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Tokyo (
Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat = Imperial Seal of J ...

Japanese
: , ''Tōkyō'' ), historically known in the west as Tokio and officially the Tokyo Metropolis (, ''Tōkyō-to''), is
the capital ''The Capital'' is a daily newspaper A newspaper is a Periodical literature, periodical publication containing written News, information about current events and is often typed in black ink with a white or gray background. Newspapers can ...
and most populous
prefecture of Japan
prefecture of Japan
. Located at the head of
Tokyo Bay is a bay located in the southern Kantō region The is a geographical Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republ ...

Tokyo Bay
, the prefecture forms part of the
Kantō region The is a geographical Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its ...
on the central Pacific coast of
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
's main island of
Honshu , historically called , is the largest and most populous main island of Japan. It is located south of Hokkaido, Hokkaidō across the Tsugaru Strait, north of Shikoku across the Seto Inland Sea, Inland Sea, and northeast of Kyushu, Kyūshū acros ...
. Tokyo is the political and economic center of the country, as well as the seat of the
Emperor of Japan The Emperor of Japan is the monarch and the head of the Imperial House of Japan, Imperial Family of Japan. Under the Constitution of Japan, he is defined as the symbol of the Japanese state and the unity of the Japanese people, and his position ...
and the national government. , the prefecture has an estimated population of 14.04 million. The
Greater Tokyo Area The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated core city, urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories under the same administrative div ...

Greater Tokyo Area
is the in the world, with an estimated 37.468 million residents in 2018. Originally a fishing village, named
Edo Edo ( ja, , , "bay-entrance" or "estuary"), also Romanization of Japanese, romanized as Jedo, Yedo or Yeddo, is the geographical renaming, former name of Tokyo. Edo, formerly a ''jōkamachi'' (castle town) centered on Edo Castle located in Musas ...

Edo
, the city became a prominent political center in 1603, when it became the seat of the
Tokugawa shogunate The Tokugawa shogunate (, Japanese 徳川幕府 ''Tokugawa bakufu''), also known as the , was the military government {{Systems of government Military dictatorships A military government is generally any government A government is th ...

Tokugawa shogunate
. By the mid-18th century, Edo was one of the most populous cities in the world at over one million. Following the end of the shogunate in 1868, the imperial capital in
Kyoto Kyoto (; : , ''Kyōto'' ), officially , is the capital city of in . Located in the on the island of , Kyoto forms a part of the along with and . As of 2021, the city has a population of 1.45 million, making up 57% of the prefecture's total p ...

Kyoto
was moved to the city, which was renamed Tokyo (literally "eastern capital"). Tokyo was devastated by the
1923 Great Kantō earthquake The struck the Kantō Plain on the main Japanese island of Honshū at 11:58:44 JST (02:58:44 UTC) on Saturday, September 1, 1923. Varied accounts indicate the duration of the earthquake was between four and ten minutes. Extensive firestorms and e ...
, and again by Allied bombing raids during
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
. Beginning in the 1950s, the city underwent rapid reconstruction and expansion, going on to lead Japan's post-war economic recovery. Since 1943, the
Tokyo Metropolitan Government The is the government of the Tokyo Metropolis Tokyo (Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circl ...
has administered the prefecture's
23 special wards are a special form of municipalities A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level s ...
(formerly
Tokyo City was a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordi ...
), various bed towns and
suburb A suburb (or suburban area or suburbia) is a , or . It can exist either as part of a city/urban area and can often have a large degree of employment. In some metropolitan areas they exist as separate residential communities within distan ...
s in the western area, and two outlying island chains. Tokyo is the largest urban economy in the world by gross domestic product, and is categorized as an Alpha+ city by the
Globalization and World Cities Research Network The Globalization and World Cities Research Network, commonly abbreviated to GaWC, is a think tank A think tank, or policy institute, is a research institute A research institute, research centre, or research center is an establishment founded for ...
. Part of an industrial region that includes the cities of
Yokohama is the List of cities in Japan, second-largest city in Japan by population and the most populous Municipalities of Japan, municipality of Japan. It is the capital city and the most populous city in Kanagawa Prefecture, with a 2020 population ...

Yokohama
, Kawasaki, and Chiba, Tokyo is Japan's leading center of business and finance. In 2019, it hosted 36 of the ''Fortune'' Global 500 companies. In 2020, it ranked fourth on the
Global Financial Centres Index The Global Financial Centres Index (GFCI) is a ranking of the competitiveness of financial centres based on over 29,000 financial centre assessments from an online questionnaire together with over 100 indices from organisations such as the World ...
, behind
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
,
London London is the Capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. It stands on the River Thames in south-east England at the head of a estuary down to the North Sea, and has b ...

London
, and
Shanghai Shanghai (, , Standard Chinese, Standard Mandarin pronunciation: ) is one of the four Direct-administered municipalities of China, direct-administered municipalities of the China, People's Republic of China. The city is located on the sou ...

Shanghai
. Tokyo has the world's tallest tower,
Tokyo Skytree is a broadcasting and observation tower A tower is a tall structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelate ...

Tokyo Skytree
, and the world's largest underground floodwater diversion facility, . The
Tokyo Metro Ginza Line The is a subway line in Tokyo Tokyo ( , ; Japanese language, Japanese: 東京, ''Tōkyō'' ), officially the Tokyo Metropolis (Japanese language, Japanese: 東京都, ''Tōkyō-to''), is the capital of Japan, de facto capitalNo Japanese ...
is the oldest underground metro line in East Asia (1927). The city has hosted multiple international events, including the 1964 Summer Olympics and
Paralympics The Paralympic Games or Paralympics, also known as the ''Games of the Paralympiad'', is a periodic series of international s involving athletes with a range of physical , including impaired muscle power (e.g. and , , ), impaired passive range ...
, the postponed
2020 Summer Olympics The , officially the , and also known as , is an upcoming international multi-sport event scheduled to be held from 23 July to 8 August 2021 in Tokyo, Japan. Originally due to take place from 24 July to 9 August 2020, the ...
and
Paralympics The Paralympic Games or Paralympics, also known as the ''Games of the Paralympiad'', is a periodic series of international s involving athletes with a range of physical , including impaired muscle power (e.g. and , , ), impaired passive range ...
and three G7 Summits (1979, 1986, and 1993). Tokyo is an international center of
research and development Research and development (R&D, R+D), known in Europe as research and technological development (RTD), is the set of innovative activities undertaken by corporations or governments in developing new services or products and improving existing o ...
and is represented by several major
universities A university () is an of (or ) and which awards s in several . Universities typically offer both and programs in different schools or faculties of learning. The word ''university'' is derived from the ''universitas magistrorum et scholari ...
, notably the
University of Tokyo , abbreviated as or UTokyo, is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of deliberately managing the release and spread of information between an individual or an organization (such as a business, government a ...
.
Tokyo Station Tokyo Station ( ja, 東京駅, ) is a railway station in Chiyoda, Tokyo is a Special wards of Tokyo, special ward located in central Tokyo, Japan. It is known as Chiyoda City in English language, English.
is the central hub for Japan's
Shinkansen The , colloquially known in English as the bullet train, is a network of way lines in . Initially, it was built to connect distant Japanese regions with , the capital, to aid economic growth and development. Beyond long-distance travel, some ...

Shinkansen
bullet train system, and the city is served by an extensive network of rail and subways. Notable districts of Tokyo include
Chiyoda is Japanese language, Japanese for "field of a thousand generations", and may refer to: Japanese places *Chiyoda, Gunma, Japan *Chiyoda, Hiroshima, Japan *Chiyoda, Ibaraki, Japan *Chiyoda, Saga, Japan *Chiyoda, Tokyo, a special ward in central (a ...
(the site of the ),
Shinjuku (: ) is a in , . It is a major commercial and administrative centre, housing the northern half of the busiest railway station in the world () and the , the administration centre for the . As of 2018, the ward has an estimated of 346,235, and ...

Shinjuku
(the city's administrative center), and
Shibuya Shibuya (渋谷 Shibuya ( 渋谷 区 ''Shibuya-ku'') is a special ward in Tokyo Tokyo ( , ; Japanese language, Japanese: 東京, ''Tōkyō'' ), officially the Tokyo Metropolis (Japanese language, Japanese: 東京都, ''Tōkyō-to'' ...

Shibuya
(a commercial, cultural and business hub).


