Periodical literature, periodical publication containing written News, information about current events and is often typed in black ink with a white or gray background. N ...
'', and ''
Millat ''Millat'' ( Gujarati: મિલ્લત, Urdu Urdu (; ur, , ALA-LC: ) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ...
''. No region in Pakistan uses Urdu as its mother tongue, though it is spoken as the first language of Muslim migrants (known as
Muhajirs Muhajir or Mohajir ( ar, مهاجر '; pl. ') is an Arabic word meaning emigrant. In English, this term and its derivatives have been applied to a number of groups may refer to: Groups *Muhajirun, the early Muslims (Muhammad and companions), ...
) in Pakistan who left India after independence in 1947. Urdu was chosen as a symbol of unity for the new state of Pakistan in 1947, because it had already served as a ''lingua franca'' among Muslims in north and northwest
British India The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the Indian subcontinent. Collectively, they have been called British India. In one ...
. It is written, spoken and used in all provinces/territories of Pakistan, although the people from differing provinces may have different native languages. Urdu is taught as a compulsory subject up to higher secondary school in both English and Urdu medium school systems, which has produced millions of second-language Urdu speakers among people whose native language is one of the other
languages of Pakistan Pakistan is home to many dozens of languages spoken as first languages. Five languages have more than 10 million speakers each in Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English language, English as , , , and . officially the Isla ...

languages of Pakistan
– which in turn has led to the absorption of vocabulary from various regional Pakistani languages, while some Urdu vocabulary has also been assimilated by Pakistan's regional languages. Some who are from a non-Urdu background now can read and write only Urdu. With such a large number of people(s) speaking Urdu, the language has acquired a peculiar Pakistani flavour further distinguishing it from the Urdu spoken by native speakers, resulting in more diversity within the language.


India

In India, Urdu is spoken in places where there are large Muslim minorities or cities that were bases for Muslim empires in the past. These include parts of
Uttar Pradesh Uttar Pradesh (; 'Northern Province') is a state in northern India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous ...

Uttar Pradesh
,
Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh (, ; meaning ''Central Province'') is a state in central India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most ...

Madhya Pradesh
, Bihar,
Telangana Telangana (, , ) is a States and union territories of India, state in India situated on the south-central stretch of the Indian subcontinent, Indian peninsula on the high Deccan Plateau. It is the List of states and union territories of India by ...

Telangana
,
Andhra Pradesh Andhra Pradesh (English: ; Telugu: ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspape ...
,
Maharashtra Maharashtra (; , abbr. MH or Maha, is a states and union territories of India, state in the western and central peninsular region of India occupying a substantial portion of the Deccan Plateau. Maharashtra is the List of states and union territo ...

Maharashtra
(
Marathwada Marathwada ( IPA:Marāṭhvāḍā) is a region of the Indian state of Maharashtra Maharashtra (; , abbr. MH) is a state in the western peninsular region of India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a co ...
and Konkanis),
Karnataka Karnataka (ISO 15919, ISO: , ) is a States of India, state in the south western region of India. It is the largest state in South India and sixth largest in India. It was Unification of Karnataka, formed on 1 November 1956, with the passage of ...

Karnataka
and cities such as
Lucknow Lucknow (, ) is the capital city of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, and is also the administrative headquarters of the eponymous district and division. It is the List of cities in India by population, fourteenth-most populous city and ...

Lucknow
, Delhi,
Malerkotla Malerkotla is a city and a municipal council in Sangrur district in the India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second ...
,
Bareilly Bareilly () is a city in Bareilly district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is the capital of Bareilly division and the geographical region of Rohilkhand. The city is north west of the state capital, Lucknow, and east of the national c ...
,
Meerut Meerut (, IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation of Brahmic family, Indic scripts as employed by Sanskrit and related Indic languages. It is bas ...

Meerut
,
Saharanpur Saharanpur is a city and a municipal corporation in the India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous cou ...

Saharanpur
,
Muzaffarnagar Muzaffarnagar () is a city under Muzaffarnagar Urban Metropolitan Region and is controlled by municipal board in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is a part of the Delhi NCR abbreviation of National Capital Region (NCR). It is the ...

