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The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) or Global Goals are a collection of 17 interlinked global goals designed to be a "blueprint to achieve a better and more
sustainable Sustainability is the capacity to endure in a relatively ongoing way across various domains of life. In the 21st century The 21st (twenty-first) century is the current century in the '' Anno Domini'' era or Common Era, in accordance with the ...

sustainable
future for all".United Nations (2017) Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 6 July 2017, Work of the Statistical Commission pertaining to the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development
A/RES/71/313
)
The SDGs were set up in 2015 by the
United Nations General Assembly The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; french: link=no, Assemblée générale, AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), serving as the main deliberative, policymaking, and representative organ of the UN. Its ...
(UN-GA) and are intended to be achieved by the year 2030. They are included in a UN-GA Resolution called the 2030 Agenda or what is colloquially known as Agenda 2030. The SDGs were developed in the
Post-2015 Development Agenda The Post-2015 Development Agenda was a process from 2012 to 2015 led by the United Nations to define the future global development framework that would succeed the Millennium Development Goals. The new framework, starting from 2016 is called Sustain ...
as the future global development framework to succeed the
Millennium Development Goals The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were eight international development goals for the year 2015 that had been established following the Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000, following the adoption of the United Nations Millennium ...
which ended in 2015. The 17 SDGs are: (1)
No Poverty
No Poverty
, (2)
Zero Hunger
Zero Hunger
, (3)
Good Health and Well-being
Good Health and Well-being
, (4)
Quality Education
Quality Education
, (5)
Gender Equality Gender equality, also known as sexual equality or equality of the sexes, is the state of equal ease of access to resources and opportunities regardless of gender, including economic participation and decision-making; and the state of valuing d ...

Gender Equality
, (6)
Clean Water and Sanitation
Clean Water and Sanitation
, (7)
Affordable and Clean Energy
Affordable and Clean Energy
, (8)
Decent Work and Economic Growth
Decent Work and Economic Growth
, (9) Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure, (10)
Reduced Inequality
Reduced Inequality
, (11)
Sustainable Cities and Communities
Sustainable Cities and Communities
, (12)
Responsible Consumption and Production
Responsible Consumption and Production
, (13)
Climate Action Individual and political action on climate change can take many forms. Many actions aim to build social and political support to limit and reduce the concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the Atmosphere of Earth, atmosphere, with the goal ...

Climate Action
, (14)
Life Below Water
Life Below Water
, (15)
Life On Land
Life On Land
, (16)
Peace, Justice, and Strong Institutions
Peace, Justice, and Strong Institutions
, (17)
Partnerships for the Goals
Partnerships for the Goals
. Though the goals are broad and interdependent, two years later (6 July 2017) the SDGs were made more "actionable" by a
UN
UN
Resolution adopted by the General Assembly. The resolution identifies specific targets for each goal, along with indicators that are being used to measure progress toward each target.United Nations (2017) Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 6 July 2017, Work of the Statistical Commission pertaining to the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development
A/RES/71/313
)
The year by which the target is meant to be achieved is usually between 2020 and 2030. For some of the targets, no end date is given. To facilitate monitoring, a variety of tools exist to track and visualize progress towards the goals. All intention is to make data more available and easily understood. For example, the online
publication To publish is to make content Content or contents may refer to: Media * Content (media), information or experience provided to audience or end-users by publishers or media producers ** Content industry, an umbrella term that encompasses comp ...

publication
SDG Tracker, launched in June 2018, presents available data across all indicators. The SDGs pay attention to multiple cross-cutting issues, like gender equity, education, and culture cut across all of the SDGs. There were serious impacts and implications of the
COVID-19 pandemic The COVID-19 pandemic is an ongoing global pandemic A pandemic (from , , "all" and , , "local people" the 'crowd') is an of an that has spread across a large region, for instance multiple or worldwide, affecting a substantial numbe ...

COVID-19 pandemic
on all 17 SDGs in the year 2020.


Overview


Ratification

Negotiations on the
Post-2015 Development Agenda The Post-2015 Development Agenda was a process from 2012 to 2015 led by the United Nations to define the future global development framework that would succeed the Millennium Development Goals. The new framework, starting from 2016 is called Sustain ...
began in January 2015 and ended in August 2015. The negotiations ran in parallel to
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as ''member states''), or of other organizations through formal ...

United Nations
negotiations on financing for development, which determined the financial means of implementing the
Post-2015 Development Agenda The Post-2015 Development Agenda was a process from 2012 to 2015 led by the United Nations to define the future global development framework that would succeed the Millennium Development Goals. The new framework, starting from 2016 is called Sustain ...
; those negotiations resulted in adoption of the Addis Ababa Action Agenda in July 2015. A final document was adopted at the UN Sustainable Development Summit in September 2015 in
New York New York most commonly refers to: * New York City, the most populous city in the United States, located in the state of New York * New York (state), a state in the northeastern United States New York may also refer to: Film and television * New ...