Etymology

Tokyo was originally known as , a
kanji are a set of logographic In a written language A written language is the representation of a spoken or gestural language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gest ...

kanji
compound of (''e'', "cove, inlet") and (''to'', "entrance, gate, door").Room, Adrian. ''Placenames of the World''. McFarland & Company (1996)
p. 360
. .
The name, which can be translated as "
estuary An estuary is a partially enclosed Coast, coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. Estuaries form a transition zone between river environments and maritime envir ...

estuary
", is a reference to the original settlement's location at the meeting of the
Sumida River The is a river that flows through central Tokyo Tokyo (Japanese language, Japanese: , ''Tōkyō'' ), historically known in the west as Tokio and officially the Tokyo Metropolis (, ''Tōkyō-to''), is capital of Japan, the capital and most ...
and
Tokyo Bay is a bay located in the southern Kantō region The is a geographical Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republ ...

Tokyo Bay
. During the
Meiji Restoration#REDIRECT Meiji Restoration The , referred to at the time as the , and also known as the Meiji Renovation, Revolution, Reform, or Renewal, was a political event that restored practical imperial rule to Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji. Although t ...
in 1868, the name of the city was changed to , when it became the new imperial capital, in line with the East Asian tradition of including the word capital () in the name of the capital city (for example,
Kyoto Kyoto (; : , ''Kyōto'' ), officially , is the capital city of in . Located in the on the island of , Kyoto forms a part of the along with and . As of 2021, the city has a population of 1.45 million, making up 57% of the prefecture's total p ...

Kyoto
(),
Keijō Keijō, or Gyeongseong was an administrative district of Chōsen. It corresponds to the present Seoul, capital of South Korea.:ko:경성부, -(Seoul of Korea under Japanese rule) Honmachi The central district of Gyeongseong was Honmachi, p ...
(),
Beijing Beijing ( ), as Peking ( ), is the of the . It is the world's , with over 21 million residents within an of 16,410.5 km2 (6336 sq. mi.). It is located in , and is governed as a under the direct administration of the with .Figures ...

Beijing
(),
Nanjing Nanjing (; , Mandarin pronunciation: ), Postal Map Romanization, alternately romanized as Nanking, is the capital of Jiangsu Provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China, a sub-provincial city, a megacity and the List ...

Nanjing
(), and Xijing ()). During the early
Meiji period The is an era An era is a span of time defined for the purposes of chronology 222px, Joseph Scaliger's ''De emendatione temporum'' (1583) began the modern science of chronology Chronology (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical ...
, the city was sometimes called "Tōkei", an alternative pronunciation for the same characters representing "Tokyo", making it a kanji homograph. Some surviving official English documents use the spelling "Tokei"; however, this pronunciation is now obsolete.


History


Pre-1869 (Edo period)

Tokyo was originally a small fishing village called Edo, in what was formerly part of the old
Musashi Province was a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many si ...
. Edo was first fortified by the
Edo clan The Edo clan were a minor offshoot of the Taira clan The Taira was one of the four most important clans A clan is a group of people united by actual or perceived kinship and descent. Even if lineage details are unknown, clan members may ...
, in the late twelfth century. In 1457,
Ōta Dōkan , also known as Ōta Sukenaga (太田 資長) or Ōta Dōkan Sukenaga, was a Japanese ''samurai were the hereditary military nobility and officer caste of medieval and early-modern Japan from the 12th century to their abolition in the 1870 ...
built
Edo Castle , also known as , is a flatland castle in East Sussex East Sussex is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publ ...

Edo Castle
. In 1590,
Tokugawa Ieyasu was the founder and first ''shōgun , officially , was the title of the military dictatorship, military dictators of Japan during most of the period spanning from 1185 to 1868. Nominally appointed by the Emperor of Japan, Emperor, shoguns ...

Tokugawa Ieyasu
moved from
Mikawa Province was an in the area that today forms the eastern half of .. (2005). "''Mikawa''" in . Its abbreviated form name was . Mikawa bordered on , , , and Provinces. Mikawa is classified as one of the provinces of the . Under the ' classification syste ...
(his lifelong base) to the
Kantō region The is a geographical Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its ...
. When he became ''
shōgun , officially , was the title of the military dictators of Japan during most of the period spanning from 1185 to 1868. Nominally appointed by the Emperor An emperor (from la, imperator, via fro, empereor) is a monarch, and usually the so ...
'' in 1603, Edo became the center of his ruling. During the subsequent
Edo period The or is the period between 1603 and 1867 in the history History (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a c ...
, Edo grew into one of the largest cities in the world with a population topping one million by the 18th century. But Edo was still the home of the
Tokugawa shogunate The Tokugawa shogunate (, Japanese 徳川幕府 ''Tokugawa bakufu''), also known as the , was the military government {{Systems of government Military dictatorships A military government is generally any government A government is th ...

Tokugawa shogunate
and not the
capital of JapanThe current de facto capital of Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat = Imperial Seal of Japan.svg , alt_coat ...
(the Emperor himself lived in
Kyoto Kyoto (; : , ''Kyōto'' ), officially , is the capital city of in . Located in the on the island of , Kyoto forms a part of the along with and . As of 2021, the city has a population of 1.45 million, making up 57% of the prefecture's total p ...

Kyoto
from 794 to 1868). During the Edo era, the city enjoyed a prolonged period of peace known as the ''Pax Tokugawa'', and in the presence of such peace, Edo adopted a stringent policy of seclusion, which helped to perpetuate the lack of any serious military threat to the city. The absence of war-inflicted devastation allowed Edo to devote the majority of its resources to rebuilding in the wake of the consistent fires, earthquakes, and other devastating natural disasters that plagued the city. However, this prolonged period of seclusion came to an end with the arrival of American Commodore Matthew C. Perry in 1853. Commodore Perry forced the opening of the ports of Shimoda and
Hakodate is a Cities of Japan, city and seaports of Japan, port located in Oshima Subprefecture, Hokkaido, Japan. It is the capital city of Oshima Subprefecture. As of July 31, 2011, the city has an estimated population of 279,851 with 143,221 households ...

Hakodate
, leading to an increase in the demand for new foreign goods and subsequently a severe rise in inflation. Social unrest mounted in the wake of these higher prices and culminated in widespread rebellions and demonstrations, especially in the form of the "smashing" of rice establishments. Meanwhile, supporters of the Meiji Emperor leveraged the disruption that these widespread rebellious demonstrations were causing to further consolidate power by overthrowing the last Tokugawa ''shōgun'', , in 1867. After 265 years, the ''Pax Tokugawa'' came to an end. File:Edo_P2.jpg,
Edo Castle , also known as , is a flatland castle in East Sussex East Sussex is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publ ...

Edo Castle
, 17th century File:Commodore-Perry-Visit-Kanagawa-1854.jpg,
Commodore Matthew Perry Matthew Calbraith Perry (April 10, 1794 – March 4, 1858) was a Commodore (United States), commodore of the United States Navy who commanded ships in several wars, including the War of 1812 and the Mexican–American War (1846–1848). He played ...
expedition and his first arrival in Japan in 1853 File:Shitamachi.jpg, Famous Edo Places. Yamanote (above) Nihonbashi (center) and Shitamachi (below) (circa 1858) File:Hiroshige%2C_Sugura_street.jpg, Suruga street with Mount Fuji by Hiroshige (1856)


1869–1943

In 1869, the 17-year-old
Emperor Meiji also called or was the 122nd emperor of Japan The Emperor of Japan is the monarch and the head of the Imperial House of Japan, Imperial Family of Japan. Under the Constitution of Japan, he is defined as the symbol of the Japanese state an ...
moved to Edo, and in accordance, the city was renamed Tokyo (meaning Eastern Capital). The city was divided into
Yamanote and Shitamachi and are traditional names for two areas of Tokyo Tokyo ( , ; Japanese language, Japanese: 東京, ''Tōkyō'' ), officially the Tokyo Metropolis (Japanese language, Japanese: 東京都, ''Tōkyō-to''), is the capital of Japan, de facto ...
. Tokyo was already the nation's political and cultural center, and the emperor's residence made it a de facto imperial capital as well, with the former Edo Castle becoming the . The city of Tokyo was officially established on May 1, 1889. The
Tokyo Metro Ginza Line The is a subway line in Tokyo Tokyo ( , ; Japanese language, Japanese: 東京, ''Tōkyō'' ), officially the Tokyo Metropolis (Japanese language, Japanese: 東京都, ''Tōkyō-to''), is the capital of Japan, de facto capitalNo Japanese ...
portion between and was the first subway line built in Japan and East Asia completed on December 30, 1927. Central Tokyo, like
Osaka is a designated city in the Kansai region The or the , lies in the southern-central region of Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , ...

