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This list contains selected positive
number A number is a mathematical object A mathematical object is an abstract concept arising in mathematics. In the usual language of mathematics, an ''object'' is anything that has been (or could be) formally defined, and with which one may do deduct ...

number
s in increasing order, including counts of things,
dimensionless quantity In dimensional analysis, a dimensionless quantity is a quantity to which no physical dimension is assigned, also known as a bare, pure, or scalar quantity or a quantity of dimension one, with a corresponding unit of measurement in the International ...
and
probabilities Probability is the branch of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathe ...

probabilities
. Each number is given a name in the short scale, which is used in English-speaking countries, as well as a name in the
long scale The long and short scales are two of several naming systems for integer powers of ten which use some of the same terms for different magnitudes. For whole numbers smaller than 1,000,000,000 (109), such as one thousand or one million, the two sc ...
, which is used in some of the countries that do not have English as their national language.


Smaller than (one googolth)

* ''Mathematics – random selections:'' Approximately is a rough first estimate of the probability that a typing "
monkey Monkey is a common name that may refer to certain groups or species of simian mammals of infraorder Simiiformes. The term is applied descriptively to groups of primates, such as families of New World monkeys and Old World monkeys. Many monk ...

monkey
", or an English-illiterate typing robot, when placed in front of a typewriter, will type out William Shakespeare's play ''
Hamlet ''The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark'', often shortened to ''Hamlet'' (), is a tragedy written by William Shakespeare sometime between 1599 and 1601. It is Shakespeare's longest play, with 29,551 words. Set in Denmark Denmark ...

Hamlet
'' as its first set of inputs, on the precondition it typed the needed number of characters. However, demanding correct
punctuation Punctuation (or sometimes interpunction) is the use of spacing, conventional signs (called punctuation marks), and certain typographical devices as aids to the understanding and correct reading of written text, whether read silently or aloud. Ano ...
,
capitalization Capitalization ( North American English) or capitalisation ( British English) is writing a word with its first letter as a capital letter (uppercase letter) and the remaining letters in lower case, in writing systems with a case distinction. Th ...
, and spacing, the probability falls to around 10−360,783. * ''Computing:'' 2.2 is approximately equal to the smallest positive non-zero value that can be represented by an octuple-precision IEEE floating-point value. :1 is equal to the smallest positive non-zero value that can be represented by a quadruple-precision IEEE decimal floating-point value. :6.5 is approximately equal to the smallest positive non-zero value that can be represented by a quadruple-precision IEEE floating-point value. :3.6 is approximately equal to the smallest positive non-zero value that can be represented by an 80-bit x86 double-extended IEEE floating-point value. :1 is equal to the smallest positive non-zero value that can be represented by a double-precision IEEE decimal floating-point value. :4.9 is approximately equal to the smallest positive non-zero value that can be represented by a
double-precision Double-precision floating-point format (sometimes called FP64 or float64) is a computer number format A computer number format is the internal representation of numeric values in digital device hardware and software, such as in programmable compute ...
IEEE floating-point The IEEE Standard for Floating-Point Arithmetic (IEEE 754) is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm or requirement for a repeatable technical task. It is usually a formal document that establishes uniform engineering ...
value. :1 is equal to the smallest positive non-zero value that can be represented by a single-precision IEEE decimal floating-point value.


10−100 to 10−30

* ''Mathematics:'' The chances of
shuffling Shuffling is a procedure used to randomization, randomize a deck of playing cards to provide an element of chance in card games. Shuffling is often followed by a cut (cards), cut, to help ensure that the shuffler has not manipulated the outcome. ...
a
standard 52-card deck The standard 52-card deck of French-suited playing cards is the most common pack of playing cards used today. In English-speaking countries it is the only traditional pack used for playing cards; in many countries of the world, however, it is used ...
in any specific order is around 1.24 (or exactly ) * ''Computing:'' The number 1.4 is approximately equal to the smallest positive non-zero value that can be represented by a
single-precision Single-precision floating-point format (sometimes called FP32 or float32) is a computer number format A computer number format is the internal representation of numeric values in digital device hardware and software, such as in programmable compute ...
IEEE floating-point value.


10−30

(; 1000−10; short scale: one nonillionth;
long scale The long and short scales are two of several naming systems for integer powers of ten which use some of the same terms for different magnitudes. For whole numbers smaller than 1,000,000,000 (109), such as one thousand or one million, the two sc ...
: one quintillionth) * ''Mathematics:'' The probability in a game of
bridge A bridge is a structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to ...
of all four players getting a complete
suit A suit is a set of men's or women's clothes comprising a suit jacket, or coat, and trousers Trousers, slacks, or pants (North American English) are an item of clothing that might have originated in Central Asia, worn from the waist to t ...
each is approximately .


10−27

(; 1000−9; short scale: one octillionth;
long scale The long and short scales are two of several naming systems for integer powers of ten which use some of the same terms for different magnitudes. For whole numbers smaller than 1,000,000,000 (109), such as one thousand or one million, the two sc ...
: one quadrilliardth)


10−24

(; 1000−8; short scale: one septillionth;
long scale The long and short scales are two of several naming systems for integer powers of ten which use some of the same terms for different magnitudes. For whole numbers smaller than 1,000,000,000 (109), such as one thousand or one million, the two sc ...
: one quadrillionth) ISO:
yocto- ''Yocto'' (symbol y) is a unit prefixA unit prefix is a specifier or mnemonic that is prepended to units of measurement to indicate multiples or fractions of the units. Units of various order of magnitude, sizes are commonly formed by the use of ...
(y)


10−21

(; 1000−7; short scale: one sextillionth;
long scale The long and short scales are two of several naming systems for integer powers of ten which use some of the same terms for different magnitudes. For whole numbers smaller than 1,000,000,000 (109), such as one thousand or one million, the two sc ...
: one trilliardth) ISO:
zepto- ''Zepto''- (unit of measurement, unit symbol ''z''-) is a metric prefix, unit prefix in the metric system denoting a factor of 10−21 or . Adopted in 1991, it is derived from the Latin "seven", since it is equal to 1000−7. Examples of its us ...
(z) * ''Mathematics:'' The probability of matching 20 numbers for 20 in a game of
keno Keno is a lottery-like gambling game often played at modern casinos, and also offered as a game by some state lotteries. Players wager by choosing numbers ranging from 1 through (usually) 80. After all players make their wagers, 20 numbers (so ...

keno
is approximately 2.83 × 10−19.


10−18

(; 1000−6; short scale: one quintillionth;
long scale The long and short scales are two of several naming systems for integer powers of ten which use some of the same terms for different magnitudes. For whole numbers smaller than 1,000,000,000 (109), such as one thousand or one million, the two sc ...
: one trillionth) ISO:
atto- Atto (symbol a) is a unit prefixA unit prefix is a specifier or mnemonic that is prepended to units of measurement to indicate multiples or fractions of the units. Units of various order of magnitude, sizes are commonly formed by the use of such p ...
(a) * ''Mathematics:'' The probability of rolling
snake eyes Snake eyes is a roll of two dice, with one pip on both dice. Snake Eyes may also refer to: Music * ''Snake Eyes'' (album), a 2000 album by Killa Tay featuring a guest appearance by Spider Loc * "Snake Eyes" (The Alan Parsons Project song), a 19 ...
10 times in a row on a pair of fair dice is about .


10−15

(; 1000−5; short scale: one quadrillionth;
long scale The long and short scales are two of several naming systems for integer powers of ten which use some of the same terms for different magnitudes. For whole numbers smaller than 1,000,000,000 (109), such as one thousand or one million, the two sc ...
: one billiardth) ISO:
femto- ''Femto-'' (symbol f) is a unit prefixA unit prefix is a specifier or mnemonic that is prepended to units of measurement to indicate multiples or fractions of the units. Units of various order of magnitude, sizes are commonly formed by the use of ...
(f) * ''Mathematics'': The Ramanujan constant, e^ = 262\,537\,412\,640\,768\,743.999\,999\,999\,999\,25\ldots, is an
almost integer In recreational mathematics Recreational mathematics is mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and c ...
, differing from the nearest integer by approximately .


10−12

(; 1000−4; short scale: one trillionth;
long scale The long and short scales are two of several naming systems for integer powers of ten which use some of the same terms for different magnitudes. For whole numbers smaller than 1,000,000,000 (109), such as one thousand or one million, the two sc ...
: one billionth) ISO:
pico- ''Pico-'' ( unit symbol ''p-'') is a unit prefixA unit prefix is a specifier or mnemonic that is prepended to units of measurement to indicate multiples or fractions of the units. Units of various order of magnitude, sizes are commonly formed by t ...
(p) * ''Mathematics:'' The probability in a game of
bridge A bridge is a structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to ...
of one player getting a complete suit is approximately (). * ''Biology:'' Human visual sensitivity to
1000 nm
1000 nm
light is approximately of its peak sensitivity at
555 nm
555 nm
.


10−9

(; 1000−3; short scale: one billionth;
long scale The long and short scales are two of several naming systems for integer powers of ten which use some of the same terms for different magnitudes. For whole numbers smaller than 1,000,000,000 (109), such as one thousand or one million, the two sc ...
: one milliardth) ISO:
nano- Nano- (symbol n) is a unit prefixA unit prefix is a specifier or mnemonic that is prepended to units of measurement to indicate multiples or fractions of the units. Units of various order of magnitude, sizes are commonly formed by the use of such ...
(n) * ''Mathematics – Lottery:'' The odds of winning the Grand Prize (matching all 6 numbers) in the US
Powerball Powerball is an American lottery A lottery is a form of gambling that involves the drawing of numbers at random for a prize. Some governments outlaw lotteries, while others endorse it to the extent of organizing a national or state lottery. ...
lottery, with a single ticket, under the rules , are 292,201,338 to 1 against, for a probability of (). * ''Mathematics – Lottery:'' The odds of winning the Grand Prize (matching all 6 numbers) in the Australian
Powerball Powerball is an American lottery A lottery is a form of gambling that involves the drawing of numbers at random for a prize. Some governments outlaw lotteries, while others endorse it to the extent of organizing a national or state lottery. ...
lottery, with a single ticket, under the rules , are 134,490,400 to 1 against, for a probability of (). * ''Mathematics – Lottery:'' The odds of winning the Jackpot (matching the 6 main numbers) in the UK National Lottery, with a single ticket, under the rules , are 13,983,815 to 1 against, for a probability of ().