Muzaffarnagar
,
Roorkee Roorkee (Rūṛkī) is a city in North India and a municipal corporation in the Haridwar district of the state of Uttarakhand Uttarakhand (), formerly known as Uttaranchal (), is a state in the northern part of India India (Hindi: ...
,
Deoband Deoband is a town and a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which ...
,
Moradabad Moradabad () is a city, commissionary and municipal corporation in Moradabad district of Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. Moradabad is situated on the banks of the Ramganga river, at a distance of from the national capital, New Delhi and 344&nb ...
,
Azamgarh Azamgarh (IAST: Aajamagadh) is a city in the Indian States and territories of India, state of Uttar Pradesh. It is the headquarters of Azamgarh division, which consists of Ballia district, Ballia, Mau district, Mau and Azamgarh district, Azamga ...
,
Bijnor Bijnor is a city and a municipal board ''Township'' refers to various kinds of settlements or administrative subdivisions in different countries. While a ''township'' may be associated with an urban area, this tends to be an exception to th ...
,
Najibabad Najibabad is a city in Bijnor district in the Indian States and territories of India, state of Uttar Pradesh. It is a major industrial city and is well connected to all major cities of India by roadways via NH 119 and NH 74 respectively and also ...
, Rampur,
Aligarh Aligarh (; formerly known as Allygurh and Kol) is a city in the state of Uttar Pradesh Uttar Pradesh (; 'Northern Province') is a state in northern India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in So ...
,
Allahabad Allahabad (), officially known as Prayagraj, also known as Ilahabad, is a metropolis in the background A metropolis () is a large city or conurbation which is a significant economic, political, and cultural center for a country or re ...
,
Gorakhpur Gorakhpur is a city in the List of state and union territory capitals in India, Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, along the banks of the West Rapti River, Rapti river in the Purvanchal region. It is situated 270 kilometres east of the state capita ...
,
Agra Agra (, ) is a city on the banks of the Yamuna The Yamuna ( Hindustani: ) is the second-largest tributary A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem (or parent) river or a lake. A tributar ...
,
Kanpur Kanpur ( ), is a metropolis, metropolitan city in the state of Uttar Pradesh in India. Founded in 1803, Kanpur became one of the most important commercial and military stations of British India. Nestled on the banks of Ganges River, Kanpur stan ...

Kanpur
,
Badaun Budaun which was historically pronounced Badayu (formerly Vodamayuta) is a city and a seat of Budaun district, Uttar Pradesh, India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of ...
,
Bhopal Bhopal (; ) is the capital city of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh and the administrative headquarters of both Bhopal district and Bhopal division. It is known as the ''City of Lakes'' for its various natural and artificial lakes and fo ...
,
Hyderabad Hyderabad ( , , ) is the capital and largest city of the India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous co ...
,
Aurangabad Aurangabad () is a city in the Indian state of Maharashtra. It is the administrative headquarters of Aurangabad district, Maharashtra, Aurangabad district and is the largest city in the Marathwada region. Located on a hilly upland terrain in the ...
,
Bangalore Bangalore (), List of renamed places in India, officially known as Bengaluru (), is the Capital city, capital and the largest city of the Indian state of Karnataka. It has a population of more than and a metropolitan area, metropolitan popu ...
,
Kolkata Kolkata ( or , ; also known as Calcutta , List of renamed Indian cities and states#West Bengal, the official name until 2001) is the Capital city, capital of the Indian States and union territories of India, state of West Bengal. Located on ...
,
Mysore Mysore (), officially Mysuru (; Kannada: ಮೈಸೂರು), is a city in the southern part of the state of Karnataka, India. Mysore city is geographically located between 12° 18′ 26″ north latitude and 76° 38′ 59″ east longitude. It ...

Mysore
,
Patna Patna ( ), historically known as ''Pataliputra'', is the List of state and union territory capitals in India, capital and largest city of the state of Bihar in India. According to the United Nations, as of 2018, Patna had a population of 2.35&nb ...

Patna
,
Gulbarga Kalaburagi, formerly known as Gulbarga, is a city in the Indian state of Karnataka. It is the administrative headquarters of Kalaburagi district and is the largest city in the region of North Karnataka (Kalyana-Karnataka). Kalaburagi is 623&nb ...
,
Parbhani Parbhani (', IPA ) is a city in Maharashtra Maharashtra (; , abbr. MH) is a state in the western peninsular region of India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of c ...
,
Nanded Nanded is a city in Maharashtra state, India. It is the eighth largest urban agglomeration of the state and the seventy-ninth most populous city in India. It is the second largest city in Marathwada subdivision. Nanded is the centre of governa ...
,
Malegaon Malegaon is a city and a municipal corporation in Nashik District in the India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-m ...
,
Bidar Bidar is a hill top city in the north-eastern part of Karnataka Karnataka (ISO 15919, ISO: , ) is a States of India, state in the south western region of India. It is the largest state in South India and sixth largest in India. It was Unif ...
,
Ajmer Ajmer is one of the major and oldest cities in the Indian state of Rajasthan Rajasthan ( ; literally, "Land of Kings") is a States and union territories of India, state in northern India. The state covers an area of or 10.4 percent of t ...
, and
Ahmedabad Ahmedabad ( Gujarati: Amdavad, ) is the largest city and former capital of the Indian state of Gujarat Gujarat (, ) is a state on the western coast of India with a coastline of – most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula – and ...
. Some Indian schools teach Urdu as a first language and have their own syllabi and exams. India's
Bollywood Hindi cinema, often known as Bollywood and formerly as ''Bombay cinema'', is the Indian Hindi-language film industry based in Mumbai (formerly Bombay). The term is a portmanteau of "Bombay" and "Cinema of the United States, Hollywood". The ...