Osaka
, has been designed since about 1900 to be centered on major railway stations in a high-density fashion, so suburban railways were built relatively cheaply at street level and with their own
right-of-way Right of way is "the legal right, established by usage or grant, to pass along a specific route through grounds or property belonging to another", or "a path or thoroughfare subject to such a right". A similar ''right of access'' also exists on ...
. Though have been built in Tokyo, the basic design has not changed. Tokyo went on to suffer two major catastrophes in the 20th century: the
1923 Great Kantō earthquake The struck the Kantō Plain on the main Japanese island of Honshū at 11:58:44 JST (02:58:44 UTC) on Saturday, September 1, 1923. Varied accounts indicate the duration of the earthquake was between four and ten minutes. Extensive firestorms and e ...
, which left 140,000 dead or missing; and
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
. File:Tokyo-edohakub-ginza.jpg, The 1870s Chuo-dori terraces in Ginza, Tokyo File:Tokyo-Sumida-River-Taito-ku-1930.png, Aerial view of the
Sumida River The is a river that flows through central Tokyo Tokyo (Japanese language, Japanese: , ''Tōkyō'' ), historically known in the west as Tokio and officially the Tokyo Metropolis (, ''Tōkyō-to''), is capital of Japan, the capital and most ...
with
Taitō is a special ward located in Tokyo Metropolis, Japan. In English, it is known as Taitō City. As of May 1, 2015, the ward has an estimated population of 186,276, and a population density of 18,420 persons per km2. The total area is . Thi ...
-ku (west) and
SumidaSumida may refer to: *Sumida, Tokyo is a Special wards of Tokyo, special ward located in Tokyo, Tokyo Metropolis, Japan. The English translation of its Japanese self-designation is Sumida City. As of May 1, 2015, the ward has an estimated populat ...

Sumida
-ku (east) in Tokyo, c. 1930 File:Nihonbashi after Great Kanto earthquake.JPG,
Nihonbashi is a business district of Chūō, Tokyo is a Special wards of Tokyo, special ward that forms part of the heart of Tokyo, Japan. The ward refers to itself in English as Chūō City. It was formed in 1947 as a merger of Kyōbashi, Tokyo, Kyo ...
after
Great Kanto Earthquake Great may refer to: Descriptions or measurements * Great, a relative measurement in physical space, see Size File:Comparison of planets and stars (sheet by sheet) (Oct 2014 update).png, A size comparison illustration comparing the sizes of vario ...
, September 1, 1923 File:Ginza in 1933.JPG, Ginza area in 1933 File:Eidan type 1000 train.jpg, "The first underground railway in the Orient",
Tokyo Underground is a Japanese manga Manga (Japanese: 漫画 ) are comics a Media (communication), medium used to express ideas with images, often combined with text or other visual information. It typically the form of a sequence of Panel (co ...
opened on December 30, 1927


1943–1945

In 1943, the city of Tokyo merged with the prefecture of Tokyo to form the "Metropolitan Prefecture" of Tokyo. Since then, the
Tokyo Metropolitan Government The is the government of the Tokyo Metropolis Tokyo (Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circl ...
served as both the prefecture government for Tokyo, as well as administering the
special wards of Tokyo are a special form of Municipalities of Japan, municipalities in Japan under the 1947 Local Autonomy Act, Local Autonomy Law. They are city-level wards: primary subdivisions of a prefecture with municipal autonomy largely comparable to other ...
, for what had previously been Tokyo City.
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
wreaked widespread destruction of most of the city due to the persistent
Allied An alliance is a relationship among people, groups, or sovereign state, states that have joined together for mutual benefit or to achieve some common purpose, whether or not explicit agreement has been worked out among them. Members of an alli ...
air raids on Japan Allied forces conducted many air raids on Japan during World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a World war, global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved World War II by count ...
and the use of
incendiary bombs Incendiary weapons, incendiary devices, incendiary munitions, or incendiary bombs are weapons designed to start fires or destroy sensitive equipment using fire (and sometimes used as anti-personnel weaponry), that use materials such as napalm, ...
. The
bombing of Tokyo The was a series of firebombing on Viet Cong The Viet Cong ( vi, Việt Cộng; ), officially known as the National Liberation Front of Southern Vietnam ( vi, Mặt trận Dân tộc Giải phóng miền Nam Việt Nam), was an armed c ...
in 1944 and 1945 is estimated to have killed between 75,000 and 200,000 civilians and left more than half of the city destroyed. The deadliest night of the war came on March 9–10, 1945, the night of the American "
Operation Meetinghouse On the night of 9/10 March 1945, the United States Army Air Forces The United States Army Air Forces (USAAF or AAF) was the major land-based aerial warfare Aerial warfare is the use of military aircraft A military aircraft is any fix ...
" raid; as nearly 700,000 incendiary bombs rained on the eastern half of the city, mainly in heavily residential wards. Two-fifths of the city were completely burned, more than 276,000 buildings were demolished, 100,000 civilians were killed, and 110,000 more were injured. Between 1940 and 1945, the population of Japan's capital city dwindled from 6,700,000 to less than 2,800,000, with the majority of those who lost their homes living in "ramshackle, makeshift huts". File:Firebombing of Tokyo.jpg, Tokyo Bombing in 1945 File:Tokyo 1945-3-10-1.jpg, Aftermath of Tokyo Bombing in March 1945 File:Sto1001.jpg, Nihonbashi in 1946


1945–present

After the war, Tokyo became the base from which the United States under
Douglas MacArthur , birth_date = , birth_place = Little Rock, Arkansas (The Little Rock, The "Little Rock") , government_type = council-manager government, Council-manager , leader_title = List of mayors of Lit ...

Douglas MacArthur
administered Japan for six years. Tokyo struggled to rebuild as occupation authorities stepped in and drastically cut back on Japanese government rebuilding programs, focusing instead on simply improving roads and transportation. Tokyo did not experience fast economic growth until the 1950s. After the occupation of Japan ended in 1952, Tokyo was completely rebuilt and was showcased to the world during the 1964 Summer Olympics. The 1970s and the 1980s brought new high-rise developments. In 1978,
Sunshine 60 is a 60-story, mixed-use File:Bitola 2007.JPG, Traditional mixed-use development pattern in a city center: Bitola, North Macedonia Mixed-use development is a term used for two related concepts: * In the sense of mixed-use zoning or mixed-use ...
– the tallest skyscraper in Asia until 1985, and in Japan until 1991 – and
Narita International Airport , also known as Tokyo-Narita, formerly and originally known as , is an international airport serving the Greater Tokyo Area of Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circ ...
were constructed, and the population increased to about 11 million in the metropolitan area. The
Edo-Tokyo Open Air Architectural Museum The in Koganei Park is a metropolitan park in Tokyo, having entrances in Koganei City, Kodaira City, Nishitokyo City, and Musashino, Tokyo, Musashino City. Overview The fifth-largest park in the Metropolitan Tokyo Area, Koganei Park is an attr ...
has historic Japanese buildings that existed in the urban landscape of pre-war Tokyo. Tokyo's subway and commuter rail network became one of the busiest in the world as more and more people moved to the area. In the 1980s, real estate prices skyrocketed Japanese asset price bubble, during a real estate and debt bubble. The bubble burst in the early 1990s, and many companies, banks, and individuals were caught with mortgage-backed debts while real estate was shrinking in value. A major recession followed, making the 1990s Japan's "Lost Decade (Japan), Lost Decade", from which it is now slowly recovering. Tokyo still sees new urban developments on large lots of less profitable land. Recent projects include Ebisu, Shibuya, Ebisu Garden Place, Tennōzu Isle, Shiodome, Roppongi Hills, Shinagawa, Tokyo, Shinagawa (now also a
Shinkansen The , colloquially known in English as the bullet train, is a network of way lines in . Initially, it was built to connect distant Japanese regions with , the capital, to aid economic growth and development. Beyond long-distance travel, some ...

