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Tulips (''Tulipa'') are a
genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), circumscribing) and classifying gr ...
of spring-blooming
perennial A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the Kingdom (biology), kingdom Plantae. Historically, the plant kingdom encompassed all living things that were not animals, and incl ...
herbaceous Herbaceous plants are vascular plants that have no persistent wood, woody stems above ground, including many perennial plant, perennials, and nearly all Annual plant, annuals and Biennial plant, biennials. Definitions of "herb" and "herbaceous" ...
bulb In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the An ...

bulb
iferous
geophytes A storage organ is a part of a plant Plants are mainly multicellular organisms, predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy into chemical ene ...
(having bulbs as storage organs). The flowers are usually large, showy and brightly colored, generally red, pink, yellow, or white (usually in warm colors). They often have a different colored blotch at the base of the
tepals A tepal is one of the outer parts of a flower A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproduction, reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms). The biological ...
(petals and sepals, collectively), internally. Because of a degree of variability within the populations, and a long history of cultivation, classification has been complex and controversial. The tulip is a member of the lily
family In human society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same spatial or social territory, typically subject to the same Politic ...
,
Liliaceae The lily family In human society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same spatial or social territory, typically subject ...

Liliaceae
, along with 14 other genera, where it is most closely related to '' Amana'', ''
Erythronium ''Erythronium'', the fawn lily, trout lily, dog's-tooth violet or adder's tongue, is a genus of Eurasia Eurasia () is the largest continental area on Earth, comprising all of Europe and Asia. Primarily in the Northern Hemisphere, Northern ...
'' and ''
Gagea ''Gagea'' is a large genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), ci ...
'' in the tribe
Lilieae The Lilieae are a monophyletic tribe of monocotyledon perennial A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant that lives more than two years. The term ('' per-'' + '' -ennial'', "through the years") is often used to differentiate a plan ...
. There are about 75
species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individu ...

species
, and these are divided among four
subgenera In , a subgenus (plural: subgenera) is a directly below . In the , a subgeneric name can be used independently or included in a , in parentheses, placed between the name and the : e.g. the of the Indo-Pacific, ''Cypraea'' (''Cypraea'') ''tigri ...
. The name "tulip" is thought to be derived from a
Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated with the Iranian peoples ** Persian language, an Iranian ...
word for
turban A turban (from Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated with the Iranian peoples ** Pers ...

turban
, which it may have been thought to resemble by those who discovered it. Tulips originally were found in a band stretching from Southern Europe to Central Asia, but since the seventeenth century have become widely
naturalised Naturalization (or naturalisation) is the legal act or process by which a non-citizen of a country may acquire citizenship Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the law of a country (and/or local jurisdiction) of belongi ...
and cultivated (''see map''). In their natural state they are adapted to
steppes File:Steppe of western Kazakhstan in the early spring.jpg, Steppe in Kazakhstan In physical geography, a steppe () is an ecoregion characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes. Steppe biomes may ...
and
mountainous A mountain is an elevated portion of the Earth's crust, generally with steep sides that show significant exposed bedrock. A mountain differs from a plateau in having a limited summit area, and is larger than a hill, typically rising at lea ...

mountainous
areas with
temperate climates In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and planets. The first person to use ...
. Flowering in the spring, they become dormant in the summer once the flowers and leaves die back, emerging above ground as a shoot from the underground bulb in early spring. Growing wild over much of the
Near East The Near East ( ar, الشرق الأدنى, al-Sharq al-'Adnā, he, המזרח הקרוב, arc, ܕܢܚܐ ܩܪܒ, fa, خاور نزدیک, Xāvar-e nazdik, tr, Yakın Doğu) is a geographical term which roughly encompasses a transcontinental ...
and
Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia Asia () is 's largest and most populous , located primarily in the and . It shares the continental of with the continent of and the continental landmass of with both Europe and . Asia covers an area ...

Central Asia
, tulips were cultivated in Constantinople as early as 1055. By the 15th century, tulips were among the most prized flowers; becoming the symbol of the Ottomans. While tulips had probably been cultivated in Persia from the tenth century, they did not come to the attention of the West until the sixteenth century, when Western diplomats to the
Ottoman Ottoman is the Turkish spelling of the Arabic masculine given name Uthman (name), Uthman (Arabic: عُثْمان ''‘uthmān''). It may refer to: Governments and dynasties * Ottoman Caliphate, an Islamic caliphate from 1517 to 1924 * Ottoman Empi ...
court observed and reported on them. They were rapidly introduced into Europe and became a frenzied commodity during
Tulip mania Tulip mania ( nl, tulpenmanie) was a period during the Dutch Golden Age The Dutch Golden Age ( nl, Gouden Eeuw ) was a period in the history of the Netherlands, roughly spanning the era from 1588 (the birth of the Dutch Republic) to 1672 ...
. Tulips were frequently depicted in
Dutch Golden Age painting Dutch Golden Age painting is the painting of the Dutch Golden Age The Dutch Golden Age ( nl, Gouden Eeuw ) was a period in the history of the Netherlands, roughly spanning the era from 1588 (the birth of the Dutch Republic) to 1672 (the Ram ...
s, and have become associated with the Netherlands, the major producer for world markets, ever since. In the seventeenth century Netherlands, during the time of the Tulip mania, an infection of tulip bulbs by the
tulip breaking virus ''Tulip breaking virus'' is one of five plant virus Plant viruses are virus A virus is a submicroscopic infectious agent that Viral replication, replicates only inside the living Cell (biology), cells of an organism. Viruses infect ...
created
variegated '' 'Panascè', a bicolor (yellow-green) common fig cultivar. This Italian cultivar is a '' chimera''. Variegation is the appearance of differently coloured zones in the leaves, and sometimes the Plant stem, stems, of plants. Variegated leaves ...
patterns in the tulip flowers that were much admired and valued. While truly broken tulips do not exist anymore, the closest available specimens today are part of the group known as the Rembrandts – so named because
Rembrandt Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (, ; 15 July 1606 – 4 October 1669), usually simply known as Rembrandt, was a Dutch Golden Age painter, printmaker and Drawing, draughtsman. An innovative and prolific Old Masters, master in three art medi ...

