Tulcea (; Bulgarian, Russian and Ukrainian: Тулча, ''Tulcha''; Greek: Αιγισσός, ''Aegyssus''; Turkish: ''Tulça'') is a city in Northern Dobruja, Romania. It is the administrative center of Tulcea County, and had a population of 73,707 . One village, Tudor Vladimirescu, is administered by the city.


Tulcea was founded in the 7th century B.C. under the name of ''Aegyssus'', mentioned in the documents of Procopius and Diodorus of Sicily (3rd century BC). In his ''Ex Ponto'', Ovid recorded a local tradition that ascribed its name to a mythical founder, ''Aegisos the Caspian''. After the fights from 1215 A.D. the Romans conquered the town. They rebuilt it after their plans, their technique and architectural vision, reorganizing it. The fortified town was mentioned as late as the 10th century, in documents such as Notitia Episcopatuum or De Thematibus. Under Byzantine rule beginning with the 5th century A.D. the town was abandoned by the first half of the 7th century due to the Barbarian invasions. The former settlement's territory fell under the rule of the Bulgarian Empire (681-c.1000; 1185-14th century). Inhabitation was restored in the second half of the 10th century, as the Byzantines built a fortress on the spot after reconquering the region. The fortress was soon destroyed in 1064 by an attack of the Uzes, however some inhabitation continued. A settlement, larger than the one in the 11th century, is archaeologically attested beginning with the 14th century. The Ottoman rule was imposed around 1420, and would last for the following four centuries. The town was first documented under its modern name in 1506, in the Ottoman customs records. On that occasion it was described as an "important centre for the transit trade". Around 1848, it was still a small shipyard city, being awarded city status in 1860, when it became a province capital. It became a sanjak centre in Silistre Eyaleti in 1860 and Tuna Vilayeti in 1864. In 1853, ''The Times'' of London noted that "Toultcha" was "the last fortified place held by the Turks on the Danube, and which has a garrison of 1,200 men." In 1878 Tulcea was eventually awarded to Romania, together with the Northern Dobruja (see Congress of Berlin). Tulcea was occupied by the Central Powers between 1916–1918 during World War I, and became part of their condominium following the Treaty of Bucharest in May 1918 (until November 1918). During that time, the statue of Mircea the Elder was taken down by Bulgarian troops, since during his reign Dobruja was incorporated into Wallachia.


According to the 2011 census, Tulcea has a population of 73,707 inhabitants, 93.2% of which are ethnic Romanian. Significant minority groups include Lippovan Russians (2.6%), Roma (1.4%) and Turks (1.2%). Most of the indigenous Bulgarians left the town in 1941 in accordance with the Treaty of Craiova.


Tulcea is the site of the "George Georgescu Contest", a music competition created by teachers at the Tulcea Arts High School and held annually since 1992. Named in honor of the conductor George Georgescu (1887–1964), an important figure in the development of Romanian classical music who was born in the Tulcea county, the contest was at first open only to Romanian music school and high school students but began admitting international students in 1995. Organizers include the Romanian Ministry of Education and Youth, the Education Board of Tulcea County, the Tulcea County Council, the Tulcea Mayoralty, and surviving members of Georgescu's family.Historical notes of Concursul George Georgescu 2008 International Contest for Performing Artists, Tulcea, Romania accessed March 29, 2009
The Monument of Independence represents one of the main attractions of the city, because of its placement and of the panoramic view that it offers. It is located on the same hill as the ruins of Aegyssus and the history museum. The monument itself is represented by an obelisk with a statue of an eagle on one side and the statue of a soldier on the other. The monument was erected to commemorate the War of Independence that made Dobruja part of Romania. Construction began on 17 October 1879, in the presence of Prince Carol I of Romania. The main high school is the Spiru Haret Dobrujan College.

Notable people

*Crin Antonescu, former President of the Senate of Romania *Georges Boulanger, violinist *Alexandru Ciucurencu, painter *Stefan Karadzha, Bulgarian revolutionary, studied in Tulcea and is associated with the town *Grigore Moisil, mathematician *Dimitar Petkov, Bulgarian Prime Minister *Mirela Roznoveanu, literary critic, writer, and journalist *Valentin Serbu, writer *Tora Vasilescu, actress

Twin towns – sister cities

Tulcea is twinned with: * Aalborg, Denmark * Altena, Netherlands * Amasya, Turkey * Aprilia, Italy * Fratta Polesine, Italy * Ilion, Greece * Izmail, Ukraine * Larnaca, Cyprus * Mudanya, Turkey * Rovigo, Italy * Shumen, Bulgaria


Notes Bibliography * Brătianu, G. I. Les Bulgares à Cetatea Albă (Akkerman) au debut du XIVeme siècle-Byz, 2, 1926, 153-168 * Laiou, A. E. Constantinople and the Latins (Foreign Policy of Andronicus II, 1282–1328). Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1972. * Nicephorus, p. 34 * Theophanes, p. 357-358

External links

Tulcea City Hall

Tulcea County Prefecture

Tulcea County Council
{{Danube Category:Cities in Romania Category:Capitals of Romanian counties Category:Port cities and towns in Romania Category:Populated places on the Danube Category:Romania–Ukraine border crossings Category:Articles containing video clips Category:Populated places established in the 7th century BC Category:Byzantine sites in Romania Category:Turkish communities outside Turkey Category:Ținutul Dunării Category:Populated places in Tulcea County Category:Localities in Northern Dobruja