Shinkansen
station), and the Marunouchi side of
Tokyo Station Tokyo Station ( ja, 東京駅, ) is a railway station in Chiyoda, Tokyo is a Special wards of Tokyo, special ward located in central Tokyo, Japan. It is known as Chiyoda City in English language, English.
. Buildings of significance have been demolished for more up-to-date shopping facilities such as Omotesando Hills. Land reclamation projects in Tokyo have also been going on for centuries. The most prominent is the Odaiba area, now a major shopping and entertainment center. Various plans have been proposed for transferring national government functions from Tokyo to secondary capitals in other regions of Japan, to slow down rapid development in Tokyo and revitalize economically lagging areas of the country. These plans have been controversial within Japan and have yet to be realized. The 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami that devastated much of the northeastern coast of Honshu was felt in Tokyo. However, due to Tokyo's earthquake-resistant infrastructure, damage in Tokyo was very minor compared to areas directly hit by the tsunami, although activity in the city was largely halted. The subsequent Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, nuclear crisis caused by the tsunami has also largely left Tokyo unaffected, despite occasional spikes in radiation levels. On September 7, 2013, the IOC selected Tokyo to host the
2020 Summer Olympics The , officially the , and also known as , is an upcoming international multi-sport event scheduled to be held from 23 July to 8 August 2021 in Tokyo, Japan. Originally due to take place from 24 July to 9 August 2020, the ...
. Tokyo thus became the first Asian city to host the Olympic Games twice. However, as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, the 2020 Olympic Games were ultimately postponed to 2021. It is also unclear how the city will deal with an increasing number of issues, urging scholars to offer possible alternatives approaches to tackle the most urgent problems. File:Tokyo Tower and around Skyscrapers.jpg, Tokyo Tower, built in 1958 File:Kokuritsu Yoyogi Kyōgijō 1.jpg, Yoyogi National Gymnasium built for the 1964 Summer Olympics File:Sunshine 60.JPG,
Sunshine 60 is a 60-story, mixed-use File:Bitola 2007.JPG, Traditional mixed-use development pattern in a city center: Bitola, North Macedonia Mixed-use development is a term used for two related concepts: * In the sense of mixed-use zoning or mixed-use ...
, tallest building in Asia until 1985, and in Japan until 1991


Geography and government

The mainland portion of Tokyo lies northwest of
Tokyo Bay is a bay located in the southern Kantō region The is a geographical Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republ ...

Tokyo Bay
and measures about east to west and north to south. The average elevation in Tokyo is . Chiba Prefecture borders it to the east, Yamanashi Prefecture, Yamanashi to the west, Kanagawa Prefecture, Kanagawa to the south, and Saitama Prefecture, Saitama to the north. Mainland Tokyo is further subdivided into the special wards (occupying the eastern half) and the Tama area () stretching westwards. Tokyo has a latitude of 35.65 (near the 36th parallel north), which makes it more southern than Rome (41.90), Madrid (40.41) and
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
(40.71). Also within the administrative boundaries of Tokyo Metropolis are two island chains in the Pacific Ocean directly south: the Izu Islands, and the Ogasawara Islands, which stretch more than away from the mainland. Because of these islands and the mountainous regions to the west, Tokyo's overall population density figures far under-represent the real figures for the urban and suburban regions of Tokyo. Under Law of Japan, Japanese law, the prefecture of Tokyo is designated as a , translated as ''metropolis''. Tokyo Prefecture is the most populous prefecture and the densest, with ; by geographic area it is the third-smallest, above only Osaka Prefecture, Osaka and Kagawa Prefecture, Kagawa. Its administrative structure is similar to that of Japan's other Prefectures of Japan, prefectures. The , which until 1943 constituted the city of Tokyo, are self-governing Municipalities of Japan, municipalities, each having a mayor, a council, and the status of a city. In addition to these 23 special wards, Tokyo also includes 26 more cities ( ''-shi''), five towns ( ''-chō'' or ''machi''), and eight villages ( ''-son'' or ''-mura''), each of which has a local government. The
Tokyo Metropolitan Government The is the government of the Tokyo Metropolis Tokyo (Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circl ...
administers the whole metropolis including the 23 special wards and the cities and towns that constitute the prefecture. It is headed by a publicly elected governor and metropolitan assembly. Its Tokyo Metropolitan Government Building, headquarters is in Shinjuku, Tokyo, Shinjuku Ward.


Municipalities

Since 2001, Tokyo consists of 62 Municipalities of Japan, municipalities: 23 Special wards of Tokyo, special wards, 26 Cities of Japan, cities, 5 Towns of Japan, towns and 8 Villages of Japan, villages. Any municipality of Japan has a directly elected mayor and a directly elected assembly, each elected on independent four-year cycles. 23 of Tokyo's municipalities cover the area that had been
Tokyo City was a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordi ...
until WWII, 30 remain today in the Tama area (former North Tama, West Tama and South Tama districts), 9 on Tokyo's outlying islands. * The of Tokyo comprise the area formerly incorporated as
Tokyo City was a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordi ...
. The special wards use the word "city" in their official English name (e.g. Chiyoda City). The wards differ from other cities in having a unique administrative relationship with the prefectural government. Certain municipal functions, such as waterworks, sewerage, and fire-fighting, are handled by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government. To pay for the added administrative costs, the prefecture collects municipal taxes, which would usually be levied by the city. The "three central wards" of Tokyo – Chiyoda, Chūō and Minato – are the business core of the city, with a daytime population more than seven times higher than their nighttime population. Chiyoda Ward is unique in that it is in the very heart of the former
Tokyo City was a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordi ...
, yet is one of the least populated wards. It is occupied by many major List of companies of Japan, Japanese companies and is also the seat of the national government, and the Emperor of Japan, Japanese emperor. It is often called the "political center" of the country. Akihabara, known for being an otaku cultural center and a shopping district for computer goods, is also in Chiyoda. * To the west of the special wards, Tokyo Metropolis consists of cities, towns, and villages that enjoy the same legal status as those elsewhere in Japan. While serving as "Bedroom community, bed towns" for those working in central Tokyo, some of them also have a local commercial and industrial base, such as Tachikawa. Collectively, these are often known as the Tama area or Western Tokyo. The far west of the Tama area is occupied by the district (''gun'') of Nishitama District, Tokyo, Nishi-Tama. Much of this area is mountainous and unsuitable for urbanization. The highest mountain in Tokyo, Mount Kumotori, is high; other mountains in Tokyo include Takanosu (), Odake (), and Mount Mitake (Tokyo), Mitake (). Lake Okutama, on the Tama River near Yamanashi Prefecture, is Tokyo's largest lake. The district is composed of three towns (Hinode, Tokyo, Hinode, Mizuho, Tokyo, Mizuho and Okutama, Tokyo, Okutama) and one village (Hinohara, Tokyo, Hinohara). The Tokyo Metropolitan Government has designated Hachiōji, Tachikawa, Machida, Ōme and Tama New Town as regional centers of the Tama area, as part of its plans to relocate urban functions away from central Tokyo. * Tokyo has numerous outlying islands, which extend as far as from central Tokyo. Because of the islands' distance from the administrative headquarters of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government in Shinjuku, local subprefectural branch offices administer them. The Izu Islands are a group of volcanic islands and form part of the Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park. The islands in order from closest to Tokyo are Izu Ōshima, Toshima Island, Toshima, Nii-jima, Shikine-jima, Kōzu-shima, Miyake-jima, Mikurajima, Hachijō-jima, and Aogashima. The Izu Islands are grouped into three subprefectures. Izu Ōshima and Hachijojima are towns. The remaining islands are six villages, with Niijima and Shikinejima forming Niijima, Tokyo, one village. The Bonin Islands, Ogasawara Islands include, from north to south, Chichi-jima, Nishinoshima (Ogasawara), Nishinoshima, Haha-jima, North Iwo Jima, Kita Iwo Jima, Iwo Jima, and Minami Iwo Jima. Ogasawara also administers two tiny outlying islands: Minami Torishima, the easternmost point in Japan and at the most distant island from central Tokyo, and Okinotorishima, the southernmost point in Japan. Japan's claim on an exclusive economic zone (EEZ) surrounding Okinotorishima is contested by China and South Korea as they regard Okinotorishima as uninhabitable rocks which have no EEZ. The Iwo chain and the outlying islands have no permanent population, but hosts Japan Self-Defense Forces personnel. Local populations are only found on Chichi-Jima and Haha-Jima. The islands form both Ogasawara Subprefecture and the village of Ogasawara, Tokyo. File:多摩ニュータウンの全景(2013年10月12日撮影).jpg, Tama File:Takao-san HachiojiUrbanDistrict.JPG, Hachioji File:Musashino in the afternoon.jpg, Musashino


Municipal mergers

When Tokyo reached its current extent except for smaller border changes in 1893, it consisted of over 170 municipalities, 1 (by definition: district-independent) city, nine Districts of Japan, districts with their towns and villages, plus the island communities that had never part of ritsuryō districts. By 1953, the number of municipalities had dropped to 97. The current total of 62 was reached in 2001.