Bollywood
industry frequently employs the use of Urdu – especially in songs. India has more than 3,000 Urdu publications, including 405 daily Urdu newspapers. Newspapers such as ''Neshat News Urdu'', ''Sahara Urdu'', ''Daily Salar'', ''Hindustan Express'', ''Daily Pasban'', ''Siasat Daily'', '' The Munsif Daily'' and ''Inqilab'' are published and distributed in Bangalore, Malegaon, Mysore, Hyderabad, and
Mumbai Mumbai (, ; also known as Bombay , List of renamed Indian cities and states#Maharashtra, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian States and union territories of India, state of Maharashtra. According to the United Nat ...

Mumbai
.


Elsewhere

Outside South Asia, it is spoken by large numbers of migrant South Asian workers in the major urban centres of the
Persian Gulf The Persian Gulf ( fa, خلیج فارس, translit=xalij-e fârs, lit=Gulf of Fars, ) is a mediterranean sea The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely en ...
countries. Urdu is also spoken by large numbers of immigrants and their children in the major urban centres of the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Germany, New Zealand, Norway, and Australia. Along with
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...

Arabic
, Urdu is among the immigrant languages with the most speakers in
Catalonia Catalonia (; ca, Catalunya ; Aranese, Aranese Occitan: ''Catalonha'' ; es, Cataluña ) is an Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Spain, designated as a ''nationalities and regions of Spain, nationality'' by its Statute o ...
.


Cultural identity


Colonial India

Religious and social atmospheres in early nineteenth century British India played a significant role in the development of the Urdu register.
Hindi Hindi ( Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST/ ISO 15919: ''Hindī''), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi ( Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST/ ISO 15919: ''Mānak Hindī''), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in ...

Hindi
became the distinct register spoken by those who sought to construct a Hindu identity in the face of colonial rule. As Hindi separated from Hindustani to create a distinct spiritual identity, Urdu was employed to create a definitive Islamic identity for the Muslim population in British India. Urdu's use was not confined only to northern India – it had been used as a literary medium for British Indian writers from the Bombay Presidency, Bengal, Orissa Province, and Tamil Nadu as well. As Urdu and Hindi became means of religious and social construction for Muslims and Hindus respectively, each register developed its own script. According to Islamic tradition,
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...
, the language spoken by the prophet
Muhammad Muhammad ibn AbdullahHe is referred to by many appellations, including Messenger of Allah, The Prophet Muhammad, Allah's Apostle, Last Prophet of Islam, and others; there are also many variant spellings of Muhammad, such as Mohamet, Mohammed, ...

Muhammad
and uttered in the revelation of the
Qur'an The Quran (, ; ar, القرآن, translit=al-Qurʼān, lit=the recitation, ), also romanized Qur'an or Koran, is the central religious text of Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether t ...

Qur'an
, holds spiritual significance and power. Because Urdu was intentioned as means of unification for Muslims in Northern India and later Pakistan, it adopted a modified Perso-Arabic script.


Pakistan

Urdu continued its role in developing a Muslim identity as the Islamic Republic of Pakistan was established with the intent to construct a homeland for Muslims of South Asia. Several languages and dialects spoken throughout the regions of Pakistan produced an imminent need for a uniting language. Urdu was chosen as a symbol of unity for the new state of Pakistan in 1947, because it had already served as a ''lingua franca'' among Muslims in north and northwest
British India The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the Indian subcontinent. Collectively, they have been called British India. In one ...
. Urdu is also seen as a repertory for the
cultural Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and Norm (social), norms found in human Society, societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, Social norm, customs, capabilities, and habits of the individuals in ...
and social heritage of Pakistan.Zia, Khaver (1999)
"A Survey of Standardisation in Urdu". 4th Symposium on Multilingual Information Processing, (MLIT-4)
,
Yangon , other_name = Rangoon , settlement_type = Metropolitan City in the background A metropolis () is a large city or conurbation which is a significant economic, political, and cultural center for a countr ...