10−6

(; 1000−2;
long and short scales The long and short scales are two of several naming systems for integer power of 10, powers of ten which use some of the same terms for different magnitudes. For whole numbers smaller than 1,000,000,000 (109), such as one thousand or one millio ...
: one
millionthOne millionth is equal to 0.000 001, or 1 x 10−6 in scientific notation. It is the reciprocal of a million One million (1,000,000), or one thousand thousand, is the natural number In mathematics, the natural numbers are those used for co ...
) ISO:
micro- Micro- (Greek letter μ or legacy micro symbol µ) is a unit prefixA unit prefix is a specifier or mnemonic that is prepended to units of measurement to indicate multiples or fractions of the units. Units of various order of magnitude, sizes are c ...
(μ) * ''Mathematics –
Poker Poker is a family of card games in which Card player, players betting (poker), wager over which poker hand, hand is best according to that specific game's rules in ways similar List of poker hands, to these rankings. While the earliest known fo ...

Poker
:'' The odds of being dealt a royal flush in poker are 649,739 to 1 against, for a probability of 1.5 (). * ''Mathematics – Poker:'' The odds of being dealt a
straight flush In poker, players form sets of five playing cards, called ''hands'', according to the rules of the game. Each hand has a rank Rank is the relative position, value, worth, complexity, power, importance, authority, level, etc. of a person or obj ...
(other than a royal flush) in poker are 72,192 to 1 against, for a probability of 1.4 (0.0014%). * ''Mathematics – Poker:'' The odds of being dealt a four of a kind in poker are 4,164 to 1 against, for a probability of 2.4 (0.024%).


10−3

(0.001; 1000−1; one thousandth) ISO:
milli- ''Milli-'' (symbol m) is a unit prefixA unit prefix is a specifier or mnemonic that is prepended to units of measurement to indicate multiples or fractions of the units. Units of various order of magnitude, sizes are commonly formed by the use of ...
(m) * ''Mathematics – Poker:'' The odds of being dealt a
full house ''Full House'' is an American television Situation comedy, sitcom created by Jeff Franklin for American Broadcasting Company, ABC. The show chronicles the events of widowed father Danny Tanner who enlists his brother-in-law Jesse Katsopolis and b ...
in poker are 693 to 1 against, for a probability of 1.4 × 10−3 (0.14%). * ''Mathematics – Poker:'' The odds of being dealt a flush in poker are 507.8 to 1 against, for a probability of 1.9 × 10−3 (0.19%). * ''Mathematics – Poker:'' The odds of being dealt a straight in poker are 253.8 to 1 against, for a probability of 4 × 10−3 (0.39%). * ''Physics:'' ''α'' = , the
fine-structure constant In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, from ''phýsis'' 'nature'), , is the natural science that studies matter, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through S ...
.


10−2

(0.01; one
hundredth In arithmetic, a hundredth is a single part of something that has been divided equally into a hundred parts. For example, a hundredth of 675 is 6.75. In this manner it is used with the prefix "centi" such as in centimeter. A hundredth is the mult ...
) ISO:
centi- ''Centi-'' (symbol c) is a metric prefix, unit prefix in the metric system denoting a factor of one hundredth. Proposed in 1793 and adopted in 1795, the prefix comes from the Latin , meaning "hundred" (cf. century, cent, percent, centennial). Sinc ...
(c) * ''Mathematics – Lottery:'' The odds of winning any prize in the UK National Lottery, with a single ticket, under the rules as of 2003, are 54 to 1 against, for a probability of about 0.018 (1.8%). * ''Mathematics – Poker:'' The odds of being dealt a
three of a kindThree of a kind may refer to: * Three of a kind (poker), a type of poker hand * Three of a Kind (1967 TV series), ''Three of a Kind'' (1967 TV series), a British comedy sketch and music show * Three of a Kind (1981 TV series), ''Three of a Kind'' (1 ...
in poker are 46 to 1 against, for a probability of 0.021 (2.1%). * ''Mathematics – Lottery:'' The odds of winning any prize in the
Powerball Powerball is an American lottery A lottery is a form of gambling that involves the drawing of numbers at random for a prize. Some governments outlaw lotteries, while others endorse it to the extent of organizing a national or state lottery. ...
, with a single ticket, under the rules as of 2015, are 24.87 to 1 against, for a probability of 0.0402 (4.02%). * ''Mathematics – Poker:'' The odds of being dealt
two pair In poker Poker is any of a number of card games in which players wager over which hand A hand is a prehensile, multi- fingered appendage located at the end of the forearm The forearm is the region of the upper limb between the Elb ...
in poker are 21 to 1 against, for a probability of 0.048 (4.8%).


10−1

(0.1; one tenth) ISO:
deci- ''Deci-'' (symbol d) is a decimal prefix, decimal metric prefix, unit prefix in the metric system denoting a factor of one tenth. Proposed in 1793 and adopted in 1795, the prefix comes from the Latin , meaning "tenth". Since 1960, the prefix is par ...
(d) * ''Legal history'': 10% was widespread as the
tax A tax is a compulsory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed on a taxpayer (an individual or legal entity In law, a legal person is any person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attr ...
raised for income or produce in the ancient and medieval period; see
tithe A tithe (; from Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early m ...
. * ''Mathematics:'' = ≈ 0.207879576. * ''Mathematics – Poker:'' The odds of being dealt only one pair in poker are about 5 to 2 against (2.37 to 1), for a probability of 0.42 (42%). * ''Mathematics – Poker:'' The odds of being dealt no pair in poker are nearly 1 to 2, for a probability of about 0.5 (50%).


100

(1;
one 1 (one, also called unit, and unity) is a number A number is a mathematical object used to counting, count, measurement, measure, and nominal number, label. The original examples are the natural numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, and so forth. Numbers can ...
) * ''Demography:'' The population of Monowi, an incorporated village in
Nebraska Nebraska () is a U.S. state, state in the Midwestern United States, Midwestern region of the United States. It is bordered by South Dakota to the north; Iowa to the east and Missouri to the southeast, both across the Missouri River; Kansas t ...

Nebraska
,
United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., federal di ...

United States
, was one in 2010. * ''Religion:'' One is the number of gods in
Judaism Judaism is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic-originated religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of de ...
,
Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of Jesus, Jesus of Nazareth. It is the Major religious groups, world's la ...
, and
Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the ''s'' is or , and whether the ''a'' is pronounced , or (when the stress is on the first syllable) ( ...
( monotheistic religions). * ''Computing –
Unicode Unicode, formally the Unicode Standard, is an information technology standard Standard may refer to: Flags * Colours, standards and guidons * Standard (flag), a type of flag used for personal identification Norm, convention or requiremen ...

Unicode
:'' One character is assigned to the Lisu Supplement
Unicode block A Unicode block is one of several contiguous ranges of numeric character codes (code point In character encoding terminology, a code point or code position is any of the numerical values that make up the ''codespace''. Many code points represent ...
, the fewest of any public-use Unicode block as of Unicode 14.0 (2021). * ''Mathematics:'' ≈ , the ratio of the
diagonal Image:Cube diagonals.svg, The diagonals of a cube with side length 1. AC' (shown in blue) is a space diagonal with length \sqrt 3, while AC (shown in red) is a face diagonal and has length \sqrt 2. In geometry, a diagonal is a line segment joinin ...
of a
square In Euclidean geometry, a square is a regular polygon, regular quadrilateral, which means that it has four equal sides and four equal angles (90-degree (angle), degree angles, π/2 radian angles, or right angles). It can also be defined as a rec ...

square
to its side length. * ''Mathematics:'' φ ≈ , the
golden ratio In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis) ...

golden ratio
. * ''Mathematics:'' ≈ , the ratio of the
diagonal Image:Cube diagonals.svg, The diagonals of a cube with side length 1. AC' (shown in blue) is a space diagonal with length \sqrt 3, while AC (shown in red) is a face diagonal and has length \sqrt 2. In geometry, a diagonal is a line segment joinin ...
of a
unit cube 300px, Unit cube A unit cube, more formally a cube of side 1, is a cube whose sides are 1 unit long.. See in particulap. 671. The volume of a 3-dimensional unit cube is 1 cubic unit, and its total surface area is 6 square units.. Unit hyper ...
. * ''Mathematics:'' the number system understood by most computers, the
binary Binary may refer to: Science and technology Mathematics * Binary number In mathematics and digital electronics, a binary number is a number A number is a mathematical object used to counting, count, measurement, measure, and nominal ...
system, uses 2 digits: 0 and 1. *''Mathematics:'' ≈ 2.236 067 9775, the correspondent to the diagonal of a rectangle whose side lengths are 1 and 2. *''Mathematics:'' + 1 ≈ 2.414 213 562 373 095 049, The ratio of smaller of the two quantities to the larger quantity is the same as the ratio of the larger quantity to the sum of the smaller quantity and twice the larger quantity. * ''Mathematics:'' e ≈ , the base of the
natural logarithm The natural logarithm of a number is its logarithm to the base of the mathematical constant A mathematical constant is a key number A number is a mathematical object used to counting, count, measurement, measure, and nominal number, lab ...
. * ''Mathematics:'' the number system understood by
ternary computer A ternary computer (also called trinary computer) is a computer that uses ternary logic (three possible values) instead of the more popular Binary number, binary system ("Base 2") in its calculations. Types of states Ternary computing deals with th ...
s, the
ternary
ternary
system, uses 3 digits: 0, 1, and 2. * ''Religion:'' three manifestations of God in the Christian
Trinity The Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ''Christ (title), Christ'' and ''Christian' ...

Trinity
. * ''Mathematics:''
π
π
≈ , the ratio of a
circle A circle is a shape consisting of all point (geometry), points in a plane (mathematics), plane that are at a given distance from a given point, the Centre (geometry), centre; equivalently it is the curve traced out by a point that moves in a ...
's circumference to its diameter. * ''Religion:'' the
Four Noble Truths In Buddhism Buddhism (, ) is the Major religious groups#Largest religions, world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists. Buddhism encompasses a variety of traditi ...
in Buddhism. * ''Biology:'' 7 ± 2, in
cognitive science Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary, scientific study of the mind and its processes. It examines the nature, the tasks, and the functions of cognition Cognition () refers to "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and u ...
, George A. Miller's estimate of the number of objects that can be simultaneously held in human
working memory Working memory is a cognitive system with a limited capacity that can hold information temporarily. Working memory is important for reasoning and the guidance of decision-making and behavior. Working memory is often used synonymously with short-te ...
. * ''Music'': 7 notes in a
major Major is a military rank of commissioned officer status, with corresponding ranks existing in many military forces throughout the world. Background When used unhyphenated, in conjunction with no other indicators, major is one rank senior to ...

major
or
minor scale In music theory Music theory is the study of the practices and possibilities of music. ''The Oxford Companion to Music'' describes three interrelated uses of the term "music theory". The first is the "Elements of music, rudiments", that are need ...
. * ''Astronomy:'' 8 planets in the
Solar System The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies. The International Astronomical Union, the authoritative body regarding astronomical nomenclature, specifies capitalizing the names of all individual astronomical objects but uses mixed "Solar ...