National parks

As of March 31, 2008, 36% of the total land area of the prefecture was designated as Prefectural Natural Park, Natural Parks (second only to Shiga Prefecture), namely the Chichibu Tama Kai National Park, Chichibu Tama Kai, Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park, Fuji-Hakone-Izu, and Ogasawara National Park, Ogasawara National Parks (the last a UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Japan, World Heritage Site); Meiji no Mori Takao Quasi-National Park; and Akikawa Kyūryō Prefectural Natural Park, Akikawa Kyūryō, Hamura Kusabana Kyūryō Prefectural Natural Park, Hamura Kusabana Kyūryō, Sayama Prefectural Natural Park (Tokyo), Sayama, Takao Jinba Prefectural Natural Park, Takao Jinba, Takiyama Prefectural Natural Park, Takiyama, and Tama Kyūryō Prefectural Natural Park, Tama Kyūryō Prefectural Natural Parks. A number of museums are located in Ueno Park: Tokyo National Museum, National Museum of Nature and Science, Shitamachi Museum and National Museum of Western Art, National Museum for Western Art, among others. There are also artworks and statues at several places in the park. There is also a zoo in the park, and the park is a popular destination to view cherry blossoms.


Earthquakes


Minor quakes

Tokyo is near the Boso Triple Junction, boundary of three plates, making it an extremely active region for smaller quakes and Slow earthquake, slippage which frequently affect the urban area with swaying as if in a boat, although epicenters within mainland Tokyo (excluding Tokyo's –long island jurisdiction) are quite rare. It is not uncommon in the metro area to have hundreds of these minor quakes (magnitudes 4–6) that can be felt in a single year, something local residents merely brush off but can be a source of anxiety not only for foreign visitors but for Japanese from elsewhere as well. They rarely cause much damage (sometimes a few injuries) as they are either too small or far away as quakes tend to dance around the region. Particularly active are offshore regions and to a lesser extent Chiba Prefecture, Chiba and Ibaraki Prefecture, Ibaraki.


Infrequent powerful quakes

Tokyo has been hit by powerful megathrust earthquakes in 1703, 1782, 1812, 1855, 1923, and much more indirectly (with some soil liquefaction, liquefaction in landfill zones) in 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, 2011; the frequency of direct and large quakes is a relative rarity. The 1923 earthquake, with an estimated magnitude of 8.3, killed 142,000 people, the last time the urban area was directly hit. The 2011 quake focus was hundreds of kilometers away and resulted in no direct deaths in the metropolitan area.


Volcanic eruptions

Mount Fuji is about southwest of Tokyo. There is a low risk of eruption. The last recorded was the Hōei eruption of Mount Fuji, Hōei eruption which started on December 16, 1707, and ended about January 1, 1708 (16 days). During the Hōei eruption, the ash amount was 4 cm in southern Tokyo (bay area) and 2 cm to 0.5 cm in central Tokyo. Kanagawa had 16 cm to 8 cm ash and Saitama Prefecture, Saitama 0.5 to 0 cm.https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Volcanic-ash-downfall_map_of_Mt.Fuji_Hoei-eruption01.jpg Ashfall distribution map for examining disaster prevention measures (Mt. Fuji Hoei eruption) If the wind blows north-east it could send volcanic ash to Tokyo metropolis. According to the government, less than a millimeter of the volcanic ash from a Mt. Fuji eruption could cause power grid problems such as blackouts and stop trains in the Tokyo metropolitan area. A mixture of ash with rain could stick to cellphone antennas, power lines and cause temporary power outages. The affected areas would need to be evacuated.


Water management

Tokyo is located on the Kantō Plain with 5 river systems and dozens of rivers that expand during each season. Important rivers are Edogawa, Tokyo, Edogawa, Naka River (Saitama Tokyo), Nakagawa, Arakawa River (Kantō), Arakawa, Kanda River, Kandagawa, Meguro River, Megurogawa and Tama River, Tamagawa. In 1947 Typhoon Kathleen struck Tokyo, destroying 31,000 homes and killing 1,100 people. In 1958 Typhoon Ida (1958), Typhoon Ida inflicted 400 mm rain in 1 week which flooded streets. In the 1950s and 1960s, the Government of Japan, government invested 6–7% of the national budget on disaster and risk reduction. A huge system of dams, levees and tunnels was constructed. The purpose is to manage heavy rain, typhoon, typhonic rain, and river floods. Tokyo has currently the world's largest underground floodwater diversion facility called the Metropolitan Area Outer Underground Discharge Channel (MAOUDC). It took 13 years to build and was completed in 2006. The MAOUDC is a 6.3 km long system of tunnels, 22 meters underground, with 70 meter tall cylindrical tanks, where each tank is large enough to fit a space shuttle or the Statue of Liberty. During floods, excess water is collected from rivers and drained to the Edo River. Low-lying areas of Kōtō, Edogawa, Tokyo, Edogawa,
SumidaSumida may refer to: *Sumida, Tokyo is a Special wards of Tokyo, special ward located in Tokyo, Tokyo Metropolis, Japan. The English translation of its Japanese self-designation is Sumida City. As of May 1, 2015, the ward has an estimated populat ...

Sumida
, Katsushika,
Taitō is a special ward located in Tokyo Metropolis, Japan. In English, it is known as Taitō City. As of May 1, 2015, the ward has an estimated population of 186,276, and a population density of 18,420 persons per km2. The total area is . Thi ...
and Arakawa, Tokyo, Arakawa near the Arakawa River (Kanto), Arakawa River are most at risk of flooding.


Climate

The former city of Tokyo and the majority of Tokyo prefecture lie in the humid subtropical climate zone (Köppen climate classification ''Cfa''), with hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters with occasional cold spells. The region, like much of Japan, experiences a one-month seasonal lag, with the warmest month being August, which averages , and the coolest month being January, averaging . The record low temperature is on January 13, 1876, while the record high is on July 20, 2004. The record highest low temperature is on August 12, 2013, making Tokyo one of only seven observation sites in Japan that have recorded a low temperature over . Annual rainfall averages nearly , with a wetter summer and a drier winter. The growing season in Tokyo lasts for about 322 days from around mid February to early January. Snowfall is sporadic, but does occur almost annually. Tokyo also often sees typhoons every year, though few are strong. The wettest month since records began in 1876 was October 2004, with of rain, including on the ninth of that month; the last of four months on record to observe no precipitation is December 1995. Annual precipitation has ranged from in 1984 to in 1938. Tokyo has experienced significant warming of its climate since temperature records began in 1876. The western mountainous area of mainland Tokyo, Okutama also lies in the humid subtropical climate (Köppen classification ''Cfa''). The climates of Tokyo's offshore territories vary significantly from those of the city. The climate of Chichijima in Ogasawara, Tokyo, Ogasawara village is on the boundary between the tropical savanna climate (Köppen classification ''Aw'') and the tropical rainforest climate (Köppen classification ''Af''). It is approximately south of the
Greater Tokyo Area The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated core city, urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories under the same administrative div ...

Greater Tokyo Area
resulting in much different climatic conditions. Tokyo's easternmost territory, the island of Minamitorishima in Ogasawara, Tokyo, Ogasawara village, is in the tropical savanna climate zone (Köppen classification ''Aw''). Tokyo's Izu and Ogasawara islands are affected by an average of 5.4 typhoons a year, compared to 3.1 in mainland Kantō.


Cityscape

Architecture of Tokyo, Architecture in Tokyo has largely been shaped by Tokyo's history. Twice in recent history has the metropolis been left in ruins: first in the
1923 Great Kantō earthquake The struck the Kantō Plain on the main Japanese island of Honshū at 11:58:44 JST (02:58:44 UTC) on Saturday, September 1, 1923. Varied accounts indicate the duration of the earthquake was between four and ten minutes. Extensive firestorms and e ...
and later after Bombing of Tokyo, extensive firebombing in World War II. Because of this, Tokyo's urban landscape consists mainly of modern and contemporary architecture, and older buildings are scarce.Hidenobu Jinnai. ''Tokyo: A Spatial Anthropology''. University of California Press (1995)
pp. 1–3
. .
Tokyo features many internationally famous forms of modern Architecture of Tokyo, architecture including Tokyo International Forum, Asahi Beer Hall, Mode Gakuen Cocoon Tower, NTT Docomo Yoyogi Building and Rainbow Bridge (Tokyo), Rainbow Bridge. Tokyo also features two distinctive towers: Tokyo Tower, and the new
Tokyo Skytree is a broadcasting and observation tower A tower is a tall structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelate ...

Tokyo Skytree
, which is the tallest tower in both Japan and the world, and the second tallest structure in the world after the Burj Khalifa in Dubai. Mori Building Co started work on Tokyo's new tallest building which is set to be finished in March 2023. The project will cost 580 billion yen ($5.5 billion). Tokyo also contains Parks and gardens in Tokyo, numerous parks and gardens. There are four national parks in Tokyo Prefecture, including the Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park, which includes all of the Izu Islands.