Yangon
,
Myanmar Myanmar, ); UK pronunciations: US pronunciations incl. . Note: Wikipedia's IPA conventions require indicating /r/ even in British English although only some British English speakers pronounce r at the end of syllables. As John C. Wells, John ...
. CICC, Japan
While Urdu and Islam together played important roles in developing the national identity of Pakistan, disputes in the 1950s (particularly those in
East Pakistan East Pakistan was a Pakistani province established in 1955 by the One Unit Policy, renaming the province as such from East Bengal , common_name = East Bengal , status = Province of the Dominion of Pakistan , p1 = ...
, where
Bengali Bengali or Bengalee, or Bengalese may refer to: *something of, from, or related to Bengal, a large region in South Asia * Bengalis, an ethnic and linguistic group of the region * Bengali language, the language they speak ** Bengali alphabet, the wr ...
was the dominant language), challenged the idea of Urdu as a national symbol and its practicality as the ''lingua franca''. The significance of Urdu as a national symbol was downplayed by these disputes when English and Bengali were also accepted as official languages in the former East Pakistan (now
Bangladesh Bangladesh (; bn, বাংলাদেশ, ), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, eighth-most populous country in the world, with a populati ...
).


Official status


Pakistan

Urdu is the sole national, and one of the two official languages of Pakistan (along with English). It is spoken and understood throughout the country, whereas the state-by-state languages (languages spoken throughout various regions) are the provincial languages, although only 7.57% of Pakistanis speak Urdu as their first language. Its official status has meant that Urdu is understood and spoken widely throughout Pakistan as a second or third language. It is used in
education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, value (ethics), values, morals, beliefs, habits, and personal development. Educational methods include teaching, training, storytelling, discussion a ...
,
literature Literature broadly is any collection of Writing, written work, but it is also used more narrowly for writings specifically considered to be an art form, especially prose fiction, drama, and poetry. In recent centuries, the definition has expand ...
, office and court business, although in practice, English is used instead of Urdu in the higher echelons of government. Article 251(1) of the
Pakistani Constitution The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (Urdu: ), also known as the 1973 Constitution, is the supreme law of Pakistan. Drafted by the government of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, with additional assistance from the country's Pakistani politic ...
mandates that Urdu be implemented as the sole language of government, though English continues to be the most widely used language at the higher echelons of Pakistani government.


India

Urdu is also one of the officially recognised languages in
India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous country, the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest ...
and one of the five official languages of
Jammu and Kashmir Jammu is the winter capital of the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir. It is the headquarters and the largest city in Jammu district of the union territory. Lying on the banks of the river Tawi River ...
, one of the two official languages of
Telangana Telangana (, , ) is a States and union territories of India, state in India situated on the south-central stretch of the Indian subcontinent, Indian peninsula on the high Deccan Plateau. It is the List of states and union territories of India by ...

Telangana
and also has the status of ''"additional official language"'' in the
Indian states India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous country, the List of countries and dependencies by area, s ...
of
Uttar Pradesh Uttar Pradesh (; 'Northern Province') is a state in northern India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous ...

Uttar Pradesh
,
Bihar Bihar (; ) is a states and union territories of India, state in eastern India. It is the list of states and union territories of India by population, third-largest state by population and list of states and union territories of India by area, ...
,
Jharkhand Jharkhand (; ; meaning 'the land of forests') is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (n ...

Jharkhand
,
West Bengal West Bengal (, Bengali language, Bengali: ''Paschim Banga'' ) is a States and union territories of India, state in the eastern region of India along the Bay of Bengal. With over 91 million inhabitants, it is the List of states and union terri ...

West Bengal
and the national capital, New Delhi. In the former
Jammu and Kashmir Jammu is the winter capital of the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir. It is the headquarters and the largest city in Jammu district of the union territory. Lying on the banks of the river Tawi River ...
state, section 145 of the Kashmir Constitution stated: "The official language of the State shall be Urdu but the English language shall unless the Legislature by law otherwise provides, continue to be used for all the official purposes of the State for which it was being used immediately before the commencement of the Constitution." India established the governmental Bureau for the Promotion of Urdu in 1969, although the
Central Hindi Directorate The Central Hindi Directorate ( hi, केन्द्रीय हिन्दी निदेशालय), New Delhi New Delhi (, ''Naī Dillī'') is the Capital city, capital of India and an administrative district of NCT Delhi. New ...
was established earlier in 1960, and the promotion of Hindi is better funded and more advanced, while the status of Urdu has been undermined by the promotion of Hindi. Private Indian organisations such as the Anjuman-e-Tariqqi Urdu, Deeni Talimi Council and Urdu Mushafiz Dasta promote the use and preservation of Urdu, with the Anjuman successfully launching a campaign that reintroduced Urdu as an official language of Bihar in the 1970s.