Solar System
. * ''Religion:'' the
Eightfold Path The Noble Eightfold Path (Pali Pali () is a Middle Indo-Aryan liturgical language native to the Indian subcontinent. It is widely studied because it is the language of the '' Pāli Canon'' or '' Tipiṭaka'' and is the sacred langua ...
in Buddhism. * ''Literature:'' 9 circles of
Hell In religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious behaviour, behaviors and practices, morality, morals, beliefs, worldviews, religious text, texts, shrine, sanctified places, prophecy, prophecies, ...

Hell
in the ''
Inferno Inferno may refer to: * Hell, an afterlife place of suffering * Conflagration, a large uncontrolled fire Film * ''L'Inferno'', a 1911 Italian film * Inferno (1953 film), ''Inferno'' (1953 film), a film noir by Roy Ward Baker * Inferno (1973 fil ...
'' by
Dante Alighieri Dante Alighieri (), probably baptized Durante di Alighiero degli Alighieri and often referred to simply as Dante (, also ; – 1321), was an Italian poet, writer and philosopher. His '' Divine Comedy'', originally called (modern Italian: ''C ...
.


101

(10; ten) ISO:
deca- ''Deca-'' (American and British English spelling differences#-re, -er, International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures;
(da) * ''Demography:'' The population of Pesnopoy, a village in
Bulgaria Bulgaria (; bg, България, Bǎlgariya), officially the Republic of Bulgaria,, ) is a country in Southeast Europe. It occupies the whole eastern part of the Balkans, and is bordered by Romania to the north, Serbia and North Macedonia ...
, was 10 in 2007. * ''Human scale:'' There are 10
digit Digit may refer to: Mathematics and science * Numerical digit, as used in mathematics or computer science ** Arabic numerals, the most common modern representation of numerical digits * Digit (anatomy), one of several most distal parts of a limb ...
s on a pair of human
hand A hand is a prehensile, multi- fingered appendage located at the end of the forearm The forearm is the region of the upper limb between the Elbow-joint, elbow and the wrist. The term forearm is used in anatomy to distinguish it from the arm, ...

hand
s, and 10
toe Toes are the digits (fingers) of the foot of a tetrapod. Animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals Heterotrop ...

toe
s on a pair of human
feet The foot (plural: feet) is an anatomical structure found in many vertebrates. It is the terminal portion of a Limb (anatomy), limb which bears weight and allows Animal locomotion, locomotion. In many animals with feet, the foot is a separate org ...

feet
. * ''Mathematics:'' The number system used in everyday life, the
decimal The decimal numeral system A numeral system (or system of numeration) is a writing system A writing system is a method of visually representing verbal communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is t ...
system, has 10 digits: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. * ''Religion:'' the
Ten Commandments The Ten Commandments ( he, עֲשֶׂרֶת הַדִּבְּרוֹת, ''Aseret ha'Dibrot''), also known as the Decalogue, are a set of biblical principles relating to ethics and worship that play a fundamental role in Judaism and Christia ...

Ten Commandments
in the
Abrahamic religions The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic Semitic most commonly refers to the Semitic languages, a name used since the 1770s to refer to the language family ...
. * ''Music:'' The number of notes (12) in a
chromatic scale The chromatic scale is a set of twelve pitches (more completely, pitch class In music Music is the art of arranging sounds in time through the elements of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the universal cultural aspec ...
. * ''Astrology:'' There are 12 zodiac signs, each one representing part of the annual path of the sun's movement across the night sky. * ''Computing –
Microsoft Windows Microsoft Windows, commonly referred to as Windows, is a group of several Proprietary software, proprietary graphical user interface, graphical operating system families, all of which are developed and marketed by Microsoft. Each family caters ...
:'' Twelve successive consumer versions of
Windows NT Windows NT is a family of operating system An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware, computer software, software resources, and provides common daemon (computing), services for computer programs. Time-sharin ...
have been released as of December 2021. * ''Music:'' The number (15) of completed, numbered
string quartet A string quartet is a musical ensemble consisting of four string instrument, string players – two violin players, a viola player and a cellist – or a musical composition written to be performed by such a group. The string quartet is one of the ...
s by each of
Ludwig van Beethoven Ludwig van Beethoven (, ; baptised 17 December 177026 March 1827) was a German composer and pianist. Beethoven remains one of the most admired composers in the history of Western music; his works rank amongst the most performed of the classic ...

Ludwig van Beethoven
and
Dmitri Shostakovich Dmitri Dmitriyevich Shostakovich ( rus, Дми́трий Дми́триевич Шостако́вич, Dmitriy Dmitrievich Shostakovich, ; 9 August 1975) was a Soviet The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. ...
. * ''Linguistics:'' The
Finnish language Finnish (endonym: ''suomi'' or ) is a Uralic languages, Uralic language of the Finnic languages, Finnic branch spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by Finns, ethnic Finns outside Finland. Finnish is one of the two official lan ...
has fifteen
noun A noun () is a word that functions as the name of a specific object or set of objects, such as living creatures, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.Example nouns for: * Organism, Living creatures (including people, alive, de ...

noun
cases. * ''Mathematics:'' The
hexadecimal In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). ...
system, a common number system used in computer programming, uses 16 digits where the last 6 are usually represented by letters: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, F. * ''Computing – Unicode:'' The minimum possible size of a
Unicode block A Unicode block is one of several contiguous ranges of numeric character codes (code point In character encoding terminology, a code point or code position is any of the numerical values that make up the ''codespace''. Many code points represent ...
is 16 contiguous code points (i.e., U+''abcde''0 - U+''abcde''F). * ''Computing –
UTF-16 UTF-16 (16-bit computing, 16-bit Unicode Transformation Format) is a character encoding capable of encoding all 1,112,064 valid character code points of Unicode (in fact this number of code points is dictated by the design of UTF-16). The encoding ...
/
Unicode Unicode, formally the Unicode Standard, is an information technology standard Standard may refer to: Flags * Colours, standards and guidons * Standard (flag), a type of flag used for personal identification Norm, convention or requiremen ...

Unicode
:'' There are 17 addressable
plane Plane or planes may refer to: * Airplane or aeroplane or informally plane, a powered, fixed-wing aircraft Arts, entertainment and media *Plane (Dungeons & Dragons), Plane (''Dungeons & Dragons''), a location in the multiverse *Plane (Magic: Th ...
s in UTF-16, and, thus, as Unicode is limited to the UTF-16 code space, 17 valid planes in Unicode. * ''Science fiction:'' The
23 enigmaThe 23 enigma is a belief in the significance of the number 23. Origins Robert Anton Wilson Robert Anton Wilson (born Robert Edward Wilson; January 18, 1932 – January 11, 2007) was an American author, futurist and self-described agnostic my ...
plays a prominent role in the plot of ''
The Illuminatus! Trilogy ''The Illuminatus! Trilogy'' is a trilogy, series of three novels by American writers Robert Shea and Robert Anton Wilson, first published in 1975.''Illuminatus!'' was written between 1969 and 1971, but not published until 1975 according to Rob ...
'' by
Robert Shea Robert Joseph Shea (February 14, 1933 – March 10, 1994) was an American novelist A novelist is an author or writer of novels, though often novelists also write in other genres of both fiction and non-fiction. Some novelists are professional nove ...
and
Robert Anton Wilson Robert Anton Wilson (born Robert Edward Wilson; January 18, 1932 – January 11, 2007) was an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States ...

Robert Anton Wilson
. * ''Mathematics:'' e ≈ 23.140692633 * ''Music:'' a combined total of 24 major and minor keys, also the number of works in some musical cycles of J. S. Bach,
Frédéric Chopin Frédéric François Chopin (born Fryderyk Franciszek Chopin; 1 March 181017 October 1849) was a Polish composer and virtuoso A virtuoso (from Italian ''virtuoso'' or , "virtuous", Late Latin Late Latin ( la, Latinitas serior) is the s ...
,
Alexander Scriabin Alexander Nikolayevich Scriabin (; russian: Александр Николаевич Скрябин ; – ) was a Russian composer and pianist. In his early years he was greatly influenced by the music of Frédéric Chopin, and wrote works in a re ...
, and
Dmitri Shostakovich Dmitri Dmitriyevich Shostakovich ( rus, Дми́трий Дми́триевич Шостако́вич, Dmitriy Dmitrievich Shostakovich, ; 9 August 1975) was a Soviet The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. ...
. * ''Alphabetic writing:'' There are 26 letters in the Latin-derived
English alphabet The modern English alphabet is a Latin alphabet consisting of 26  letters, each having an upper- and lower-case form. It originated around the 7th century from Latin script Latin script, also known as Roman script, is a set of grap ...
(excluding letters found only in foreign loanwords). * ''Science fiction:'' The number 42, in by
Douglas Adams Douglas Noel Adams (11 March 1952 – 11 May 2001) was an English author, screenwriter, essayist, humorist, satirist and dramatist. Adams was author of ''The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy'', which originated in 1978 as The Hitchhiker's Guide ...
, is the Answer to the Ultimate Question of Life, the Universe, and Everything which is calculated by an enormous supercomputer over a period of 7.5 million years. * ''Biology:'' Each human cell contains 46
chromosome A chromosome is a long DNA The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid (; DNA) is a molecule File:Pentacene on Ni(111) STM.jpg, A scanning tunneling microscopy image of pentacene molecules, which consist of ...

chromosome
s. * ''Phonology:'' There are 47
phoneme In phonology and linguistics, a phoneme is a unit of sound that distinguishes one word from another in a particular language. For example, in most List of dialects of English, dialects of English, with the notable exception of the West Midlan ...
s in
English phonology Like many other languages, English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventuall ...
in
Received Pronunciation Received Pronunciation (often abbreviated as RP) is the accentAccent may refer to: Speech and language * Accent (sociolinguistics), way of pronunciation particular to a speaker or group of speakers * Accent (phonetics), prominence given to a ...
. * ''
Chess Chess is a board game played between two Player (game), players. It is sometimes called Western chess, or international chess to distinguish it from chess variant, related games such as xiangqi. The current form of the game emerged in Southern ...