Environment

Tokyo has enacted a measure to cut greenhouse gases. Governor Shintaro Ishihara created Japan's first emissions cap system, aiming to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, greenhouse gas emission by a total of 25% by 2020 from the 2000 level. Tokyo is an example of an urban heat island, and the phenomenon is especially serious in its special wards.Barry, Roger Graham & Richard J. Chorley. ''Atmosphere, Weather and Climate''. Routledge (2003)
p. 344
. .
According to the Tokyo Metropolitan Government, the annual mean temperature has increased by about over the past 100 years. Tokyo has been cited as a "convincing example of the relationship between urban growth and climate". In 2006, Tokyo enacted the "10 Year Project for Green Tokyo" to be realized by 2016. It set a goal of increasing roadside trees in Tokyo to 1 million (from 480,000), and adding 1,000 ha of green space 88 of which will be a new park named "Umi no Mori" (Sea Forest) which will be on a reclaimed island in
Tokyo Bay is a bay located in the southern Kantō region The is a geographical Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republ ...

Tokyo Bay
which used to be a landfill. From 2007 to 2010, 436 ha of the planned 1,000 ha of green space was created and 220,000 trees were planted bringing the total to 700,000. In 2014, road side trees in Tokyo have increased to 950,000, and a further 300 ha of green space has been added.


Demographics

As of October 2012, the official intercensal estimate showed 13.506 million people in Tokyo with 9.214 million living within Tokyo's 23 wards. During the daytime, the population swells by over 2.5 million as workers and students commute from adjacent areas. This effect is even more pronounced in the three central wards of
Chiyoda is Japanese language, Japanese for "field of a thousand generations", and may refer to: Japanese places *Chiyoda, Gunma, Japan *Chiyoda, Hiroshima, Japan *Chiyoda, Ibaraki, Japan *Chiyoda, Saga, Japan *Chiyoda, Tokyo, a special ward in central (a ...
, Chūō, Tokyo, Chūō, and Minato, Tokyo, Minato, whose collective population as of the 2005 National Census was 326,000 at night, but 2.4 million during the day. In 1889, the Home Ministry recorded 1,375,937 people in
Tokyo City was a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordi ...
and a total of 1,694,292 people in Tokyo Prefecture, Tokyo-fu. In the same year, a total of 779 foreign nationals were recorded as residing in Tokyo. The most common nationality was English (209 residents), followed by American (182) and Chinese nationals (137).


Economy

Tokyo has the List of cities by GDP, largest metropolitan economy in the world. According to a study conducted by PricewaterhouseCoopers, the
Greater Tokyo Area The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated core city, urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories under the same administrative div ...

Greater Tokyo Area
(Tokyo–Yokohama, TYO) of 38 million people had a total GDP of $2 trillion in 2012 (at purchasing power parity), which topped that list. Tokyo is a major international finance center; it houses the headquarters of several of the world's largest investment banks and insurance companies, and serves as a hub for Japan's transportation, publishing, electronics and broadcasting industries. During the centralized growth of Japan's economy following
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, many large firms moved their headquarters from cities such as
Osaka is a designated city in the Kansai region The or the , lies in the southern-central region of Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , ...

Osaka
(the historical commercial capital) to Tokyo, in an attempt to take advantage of better access to the government. This trend has begun to slow due to ongoing population growth in Tokyo and the high cost of living there. Tokyo was rated by the Economist Intelligence Unit as the most expensive (highest Cost-of-living index, cost-of-living) city in the world for 14 years in a row ending in 2006, when it was replaced by Oslo, and later Paris. Tokyo emerged as a leading international Financial centre, financial center (IFC) in the 1960s and has been described as one of the three "command centers" for the world economy, along with New York City and London. In the 2020 Global Financial Centres Index, Global Financial Centers Index, Tokyo was ranked as having the fourth most competitive financial center in the world (alongside cities such as Economy of New York City#Finance, New York City, Economy of London#Financial services, London,
Shanghai Shanghai (, , Standard Chinese, Standard Mandarin pronunciation: ) is one of the four Direct-administered municipalities of China, direct-administered municipalities of the China, People's Republic of China. The city is located on the sou ...

Shanghai
, Hong Kong, Singapore,
Beijing Beijing ( ), as Peking ( ), is the of the . It is the world's , with over 21 million residents within an of 16,410.5 km2 (6336 sq. mi.). It is located in , and is governed as a under the direct administration of the with .Figures ...

Beijing
, San Francisco#Economy, San Francisco, Shenzhen and Zurich in the top 10), and second most competitive in Asia (after
Shanghai Shanghai (, , Standard Chinese, Standard Mandarin pronunciation: ) is one of the four Direct-administered municipalities of China, direct-administered municipalities of the China, People's Republic of China. The city is located on the sou ...

Shanghai
). The Japanese financial market opened up slowly in 1984 and accelerated its internationalization with the "Japanese Big Bang" in 1998. Despite the emergence of Singapore and Hong Kong as competing financial centers, the Tokyo IFC manages to keep a prominent position in Asia. The Tokyo Stock Exchange is Japan's largest stock exchange, and third largest in the world by market capitalization and fourth largest by share turnover. In 1990 at the end of the Japanese asset price bubble, it accounted for more than 60% of the world stock market value. Tokyo had 8,460 ha (20,900 acres) of agricultural land as of 2003, according to the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (Japan), Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, placing it last among the nation's prefectures. The farmland is concentrated in Western Tokyo. Perishables such as vegetables, fruits, and flowers can be conveniently shipped to the markets in the eastern part of the prefecture. ''Komatsuna'' and spinach are the most important vegetables; as of 2000, Tokyo supplied 32.5% of the ''komatsuna'' sold at its central produce market. With 36% of its area covered by forest, Tokyo has extensive growths of cryptomeria and Chamaecyparis obtusa, Japanese cypress, especially in the mountainous western communities of Akiruno, Ōme, Okutama, Hachiōji, Hinode, and Hinohara. Decreases in the price of timber, increases in the cost of production, and advancing old age among the forestry population have resulted in a decline in Tokyo's output. In addition, pollen, especially from cryptomeria, is a major Seasonal allergies, allergen for the nearby population centers. Tokyo Bay was once a major source of fish. Most of Tokyo's fish production comes from the outer islands, such as Izu Ōshima and Hachijō-Jima. Skipjack tuna, nori, and ''Carangidae, aji'' are among the ocean products. Tourism in Tokyo is also a contributor to the economy. In 2006, 4.81 million foreigners and 420 million Japanese visits to Tokyo were made; the economic value of these visits totaled 9.4 trillion yen according to the Tokyo Metropolitan Government. Many tourists visit the various downtowns, stores, and entertainment districts throughout the neighborhoods of the
special wards of Tokyo are a special form of Municipalities of Japan, municipalities in Japan under the 1947 Local Autonomy Act, Local Autonomy Law. They are city-level wards: primary subdivisions of a prefecture with municipal autonomy largely comparable to other ...
. Cultural offerings include both omnipresent Japanese pop culture and associated districts such as Shibuya, Tokyo, Shibuya and Harajuku, subcultural attractions such as Studio Ghibli anime center, as well as museums like the Tokyo National Museum, which houses 37% of the country's artwork National Treasures of Japan, national treasures (87/233). The Toyosu Market in Tokyo is the largest wholesale fish and seafood market in the world since it opened on October 11, 2018. It is also one of the largest wholesale food markets of any kind. It is located in the Toyosu area of Kōtō ward. The Toyosu Market holds strong to the traditions of its predecessor, the Tsukiji Fish Market and
Nihonbashi is a business district of Chūō, Tokyo is a Special wards of Tokyo, special ward that forms part of the heart of Tokyo, Japan. The ward refers to itself in English as Chūō City. It was formed in 1947 as a merger of Kyōbashi, Tokyo, Kyo ...
fish market, and serves some 50,000 buyers and sellers every day. Retailers, whole-sellers, auctioneers, and public citizens alike frequent the market, creating a unique microcosm of organized chaos that still continues to fuel the city and its food supply after over four centuries.


Transportation

Tokyo, which is the center of the
Greater Tokyo Area The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated core city, urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories under the same administrative div ...