Dialects

Urdu has a few recognised dialects, including
Dakhni Deccani (also known as Deccani Urdu and Deccani Hindi) or Dakni, Dakhni, Dakhini, Dakkhani and Dakkani (, ''dekanī'' or ''dakhanī''), is a variety of Hindustani spoken in the Deccan region of India India (Hindi: ), officially the Repu ...
,
Dhakaiya The Old Dhakaites ( bn, পুরান ঢাকাইয়া, Puran Dhakaiya) are an Indo-Aryan peoples, Indo-Aryan ethnocultural group viewed as the ''original'' inhabitants of Old Dhaka, Dhaka. They are sometimes referred to as simply Dhak ...
,
Rekhta ''Rekhta'' ( ur, ; hi, रेख़्ता ) was the Hindustani language Hindustani may refer to: * something of, from, or related to Hindustan (another name of India) * Hindustani language, an Indo-Aryan language, whose two official norms ...
, and Modern Vernacular Urdu (based on the
Khariboli The Kauravi ( hi, कौरवी, ur, ), also known as Khariboli or the Delhi dialect, is any of several Central Indo-Aryan dialects spoken in and around Delhi. It is believed to have initially developed contemporaneously with the neighbour ...
dialect of the Delhi region).
Dakhni Deccani (also known as Deccani Urdu and Deccani Hindi) or Dakni, Dakhni, Dakhini, Dakkhani and Dakkani (, ''dekanī'' or ''dakhanī''), is a variety of Hindustani spoken in the Deccan region of India India (Hindi: ), officially the Repu ...
(also known as Dakani, Deccani, Desia, Mirgan) is spoken in Deccan region of southern India. It is distinct by its mixture of vocabulary from
Marathi Marathi may refer to: *Marathi people, an Indo-Aryan ethno-linguistic group of Maharashtra, India *Marathi language, the Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Marathi people *Palaiosouda, also known as Marathi, a small island in Greece See also

...
and Konkani, as well as some vocabulary from Arabic,
Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated with the Iranian peoples ** Persian language, an Iranian ...
and Chagatai language, Chagatai that are not found in the standard dialect of Urdu. Dakhini is widely spoken in all parts of
Maharashtra Maharashtra (; , abbr. MH or Maha, is a states and union territories of India, state in the western and central peninsular region of India occupying a substantial portion of the Deccan Plateau. Maharashtra is the List of states and union territo ...

Maharashtra
,
Telangana Telangana (, , ) is a States and union territories of India, state in India situated on the south-central stretch of the Indian subcontinent, Indian peninsula on the high Deccan Plateau. It is the List of states and union territories of India by ...

Telangana
,
Andhra Pradesh Andhra Pradesh (English: ; Telugu: ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspape ...
and
Karnataka Karnataka (ISO 15919, ISO: , ) is a States of India, state in the south western region of India. It is the largest state in South India and sixth largest in India. It was Unification of Karnataka, formed on 1 November 1956, with the passage of ...

Karnataka
. Urdu is read and written as in other parts of India. A number of daily newspapers and several monthly magazines in Urdu are published in these states. Dhakaiya Urdu is a dialect native to the city of Old Dhaka in
Bangladesh Bangladesh (; bn, বাংলাদেশ, ), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, eighth-most populous country in the world, with a populati ...
, dating back to the Mughal era. However, its popularity, even amongst native speakers, has been gradually declining since the Bengali Language Movement in the 20th century. It is not officially recognised by the Government of Bangladesh. The Urdu spoken by Stranded Pakistanis in Bangladesh is different from this dialect.


Code switching

Many bilingual or multi-lingual Urdu speakers, being familiar with both Urdu and English, display code-switching (referred to as "Urdish") in certain localities and between certain social groups. On 14 August 2015, the Government of Pakistan launched the ''Ilm'' Pakistan movement, with a uniform curriculum in Urdish. Ahsan Iqbal, Federal Minister of Pakistan, said "Now the government is working on a new curriculum to provide a new medium to the students which will be the combination of both Urdu and English and will name it Urdish."


Comparison with Modern Standard Hindi

Standard Urdu is often Hindi#Standard Hindi and Urdu, compared with Standard Hindi. Both Urdu and Hindi, which are considered standard registers of the same language,
Hindustani Hindustani may refer to: * something of, from, or related to Hindustan (another name of India) * Hindustani language, an Indo-Aryan language, whose two official norms are Hindi and Urdu * Fiji Hindi, a variety of Eastern Hindi spoken in Fiji, and i ...
(or Hindi-Urdu), share a core vocabulary and Hindustani grammar, grammar. Apart from religious associations, the differences are largely restricted to the standard language, standard forms: Standard Urdu is conventionally written in the Nastaʿlīq script, Nastaliq style of the Persian alphabet and relies heavily on Persian and Arabic as a source for technical and literary vocabulary, whereas Standard Hindi is conventionally written in Devanagari, Devanāgarī and draws on
Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language of South Asia belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It arose in South Asia ...