Rembrandt
painted some of the most admired breaks of his time. Breeding programs have produced thousands of
hybrid Hybrid may refer to: Economics and finance * Hybrid market, a system allowing stock trades to be completed either electronically or manually * Hybrid security, a type of economic instrument Technology Electrical power generation * Hybrid generato ...
and
cultivar A cultivar is a type of plant that people have bred for desired traits, which are reproduced in each new generation by a method such as grafting, tissue culture or carefully controlled seed production. Most cultivars arise from purposeful human ...
s in addition to the original species (known in
horticulture Horticulture is the art of cultivating plants in gardens to produce food and medicinal ingredients, or for comfort and ornamental purposes. Horticulturists are agriculturists who grow flowers, fruits and nuts, vegetables and herbs, as well as or ...
as botanical tulips). They are popular throughout the world, both as ornamental garden plants and as
cut flowers Cut flowers are flower A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom Cherry blossoms in Paris in full bloom. In botany, blossoms are the flowers of stone fruit fruit tree, trees (genus ''Prunus'') and of some other plants with a similar ...
.


Description

''Tulipa'' (tulips) is a genus of spring-blooming
perennial A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the Kingdom (biology), kingdom Plantae. Historically, the plant kingdom encompassed all living things that were not animals, and incl ...
herbaceous Herbaceous plants are vascular plants that have no persistent wood, woody stems above ground, including many perennial plant, perennials, and nearly all Annual plant, annuals and Biennial plant, biennials. Definitions of "herb" and "herbaceous" ...
bulb In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the An ...

bulb
iferous
geophytes A storage organ is a part of a plant Plants are mainly multicellular organisms, predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy into chemical ene ...
, dying back after flowering to an underground storage bulb. Depending on the species, tulip plants can be between high.
Flowers A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom Cherry blossoms in Paris in full bloom. In botany, blossoms are the flowers of stone fruit fruit tree, trees (genus ''Prunus'') and of some other plants with a similar appearance that flower prof ...

Flowers
: The tulip's flowers are usually large and are
actinomorphic Floral symmetry describes whether, and how, a flower A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproduction, reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms). T ...

actinomorphic
(radially symmetric) and
hermaphrodite In reproductive biology Reproductive biology includes both sexual and asexual reproduction. Reproductive biology includes a wide number of fields: * Reproductive systems * Endocrinology Endocrinology (from '' endocrine'' + '' -ology'') is a b ...

hermaphrodite
(contain both male (
androecium The stamen (plural ''stamina'' or ''stamens'') is the pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower. Collectively the stamens form the androecium., p. 10 Morphology and terminology A stamen typically consists of a stalk called the filament and ...

androecium
) and female (
gynoecium Gynoecium (; ) is most commonly used as a collective term for the parts of a flower A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproduction, reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, ...

gynoecium
) characteristics), generally erect, or more rarely
pendulous This glossary of botanical terms is a list of definitions of terms and concepts relevant to botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a ...
, and are arranged more usually as a single terminal flower, or when pluriflor as two to three (e.g. ''''), but up to four, flowers on the end of a floriferous
stem Stem or STEM may refer to: Biology * Plant stem, the aboveground structures that have vascular tissue and that support leaves and flowers ** Stipe (botany), a stalk that supports some other structure ** Stipe (mycology), the stem supporting the c ...

stem
( scape), which is single arising from amongst the basal leaf rosette. In structure, the flower is generally cup or star shaped. As with other members of
Liliaceae The lily family In human society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same spatial or social territory, typically subject ...

Liliaceae
the
perianth The perianth (perigonium, perigon or perigone in monocots) is the non-reproductive part of the flower, and structure that forms an envelope surrounding the sexual organs, consisting of the calyx (botany), calyx (sepals) and the corolla (flower), ...
is undifferentiated ( perigonium) and biseriate (two whorled), formed from six free (i.e. apotepalous)
caducous Dehiscence is the splitting of a mature plant structure along a built-in line of weakness in order to release its contents. This is common among fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant ...
tepals A tepal is one of the outer parts of a flower A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproduction, reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms). The biological ...
arranged into two separate whorls of three parts (
trimerousMerosity (from the greek "méros," which means "having parts") refers to the number of component parts in a distinct whorl of a plant structure. It is most commonly used in the context of flowers where it refers to the number of sepals in a whorl o ...
) each. The two whorls represent three
petal Petals are modified leaves A leaf (plural leaves) is the principal lateral appendage of the vascular plant plant stem, stem, usually borne above ground and specialized for photosynthesis. The leaves, stem, flower and fruit together fo ...

petal
s and three
sepals upright=1.4, Diagram showing the parts of a mature flower. In this example the perianth is separated into a calyx (sepals) and corolla (petals) A sepal ( or ) is a part of the flower A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the ...
, but are termed
tepal A tepal is one of the outer parts of a flower A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproduction, reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms). The biological ...
s because they are nearly identical. The tepals are usually petaloid (petal like), being brightly coloured, but each whorl may be different, or have different coloured blotches at their bases, forming darker colouration on the interior surface. The inner petals have a small, delicate cleft at the top, while the sturdier outer ones form uninterrupted ovals.
Androecium The stamen (plural ''stamina'' or ''stamens'') is the pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower. Collectively the stamens form the androecium., p. 10 Morphology and terminology A stamen typically consists of a stalk called the filament and ...

Androecium
: The flowers have six distinct, basifixed introrse
stamen The stamen (plural The plural (sometimes abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of letters, or words taken from the full ve ...
s arranged in two whorls of three, which vary in length and may be glabrous or hairy. The filaments are shorter than the tepals and dilated towards their base.
Gynoecium Gynoecium (; ) is most commonly used as a collective term for the parts of a flower A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproduction, reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, ...