Greater Tokyo Area
, is Japan's largest domestic and international hub for rail and ground transportation. However, its airspace has been under the US military's exclusive control after
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
. Public transportation within Tokyo is dominated by an extensive network of "clean and efficient" trains and subways run by a variety of operators, with buses, monorails and trams playing a secondary feeder role. There are up to 62 electric train lines and more than 900 train stations in Tokyo. Shibuya Crossing is the "world's busiest pedestrian crossing", with around 3,000 people crossing at a time. As a result of World War II, Japanese planes are generally forbidden to fly over Tokyo. Therefore, Japan constructed airports outside Tokyo.
Narita International Airport , also known as Tokyo-Narita, formerly and originally known as , is an international airport serving the Greater Tokyo Area of Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circ ...
in Chiba Prefecture is the major gateway for international travelers to Japan. Japan's flag carrier Japan Airlines, as well as All Nippon Airways, have a hub at this airport. Haneda Airport on the reclaimed land at Ōta, Tokyo, Ōta, offers domestic and international flights. , some flight routes into Haneda are permitted through Tokyo airspace. Various islands governed by Tokyo have their own airports. Hachijō-jima (Hachijojima Airport), Miyakejima (Miyakejima Airport), and Izu Ōshima (Oshima Airport) have services to Tokyo International and other airports. Rail is the primary mode of transportation in Tokyo, which has the most extensive urban railway network in the world and an equally extensive network of surface lines. JR East operates Tokyo's largest railway network, including the Yamanote Line loop that circles the center of downtown Tokyo. It operates rail lines in the entire metropolitan area of Tokyo and in the rest of the northeastern part of
Honshu , historically called , is the largest and most populous main island of Japan. It is located south of Hokkaido, Hokkaidō across the Tsugaru Strait, north of Shikoku across the Seto Inland Sea, Inland Sea, and northeast of Kyushu, Kyūshū acros ...
. JR East is also responsible for
Shinkansen The , colloquially known in English as the bullet train, is a network of way lines in . Initially, it was built to connect distant Japanese regions with , the capital, to aid economic growth and development. Beyond long-distance travel, some ...

Shinkansen
high-speed rail lines. Two different organizations operate the subway network: the private Tokyo Metro and the governmental Tokyo Metropolitan Bureau of Transportation. The Metropolitan Government and private carriers operate bus routes and one Toden Arakawa Line, tram route. Local, regional, and national services are available, with major terminals at the giant railroad stations, including Tokyo Station, Tokyo, Shinagawa Station, Shinagawa, and Shinjuku Station, Shinjuku. Expressways link the capital to other points in the Greater Tokyo Area, the Kantō region, and the islands of Kyushu and Shikoku. To build them quickly before the 1964 Summer Olympics, most were constructed above existing roads. Other transportation includes taxis operating in the special wards and the cities and towns. Also, long-distance ferries serve the islands of Tokyo and carry passengers and cargo to domestic and foreign ports.


Education

Tokyo has many universities, junior colleges, and vocational schools. Many of Japan's most prestigious universities are in Tokyo, including
University of Tokyo , abbreviated as or UTokyo, is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of deliberately managing the release and spread of information between an individual or an organization (such as a business, government a ...
, Hitotsubashi University, Meiji University, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Waseda University, Tokyo University of Science, Sophia University, and Keio University. Some of the biggest List of national universities in Japan, national universities in Tokyo are: * Hitotsubashi University * National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies * Ochanomizu University * Tokyo Gakugei University * Tokyo Institute of Technology * Tokyo Medical and Dental University * Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology * Tokyo University of Foreign Studies * Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology * Tokyo University of the Arts * University of Electro-Communications *
University of Tokyo , abbreviated as or UTokyo, is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of deliberately managing the release and spread of information between an individual or an organization (such as a business, government a ...
There is only one non-national public university: Tokyo Metropolitan University. There are also a few universities well known for classes conducted in English and for the teaching of the Japanese language, including the Globis University Graduate School of Management, International Christian University, Sophia University, and Waseda University Tokyo is also the headquarters of the United Nations University. Publicly run kindergartens, elementary schools (years 1 through 6), and primary schools (7 through 9) are operated by local wards or municipal offices. Public secondary schools in Tokyo are run by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Board of Education and are called "Metropolitan High Schools". Tokyo also has many private schools from kindergarten through high school:


Culture

Tokyo has many museums. In Ueno Park, there is the Tokyo National Museum, the country's largest museum and specializing in traditional Japanese art; the The National Museum of Western Art, National Museum of Western Art and Ueno Zoo. Other museums include the Miraikan, National Museum of Emerging Science and Innovation in Odaiba; the Edo-Tokyo Museum in
SumidaSumida may refer to: *Sumida, Tokyo is a Special wards of Tokyo, special ward located in Tokyo, Tokyo Metropolis, Japan. The English translation of its Japanese self-designation is Sumida City. As of May 1, 2015, the ward has an estimated populat ...

Sumida
, across the
Sumida River The is a river that flows through central Tokyo Tokyo (Japanese language, Japanese: , ''Tōkyō'' ), historically known in the west as Tokio and officially the Tokyo Metropolis (, ''Tōkyō-to''), is capital of Japan, the capital and most ...
from the center of Tokyo; the Nezu Museum in Aoyama, Tokyo, Aoyama; and the National Diet Library, National Archives, and the National Museum of Modern Art, Tokyo, National Museum of Modern Art, which are near the . Tokyo has many theaters for performing arts. These include national and private theaters for traditional forms of Japanese drama. Noteworthy are the National Noh Theatre for noh and the Kabuki-za for Kabuki. Symphony orchestras and other musical organizations perform modern and traditional music. The New National Theatre Tokyo, New National Theater Tokyo in
Shibuya Shibuya (渋谷 Shibuya ( 渋谷 区 ''Shibuya-ku'') is a special ward in Tokyo Tokyo ( , ; Japanese language, Japanese: 東京, ''Tōkyō'' ), officially the Tokyo Metropolis (Japanese language, Japanese: 東京都, ''Tōkyō-to'' ...

Shibuya
is the national center for the performing arts, including opera, ballet, contemporary dance and drama. Tokyo also hosts modern Japanese and international pop, and rock music at venues ranging in size from intimate clubs to internationally known areas such as the Nippon Budokan. Many different Festivals in Tokyo, festivals occur throughout Tokyo. Major events include the Sannō at Hie Shrine, the Sanja at Asakusa Shrine, and the biennial Kanda Matsuri, Kanda Festivals. The last features a parade with elaborately decorated floats and thousands of people. Annually on the last Saturday of July, an enormous fireworks display over the
Sumida River The is a river that flows through central Tokyo Tokyo (Japanese language, Japanese: , ''Tōkyō'' ), historically known in the west as Tokio and officially the Tokyo Metropolis (, ''Tōkyō-to''), is capital of Japan, the capital and most ...
attracts over a million viewers. Once cherry blossoms bloom in spring, many residents gather in Ueno Park, Inokashira Park, and the Shinjuku Gyoen National Garden for picnics under the blossoms. Harajuku, a neighborhood in Shibuya, Tokyo, Shibuya, is known internationally for its youth style, fashion and cosplay. Cuisine in Tokyo is internationally acclaimed. In November 2007, Michelin guide, Michelin released their first guide for fine dining in Tokyo, awarding 191 stars in total, or about twice as many as Tokyo's nearest competitor, Paris. As of 2017, 227 restaurants in Tokyo have been awarded (92 in Paris). Twelve establishments were awarded the maximum of three stars (Paris has 10), 54 received two stars, and 161 earned one star.


Sports

Tokyo, with a diverse array of sports, is home to two professional baseball clubs, the Yomiuri Giants who play at the Tokyo Dome and Tokyo Yakult Swallows at Meiji-Jingu Stadium. The Japan Sumo Association is also headquartered in Tokyo at the Ryōgoku Kokugikan sumo arena where three official sumo tournaments are held annually (in January, May, and September). Association football, Football clubs in Tokyo include F.C. Tokyo and Tokyo Verdy, Tokyo Verdy 1969, both of which play at Ajinomoto Stadium in Chōfu, Tokyo, Chōfu, and FC Machida Zelvia at Nozuta Stadium in Machida, Tokyo, Machida. Basketball clubs include the Hitachi SunRockers, Toyota Alvark Tokyo and Tokyo Excellence. Tokyo hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics, thus becoming the first Asian city to host the Summer Olympic Games, Summer Games. The National Stadium, also known as the National Stadium (Tokyo, 1958), Olympic Stadium, was host to a number of international sporting events. In 2016, it was to be replaced by the Japan National Stadium, New National Stadium. With a number of world-class sports venues, Tokyo often hosts national and international sporting events such as basketball tournaments, women's volleyball tournaments, tennis tournaments, swim meets, marathons, rugby union and sevens rugby games, football, American football exhibition games, judo, and karate. Tokyo Metropolitan Gymnasium, in Sendagaya,
Shibuya Shibuya (渋谷 Shibuya ( 渋谷 区 ''Shibuya-ku'') is a special ward in Tokyo Tokyo ( , ; Japanese language, Japanese: 東京, ''Tōkyō'' ), officially the Tokyo Metropolis (Japanese language, Japanese: 東京都, ''Tōkyō-to'' ...