Chess
:'' Either player in a chess game can claim a draw if 50 consecutive moves are made by each side without any captures or pawn moves. * ''Demography:'' The population of Nassau Island, part of the
Cook Islands ) , image_map = Cook Islands on the globe (Polynesia centered).svg , capital = Avarua , coordinates = , largest_city = Avarua , official_languages = , languages_type = Spoken languages , languages = , ethnic_groups = , ethnic_gro ...
, is around 78 in 2016. * ''Syllabic writing:'' There are 85 letters in the modern version of the
Cherokee syllabary The Cherokee syllabary is a syllabary In the linguistic Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The tradi ...

Cherokee syllabary
. * ''Music:'' There are 88 keys on a
grand piano The piano is an acoustic Acoustic may refer to: Music Albums * Acoustic (Bayside EP), ''Acoustic'' (Bayside EP) * Acoustic (Britt Nicole EP), ''Acoustic'' (Britt Nicole EP) * Acoustic (Joey Cape and Tony Sly album), ''Acoustic'' (Joey Cape a ...

grand piano
. * ''Computing –
ASCII ASCII ( ), abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication. ASCII codes represent text in computers, telecommunications equipment, and other devices. Most mod ...
:'' There are 95 printable characters in the
ASCII ASCII ( ), abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication. ASCII codes represent text in computers, telecommunications equipment, and other devices. Most mod ...
character set In computing, Computer data storage, data storage, and data transmission, character encoding is used to represent a repertoire of character (computing), characters by some kind of code, encoding system that assigns a number to each character for ...
.


102

(100;
hundred 100 or one hundred (Roman numerals, Roman numeral: C) is the natural number following 99 (number), 99 and preceding 101 (number), 101. In medieval contexts, it may be described as the short hundred or five 20 (number), score in order to differenti ...

hundred
) ISO:
hecto- ''Hecto'' (symbol: h) is a decimal The decimal numeral system A numeral system (or system of numeration) is a writing system A writing system is a method of visually representing verbal communication Communication (from Latin ''comm ...
(h) * ''Music:'' There are 104 numbered symphonies of Franz Josef Haydn. * ''European history:'' Groupings of 100 homesteads were a common administrative unit in Northern Europe and Great Britain (see
Hundred (county division) A hundred is an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are generic names for g ...
). * ''Religion:'' 108 is a sacred number in
Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion and ''dharma'', or way of life. It is the Major religious groups, world's third-largest religion, with over 1.2 billion followers, or 15–16% of the global population, known as Hindus. The word ''Hindu'' is ...

Hinduism
. * ''Chemistry:'' 118
chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of the chemical elements In chemistry, an element is a pure substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nu ...
s have been discovered or synthesized as of 2016. * ''Computing – ASCII:'' There are 128 characters in the
ASCII ASCII ( ), abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication. ASCII codes represent text in computers, telecommunications equipment, and other devices. Most mod ...
character set, including nonprintable
control character In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hardware , hardware and softw ...
s. * ''Phonology:'' The
Taa language Taa , also known as ǃXóõ (also spelled ǃKhong and ǃXoon; ) is a Tuu language notable for its large number of phoneme In phonology and linguistics, a phoneme is a unit of sound that distinguishes one word from another in a particular ...
is estimated to have between 130 and 164 distinct phonemes. * ''Political Science:'' There were 193 member states of the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for har ...

United Nations
as of 2011. * ''Computing:'' A
GIF image
GIF image
(or an
8-bit In computer architecture, 8-bit integer (computer science), integers or other data#Uses of data in computing, data units are those that are 8 bits wide (1 octet). Also, 8-bit central processing unit, CPU and arithmetic logic unit, ALU archi ...
image) supports maximum 256 (=28) colors. * ''Computing – Unicode:'' There are 320 different
Unicode block A Unicode block is one of several contiguous ranges of numeric character codes (code point In character encoding terminology, a code point or code position is any of the numerical values that make up the ''codespace''. Many code points represent ...
s as of Unicode 14.0 (2021). * ''Aviation:'' 583 persons died in the 1977
Tenerife airport disaster On March 27, 1977, two Boeing 747 passenger jets, operating KLM Flight 4805 and Pan Am Flight 1736, collided on the runway According to the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), a runway is a "defined rectangular area on a la ...
, the deadliest accident not caused by deliberate terrorist action in the history of civil aviation. * ''Music:'' The highest number (626) in the
Köchel catalogue The Köchel catalogue (german: Köchel-Verzeichnis, links=no) is a chronological catalogue of compositions by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (27 January 17565 December 1791), baptised as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus ...
of works of
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (27 January 17565 December 1791), baptised as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart, was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical period (music), Classical period. Despite his short life, his ra ...

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
. * ''Demography:'' The
Vatican City Vatican City (), officially the Vatican City State ( it, Stato della Città del Vaticano; la, Status Civitatis Vaticanae),—' * german: Vatikanstadt, cf. '—' (in Austria: ') * pl, Miasto Watykańskie, cf. '—' * pt, Cidade do Vatican ...

Vatican City
, the least populous independent country, has an approximate population of 800 as of 2018.


103

(;
thousand 1000 or one thousand is the natural number In mathematics, the natural numbers are those used for counting (as in "there are ''six'' coins on the table") and total order, ordering (as in "this is the ''third'' largest city in the country"). ...
) ISO:
kilo- Kilo is a decimal The decimal numeral system A numeral system (or system of numeration) is a writing system A writing system is a method of visually representing verbal communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', mean ...
(k) * ''Demography:'' The population of
Ascension Island Ascension Island is an isolated volcanic island, 7°56′ south of the Equator The Earth's equator is an imaginary planetary line that is about long in circumference. The equator divides the planet into the Northern Hemisphere and South ...
is 1,122. * ''Music:'' 1,128: number of known extant works by
Johann Sebastian Bach Johann Sebastian Bach (28 July 1750) was a German composer and musician of the late Baroque music, Baroque period. He is known for instrumental compositions such as the Cello Suites (Bach), Cello Suites and ''Brandenburg Concertos''; keyboard ...

Johann Sebastian Bach
recognized in the
Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis The (BWV; ; ) is a Catalogues of classical compositions, catalogue of compositions by Johann Sebastian Bach. It was first published in 1950, edited by Wolfgang Schmieder. The catalogue's second edition appeared in 1990. An abbreviated version of ...
as of 2017 * ''Typesetting:'' 2,000–3,000
letters Letter, letters, or literature may refer to: Characters typeface * Letter (alphabet) A letter is a segmental symbol A symbol is a mark, sign, or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an idea, Object (philosophy ...
on a typical typed
page Page most commonly refers to: * Page (paper) A page is one side of a leaf A leaf (plural leaves) is the principal lateral appendage of the vascular plant plant stem, stem, usually borne above ground and specialized for photosynthesis. T ...
of text. * ''Mathematics:'' 2,520 (5×7×8×9 or 23×32×5×7) is the
least common multiple In arithmetic Arithmetic (from the Ancient Greek, Greek wikt:en:ἀριθμός#Ancient Greek, ἀριθμός ''arithmos'', 'number' and wikt:en:τική#Ancient Greek, τική wikt:en:τέχνη#Ancient Greek, έχνη ''tiké échne', 'a ...

least common multiple
of every positive integer under (and including) 10. * ''Terrorism:'' 2,996 persons (including 19 terrorists) died in the
terrorist Terrorism, in its broadest sense, is the use of intentional violence to achieve political aims. The term is used in this regard primarily to refer to violence during peacetime Peace is a concept of societal friendship and harmony in the ...
attacks of
September 11, 2001 The September 11 attacks, often referred to as 9/11, were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Wahhabi Wahhabism ( ar, الوهابية, ') is a religious reform movement and doctrine associated with the teachings of ...
. * ''Biology:'' the
DNA The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid (; DNA) is a molecule File:Pentacene on Ni(111) STM.jpg, A scanning tunneling microscopy image of pentacene molecules, which consist of linear chains of five carbon rings ...
of the simplest
virus A virus is a submicroscopic infectious agent that Viral replication, replicates only inside the living Cell (biology), cells of an organism. Viruses infect all types of life forms, from animals and plants to microorganisms, including bacte ...

virus
es has 3,000
base pair A base pair (bp) is a fundamental unit of double-stranded nucleic acids Nucleic acids are biopolymer Biopolymers are natural polymers produced by the cells of Organism, living organisms. Biopolymers consist of monomeric units that are Covalent_b ...
s. * ''Military history'': 4,200 (Republic) or 5,200 (Empire) was the standard size of a
Roman legion The Roman legion ( la, legiō, ) was the largest military unit of the Roman army, composed of 4,200 infantry and 300 equites (cavalry) in the period of the Roman Republic (509 BC–27 BC); and was composed of 5,200 infantry and 120 auxilia in t ...

Roman legion
. * ''Linguistics:'' Estimates for the
linguistic diversity A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an apparent answer to the painful divisions between self and other, private and public, and ...

linguistic diversity
of living human languages or dialects range between 5,000 and 10,000. (
SIL Ethnologue ''Ethnologue: Languages of the World'' (stylized as Ethnoloɠue) is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world. It was first issued in 1951, and is now ...
in 2009 listed 6,909 known living languages.) *''Astronomy – Catalogues:'' There are 7,840
deep-sky object A deep-sky object (DSO) is any astronomical object that is not an individual star or Solar System object (such as Sun, Moon, planet, comet, etc.). The classification is used for the most part by amateur astronomers to denote visually observed faint ...
s in the NGC Catalogue from 1888. * ''Lexicography:'' 8,674 unique words in the Hebrew Bible.