Gynoecium
: The style is short or absent and each
stigma Stigma or plural stigmata, stigmas may refer to: * Social stigma, the disapproval of a person based on physical or behavioral characteristics that distinguish them from others Symbolism * Stigmata, bodily marks or wounds resembling the crucifix ...
has three distinct lobes, and the
ovaries The ovary is an organ found in the female reproductive system 300px, 1. Labia_majora.html"_;"title="Vulva: 2. Labia_majora">Vulva: 2. Labia_majora; 3. Labia_minora; 4. Vulval_vestibule.html" "title="Labia_minora.html ...
are superior, with three chambers.
Fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the ...

Fruit
: The tulip's fruit is a
globose of a sphere A sphere (from Greek language, Greek —, "globe, ball") is a Geometry, geometrical object in solid geometry, three-dimensional space that is the surface of a Ball (mathematics), ball (viz., analogous to the circular objects in two d ...
or
ellipsoid An ellipsoid is a surface that may be obtained from a sphere A sphere (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country loca ...

ellipsoid
capsule Capsule may refer to: Anatomy * Articular capsule (joint capsule), an envelope surrounding a synovial joint * Bowman's capsule (glomerular capsule), a sac surrounding a glomerulus in a mammalian kidney * Glisson's capsule, a fibrous layer covering ...
with a leathery covering and an ellipsoid to globe shape. Each capsule contains numerous flat, disc-shaped
seeds A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Records, Warner Bros. The band's first double album, it was released to generally positi ...

seeds
in two rows per chamber. These light to dark brown seeds have very thin seed coats and
endosperm The endosperm is a tissue produced inside the seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Records, Warner Bros. The band's fir ...
that does not normally fill the entire seed.
Leaves A leaf (plural leaves) is the principal lateral appendage of the vascular plant plant stem, stem, usually borne above ground and specialized for photosynthesis. The leaves, stem, flower and fruit together form the shoot system. Leaves are ...

Leaves
: Tulip stems have few leaves. Larger species tend to have multiple leaves. Plants typically have two to six leaves, some species up to 12. The tulip's leaf is
cauline A leaf (plural leaves) is the principal lateral appendage of the vascular plant plant stem, stem, usually borne above ground and specialized for photosynthesis. The leaves and stem together form the shoot. Leaves are collectively referred ...
(born on a stem), strap-shaped, with a waxy coating, and the leaves are alternate (alternately arranged on the stem), diminishing in size the further up the stem. These fleshy blades are often bluish-green in colour.The bulbs are truncated basally and elongated towards the apex. They are covered by a protective tunic (tunicate) which can be
glabrous Glabrousness refers to hairless skin. Glabrousness may also refer to: * Glabrousness (botany), smooth parts of plants * Glabrousness (entomology), parts of insects without hair or scales See also

* {{disambiguation ...
or hairy inside.


Colours

The "Semper Augustus" was the most expensive tulip during the 17th-century
tulip mania Tulip mania ( nl, tulpenmanie) was a period during the Dutch Golden Age The Dutch Golden Age ( nl, Gouden Eeuw ) was a period in the history of the Netherlands, roughly spanning the era from 1588 (the birth of the Dutch Republic) to 1672 ...
. “The colour is white, with Carmine on a blue base, and with an unbroken flame right to the top” – wrote Nicolas van Wassenaer in 1624 after seeing the tulip in the garden of one Dr Adriaen Pauw, a director of the new
East India Company The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC), East India Trading Company (EITC), the English East India Company or (after Acts of Union 1707, 1707) the British East India Company, and informally known a ...
. With limited specimens in existence at the time and most owned by Pauw, his refusal to sell any flowers, despite wildly escalating offers, is believed by some to have sparked the mania. Tulip flowers come in a wide variety of colours, except pure blue (several tulips with "blue" in the name have a faint violet hue), and have absent
nectaries Nectar is a sugar Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrate is a disaccharide found in animal milk. It consists of a molecule of D-galactose and a molecule of D-glucose bonded by beta-1-4 glycosidic linkag ...
. Tulip flowers are generally bereft of scent and are the coolest of floral characters. The Dutch regarded this lack of scent as a virtue, as it demonstrates the flower's chasteness. While tulips can be bred to display a wide variety of colours, black tulips have historically been difficult to achieve. The Queen of the Night tulip is as close to black as a flower gets, though it is, in fact, a dark and glossy maroonish purple - nonetheless, an effect prized by the Dutch. The first truly black tulip was bred in 1986 by a Dutch flower grower in Bovenkarspel, Netherlands. The specimen was created by cross-breeding two deep purple tulips, the Queen of the Night and Wienerwald tulips.


Phytochemistry

Tulipanin Tulipanin is an anthocyanin. It is the 3-rutinoside of delphinidin. It can be found in ''Alstroemeria spp.'', ''Berberis spp.'', ''Cissus sicyoides'', ''Hymenocallis spp.'', ''Manihot utilissima'', ''Meliosma tenuis'', ''Musa acuminata'', ''Ophiopog ...

Tulipanin
is an
anthocyanin Anthocyanins (also anthocyans; from Ancient Greek, Greek: (''anthos'') "flower" and / ''kyaneos/kyanous'' "dark blue") are solubility, water-soluble vacuole, vacuolar pigments that, depending on their pH, may appear red, purple, blue or black. F ...

anthocyanin
found in tulips. It is the 3-rutinoside of
delphinidin Delphinidin (also delphinidine) is an anthocyanidin 200px, Molecule in 3D of the anthocyanidin cyanidin Anthocyanidins are common plant pigments, the sugar-free counterparts of anthocyanins. They are based on the flavylium cation, an oxonium ion ...

delphinidin
. The chemical compounds named tuliposides and tulipalins can also be found in tulips and are responsible for allergies. Tulipalin A, or α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone, is a common
allergen An allergen is a type of antigen In immunology Immunology is a branch of biology that covers the study of immune systems in all organisms. Immunology charts, measures, and contextualizes the Physiology, physiological functioning of the im ...
, generated by hydrolysis of the glucoside tuliposide A. It induces a
dermatitis Dermatitis is inflammation of the Human skin, skin, typically characterized by itchiness, erythema, redness and a rash. In cases of short duration, there may be small blisters, while in long-term cases the skin may become lichenification, thick ...

dermatitis
that is mostly occupational and affects tulip bulb sorters and
florists Floristry is the production, commerce, and trade in flowers A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproduction, reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angi ...
who cut the stems and leaves. Tulipanin A and B are toxic to horses, cats and dogs. The colour of a tulip is formed from two pigments working in concert; a base colour that is always yellow or white, and a second laid-on anthocyanin colour. The mix of these two hues determines the visible unitary colour. The breaking of flowers occurs when a virus suppresses anthocyanin and the base colour is exposed as a streak.