Sanskrit
. However, both share a core vocabulary of native
Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language of South Asia belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It arose in South Asia ...

Sanskrit
and
Prakrit The Prakrits (; Early Brahmi sa, 𑀧𑁆𑀭𑀸𑀓𑀾𑀢, ''prākṛta''; Devanagari sa, प्राकृत, ; psu, 𑀧𑀸𑀉𑀤, ; pka, ; Kannada: ''pāgada'') are a group of vernacular Middle Indo-Aryan languages used in I ...
derived words and significant amount of
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...
and Persian loanwords, with a consensus of linguists considering them to be two standardised forms of the same language and consider the differences to be sociolinguistics, sociolinguistic; a few classify them separately. The two languages are often considered to be a single language (Hindustani or Hindi-Urdu) on a dialect continuum ranging from Persianised to Sanskritised vocabulary. Old Urdu dictionaries also contain most of the Sanskrit words now present in Hindi. Mutual intelligibility decreases in literary and specialised contexts that rely on academic or technical vocabulary. In a longer conversation, differences in formal vocabulary and pronunciation of some Urdu phonemes are noticeable, though many native Hindi speakers also pronounce these phonemes. At a phonological level, speakers of both languages are frequently aware of the Perso-Arabic or Sanskrit origins of their word choice, which affects the pronunciation of those words. Urdu speakers will often insert vowels to break up consonant clusters found in words of Sanskritic origin, but will pronounce them correctly in Arabic and Persian loanwords. As a result of religious nationalism since the Partition of India, partition of British India and continued communal tensions, native speakers of both Hindi and Urdu frequently assert that they are distinct languages. The Hindustani grammar, grammar of Hindi and Urdu is shared, though formal Urdu makes more use of the Persian "-e-" Ezāfe, ''izafat'' grammatical construct (as in ''Hammam-e-Qadimi'', or ''Nishan-e-Haider'') than does Hindi. Urdu more frequently uses personal pronouns with the "ko" form (as in "''mujh-ko''"), while Hindi more frequently uses the contracted form (as in "''mujhe''").


Urdu speakers by country

The following table shows the number of Urdu speakers in some countries.


Phonology


Consonants

; Notes * Marginal and non-universal phonemes are in parentheses. * is Voiced velar fricative, post-velar.


Vowels

; Note * Marginal and non-universal vowels are in parentheses.


Vocabulary

Syed Ahmed Dehlavi, a 19th-century lexicographer who compiled the ''Farhang e Asifiya, Farhang-e-Asifiya'' Urdu dictionary, estimated that 75% of Urdu words have their etymological roots in
Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language of South Asia belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It arose in South Asia ...

Sanskrit
and
Prakrit The Prakrits (; Early Brahmi sa, 𑀧𑁆𑀭𑀸𑀓𑀾𑀢, ''prākṛta''; Devanagari sa, प्राकृत, ; psu, 𑀧𑀸𑀉𑀤, ; pka, ; Kannada: ''pāgada'') are a group of vernacular Middle Indo-Aryan languages used in I ...
, and approximately 99% of Urdu verbs have their roots in Sanskrit and Prakrit. Urdu has borrowed words from Persian and to a lesser extent,
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...
through Persian, to the extent of about 25% to 30% of Urdu's vocabulary. A table illustrated by the linguist Afroz Taj of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill likewise illustrates the amount of Persian loanwords to native Sanskrit-derived words in literary Urdu as comprising a 1:3 ratio. The "trend towards Persianisation" started in the 18th century by the Delhi school of Urdu poets, though other writers, such as Meeraji, wrote in a Sanskritised form of the language. There has been a move towards hyper Persianisation in Pakistan since 1947, which has been adopted by much of the country's writers; as such, some Urdu texts can be composed of 70% Perso-Arabic loanwords just as some Persian texts can have 70% Arabic vocabulary. Some Pakistani Urdu speakers have incorporated Hindi vocabulary into their speech as a result of exposure to Indian entertainment. In India, Urdu has not diverged from Hindi as much as it has in Pakistan. Most borrowed words in Urdu are nouns and adjectives. Many of the words of Arabic origin have been adopted through Persian, and have different pronunciations and nuances of meaning and usage than they do in Arabic. There are also a smaller number of borrowings from Portuguese language, Portuguese. Some examples for Portuguese words borrowed into Urdu are ''cabi'' ("chave": key), ''girja'' ("igreja": church), ''kamra'' ("cámara": room), ''qamīz'' ("camisa": shirt). Although the word ''wikiwikiweb:Urdu, Urdu'' is derived from the
Turkic Turkic may refer to: * anything related to the country of Turkey * Turkic languages, a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages ** Turkic alphabets (disambiguation) ** Turkish language, the most widely spoken Turkic language * T ...