New York
. On 25 September 2015, the 193 countries of the UN General Assembly adopted the 2030 Development Agenda titled "Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development". This agenda has 92 paragraphs. Paragraph 59 outlines the 17 Sustainable Development Goals and the associated 169 targets and 232 indicators.


Targets and indicators

The lists of targets and indicators for each of the 17 SDGs was published in a UN resolution in July 2017. Each goal typically has 812 targets, and each target has between 1 and 4 indicators used to measure progress toward reaching the targets. The targets are either "outcome" targets (circumstances to be attained) or "means of implementation" targets. The latter targets were introduced late in the process of negotiating the SDGs to address the concern of some Member States about how the SDGs were to be achieved. is wholly about how the SDGs will be achieved. The numbering system of targets is as follows: "Outcome targets" use numbers, whereas "means of implementation targets" use lower case letters. For example, has a total of 8 targets. The first six are outcome targets and are labeled Targets 6.1 to 6.6. The final two targets are "means of
implementation Implementation is the realization of an application, or execution of a plan A plan is typically any diagram or list of steps with details of timing and resources, used to achieve an Goal, objective to do something. It is commonly understood as ...

implementation
targets" and are labeled as Targets 6.a and 6.b.


Reviews of indicators

As planned, the indicator framework was comprehensively reviewed at the 51st session of the
United Nations Statistical Commission The United Nations Statistical Commission (StatCom) is a Functional Commission of the United Nations Economic and Social Council The United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC; french: Conseil économique et social des Nations unies, ) ...
in 2020. It will be reviewed again in 2025. At the 51st session of the Statistical Commission (held in
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
from 3–6 March 2020) a total of 36 changes to the global indicator framework were proposed for the Commission's consideration. Some indicators were replaced, revised or deleted. Between 15 October 2018 and 17 April 2020, other changes were made to the indicators. Yet their measurement continues to be fraught with difficulties. The
United Nations Statistics Division The United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD), formerly the United Nations Statistical Office, serves under the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) as the central mechanism within the Secretariat of the United Nations t ...
(UNSD) website provides a current official indicator list which includes all updates until the 51st session Statistical Commission in March 2020. The indicators were classified into three tiers based on their level of methodological development and the availability of data at the global level. Tier 1 and Tier 2 are indicators that are conceptually clear, have an internationally established
methodology Methodology is the study of research methods, or, more formally, "'a contextual framework' for research, a coherent and logical scheme based on views, beliefs, and values, that guides the choices researchers
r other users R, or r, is the eighteenth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet The ISO basic Latin alphabet is a Latin-script alphabet A Latin-script alphabet (Latin alphabet or Roman alphabet) is an alphabet that ...
make". It compris ...
, and data are regularly produced by at least some countries. Tier 3 indicators had no internationally established methodology or standards. The global indicator framework was adjusted so that Tier 3 indicators were either abandoned, replaced or refined. As of 17 July 2020, there were 231 unique indicators.


The 17 individual goals


Goal 1: No poverty

SDG 1 is to: "End poverty in all its forms everywhere". Achieving SDG 1 would end
extreme poverty Extreme poverty, deep poverty, abject poverty, absolute poverty, destitution, or penury, is the most severe type of poverty Poverty is the state of having little material possessions or income Income is the consumption and saving oppor ...
globally by 2030. A study published in September 2020 found that poverty increased by 7 per cent in just a few months due to the
COVID-19 pandemic The COVID-19 pandemic is an ongoing global pandemic A pandemic (from , , "all" and , , "local people" the 'crowd') is an of an that has spread across a large region, for instance multiple or worldwide, affecting a substantial numbe ...

COVID-19 pandemic
, even though it had been steadily decreasing for the last 20 years.BMGF (2020
Covid-19 A Global Perspective - 2020 Goalkeepers Report
, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, USA


Goal 2: Zero hunger (No hunger)

SDG 2 is to: "End
hunger In politics, humanitarian aid, and the social sciences, hunger is defined as a condition in which a person cannot eat sufficient food to meet basic nutritional needs for a sustained period. In the field of hunger relief, the term ''hunger'' ...

hunger
, achieve
food security Food security is the measure of the availability of food and individuals' Economic inequality, ability to access it. According to the United Nations' Committee on World Food Security, food security is defined as meaning that all people, at all ti ...
and improved nutrition, and promote
sustainable agriculture Sustainable agriculture is farming Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Family watching television 1958.jpg, Exercise trend ...

sustainable agriculture
". Globally, 1 in 9 people are undernourished, the vast majority of whom live in developing countries. Under nutrition causes wasting or severe wasting of 52 million children worldwide. It contributes to nearly half (45%) of deaths in children under five – 3.1 million children per year.