Taxonomy

''Tulipa'' is a
genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), circumscribing) and classifying gr ...
of the lily family,
Liliaceae The lily family In human society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same spatial or social territory, typically subject ...

Liliaceae
, once one of the largest families of
monocots Monocotyledons (), commonly referred to as monocots, (Lilianae ''sensu'' Chase & Reveal) are grass and grass-like flowering plants (angiosperms), the seeds of which typically contain only one Embryo#Plant embryos, embryonic leaf, or cotyledon. The ...

monocots
, but which
molecular phylogenetics Molecular phylogenetics () is the branch of phylogeny A phylogenetic tree (also phylogeny or evolutionary tree Felsenstein J. (2004). ''Inferring Phylogenies'' Sinauer Associates: Sunderland, MA.) is a branching diagram A diagram is a symb ...
has reduced to a
monophyletic In cladistics for a group of organisms, monophyly is the condition of being a clade—that is, a group of taxa composed only of a common ancestor (or more precisely an ancestral population) and all of its lineal descendants. Monophyletic grou ...

monophyletic
grouping with only 15 genera. Within Liliaceae, ''Tulipa'' is placed within
Lilioideae The Lilioideae are a subfamily of monocotyledonous perennial, herbaceous mainly bulbous flowering plants in the lily Family (biology), family, Liliaceae. They are found predominantly in the temperate zone, temperate and colder regions of the Nort ...
, one of three subfamilies, with two
tribes The term tribe is used in many different contexts to refer to a category of human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and intellig ...
. Tribe
Lilieae The Lilieae are a monophyletic tribe of monocotyledon perennial A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant that lives more than two years. The term ('' per-'' + '' -ennial'', "through the years") is often used to differentiate a plan ...
includes seven other genera in addition to ''Tulipa''.


Subdivision

The genus, which includes about 75
species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individu ...

species
, is divided into four
subgenera In , a subgenus (plural: subgenera) is a directly below . In the , a subgeneric name can be used independently or included in a , in parentheses, placed between the name and the : e.g. the of the Indo-Pacific, ''Cypraea'' (''Cypraea'') ''tigri ...
. * ''Clusianae'' (4 species) * ''Orithyia'' (4 species) * ''Tulipa'' (52 species) * ''Eriostemones'' (16 species)


Etymology

The word ''tulip'', first mentioned in western Europe in or around 1554 and seemingly derived from the "Turkish Letters" of diplomat
Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq (1522 in Comines – 28 October 1592; la, Augerius Gislenius Busbequius), sometimes Augier Ghislain de Busbecq, was a 16th-century Flemish Flemish (''Vlaams'') is a Low Franconian Low Franconian, Low Frankis ...

Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq
, first appeared in English as ''tulipa'' or ''tulipant'', entering the language by way of french: tulipe and its obsolete form ''tulipan'' or by way of Modern Latin ''tulipa'', from
Ottoman Turkish Ottoman Turkish ( ota, لِسانِ عُثمانى, , ; tr, Osmanlı Türkçesi) was the standardized register (sociolinguistics), register of the Turkish language used in the Ottoman Empire (14th to 20th centuries CE). It borrowed extensively, ...
''tülbend'' ("
muslin Muslin () is a cotton fabric A textile is a flexible material made by creating an interlocking network of yarn Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crochetin ...
" or "
gauze Gauze is a thin, translucent In the field of optics, transparency (also called pellucidity or diaphaneity) is the physical property of allowing light to pass through the material without appreciable scattering of light. On a macroscopic s ...
"), and may be ultimately derived from the fa, دلبند ''delband'' ("
Turban A turban (from Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated with the Iranian peoples ** Pers ...

Turban
"), this name being applied because of a perceived resemblance of the shape of a tulip flower to that of a turban. This may have been due to a translation error in early times when it was fashionable in the Ottoman Empire to wear tulips on turbans. The translator possibly confused the flower for the turban. Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq stated that the "Turks" used the word "tulipan" to describe the flower. Extensive speculation has tried to understand why he would state this, given that the Turkish word for tulip is "lale". It is from this speculation that "tulipan" being a translation error referring to turbans is derived. This Etymology has been challenged, and makes no assumptions about possible errors. At no point does Busbecq state this was the word used in Turkey, he simply states it was used by the "Turks". On his way to Constantinople Busbecq states he travelled through Hungary, and used Hungarian guides. Until recent times "Turk" was a common term when referring to Hungarians. The word "tulipan" is in fact the Hungarian word for tulip. As long as one recognizes "Turk" as a reference to Hungarians, no amount of speculation is required to reconcile the words origin or form. Busbecq was simply repeating the word used by his "Turk/Hungarian" guides. The Hungarian word "tulipan" may be adopted from an Indo-Aryan reference to the tulip as a symbol of resurrection. "tala" meaning bottom or underworld and pAna meaning defence. Prior to arriving in Europe the Hungarians, and other Finno-Ugrians, worshipped the Indo-Iranaian cult of the dead, Yima/Yama, and would have been familiar with all of its symbols including the tulip.