Shibuya
, is a large sports complex that includes swimming pools, training rooms, and a large indoor arena. According to ''Around the Rings'', the gymnasium has played host to the October 2011 artistic gymnastics world championships, despite the International Gymnastics Federation's initial doubt in Tokyo's ability to host the championships following the March 11 tsunami. Tokyo was also selected to host a number of games for the 2019 Rugby World Cup, and to host the
2020 Summer Olympics The , officially the , and also known as , is an upcoming international multi-sport event scheduled to be held from 23 July to 8 August 2021 in Tokyo, Japan. Originally due to take place from 24 July to 9 August 2020, the ...
and the
Paralympics The Paralympic Games or Paralympics, also known as the ''Games of the Paralympiad'', is a periodic series of international s involving athletes with a range of physical , including impaired muscle power (e.g. and , , ), impaired passive range ...
which had to be rescheduled due to COVID-19 and was delayed until the summer of 2021


In popular culture

As the largest population center in Japan and the site of the country's largest broadcasters and studios, Tokyo is frequently the setting for many Cinema of Japan, Japanese movies, television shows, animated series (anime), web comics, light novels, video games, and comic books (manga). In the ''kaiju'' (monster movie) genre, landmarks of Tokyo are usually destroyed by giant monsters such as Godzilla and Gamera. Some Hollywood directors have turned to Tokyo as a backdrop for movies set in Japan. Postwar examples include ''Tokyo Joe (1949 film), Tokyo Joe'', ''My Geisha'', ''Tokyo Story'' and the James Bond film ''You Only Live Twice (film), You Only Live Twice''; recent examples include ''Kill Bill'', ''The Fast and the Furious: Tokyo Drift'', ''Lost in Translation (film), Lost in Translation'', ''Babel (film), Babel'', ''Inception'', ''The Wolverine (2013 film), The Wolverine'' and ''Avengers: Endgame''. Japanese author Haruki Murakami has based some of his novels in Tokyo (including Norwegian Wood (novel), ''Norwegian Wood''), and David Mitchell (author), David Mitchell's first two novels ''number9dream'' and Ghostwritten (novel), ''Ghostwritten'' featured the city. Contemporary British painter Carl Randall spent 10 years living in Tokyo as an artist, creating a body of work depicting the city's crowded streets and public spaces.


International relations

Tokyo is the founding member of the Asian Network of Major Cities 21 and is a member of the Council of Local Authorities for International Relations. Tokyo was also a founding member of the C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group.


Sister cities and states

, Tokyo has Twin towns and sister cities, twinning or friendship agreements with the following eighteen cities and states: *
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
, United States (since February 1960) * Madrid, Spain (since April 1965) *
Beijing Beijing ( ), as Peking ( ), is the of the . It is the world's , with over 21 million residents within an of 16,410.5 km2 (6336 sq. mi.). It is located in , and is governed as a under the direct administration of the with .Figures ...

Beijing
, China (since March 1979) * Paris, France (since July 1982) * Sydney, Australia (since May 1984) * Seoul, South Korea (since September 1988) * Metro Manila, Philippines (since August 1989) * Jakarta, Indonesia (since October 1989) * Bangkok, Thailand (since May 1990) * São Paulo (state), São Paulo State, Brazil (since June 1990) * Mexico City, Mexico (since September 1990) * Cairo, Egypt (since October 1990) * Moscow, Russia (since July 1991) * Berlin, Germany (since May 1994) * Rome, Italy (since July 1996) * Istanbul, Turkey (since March 1998) * Delhi, India (since April 2002) *
London London is the Capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. It stands on the River Thames in south-east England at the head of a estuary down to the North Sea, and has b ...

London
, United Kingdom (since October 2015)


Friendship and cooperation agreements

* Tomsk Oblast, Russia (since May 2015) * Brussels, Belgium (since October 2016) * Mumbai, India (since November 2016) * Los Angeles, United States (since July 2018)


International academic and scientific research

Research and development in Japan and the Japanese space program are globally represented by several of Tokyo's medical and scientific facilities, including the
University of Tokyo , abbreviated as or UTokyo, is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of deliberately managing the release and spread of information between an individual or an organization (such as a business, government a ...
and other List of universities in Tokyo, universities in Tokyo, which work in collaboration with many international institutions. Especially with the United States, including NASA and the many private spaceflight companies, Tokyo universities have working relationships with all of the Ivy League institutions (including Harvard University, Harvard and Yale University), along with other research university, research universities and development laboratory, laboratories, such as Stanford University, Stanford, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MIT, and the University of California, UC campuses throughout California, as well as University of New Mexico, UNM and Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico. Other partners worldwide include Oxford University in the United Kingdom, the National University of Singapore in Singapore, the University of Toronto in Canada, and Tsinghua University in China.


See also

* List of cities proper by population * List of cities with the most skyscrapers * List of tallest structures in Tokyo * List of development projects in Tokyo * List of largest cities * List of metropolitan areas in Asia * List of most expensive cities for expatriate employees * List of urban agglomerations in Asia * List of urban areas by population * Megacity * Tokyo dialect *
Yamanote and Shitamachi and are traditional names for two areas of Tokyo Tokyo ( , ; Japanese language, Japanese: 東京, ''Tōkyō'' ), officially the Tokyo Metropolis (Japanese language, Japanese: 東京都, ''Tōkyō-to''), is the capital of Japan, de facto ...
* '''' * '''' * '''' * '''


References


Bibliography

* Fiévé, Nicolas and Paul Waley. (2003). ''Japanese Capitals in Historical Perspective: Place, Power and Memory in Kyoto, Edo and Tokyo''. London: RoutledgeCurzon. ; * McClain, James, John M Merriman and Kaoru Ugawa. (1994). ''Edo and Paris: Urban Life and the State in the Early Modern Era''. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. ; * Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth. (2005)
''Japan encyclopedia''
Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ; * Sorensen, Andre. (2002). ''The Making of Urban Japan: Cities and Planning from Edo to the Twenty First Century''. London: RoutledgeCurzon. ;


Further reading


Guides

* Bender, Andrew, and Timothy N. Hornyak. ''Tokyo'' (City Travel Guide) (2010) * Mansfield, Stephen. ''Dk Eyewitness Top 10 Travel Guide: Tokyo'' (2013) * Waley, Paul. ''Tokyo Now and Then: An Explorer's Guide''. (1984). 592 pp * Yanagihara, Wendy. ''Lonely Planet Tokyo Encounter''


Contemporary

* Allinson, Gary D. ''Suburban Tokyo: A Comparative Study in Politics and Social Change''. (1979). 258 pp. * Bestor, Theodore. ''Neighborhood Tokyo'' (1989)
online edition
* Bestor, Theodore. ''Tsukiji: The Fish Market at the Centre of the World''. (2004
online edition
* Fowler, Edward. ''San'ya Blues: Labouring Life in Contemporary Tokyo''. (1996) . * Friedman, Mildred, ed. ''Tokyo, Form and Spirit''. (1986). 256 pp. * Jinnai, Hidenobu. ''Tokyo: A Spatial Anthropology''. (1995). 236 pp. * Jones, Sumie et al. eds. ''A Tokyo Anthology: Literature from Japan’s Modern Metropolis, 1850–1920'' (2017); primary source
excerpt
* Perez, Louis G. ''Tokyo: Geography, History, and Culture'' (ABC-CLIO, 2019). * Reynolds, Jonathan M. "Japan's Imperial Diet Building: Debate over Construction of a National Identity". ''Art Journal''. 55#3 (1996) pp. 38+. * Sassen, Saskia. ''The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo''. (1991). 397 pp. * Sorensen, A. ''Land Readjustment and Metropolitan Growth: An Examination of Suburban Land Development and Urban Sprawl in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area'' (2000)
Taira, J. ''[re
OKYO.'' (2018). San Francisco: ORO Editions.] * Waley, Paul. "Tokyo-as-world-city: Reassessing the Role of Capital and the State in Urban Restructuring". ''Urban Studies'' 2007 44(8): 1465–1490. Fulltext: Ebsco


External links


Tokyo Metropolis Official Website

Tokyo Metropolis Official Website




{{Authority control Tokyo, 1457 establishments in Asia 15th-century establishments in Japan Capitals in Asia Kantō region Populated coastal places in Japan Populated places established in the 1450s Port settlements in Japan