104

(; 10,000, ten thousand or a myriad) * ''Biology:'' Each neuron in the human brain is estimated to connect to 10,000 others. * ''Demography:'' The population of Tuvalu was 10,544 in 2007. * ''Lexicography:'' 14,500 unique English words occur in the King James Version of the Bible. *''Zoology:'' There are approximately 17,500 distinct butterfly species known. * ''Language:'' There are 20,000–40,000 distinct Chinese characters in more than occasional use. * ''Biology:'' Each human being is estimated to have 20,000 Gene, coding genes. * ''Grammar:'' Each regular verb in Cherokee language, Cherokee can have 21,262 inflected preposition, inflected forms. * ''War:'' 22,717 Union and Confederate soldiers were killed, wounded, or missing in the Battle of Antietam, the bloodiest single day of battle in American history. * ''Computing – Unicode:'' 42,720 characters are encoded in CJK Unified Ideographs Extension B, the most of any single public-use
Unicode block A Unicode block is one of several contiguous ranges of numeric character codes (code point In character encoding terminology, a code point or code position is any of the numerical values that make up the ''codespace''. Many code points represent ...
as of Unicode 14.0 (2021). * ''Aviation:'' , 44,000+ airframes have been built of the Cessna 172, the List of most-produced aircraft, most-produced aircraft in history. * ''Computing - Fonts:'' The maximum possible number of glyphs in a TrueType or OpenType font is 65,535 (216-1), the largest number representable by the 16-bit unsigned integer used to record the total number of glyphs in the font. * ''Computing – Unicode:'' A
plane Plane or planes may refer to: * Airplane or aeroplane or informally plane, a powered, fixed-wing aircraft Arts, entertainment and media *Plane (Dungeons & Dragons), Plane (''Dungeons & Dragons''), a location in the multiverse *Plane (Magic: Th ...
contains 65,536 (216) code points; this is also the maximum size of a
Unicode block A Unicode block is one of several contiguous ranges of numeric character codes (code point In character encoding terminology, a code point or code position is any of the numerical values that make up the ''codespace''. Many code points represent ...
, and the total number of code points available in the obsolete UCS-2 encoding. * ''Mathematics:'' 65537 (number), 65,537 is the largest known Fermat prime. * ''Memory:'' , the largest number of decimal places of Pi, π that have been recited from memory is 70,030.


105

(; 100,000, one hundred thousand or a lakh). * ''Demography:'' The population of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines was 100,982 in 2009. * ''Biology – Strands of hair on a head:'' The average human head has about 100,000–150,000 strands of hair. * ''Literature:'' approximately 100,000 verses (shlokas) in the ''Mahabharata''. * ''Computing – Unicode:'' 144,762 characters (including control characters) encoded in Unicode as of version 14.0 (2021). * ''Language:'' 267,000 words in James Joyce's ''Ulysses (novel), Ulysses''. * ''Computing – Unicode:'' 288,512 code points assigned to a
Unicode block A Unicode block is one of several contiguous ranges of numeric character codes (code point In character encoding terminology, a code point or code position is any of the numerical values that make up the ''codespace''. Many code points represent ...
as of Unicode 14.0. * ''Mathematics:'' 294,000 – The approximate number of entries in The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences . * ''Genocide:'' 300,000 people killed in the Rape of Nanking. * ''Language – English words:'' The New Oxford Dictionary of English contains about 360,000 definitions for English language, English words. * ''Biology – Plants:'' There are approximately 390,000 distinct plant species known, of which approximately 20% (or 78,000) are in risk of extinction. *''Biology – Flowers:'' There are approximately 400,000 distinct flower species on Earth. * ''Literature:'' 564,000 words in ''War and Peace'' by Leo Tolstoy. * ''Literature:'' 930,000 words in the King James Version of the Bible. * ''Mathematics:'' There are 933,120 possible combinations on the Pyraminx. * ''Computing – Unicode:'' There are 974,530 publicly-assignable code points (i.e., not surrogates, private-use code points, or noncharacters) in Unicode.


106

(; 10002;
long and short scales The long and short scales are two of several naming systems for integer power of 10, powers of ten which use some of the same terms for different magnitudes. For whole numbers smaller than 1,000,000,000 (109), such as one thousand or one millio ...
: one 1,000,000, million) ISO: mega- (M) * ''Demography:'' The population of Riga, Latvia was 1,003,949 in 2004, according to Eurostat. * ''Computing – UTF-8:'' There are 1,112,064 (220 + 216 - 211) valid UTF-8 sequences (excluding overlong sequences and sequences corresponding to code points used for
UTF-16 UTF-16 (16-bit computing, 16-bit Unicode Transformation Format) is a character encoding capable of encoding all 1,112,064 valid character code points of Unicode (in fact this number of code points is dictated by the design of UTF-16). The encoding ...
surrogates or code points beyond U+10FFFF). * ''Computing –
UTF-16 UTF-16 (16-bit computing, 16-bit Unicode Transformation Format) is a character encoding capable of encoding all 1,112,064 valid character code points of Unicode (in fact this number of code points is dictated by the design of UTF-16). The encoding ...
/Unicode:'' There are 1,114,112 (220 + 216) distinct values encodable in
UTF-16 UTF-16 (16-bit computing, 16-bit Unicode Transformation Format) is a character encoding capable of encoding all 1,112,064 valid character code points of Unicode (in fact this number of code points is dictated by the design of UTF-16). The encoding ...
, and, thus (as Unicode is currently limited to the UTF-16 code space), 1,114,112 valid code points in Unicode (1,112,064 scalar values and 2,048 surrogates). *''Ludology – Number of Games:'' Approximately 1,181,019 video games have been created as of 2019. * ''Biology – Species:'' The World Resources Institute claims that approximately 1.4 million species have been named, out of an unknown number of total species (estimates range between 2 and 100 million species). Some scientists give 8.8 million species as an exact figure. * ''Genocide:'' Approximately 800,000–1,500,000 (1.5 million) Armenians were killed in the Armenian genocide. * ''Linguistics:'' The number of possible grammatical conjugation, conjugations for each verb in the Archi language is 1,502,839. * ''Info:'' The freedb database of Compact Disc, CD track listings has around 1,750,000 entries . * ''War:'' 1,857,619 casualties at the Battle of Stalingrad. * ''Computing – UTF-8:'' 2,164,864 (221 + 216 + 211 + 27) possible one- to four-byte UTF-8 sequences, if the restrictions on overlong sequences, surrogate code points, and code points beyond U+10FFFF are ''not'' adhered to. * ''Mathematics – Playing cards:'' There are 2,598,960 different 5-card poker hands that can be dealt from a standard 52-card deck. * ''Mathematics:'' There are 3,149,280 possible positions for the Skewb. *''Mathematics – Rubik's Cube:'' 3,674,160 is the number of combinations for the Pocket Cube (2×2×2 Rubik's Cube). * ''Info – Web sites:'' As of , , the English Wikipedia contains approximately million articles in the English language. * ''Geography/Computing – Geographic places:'' The NIMA GEOnet Names Server contains approximately 3.88 million named geographic features outside the United States, with 5.34 million names. The USGS Geographic Names Information System claims to have almost 2 million physical and cultural geographic features within the United States. * ''Computing - Supercomputer hardware:'' 4,981,760 processor cores in the final configuration of the Tianhe-2 supercomputer. * ''Genocide:'' Approximately 5,100,000–6,200,000 Jews were killed in the Holocaust.


107

(; a crore;
long and short scales The long and short scales are two of several naming systems for integer power of 10, powers of ten which use some of the same terms for different magnitudes. For whole numbers smaller than 1,000,000,000 (109), such as one thousand or one millio ...
: 10,000,000, ten million) * ''Demography:'' The population of Haiti was 10,085,214 in 2010. * ''Genocide'': An estimated 12 million persons shipped from Africa to the New World in the Atlantic slave trade. * ''Mathematics:'' 12,988,816 is the number of domino tilings of an 8×8 checkerboard. * ''War:'' 15 to 22 million casualties estimated as a result of World War I. * ''Genocide/Famine:'' 15 million is an estimated lower bound for the death toll of the 1959–1961 Great Chinese Famine, the deadliest known famine in human history. * ''Computing:'' 16,777,216 different colors can be generated using the Web colors#Hex triplet, hex code system in HTML (note that the trichromacy, trichromatic color vision of the human eye can only distinguish between about an estimated 1,000,000 different colors). * ''Science Fiction'': In Isaac Asimov's Galactic Empire (Isaac Asimov), Galactic Empire, in 22,500 CE, there are 25,000,000 different inhabited planets in the Galactic Empire, all inhabited by humans in Asimov's "human galaxy" scenario. * ''Internet – YouTube:'' There are estimated to be about 31 million YouTube channels with at least five subscribers, posting 500 hours of video every minute. * ''Genocide/Famine:'' 55 million is an estimated upper bound for the death toll of the Great Chinese Famine. * ''Literature:'' Wikipedia contains a total of around articles in list of Wikipedias, languages as of . * ''War:'' 70 to 85 million casualties estimated as a result of World War II. * ''Mathematics:'' 73,939,133 is the largest right-truncatable prime.


108

(;
long and short scales The long and short scales are two of several naming systems for integer power of 10, powers of ten which use some of the same terms for different magnitudes. For whole numbers smaller than 1,000,000,000 (109), such as one thousand or one millio ...
: 100,000,000, one hundred million) * ''Demography:'' The population of the Philippines was 100,981,437 in 2015. * ''Info – Books:'' The British Library claims that it holds over 150 million items. The Library of Congress claims that it holds approximately 148 million items. See ''The Gutenberg Galaxy''. * ''Video gaming:'' , approximately 200 million copies of ''Minecraft'' (the most-sold video game in history) have been sold. * ''Mathematics:'' More than 215,000,000 mathematical constants are collected on the Simon Plouffe, Plouffe's Inverter . * ''Mathematics:'' 275,305,224 is the number of 5×5 normal magic squares, not counting rotations and reflections. This result was found in 1973 by Richard Schroeppel. *''Demography:'' The population of the United States was 328,239,523 in 2019. * ''Mathematics:'' 358,833,097 stellations of the rhombic triacontahedron. * ''Info – Web sites:'' , the Netcraft web survey estimates that there are 525,998,433 (526 million) distinct websites. * ''Astronomy – Cataloged stars:'' The Guide Star Catalog II has entries on 998,402,801 distinct astronomical objects.