Distribution and habitat

Tulips are mainly distributed along a band corresponding to
latitude In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and planets. The first person to use the ...

latitude
40° north, from southeast of Europe (
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Greece
,
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Albania
,
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,
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Kosovo
, Southern
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Serbia
,
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Bulgaria
, most part of
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Romania
,
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Ukraine
,
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Russia
) and
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Turkey
in the west, through the
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Levant
(Syria, Israel,
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Palestinian Territories
, Lebanon and Jordan) and the
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. From there it extends eastwards through , (Armenia) and Baku (Azerbaijan) and on the eastern shore of the Caspian Sea through Turkmenistan, Bukhara, Samarkand and Tashkent (Uzbekistan), to the eastern end of the range in the Pamir-Alai and Tien-Shan mountains in
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Central Asia
, which form the centre of diversity. Further to the east, ''Tulipa'' is found in the western Himalayas, southern Siberia, Inner Mongolia, and as far as the northwest of China. While authorities have stated that no tulips west of the Balkans are native, subsequent identification of ''Tulipa sylvestris'' subsp. ''australis'' as a native of the Iberian peninsula and adjacent North Africa shows that this may be a simplification. In addition to these regions in the west tulips have been identified in Greece, Cyprus and the Balkans. In the south, Iran marks its furthest extent, while the northern limit is the Ukraine. Although tulips are also throughout most of the Mediterranean and Europe, these regions do not form part of the natural distribution. Tulips were brought to Europe by travellers and merchants from Anatolia and Central Asia for cultivation, from where they escaped and naturalised (''see map''). For instance, less than half of those species found in Turkey are actually native. These have been referred to as neo-tulipae. Tulips are indigenous to
mountainous A mountain is an elevated portion of the Earth's crust, generally with steep sides that show significant exposed bedrock. A mountain differs from a plateau in having a limited summit area, and is larger than a hill, typically rising at lea ...

mountainous
areas with temperate climates, where they are a common element of Temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands, steppe and winter-rain Mediterranean vegetation. They thrive in climates with long, cool springs and dry summers. Tulips are most commonly found in meadows, steppes and chaparral, but also introduced in fields, orchards, roadsides and abandoned gardens.


Ecology

''Botryotinia, Botrytis tulipae'' is a major fungal disease affecting tulips, causing cell death and eventually the rotting of the plant. Other pathogens include anthracnose, bacterial soft rot, blight caused by ''Sclerotium rolfsii'', bulb nematodes, other Decomposition, rots including blue molds, Stachybotrys, black molds and mushy rot. The fungus ''Trichoderma viride'' can infect tulips, producing dried leaf tips and reduced growth, although symptoms are usually mild and only present on bulbs growing in Greenhouse, glasshouses. variegation, Variegated tulips admired during the Dutch tulip mania, tulipomania gained their delicately feathered patterns from an infection with the
tulip breaking virus ''Tulip breaking virus'' is one of five plant virus Plant viruses are virus A virus is a submicroscopic infectious agent that Viral replication, replicates only inside the living Cell (biology), cells of an organism. Viruses infect ...
, a mosaic virus that was carried by the green peach aphid, ''Myzus persicae''. While the virus produces fantastically streaked flowers, it also weakens plants and reduces the number of offsets produced. Dutch growers would go to extraordinary lengths during tulipomania to make tulips break, borrowing alchemists’ techniques and resorting to sprinkling paint powders of the desired hue or pigeon droppings onto flower roots. Tulips affected by the mosaic virus are called "broken"; while such plants can occasionally revert to a plain or solid colouring, they will remain infected and have to be destroyed. Today the virus is almost eradicated from tulip growers' fields. The multicoloured patterns of modern varieties result from breeding; they normally have solid, un-feathered borders between the colours. Tulip growth is also dependent on temperature conditions. Slightly germinated plants show greater growth if subjected to a period of cool dormancy, known as vernalization, vernalisation. Furthermore, although flower development is induced at warmer temperatures (), elongation of the flower stalk and proper flowering is dependent on an extended period of low temperature (< ). Tulip bulbs imported to warm-winter areas are often planted in autumn to be treated as annuals. The colour of tulip flowers also varies with growing conditions.


Cultivation


History


Islamic World

Cultivation of the tulip began in Iran (Name of Iran, Persia), probably in the 10th century. Early cultivars must have emerged from hybridisation in gardens from wild collected plants, which were then favoured, possibly due to flower size or growth vigour. The tulip is not mentioned by any writer from antiquity, therefore it seems probable that tulips were introduced into Anatolia only with the advance of the Seljuks. In the Ottoman Empire, numerous types of tulips were cultivated and bred, and today, 14 species can still be found in Turkey. Tulips are mentioned by Omar Kayam and Rumi, Jalāl ad-Dīn Rûmi. Species of tulips in Turkey typically come in red, less commonly in white or yellow. The Ottoman Turks had discovered that these wild tulips were great changelings, freely hybridizing (though it takes 7 years to show color) but also subject to mutations that produced spontaneous changes in form and color. A paper by Arthur Baker reports that in 1574, Sultan Selim II ordered the Kadi of Azaz, A‘azāz in Syria to send him 50,000 tulip bulbs. However, John Harvey points out several problems with this source, and there is also the possibility that tulips and Hyacinth (plant), hyacinth (''sümbüll''), originally Indian Nardostachys jatamansi, spikenard (''Nardostachys jatamansi'') have been confused. Sultan Selim also imported 300,000 bulbs of ''Kefe Lale'' (also known as Cafe-Lale, from the medieval name Kaffa, probably ''Tulipa schrenkii'') from Feodossija, Kefe in Crimea, for his gardens in the Topkapı Palace, Topkapı Sarayı in Istanbul. It is also reported that shortly after arriving in Constantinople in 1554, Ogier Ghislain de Busbecq, ambassador of the Austrian Habsburgs to the court of Suleyman the Magnificent, claimed to have introduced the tulip to Europe by sending a consignment of bulbs west. The fact that the tulip's first official trip west took it from one court to the other could have contributed to its ascendency. Sultan Ahmet III maintained famous tulip gardens in the summer highland pastures (''Yayla'') at Spil Dağı above the town of Manisa. They seem to have consisted of wild tulips. However, from the 14 tulip species known from Turkey, only four are considered to be of local origin, so wild tulips from Iran and Central Asia may have been brought into Turkey during the Seljuk and especially Ottoman periods. Sultan Ahmet also imported domestic tulip bulbs from the Netherlands. The gardening book ''Revnak'ı Bostan'' (Beauty of the Garden) by Sahibül Reis Hajji, ülhaç Ibrahim Ibn ülhaç Mehmet, written in 1660 does not mention the tulip at all, but contains advice on growing hyacinths and Lilium, lilies. However, there is considerable confusion of terminology, and tulips may have been subsumed under hyacinth, a mistake several European botanists were to perpetuate. In 1515, the scholar Qasim (Afghan scholar), Qasim from Herat in contrast had identified both wild and garden tulips (lale) as anemones (''shaqayq al-nu'man''), but described the Fritillaria imperialis, crown imperial as ''laleh kakli''. In a Turkic languages, Turkic text written before 1495, the Chagatai people, Chagatay Husayn Bayqarah mentions tulips (''lale''). Babur, the founder of the Mughal Empire, also names tulips in the Baburnama. He may actually have introduced them from Afghanistan to the plains of India, as he did with other plants like melons and grapes. In Moorish Al-Andalus, Andalus, a "Makedonian bulb" (''basal al-maqdunis'') or "bucket-Narcissus (plant), Narcissus" (''naryis qadusi'') was cultivated as an ornamental plant in gardens. It was supposed to have come from Alexandria and may have been Tulipa sylvestris, but the identification is not wholly secure.