Turkic
word ''wikiwikiweb:ordu, ordu'' (army) or Orda (organization), orda, from which English ''wikiwikiweb:horde, horde'' is also derived, Turkic borrowings in Urdu are minimal and Urdu is also not Genetic relationship (linguistics), genetically related to the Turkic languages. Urdu words originating from Chagatai language, Chagatai and Arabic were borrowed through Persian and hence are Persianised versions of the original words. For instance, the Arabic ''ta' marbuta'' (  ) changes to ''He (letter), he'' (  ) or ''Taw (letter), te'' (  ).An example can be seen in the word "need" in Urdu. Urdu uses the
Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated with the Iranian peoples ** Persian language, an Iranian ...
version ضرورت rather than the original Arabic ضرورة. See
John T. Platts "A dictionary of Urdu, classical Hindi, and English" (1884) Page 749
Urdu and Hindi use Persian pronunciation in their loanwords, rather than that of Arabic– for instance rather than pronouncing ض as the ''wikiwikiweb:emphatic consonant, emphatic consonant'' "ḍ", the original sound in ''Arabic phonology, Arabic'', Urdu uses the Persian pronunciation "z". See
John T. Platts "A dictionary of Urdu, classical Hindi, and English" (1884) Page 748
/ref> Nevertheless, contrary to popular belief, Urdu did not borrow from the Turkish language, but from Chagatai language, Chagatai, a Turkic language from Central Asia. Urdu and Turkish both borrowed from Arabic and Persian, hence the similarity in pronunciation of many Urdu and Turkish words.


Formality

Urdu in its less formalised
register A register is an authoritative list of one kind of information. Register or registration may refer to: Arts entertainment, and media Music * Register (music), the relative "height" or range of a note, melody, part, instrument, etc. * ''Regis ...
has been referred to as a ''Rekhta, '' (, ), meaning "rough mixture". The more formal register of Urdu is sometimes referred to as ( ), the "Language of the Exalted Camp", referring to the Imperial army or in approximate local translation ''Lashkari Zabān'' ( []) or simply just ''Lashkari''. The etymology of the word used in Urdu, for the most part, decides how polite or refined one's speech is. For example, Urdu speakers would distinguish between ''pānī'' and ''āb'', both meaning "water": the former is used colloquially and has older
Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language of South Asia belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It arose in South Asia ...

Sanskrit
origins, whereas the latter is used formally and poetically, being of
Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated with the Iranian peoples ** Persian language, an Iranian ...
origin. If a word is of Persian or Arabic origin, the level of speech is considered to be more formal and grander. Similarly, if Persian or Arabic grammar constructs, such as the izafat, are used in Urdu, the level of speech is also considered more formal and grander. If a word is inherited from
Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language of South Asia belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It arose in South Asia ...

Sanskrit
, the level of speech is considered more colloquial and personal.


Writing system

Urdu is written right-to left in an extension of the Persian alphabet, which is itself an extension of the Arabic alphabet. Urdu is associated with the Nastaʿlīq script, Nastaʿlīq style of Persian calligraphy, whereas Arabic is generally written in the ''Naskh (script), Naskh'' or ''Ruq`ah script, Ruq'ah'' styles. ''Nasta’liq'' is notoriously difficult to typeset, so Urdu newspapers were hand-written by masters of calligraphy, known as ''kātib'' or ''khush-nawīs'', until the late 1980s. One handwritten Urdu newspaper, ''The Musalman'', is still published daily in Chennai. A highly Persianised and technical form of Urdu was the ''lingua franca'' of the law courts of the British administration in Bengal and the North-West Provinces & Oudh. Until the late 19th century, all proceedings and court transactions in this register of Urdu were written officially in the Persian script. In 1880, Ashley Eden, Sir Ashley Eden, the Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal in colonial India abolished the use of the Persian alphabet in the law courts of Bengal and ordered the exclusive use of Kaithi, a popular script used for both Urdu and Hindi; in the Bihar Province, the court language was Urdu written in the Kaithi script. Kaithi's association with Urdu and Hindi was ultimately eliminated by the political contest between these languages and their scripts, in which the Persian script was definitively linked to Urdu. More recently in India, Urdu speakers have adopted
Devanagari Devanagari ( ; , , Sanskrit pronunciation: ), also called Nagari (''Nāgarī'', ),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, , page 83 is a left-to-right abugida . ''May Śiva protect those who take ...
for publishing Urdu periodicals and have innovated new strategies to mark Urdu in Devanagari as distinct from Hindi in Devanagari. Such publishers have introduced new orthographic features into Devanagari for the purpose of representing the Perso-Arabic etymology of Urdu words. One example is the use of अ (Devanagari ''a'') with vowel signs to mimic contexts of (''Ayin, ‘ain''), in violation of Hindi orthographic rules. For Urdu publishers, the use of Devanagari gives them a greater audience, whereas the orthographic changes help them preserve a distinct identity of Urdu. Some poets from Bengal, namely Qazi Nazrul Islam, have historically used the Bengali script to write Urdu poetry like ''Prem Nagar Ka Thikana Karle'' and ''Mera Beti Ki Khela'', as well as bilingual Bengali-Urdu poems like ''Alga Koro Go Khõpar Bãdhon'', ''Juboker Chholona'' and ''Mera Dil Betab Kiya''. Dhakaiya Urdu is a colloquial non-standard dialect of Urdu which was typically not written. However, organisations seeking to preserve the dialect have begun transcribing the dialect in the Bengali script.