109

(; 10003; short scale: one 1,000,000,000, billion;
long scale The long and short scales are two of several naming systems for integer powers of ten which use some of the same terms for different magnitudes. For whole numbers smaller than 1,000,000,000 (109), such as one thousand or one million, the two sc ...
: one thousand million, or one 1,000,000,000, milliard) ISO: giga- (G) * ''Demography:'' The population of Africa reached 1,000,000,000 sometime in 2009. * ''Demographics – India:'' 1,381,000,000 – approximate population of India in 2020. *''Transportation – Cars:'' , there are approximately 1.4 billion cars in the world, corresponding to around 18% of the human population. * ''Demographics – China:'' 1,439,000,000 – approximate population of the People's Republic of China in 2020. *''Internet – Google:'' There are more than 1,500,000,000 active Gmail users globally. * ''Internet:'' Approximately 1,500,000,000 active users were on Facebook as of October 2015. * ''Computing – Computational limit of a 32-bit Central processing unit, CPU'': 2147483647, 2,147,483,647 is equal to 231−1, and as such is the largest number which can fit into a signed (two's complement) 32-bit integer on a computer. * ''Computing – UTF-8:'' 2,147,483,648 (231) possible code points (U+0000 - U+7FFFFFFF) in the pre-2003 version of UTF-8 (including five- and six-byte sequences), before the UTF-8 code space was limited to the much smaller set of values encodable in
UTF-16 UTF-16 (16-bit computing, 16-bit Unicode Transformation Format) is a character encoding capable of encoding all 1,112,064 valid character code points of Unicode (in fact this number of code points is dictated by the design of UTF-16). The encoding ...
. * ''Biology – base pairs in the genome:'' approximately 3.3
base pair A base pair (bp) is a fundamental unit of double-stranded nucleic acids Nucleic acids are biopolymer Biopolymers are natural polymers produced by the cells of Organism, living organisms. Biopolymers consist of monomeric units that are Covalent_b ...
s in the human genome. * ''Linguistics'': 3,400,000,000 – the total number of speakers of Indo-European languages, of which 2,400,000,000 are native speakers; the other 1,000,000,000 speak Indo-European languages as a second language. * ''Mathematics'' and ''computing'': 4294967295, 4,294,967,295 (232 − 1), the product of the five known Fermat primes and the maximum value for a 32-bit Integer (computer science), unsigned integer in computing. * ''Computing – IPv4:'' 4,294,967,296 (232) possible unique IP addresses. * ''Computing:'' 4,294,967,296 – the number of bytes in 4 gibibytes; in computation, 32-bit computers can directly access 232 units (bytes) of address space, which leads directly to the 4-gigabyte limit on main memory. * ''Mathematics:'' 4,294,967,297 is a Fermat number and semiprime. It is the smallest number of the form 2^+1 which is not a prime number. * ''Demographics – world population:'' 7,862,000,000 – Estimated population for the world as of September 2021.


1010

(; short scale: ten 1,000,000,000, billion;
long scale The long and short scales are two of several naming systems for integer powers of ten which use some of the same terms for different magnitudes. For whole numbers smaller than 1,000,000,000 (109), such as one thousand or one million, the two sc ...
: ten thousand million, or ten 1,000,000,000, milliard) * ''Biology – bacteria in the human body:'' There are roughly 1010 bacteria in the human mouth. * ''Computing – web pages:'' approximately 5.6 web pages indexed by Google as of 2010.


1011

(; short scale: one hundred 1,000,000,000, billion;
long scale The long and short scales are two of several naming systems for integer powers of ten which use some of the same terms for different magnitudes. For whole numbers smaller than 1,000,000,000 (109), such as one thousand or one million, the two sc ...
: hundred thousand million, or hundred 1,000,000,000, milliard) * ''Astronomy:'' There are 100 billion planets located in the Milky Way. * ''Biology – Neurons in the brain:'' approximately (1±0.2) × 1011 neurons in the human brain. * ''Paleodemography – Number of humans that have ever lived'': approximately (1.2±0.3) × 1011 live births of anatomically modern humans since the beginning of the Upper Paleolithic. * ''Astronomy – stars in our galaxy:'' of the order of 1011 stars in the Milky Way galaxy.


1012

(; 10004; short scale: one trillion;
long scale The long and short scales are two of several naming systems for integer powers of ten which use some of the same terms for different magnitudes. For whole numbers smaller than 1,000,000,000 (109), such as one thousand or one million, the two sc ...
: one billion) ISO: tera- (T) * ''Astronomy:'' Andromeda Galaxy, which is part of the same Local Group as Milky Way, our galaxy, contains about 1012 stars. * ''Biology – Bacteria on the human body:'' The surface of the human body houses roughly 1012 bacteria. * ''Astronomy – Galaxies'': A 2016 estimate says there are 2 × 1012 list of galaxies, galaxies in the observable universe. * ''Biology – Blood cells in the human body:'' The average human body has 2.5 × 1012 red blood cells. * ''Biology:'' An estimate says there were 3.04 × 1012 trees on Earth in 2015. * ''Marine biology'': 3,500,000,000,000 (3.5 × 1012) – estimated population of fish in the ocean. * ''Mathematics'': 7,625,597,484,987 – a number that often appears when dealing with Exponentiation, powers of 3. It can be expressed as 19683^3, 27^9, 3^, 3^ and 33 or when using Knuth's up-arrow notation it can be expressed as 3 \uparrow\uparrow 3 and 3 \uparrow\uparrow\uparrow 2 . * ''Mathematics:'' 1013 – The approximate number of known non-trivial zeros of the Riemann zeta function . * ''Mathematics – Known digits of :'' , the number of known digits of π is 31,415,926,535,897 (the integer part of π). * ''Biology'' – approximately 1014 synapses in the human brain. * ''Astronomy:'' IC 1101, a supergiant elliptical galaxy located inside the Abell 2029, Abell 2029 cluster, is estimated to have approximately 100 trillion (1014) stars inside the galaxy, making it the largest known galaxy in the Observable universe, universe. * ''Biology – Cells in the human body:'' The human body consists of roughly 1014 cell (biology), cells, of which only 1013 are human. The remaining 90% non-human cells (though much smaller and constituting much less mass) are human flora, bacteria, which mostly reside in the gastrointestinal tract, although the skin is also covered in bacteria. * ''Cryptography:'' 150,738,274,937,250 configurations of the plug-board of the Enigma machine used by the Germans in WW2 to encode and decode messages by cipher. * ''Computing – MAC-48:'' 281,474,976,710,656 (248) possible unique physical addresses. * ''Mathematics:'' 953,467,954,114,363 is the largest known Motzkin prime.


1015

(; 10005; short scale: one Names of large numbers, quadrillion;
long scale The long and short scales are two of several naming systems for integer powers of ten which use some of the same terms for different magnitudes. For whole numbers smaller than 1,000,000,000 (109), such as one thousand or one million, the two sc ...
: one thousand billion, or one billiard) ISO: peta- (P) * ''Biology – Insects'': 1,000,000,000,000,000 to 10,000,000,000,000,000 (1015 to 1016) – The estimated total number of ants on Earth alive at any one time (their Biomass (ecology), biomass is approximately equal to the total biomass of the human, human species). * ''Computing:'' 9,007,199,254,740,992 (253) – number until which all integer values can exactly be represented in IEEE double precision floating-point format. * ''Mathematics:'' 48,988,659,276,962,496 is the fifth taxicab number. * ''Science Fiction'': In Isaac Asimov's Galactic Empire (Isaac Asimov), Galactic Empire, in what we call 22,500 CE there are 25,000,000 different inhabited planets in the Galactic Empire, all inhabited by humans in Asimov's "human galaxy" scenario, each with an average population of 2,000,000,000, thus yielding a total Galactic Empire population of approximately 50,000,000,000,000,000. * ''Science Fiction'': There are approximately 1017 sentient beings in the ''Star Wars'' galaxy. * ''Cryptography:'' There are 256 = 72,057,594,037,927,936 different possible keys in the obsolete 56-bit Data Encryption Standard, DES symmetric cipher.


1018

(; 10006; short scale: one quintillion;
long scale The long and short scales are two of several naming systems for integer powers of ten which use some of the same terms for different magnitudes. For whole numbers smaller than 1,000,000,000 (109), such as one thousand or one million, the two sc ...
: one trillion) ISO: exa- (E) * ''Mathematics:'' Goldbach's conjecture has been Goldbach's conjecture#Verified results, verified for all ''n'' ≤ 4 by a project which computed all prime numbers up to that limit. * ''Computing – Manufacturing:'' An estimated 6 transistors were produced worldwide in 2008. * ''Computing – Computational limit of a 64-bit Central processing unit, CPU'': 9,223,372,036,854,775,807 (about 9.22) is equal to 263−1, and as such is the largest number which can fit into a signed (two's complement) 64-bit integer on a computer. * ''Mathematics – NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship, NCAA Basketball Tournament:'' There are 9,223,372,036,854,775,808 (263) possible ways to enter the Bracketology, bracket. * ''Mathematics – Radix, Bases:'' 9,439,829,801,208,141,318 (≈9.44) is the 10th and (by conjecture) largest number with more than one digit that can be written from base 2 to base 18 using only the digits 0 to 9, meaning the digits for 10 to 17 are not needed in bases above 10. * ''Biology – Insects:'' It has been estimated that the insect population of the Earth is about 1019. * ''Mathematics – Answer to the wheat and chessboard problem:'' When doubling the grains of wheat on each successive square of a chessboard, beginning with one grain of wheat on the first square, the final number of grains of wheat on all 64 squares of the chessboard when added up is 264−1 = 18,446,744,073,709,551,615 (≈1.84). * ''Mathematics – Legends:'' The Tower of Brahma legend tells about a Hindu temple containing a large room with three posts, on one of which are 64 golden discs, and the object of the mathematical game is for the Brahmins in this temple to move all of the discs to another pole so that they are in the same order, never placing a larger disc above a smaller disc, moving only one at a time. Using the simplest algorithm for moving the disks, it would take 264−1 = 18,446,744,073,709,551,615 (≈1.84) turns to complete the task (the same number as the wheat and chessboard problem above). * ''Computing – IPv6:'' 18,446,744,073,709,551,616 (264; ≈1.84) possible unique /64 subnetworks. * ''Mathematics – Rubik's Cube:'' There are 43,252,003,274,489,856,000 (≈4.33) different positions of a 3×3×3 Rubik's Cube. * ''Password strength:'' Usage of the 95-character set found on standard computer keyboards for a 10-character password yields a computationally intractability (complexity), intractable 59,873,693,923,837,890,625 (9510, approximately 5.99) permutations. * ''Economics:'' Hyperinflation in Zimbabwe estimated in February 2009 by some economists at 10 sextillion percent, or a factor of 1020.