Introduction to Western Europe

Although it is unknown who first brought the tulip to Northwestern Europe, the most widely accepted story is that it was Oghier Ghislain de Busbecq, an ambassador for Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, Emperor Ferdinand I to Suleyman the Magnificent. According to a letter, he saw "an abundance of flowers everywhere; Narcissus (plant), Narcissus, hyacinth (plant), hyacinths and those in Turkish called Lale, much to our astonishment because it was almost midwinter, a season unfriendly to flowers." However, in 1559, an account by Conrad Gessner describes tulips flowering in Augsburg, Swabia in the garden of Councillor Heinrich Herwart. In Central and Northern Europe, tulip bulbs are generally removed from the ground in June and must be replanted by September for the winter. It is doubtful that Busbecq could have had the tulip bulbs harvested, shipped to Germany and replanted between March 1558 and Gessner's description the following year. Pietro Andrea Mattioli illustrated a tulip in 1565 but identified it as a Narcissus (plant), narcissus. Carolus Clusius is largely responsible for the spread of tulip bulbs in the final years of the sixteenth century. He planted tulips at the Vienna Imperial Botanical Gardens in 1573. He finished the first major work on tulips in 1592 and made note of the variations in colour. After he was appointed the director of the Leiden University's newly established Hortus Botanicus Leiden, Hortus Botanicus, he planted both a teaching garden and his private garden with tulips in late 1593. Thus, 1594 is considered the date of the tulip's first flowering in the Netherlands, despite reports of the cultivation of tulips in private gardens in Antwerp and Amsterdam two or three decades earlier. These tulips at Leiden would eventually lead to both the
tulip mania Tulip mania ( nl, tulpenmanie) was a period during the Dutch Golden Age The Dutch Golden Age ( nl, Gouden Eeuw ) was a period in the history of the Netherlands, roughly spanning the era from 1588 (the birth of the Dutch Republic) to 1672 ...
and the tulip industry in the Netherlands. Over two raids, in 1596 and in 1598, more than one hundred bulbs were stolen from his garden. Tulips spread rapidly across Europe and more opulent varieties such as double tulips were already known in Europe by the early 17th century. These curiosities fitted well in an age when natural oddities were cherished and especially in the Netherlands, France, Germany and England, where the spice trade with the East Indies had made many people wealthy. N''ouveaux riches'' seeking wealthy displays embraced the exotic plant market, especially in the Low Countries where gardens had become fashionable. A craze for bulbs soon grew in France, where in the early 17th century, entire properties were exchanged as payment for a single tulip bulb. The value of the flower gave it a special ‘aura’ of mystique, and numerous publications describing varieties in lavish garden manuals were published, cashing in on the value of the flower. An export business was built up in France, supplying Dutch, Flemish, German and English buyers. The trade drifted slowly from the French to the Dutch and is thought to have sparked the infamous tulip mania in Holland. Between 1634 and 1637, the enthusiasm for the new flowers in Holland triggered a speculation, speculative frenzy now known as the
tulip mania Tulip mania ( nl, tulpenmanie) was a period during the Dutch Golden Age The Dutch Golden Age ( nl, Gouden Eeuw ) was a period in the history of the Netherlands, roughly spanning the era from 1588 (the birth of the Dutch Republic) to 1672 ...
that eventually led to the collapse of the market three years later. Tulip bulbs had become so expensive that they were treated as a form of currency, or rather, as futures, forcing the Dutch government to introduce trading restrictions on the bulbs. Around this time, the ceramic tulipiere was devised for the display of cut flowers stem by stem. Vases and bouquets, usually including tulips, often appeared in Dutch Golden Age painting#Still lives, Dutch still-life painting. To this day, tulips are associated with the Netherlands, and the cultivated forms of the tulip are often called "Dutch tulips." The Netherlands has the world's largest permanent display of tulips at the Keukenhof. The majority of tulip cultivars are classified in the taxon ''Tulipa ×gesneriana''. They have usually several species in their direct background, but most have been derived from ''Tulipa schrenkii, Tulipa suaveolens'' (today often regarded as a synonym with ''Tulipa schrenkii''). ''Tulipa ×gesneriana'' is in itself an early hybrid of complex origin and is probably not the same taxon as was described by Conrad Gessner in the 16th century. The UK National Collection of English Florists' Tulips and Dutch Historic Tulips, dating from the early 17th century to c.1960, is held by Polly Nicholson at Blackland House, Calne, Wiltshire.