See also

* List of Urdu-language poets * List of Urdu-language writers * National Translation Mission (NTM) * Persian and Urdu * States of India by Urdu speakers * Urdu in the United Kingdom * Uddin and Begum Hindustani Romanisation * Urdu Digest * Urdu in Aurangabad * Urdu Informatics * Urdu keyboard * Glossary of the British Raj


Notes


References


Further reading

* the University of Michigan * the University of Michigan * Oxford University * Oxford University * the New York Public Library * Oxford University * Alam, Muzaffar. 1998. "The Pursuit of Persian: Language in Mughal Politics." In ''Modern Asian Studies'', vol. 32, no. 2. (May 1998), pp. 317–349. * Asher, R. E. (Ed.). 1994. ''The Encyclopedia of language and linguistics''. Oxford: Pergamon Press. . * Azad, Muhammad Husain. 2001 [1907]. ''Aab-e hayat'' (Lahore: Naval Kishor Gais Printing Works) 1907 [in Urdu]; (Delhi: Oxford University Press) 2001. [In English translation] * Azim, Anwar. 1975. Urdu a victim of cultural genocide. In Z. Imam (Ed.), ''Muslims in India'' (p. 259). * Bhatia, Tej K. 1996. ''Colloquial Hindi: The Complete Course for Beginners''. London, UK & New York, NY: Routledge. (Book), 0415110882 (Cassettes), 0415110890 (Book & Cassette Course) * Bhatia, Tej K. and Koul Ashok. 2000. "Colloquial Urdu: The Complete Course for Beginners." London: Routledge. (Book); (cassette); (book and casseettes course) * Chatterji, Suniti K. 1960. ''Indo-Aryan and Hindi'' (rev. 2nd ed.). Calcutta: Firma K.L. Mukhopadhyay. * Dua, Hans R. 1992. "Hindi-Urdu as a pluricentric language". In M. G. Clyne (Ed.), ''Pluricentric languages: Differing norms in different nations''. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. . * Dua, Hans R. 1994a. Hindustani. In Asher, 1994; pp. 1554. * Dua, Hans R. 1994b. Urdu. In Asher, 1994; pp. 4863–4864. * Durrani, Attash, Dr. 2008. '' Pakistani Urdu''.Islamabad: National Language Authority, Pakistan. * * Hassan, Nazir and Omkar N. Koul 1980. ''Urdu Phonetic Reader''. Mysore: Central Institute of Indian Languages. * * Kelkar, A. R. 1968. ''Studies in Hindi-Urdu: Introduction and word phonology''. Poona: Deccan College. * Khan, M. H. 1969. Urdu. In T. A. Sebeok (Ed.), ''Current trends in linguistics'' (Vol. 5). The Hague: Mouton. * * * * * * Ohala, M. 1972. Topics in Hindi-Urdu phonology. (PhD dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles).
"A Desertful of Roses"
a site about Ghalib's Urdu ghazals by Dr. Frances W. Pritchett, Professor of Modern Indic Languages at Columbia University, New York, NY, USA. * * The Comparative study of Urdu and Khowar. Badshah Munir Bukhari National Language Authority Pakistan 2003. * Rai, Amrit. 1984. ''A house divided: The origin and development of Hindi-Hindustani''. Delhi: Oxford University Press. . * Snell, Rupert ''Teach yourself Hindi: A complete guide for beginners.'' Lincolnwood, IL: NTC * * Ramkrishna Mukherjee (2018). Understanding Social Dynamics in South Asia: Essays in Memory of Ramkrishna Mukherjee. Springer. pp. 221–. . * Economic and Political Weekly. Sameeksha Trust. 1996.


External links

*
Directory of Urdu websites

Type in Urdu

Urdu Scholarship-Maldonado Garcia

Urdu Digital Library

ترتیب وڈیزائننگ ایم پی خاؿ اردولشکری زبان


by Adnaan Mahmood

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