1021

(; 10007; short scale: one sextillion;
long scale The long and short scales are two of several naming systems for integer powers of ten which use some of the same terms for different magnitudes. For whole numbers smaller than 1,000,000,000 (109), such as one thousand or one million, the two sc ...
: one thousand trillion, or one trilliard) ISO: zetta- (Z) * ''Geo – Grains of sand:'' All the world's beaches combined have been estimated to hold roughly 1021 grains of sand. * ''Computing – Manufacturing:'' Intel predicted that there would be 1.2 transistors in the world by 2015 and Forbes estimated that 2.9 transistors had been shipped up to 2014. * ''Mathematics – Sudoku:'' There are 6,670,903,752,021,072,936,960 (≈6.7) 9×9 sudoku grids. * ''Astronomy – Stars:'' 70 sextillion = 7, the estimated number of stars within range of telescopes (as of 2003). * ''Astronomy – Stars:'' in the range of 1023 to 1024 stars in the observable universe. * ''Mathematics:'' 146,361,946,186,458,562,560,000 (≈1.5) is the fifth unitary perfect number. * ''Mathematics:'' 357,686,312,646,216,567,629,137 (≈3.6) is the largest left-truncatable prime. * ''Chemistry – Physics:'' The Avogadro constant () is the number of constituents (e.g. atoms or molecules) in one mole (unit), mole of a substance, defined for convenience as expressing the order of magnitude separating the molecular from the macroscopic scale.


1024

(; 10008; short scale: one septillion;
long scale The long and short scales are two of several naming systems for integer powers of ten which use some of the same terms for different magnitudes. For whole numbers smaller than 1,000,000,000 (109), such as one thousand or one million, the two sc ...
: one quadrillion) ISO: yotta- (Y) * ''Mathematics:'' 2,833,419,889,721,787,128,217,599 (≈2.8) is the fifth Woodall prime. * ''Mathematics:'' 3,608,528,850,368,400,786,036,725 (≈3.6) is the largest polydivisible number. * ''Mathematics:'' 286 = 77,371,252,455,336,267,181,195,264 is the largest known power of two not containing the digit '0' in its decimal representation.


1027

(; 10009; short scale: one octillion;
long scale The long and short scales are two of several naming systems for integer powers of ten which use some of the same terms for different magnitudes. For whole numbers smaller than 1,000,000,000 (109), such as one thousand or one million, the two sc ...
: one thousand quadrillion, or one quadrilliard) * ''Biology – Atoms in the human body:'' the average human body contains roughly 7 atoms. * ''Mathematics – Poker:'' the number of unique combinations of hands and shared cards in a 10-player game of Texas hold 'em is approximately 2.117.


1030

(; 100010; short scale: one nonillion;
long scale The long and short scales are two of several naming systems for integer powers of ten which use some of the same terms for different magnitudes. For whole numbers smaller than 1,000,000,000 (109), such as one thousand or one million, the two sc ...
: one quintillion) * ''Biology – Bacterial cells on Earth:'' The number of bacterial cells on Earth is estimated at around 5,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000, or 5 × 1030. * ''Mathematics:'' 5,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,027 is the largest v:quasi-minimal prime, quasi-minimal prime. * ''Mathematics:'' The number of partition of a set, partitions of 1000 is 24,061,467,864,032,622,473,692,149,727,991. * ''Mathematics:'' 368 = 278,128,389,443,693,511,257,285,776,231,761 is the largest known power of three not containing the digit '0' in its decimal representation. * ''Mathematics:'' 2108 = 324,518,553,658,426,726,783,156,020,576,256 is the largest known power of two not containing the digit '9' in its decimal representation.


1033

(; 100011; short scale: one decillion;
long scale The long and short scales are two of several naming systems for integer powers of ten which use some of the same terms for different magnitudes. For whole numbers smaller than 1,000,000,000 (109), such as one thousand or one million, the two sc ...
: one thousand quintillion, or one quintilliard) * ''Mathematics – Alexander's Star:'' There are 72,431,714,252,715,638,411,621,302,272,000,000 (about 7.24) different positions of Alexander's Star.


1036

(; 100012; short scale: one undecillion;
long scale The long and short scales are two of several naming systems for integer powers of ten which use some of the same terms for different magnitudes. For whole numbers smaller than 1,000,000,000 (109), such as one thousand or one million, the two sc ...
: one sextillion) * ''Physics'': ''Coulomb's constant, ke Elementary charge, e2 / Gravitational constant, Gm2'', the ratio of the electromagnetic force, electromagnetic to the gravitational forces between two protons, is roughly 1036. * ''Mathematics:'' 227-1-1 = 170,141,183,460,469,231,731,687,303,715,884,105,727 (≈1.7) is the largest known double Mersenne prime. * ''Computing:'' 2128 = 340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456 (≈3.40282367), the theoretical maximum number of Internet addresses that can be allocated under the IPv6 addressing system, one more than the largest value that can be represented by a single-precision IEEE floating-point value, the total number of different Universally Unique Identifiers (UUIDs) that can be generated. * ''Cryptography:'' 2128 = 340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456 (≈3.40282367), the total number of different possible keys in the Advanced Encryption Standard, AES 128-bit key space (cryptography), key space (symmetric cipher).


1039

(; 100013; short scale: one duodecillion;
long scale The long and short scales are two of several naming systems for integer powers of ten which use some of the same terms for different magnitudes. For whole numbers smaller than 1,000,000,000 (109), such as one thousand or one million, the two sc ...
: one thousand sextillion, or one sextilliard) * ''Cosmology:'' The Eddington–Dirac number is roughly 1040. * ''Mathematics:'' Primorial, 97# × 25 × 33 × 5 × 7 = 69,720,375,229,712,477,164,533,808,935,312,303,556,800 (≈6.97) is the
least common multiple In arithmetic Arithmetic (from the Ancient Greek, Greek wikt:en:ἀριθμός#Ancient Greek, ἀριθμός ''arithmos'', 'number' and wikt:en:τική#Ancient Greek, τική wikt:en:τέχνη#Ancient Greek, έχνη ''tiké échne', 'a ...

least common multiple
of every integer from 1 to 100.


1042 to 10100

(; 100014; short scale: one tredecillion;
long scale The long and short scales are two of several naming systems for integer powers of ten which use some of the same terms for different magnitudes. For whole numbers smaller than 1,000,000,000 (109), such as one thousand or one million, the two sc ...
: one septillion) * ''Mathematics:'' 141×2141+1 = 393,050,634,124,102,232,869,567,034,555,427,371,542,904,833 (≈3.93) is the second Cullen prime. * ''Mathematics:'' There are 7,401,196,841,564,901,869,874,093,974,498,574,336,000,000,000 (≈7.4) possible permutations for the Rubik's Revenge (4×4×4 Rubik's Cube). * ''Chess'': 4.52 is a proven upper bound for the number of legal chess positions. * ''Geo'': 1.33 is the estimated number of atoms in Earth. * ''Mathematics:'' 2168 = 374,144,419,156,711,147,060,143,317,175,368,453,031,918,731,001,856 is the largest known power of two which is not Pandigital number, pandigital: There is no digit '2' in its decimal representation. * ''Mathematics:'' 3106 = 375,710,212,613,636,260,325,580,163,599,137,907,799,836,383,538,729 is the largest known power of three which is not pandigital: There is no digit '4'. * ''Mathematics:'' 808,017,424,794,512,875,886,459,904,961,710,757,005,754,368,000,000,000 (≈8.08) is the Order (group theory), order of the monster group. * ''Cryptography:'' 2192 = 6,277,101,735,386,680,763,835,789,423,207,666,416,102,355,444,464,034,512,896 (6.27710174), the total number of different possible keys in the Advanced Encryption Standard, AES 192-bit key space (cryptography), key space (symmetric cipher). * ''Cosmology:'' 8 is roughly the number of Planck time intervals since the universe is theorised to have been created in the Big Bang 13.799 ± 0.021 1000000000 (number), billion years ago. * ''Cosmology:'' 1 is Archimedes' estimate in ''The Sand Reckoner'' of the total number of grains of sand that could fit into the entire cosmos, the diameter of which he estimated in stadion (unit), stadia to be what we call 2 light-years. * ''Mathematics – Cards:'' 52factorial, ! = 80,658,175,170,943,878,571,660,636,856,403,766,975,289,505,440,883,277,824,000,000,000,000 (≈8.07) – the number of ways to order the Playing card, cards in a 52-card deck. * ''Mathematics:'' There are ≈1.01×1068 possible combinations for the Megaminx. * ''Mathematics:'' 1,808,422,353,177,349,564,546,512,035,512,530,001,279,481,259,854,248,860,454,348,989,451,026,887 (≈1.81) – The largest known prime factor found by Lenstra elliptic-curve factorization, ECM factorization . * ''Mathematics:'' There are 282,870,942,277,741,856,536,180,333,107,150,328,293,127,731,985,672,134,721,536,000,000,000,000,000 (≈2.83) possible permutations for the Professor's Cube (5×5×5 Rubik's Cube). * ''Cryptography:'' 2256 = 115,792,089,237,316,195,423,570,985,008,687,907,853,269,984,665,640,564,039,457,584,007,913,129,639,936 (≈1.15792089), the total number of different possible keys in the Advanced Encryption Standard, AES 256-bit key space (cryptography), key space (symmetric cipher). * ''Cosmology:'' Various sources estimate the total number of fundamental particles in the observable universe to be within the range of 1080 to 1085.WMAP- Content of the Universe
. Map.gsfc.nasa.gov (2010-04-16). Retrieved on 2011-05-01.
However, these estimates are generally regarded as guesswork. (Compare the Eddington number, the estimated total number of protons in the observable universe.) * ''Computing:'' 9.999 999 is equal to the largest value that can be represented in the IEEE decimal32 floating-point format. * ''Computing:'' 69! (roughly 1.7112245), is the highest factorial value that can be represented on a calculator with two digits for powers of ten without overflow. * ''Mathematics:'' One googol, 1, 1 followed by one hundred zeros, or 10,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000.