Introduction to the United States

It is believed the first tulips in the United States were grown near Spring Pond at the Fay Estate in Lynn, Massachusetts, Lynn and Salem, Massachusetts, Salem, Massachusetts. From 1847 to 1865, Richard Sullivan Fay, Esq., one of Lynn's wealthiest men, settled on located partly in present-day Lynn and partly in present-day Salem. Mr. Fay imported many different trees and plants from all parts of the world and planted them among the meadows of the Fay Estate.


Propagation

The Netherlands is the world's main producer of commercial tulip plants, producing as many as 3 billion bulbs annually, the majority for export. Tulips can be propagated through bulb offset (botany), offsets, seeds or micropropagation. Offsets and plant tissue culture, tissue culture methods are means of asexual reproduction, asexual propagation for producing genetic cloning, clones of the parent plant, which maintains
cultivar A cultivar is a type of plant that people have bred for desired traits, which are reproduced in each new generation by a method such as grafting, tissue culture or carefully controlled seed production. Most cultivars arise from purposeful human ...
genetic integrity. Seeds are most often used to propagate
species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individu ...

species
and subspecies or to create new Hybrid (biology), hybrids. Many tulip species can cross-pollination, cross-pollinate with each other, and when wild tulip populations overlap geographically with other tulip species or subspecies, they often hybridise and create mixed populations. Most commercial tulip cultivars are complex hybrids, and often sterility (physiology), sterile. Offsets require a year or more of growth before plants are large enough to flower. Tulips grown from seeds often need five to eight years before plants are of flowering size. To prevent cross-pollination, increase the growth rate of bulbs and increase the vigour and size of offsets, the flower and stems of a field of commercial tulips are usually Topping (agriculture), topped using large tractor-mounted mowing heads. The same goals can be achieved by a private gardener by clipping the stem and flower of an individual specimen. Commercial growers usually harvest the tulip bulbs in late summer and grade them into sizes; bulbs large enough to flower are sorted and sold, while smaller bulbs are sorted into sizes and replanted for sale in the future. Because tulip bulbs don't reliably come back every year, tulip varieties that fall out of favour with present aesthetic values have traditionally gone extinct. Unlike other flowers that do not suffer this same limitation, the Tulip's historical forms do not survive alongside their modern incarnations.


Horticultural classification

In horticulture, tulips are divided into fifteen groups (Divisions) mostly based on flower morphology and plant size. *Div. 1: Single early – with cup-shaped single flowers, no larger than across. They bloom early to mid season. Growing tall. *Div. 2: Double early – with fully double flowers, bowl shaped to across. Plants typically grow from tall. *Div. 3: Triumph – single, cup shaped flowers up to wide. Plants grow tall and bloom mid to late season. *Div. 4: Darwin hybrid – single flowers are ovoid in shape and up to wide. Plants grow tall and bloom mid to late season. This group should not be confused with older Darwin tulips, which belong in the Single Late Group below. *Div. 5: Single late – cup or goblet-shaped flowers up to wide, some plants produce multi-flowering stems. Plants grow tall and bloom late season. *Div. 6: Lily-flowered – the flowers possess a distinct narrow 'waist' with pointed and reflexed petals. Previously included with the old Darwins, only becoming a group in their own right in 1958. *Div. 7: Fringed (Crispa) – cup or goblet-shaped blossoms edged with spiked or crystal-like fringes, sometimes called “tulips for touch” because of the temptation to “test” the fringes to see if they are real or made of glass. Perennials with a tendency to naturalize in woodland areas, growing tall and blooming in late season. *Div. 8: Viridiflora *Div. 9: Rembrandt *Div. 10: Parrot *Div. 11: Double late – Large, heavy blooms. They range from tall. *Div. 12: Kaufmanniana – Waterlily tulip. Medium-large creamy yellow flowers marked red on the outside and yellow at the center. Stems tall. *Div. 13: Fosteriana (Emperor) *Div. 14: Greigii – Scarlet flowers across, on stems. Foliage mottled with brown. *Div. 15: Species or Botanical – The terms "species tulips" and "botanical tulips" refer to wild species in contrast to hybridised varieties. As a group they have been described as being less ostentatious but more reliably vigorous as they age. *Div. 16: Multiflowering – not an official division, these tulips belong in the first 15 divisions but are often listed separately because they have multiple blooms per bulb. They may also be classified by their flowering season: *Early flowering: Single Early Tulips, Double Early Tulips, Greigii Tulips, Kaufmanniana Tulips, Fosteriana Tulips, *Mid-season flowering: Darwin Hybrid Tulips, Triumph Tulips, Parrot Tulips *Late season flowering: Single Late Tulips, Double Late Tulips, Viridiflora Tulips, Lily-flowering Tulips, Fringed (Crispa) Tulips, Rembrandt Tulips


Neo-tulipae

A number of names are based on naturalised garden tulips and are usually referred to as neo-tulipae. These are often difficult to trace back to their original cultivar, and in some cases have been occurring in the wild for many centuries. The history of naturalisation is unknown, but populations are usually associated with agricultural practices and are possibly linked to saffron cultivation. Some neo-tulipae have been brought into cultivation, and are often offered as botanical tulips. These cultivated plants can be classified into two Cultivar Groups: 'Grengiolensis Group', with picotee tepals, and the 'Didieri Group' with unicolourous tepals.


Horticulture

Tulip bulbs are typically planted around late summer and fall, in well-drained soils. Tulips should be planted apart from each other. The recommended hole depth is deep, and is measured from the top of the bulb to the surface. Therefore, larger tulip bulbs would require deeper holes. Species tulips are normally planted deeper.