10100 (one googol) to 101000

(; short scale: ten duotrigintillion;
long scale The long and short scales are two of several naming systems for integer powers of ten which use some of the same terms for different magnitudes. For whole numbers smaller than 1,000,000,000 (109), such as one thousand or one million, the two sc ...
: ten thousand sexdecillion, or ten sexdecillard) * ''Mathematics:'' There are 157 152 858 401 024 063 281 013 959 519 483 771 508 510 790 313 968 742 344 694 684 829 502 629 887 168 573 442 107 637 760 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 (≈1.57) distinguishable permutations of the V-Cube 6 (6×6×6 Rubik's Cube). * ''Chess:'' Shannon number, 10120, a lower bound of the game-tree complexity of chess. * ''Physics:'' 10120, Cosmological constant problem, discrepancy between the observed value of the cosmological constant and a naive estimate based on Quantum Field Theory and the Planck energy. * ''Physics:'' 8, ratio of the mass-energy in the observable universe to the energy of a photon with a wavelength the size of the observable universe. * ''Mathematics:'' 19 568 584 333 460 072 587 245 340 037 736 278 982 017 213 829 337 604 336 734 362 294 738 647 777 395 483 196 097 971 852 999 259 921 329 236 506 842 360 439 300 (≈1.96) is the period of Fermat pseudoprime, primary pretenders. * ''History – Religion:'' Asaṃkhyeya is a Buddhism, Buddhist name for the number 10140. It is listed in the Avatamsaka Sutra and metaphorically means "innumerable" in the Sanskrit language of History of India, ancient India. * ''Xiangqi:'' 10150, an estimation of the game-tree complexity of xiangqi. * ''Mathematics:'' There are 19 500 551 183 731 307 835 329 126 754 019 748 794 904 992 692 043 434 567 152 132 912 323 232 706 135 469 180 065 278 712 755 853 360 682 328 551 719 137 311 299 993 600 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 (≈1.95) distinguishable permutations of the V-Cube 7 (7×7×7 Rubik's Cube). * ''Go:'' There are 208 168 199 381 979 984 699 478 633 344 862 770 286 522 453 884 530 548 425 639 456 820 927 419 612 738 015 378 525 648 451 698 519 643 907 259 916 015 628 128 546 089 888 314 427 129 715 319 317 557 736 620 397 247 064 840 935 (≈2.08) legal positions in the game of Go. See Go and mathematics. * ''Economics:'' The annualized rate of the Hungarian pengő#Hyperinflation, hyperinflation in Hungary in 1946 was estimated to be 2.9%. It was the most extreme case of hyperinflation ever recorded. * ''Board games:'' 3.457, number of ways to arrange the tiles in English-language Scrabble, English Scrabble on a standard 15-by-15 Scrabble board. * ''Physics:'' 10186, approximate number of Planck volumes in the observable universe. * ''Shogi:'' 10226, an estimation of the game-tree complexity of shogi. * ''Physics:'' 7, approximate spacetime volume of the history of the observable universe in Planck units. * ''Computing:'' 1.797 693 134 862 315 807 is approximately equal to the largest value that can be represented in the IEEE double precision floating-point format. * ''Computing:'' (10 – 10−15) is equal to the largest value that can be represented in the IEEE decimal64 floating-point format. * ''Mathematics:'' Primorial, 997# × 31# × 25 × 34 × 54 × 7 = 7 128 865 274 665 093 053 166 384 155 714 272 920 668 358 861 885 893 040 452 001 991 154 324 087 581 111 499 476 444 151 913 871 586 911 717 817 019 575 256 512 980 264 067 621 009 251 465 871 004 305 131 072 686 268 143 200 196 609 974 862 745 937 188 343 705 015 434 452 523 739 745 298 963 145 674 982 128 236 956 232 823 794 011 068 809 262 317 708 861 979 540 791 247 754 558 049 326 475 737 829 923 352 751 796 735 248 042 463 638 051 137 034 331 214 781 746 850 878 453 485 678 021 888 075 373 249 921 995 672 056 932 029 099 390 891 687 487 672 697 950 931 603 520 000 (≈7.13) is the
least common multiple In arithmetic Arithmetic (from the Ancient Greek, Greek wikt:en:ἀριθμός#Ancient Greek, ἀριθμός ''arithmos'', 'number' and wikt:en:τική#Ancient Greek, τική wikt:en:τέχνη#Ancient Greek, έχνη ''tiké échne', 'a ...

least common multiple
of every integer from 1 to 1000.


101000 to 1010100 (one googolplex)

* ''Mathematics:'' There are approximately 1.869 distinguishable permutations of the world's largest Rubik's cube (33×33×33). * ''Computing:'' 1.189 731 495 357 231 765 05 is approximately equal to the largest value that can be represented in the IEEE 80-bit x86 extended precision floating-point format. * ''Computing:'' 1.189 731 495 357 231 765 085 759 326 628 007 0 is approximately equal to the largest value that can be represented in the IEEE quadruple-precision floating-point format. * ''Computing:'' (10 – 10−33) is equal to the largest value that can be represented in the IEEE decimal128 floating-point format. * ''Computing:'' 1010,000 − 1 is equal to the largest value that can be represented in Windows Phone's calculator. * ''Mathematics:'' 26384405 + 44052638 is a 15,071-digit Leyland number, Leyland prime; the largest which has been proven . * ''Mathematics:'' 3,756,801,695,685 × 2666,669 ± 1 are 200,700-digit twin primes; the largest known . * ''Mathematics:'' 18,543,637,900,515 × 2666,667 − 1 is a 200,701-digit Sophie Germain prime; the largest known . * ''Mathematics:'' approximately 7.76 × 10206,544 cattle in the smallest herd which satisfies the conditions of Archimedes's cattle problem. * ''Mathematics:'' 10474,500 + 999 × 10237,249 + 1 is a 474,501-digit palindromic prime, the largest known . * ''Mathematics:'' 2,996,863,034,895 × 21,290,000±1 are 388,342-digit twin primes; the largest known . * ''Mathematics:'' 1,098,133# – 1 is a 476,311-digit primorial prime; the largest known . * ''Mathematics:'' 208,003! − 1 is a 1,015,843-digit factorial prime; the largest known . * ''Mathematics – Literature:'' Jorge Luis Borges' Library of Babel contains at least 251,312,000 ≈ 1.956 × 101,834,097 books (this is a lower bound). * ''Mathematics:'' 4 × 721,119,849 − 1 is the smallest prime of the form 4×72''n''−1 * ''Mathematics:'' (215,135,397+1)/3 is a 4,556,209-digit Wagstaff prime, Wagstaff probable prime, the largest known . * ''Mathematics:'' 1,059,0941,048,576 + 1 is a 6,317,602-digit Generalized Fermat prime, the largest known . * ''Mathematics:'' (108,177,207−1)/9 is a 8,177,207-digit probable prime, the largest known . * ''Mathematics:'' 10,223 × 231,172,165 + 1 is a 9,383,761-digit Proth prime, the largest known Proth prime and non-Mersenne prime . * ''Mathematics:'' 282,589,933 − 1 is a 24,862,048-digit Mersenne prime; the largest known prime of any kind .Chris Caldwell
The Top Twenty: Largest Known Primes
at The Prime Pages.
* ''Mathematics:'' 282,589,932 × (282,589,933 − 1) is a 49,724,095-digit perfect number, the largest known as of 2020. * ''Mathematics – History:'' 108×1016, largest named number in Archimedes' ''The Sand Reckoner, Sand Reckoner''. * ''Mathematics:'' 10googol (10^), a googolplex. A number 1 followed by 1 googol zeros. Carl Sagan has estimated that 1 googolplex, fully written out, would not fit in the observable universe because of its size, while also noting that one could also write the number as 1010100.


Larger than 1010100

(One googolplex; 10googol; short scale: googolplex;
long scale The long and short scales are two of several naming systems for integer powers of ten which use some of the same terms for different magnitudes. For whole numbers smaller than 1,000,000,000 (109), such as one thousand or one million, the two sc ...
: googolplex) * ''Mathematics – Literature:'' The number of different ways in which the books in Jorge Luis Borges' The Library of Babel, Library of Babel can be arranged is approximately 10^, the factorial of the number of books in the Library of Babel. * ''Cosmology:'' In Chaotic Inflation theory, chaotic inflation theory, proposed by physicist Andrei Linde, our universe is one of many other universes with different physical constants that originated as part of our local section of the Multiverse#Bubble theory, multiverse, owing to a vacuum that had not decayed to its ground state. According to Linde and Vanchurin, the total number of these universes is about 10^. * ''Mathematics:'' 10^, order of magnitude of an upper bound that occurred in a Skewes' number, proof of Skewes (this was later estimated to be closer to 1.397 × 10316). *''Cosmology:'' The estimated number of Planck time, Planck time units for quantum fluctuations and quantum tunnelling, tunnelling to generate a new Big Bang is estimated to be 10^. * ''Mathematics:'' 10^, a number in Names of large numbers#The googol family, the googol family called a googolplexplex, googolplexian, or googolduplex. 1 followed by a googolplex zeros, or 10googolplex * ''Mathematics:'' 10^, order of magnitude of another upper bound in a proof of Stanley Skewes, Skewes. * ''Mathematics:'' Steinhaus' Steinhaus–Moser notation#Mega, mega lies between 10[4]257 and 10[4]258 (where ''a''[''n'']''b'' is hyperoperation). * ''Mathematics:'' Moser's number, "2 in a mega-gon" in Steinhaus–Moser notation, is approximately equal to 10[10[4]257]10, the last four digits are ...1056. * ''Mathematics:'' Graham's number, the last ten digits of which are ...2464195387, equals 3[3[3[...3[3[3[6]3+2]3+2]3...]3+2]3+2]3 with 64 levels of brackets. Arises as an upper bound solution to a problem in Ramsey theory. Representation in powers of 10 would be impractical (the number of 10s in the power tower 10^ would be virtually indistinguishable from the number itself). * ''Mathematics:'' Kruskal's tree theorem, TREE(3): appears in relation to a theorem on trees in graph theory. Representation of the number is difficult, but one weak lower bound is ''A''''A''(187196)(1), where A(n) is a version of the Ackermann function. * ''Mathematics:'' Friedman's SSCG function, SSCG(3): appears in relation to the Robertson–Seymour theorem. Known to be greater than both TREE(3) and the TREE function nested inside itself TREE(3) times with TREE(3) at the bottom. * ''Mathematics:'' Transcendental integers: a set of numbers defined in 2000 by Harvey Friedman, appears in proof theory.H. Friedman
Enormous integers in real life
(accessed 2021-02-06)


See also

* Conway chained arrow notation * Wikipedia:Size comparisons, Encyclopedic size comparisons on Wikipedia * Fast-growing hierarchy * Large numbers * List of numbers * Mathematical constant * Names of large numbers * Names of small numbers * Power of 10


References


External links

* Seth Lloyd's pape
''Computational capacity of the universe''
provides a number of interesting dimensionless quantities.

* {{DEFAULTSORT:Orders Of Magnitude (Numbers) Orders of magnitude, Numbers