Culture and politics


Iran

The celebration of Persian New Year, or Nowruz, dating back over 3,000 years, marks the advent of spring, and tulips are used as a decorative feature during the festivities. A sixth-century legend, similar to the tale of ''Romeo and Juliet'', tells of tulips sprouting where the blood of the young prince Farhad spilt, after he killed himself upon hearing the (deliberately false) story that his true love had died. The tulip was a topic for Persian poets from the thirteenth century. In the poem ''Gulistan of Sa'di, Gulistan'' by Sa'di (poet), Musharrifu'd-din Saadi, described a visionary garden paradise with "The murmur of a cool stream / bird song, ripe fruit in plenty / bright multicoloured tulips and fragrant roses...". In recent times, tulips have featured in the poems of Simin Behbahani. The tulip is the national symbol for martyrdom in Iran (and Shi'ite Islam generally), and has been used on postage stamps and coins. It was commonly as a symbol used in the 1979 Islamic Revolution, and a red tulip adorns the Iranian flag, flag redesigned in 1980. The sword in the centre, with four crescent-shaped petals around it, create the word “Allah” as well as symbolising the five pillars of Islam. The tomb of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini is decorated with 72 stained glass tulips, representing 72 martyrs who died at the Battle of Karbala in 680CE. It was also used as a symbol on billboards celebrating casualties of the Iran-Iraq war, 1980–1988 war with Iraq. The tulip also became a symbol of protest against the Iranian government after the 2009 Iranian presidential election, presidential election in June 2009, when millions turned out on the streets to protest the re-election of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. After the protests were harshly suppressed, the Iranian Green Movement adopted the tulip as a symbol of their struggle. The word for tulip in
Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated with the Iranian peoples ** Persian language, an Iranian ...
is "laleh" (لاله), and this has become popular as a girl's name. The name has been used for commercial enterprises, such as the Laleh International Hotel, as well as public facilities, such as Laleh Park and Laleh Hospital, and the tulip Motif (visual arts), motif remains common in Iranian culture.


In other countries

Tulips are called ''lale'' in Turkish language, Turkish (from
Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated with the Iranian peoples ** Persian language, an Iranian ...
: "laleh" لاله). When written in Arabic letters, "lale" has the same letters as ''Allah'', which is why the flower became a holy symbol. It was also associated with the House of Ottoman dynasty, Osman, resulting in tulips being widely used in decorative motifs on tiles, mosques, fabrics, crockery, etc. in the Ottoman Empire. The tulip was seen as a symbol of abundance and indulgence. The era during which the Ottoman Empire was wealthiest is often called the Tulip era or ''Lale Devri'' in Turkish language, Turkish. Tulips became popular garden plants in east and west, but, whereas the tulip in Turkish culture was a symbol of paradise on earth and had almost a divine status, in the Netherlands it represented the briefness of life. In Christianity, tulips symbolise passion, belief and love. White tulips represent forgiveness while purple tulips represent royalty, both important aspects of Easter. By contrast to other flowers such as the coneflower or lotus flower, tulips have historically been capable of genetically reinventing themselves to suit changes in aesthetic values. In his 1597 herbal, John Gerard says of the tulip that “nature seems to play more with this flower than with any other that I do know”. When in the Netherlands, beauty was defined by marbled swirls of vivid contrasting colours, the petals of tulips were able to become "feathered" and "flamed". However, in the 19th century, when the English desired tulips for carpet bedding and massing, the tulips were able to once again accommodate this by evolving into “paint filled boxes with the brightest, fattest dabs of pure pigment”. This inherent mutability of the tulip even led the Ottoman Turks to believe that nature cherished this flower above all others. Seventeenth-century
tulip mania Tulip mania ( nl, tulpenmanie) was a period during the Dutch Golden Age The Dutch Golden Age ( nl, Gouden Eeuw ) was a period in the history of the Netherlands, roughly spanning the era from 1588 (the birth of the Dutch Republic) to 1672 ...
has been described above. ''The Black Tulip'' (1850) is an historical romance by Alexandre Dumas, père. The story takes place in the Dutch city of Haarlem, where a reward is offered to the first grower who can produce a truly black tulip. The tulip occurs on a number of the Major Arcana cards of occultist Oswald Wirth's deck of Tarot cards, specifically the Magician, Emperor, Temperance and the Fool, described in his 1927 work ''Le Tarot, des Imagiers du Moyen Âge''.


Tulip festivals

Tulip festivals are held around the world, for example in the Netherlands and Spalding, Lincolnshire, Spalding, England. There is also a popular festival in Morges, Switzerland. Every spring, there are tulip festivals in North America, including the Tulip Time Festival in Holland, Michigan, Holland, Michigan, the Skagit Valley Tulip Festival in Skagit Valley, Washington (U.S. state), Washington, the Tulip Time Festival in Orange City, Iowa, Orange City and Pella, Iowa, Pella, Iowa, and the Canadian Tulip Festival in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Tulips are also popular in Australia and several festivals are held in September and October, during the Southern Hemisphere's spring (season), spring.


Culinary uses

Tulip petals are List of edible flowers, edible flowers. The taste varies by variety and season, and is roughly similar to lettuce or other salad greens. Some people are allergy, allergic to tulips. Tulip bulbs look similar to onions, but should not generally be considered food. The toxicity of bulbs is not well-understood, nor is there an agreed-upon method of safely preparing them for human consumption. There have been reports of illness when eaten, depending on quantity. During the Dutch famine of 1944–45, tulip bulbs were eaten out of desperation, and Dutch doctors provided recipes.


See also

* List of Award of Garden Merit tulips * Tulip period


Notes


References


Bibliography


Books

* * (Translation of a section from the ''Rariorum plantarum historia'', 1601: see ) * * * * * * * * * see also Species Plantarum * * * * * *


Articles

* * * * * * *


Websites

* * *


External links


Canadian National Capital Commission: The Gift of Tulips

Bulb flower production » Tulip, International Flower Bulb Centre

Tulip Picture Book, International Flower Bulb Centre
{{Authority control Tulipa, Bulbous plants Garden plants Liliaceae genera