Goal 3: Good health and well-being

is to: "Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages". Significant strides have been made in increasing life expectancy and reducing some of the common causes of child and maternal mortality. Between 2000 and 2016, the worldwide under-five
mortality Mortality is the state of being mortal, or susceptible to death (1906) Death is the permanent, Irreversible process, irreversible cessation of all biological process, biological functions that sustain a living organism. Brain death is some ...
rate decreased by 47 percent (from 78 deaths per 1,000 live births to 41 deaths per 1,000 live births). Still, the number of children dying under age five is very high: 5.6 million in 2016.


Goal 4: Quality education

is to: "Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all". Major progress has been made in access to education, specifically at the
primary school A primary school (in Ireland, the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, Jamaica, and South Africa), junior school (in Australia), elementary school or grade school (in North America and the Philippines) is a school A school is an ...

primary school
level, for both boys and girls. The number of out-of-school children has almost halved from 112 million in 1997 to 60 million in 2014. In terms of the progress made, global participation in tertiary education reached 224 million in 2018, equivalent to a gross enrollment ratio of 38%.


Goal 5: Gender equality

is to: "Achieve
gender equality Gender equality, also known as sexual equality or equality of the sexes, is the state of equal ease of access to resources and opportunities regardless of gender, including economic participation and decision-making; and the state of valuing d ...

gender equality
and empower all women and girls". In 2020, representation by women in single or lower houses of
national parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislature, legislative body of government. Generally, a modern parliament has three functions: Representation (politics), representing the Election#Suffrage, electorate, making laws, an ...

national parliament
reached 25 per cent, up slightly from 22 per cent in 2015.United Nations Economic and Social Council (2020
Progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals Report of the Secretary-General
, High-level political forum on sustainable development, convened under the auspices of the Economic and Social Council (E/2020/57), 28 April 2020
Women now have better access to decision-making positions at the local level, holding 36 per cent of elected seats in local deliberative bodies, based on data from 133 countries and areas. Whilst female genital mutilation and cutting (FGM/C) is becoming less common, at least 200 million girls and women have been subjected to this harmful practice.


Goal 6: Clean water and sanitation

is to: "Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all". The eight targets are measured by 11 indicators. The Joint Monitoring Programme ( JMP) of World Health Organisation
WHO The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous organizations working with the United Nations and each other through the co-ordinating machinery of the Unite ...
And United Nations International Children's Emergency fund
UNICEF UNICEF, also known as the United Nations Children's Fund, is a United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly ...

UNICEF
reported in 2017 that 4.5 billion people currently do not have
safely managed sanitation Sanitation refers to public health conditions related to clean drinking water and adequate treatment and disposal of Human waste, human excreta and sewage. Risk management, Preventing human contact with feces is part of sanitation, as is hand was ...
.WHO and UNICEF (2017
Progress on Drinking Water, Sanitation and Hygiene: 2017 Update and SDG Baselines
. Geneva: World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), 2017
Also in 2017, only 71 per cent of the global population used safely managed drinking water, and 2.2 billion persons were still without safely managed drinking water. With regards to
water stress Water scarcity (water stress or water crisis) is the lack of fresh water Fresh water (or freshwater) is any naturally occurring water Water is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, Transparency and translucency, transparent, tasteless ...

water stress
: "In 2017, and
Northern Africa North Africa or Northern Africa is a region encompassing the northern portion of the African continent. There is no singularly accepted scope for the region, and it is sometimes defined as stretching from the Atlantic shores of Mauritania in th ...

Northern Africa
registered very high water stress – defined as the ratio of fresh water withdrawn to total renewable freshwater resources – of more than 70 per cent".
Official development assistance Official development assistance (ODA) is a category used by the Development Assistance Committee 400px, OECD's Development Assistance Committee member states The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development The Organisation fo ...
(ODA) disbursements to the water sector increased to $9 billion in 2018.


Goal 7: Affordable and clean energy

is to: "Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all". Progress in expanding access to
electricity Electricity is the set of physical Physical may refer to: *Physical examination, a regular overall check-up with a doctor *Physical (album), ''Physical'' (album), a 1981 album by Olivia Newton-John **Physical (Olivia Newton-John song), "Physi ...

electricity
has been made in several countries, notably
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest country by area, the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous ...

India
,
Bangladesh Bangladesh (, bn, বাংলাদেশ, ), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-c ...

Bangladesh
, and
Kenya ) , national_anthem = "Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu "Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu" (, ) is the national anthem of Kenya. History "Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu"'s lyrics were originally written in Swahili language, Kiswahili, the national language of Kenya ...

Kenya
.IEA, IRENA, UNSD, WB, WHO (2019)
Tracking SDG 7: The Energy Progress Report 2019
, Washington DC (o
Tracking SDG 7 website
)
The global population without access to electricity decreased to about 840 million in 2017 from 1.2 billion in 2010 (
sub-Saharan Africa Sub-Saharan Africa (commonly called Black Africa) is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara. According to the United Nations, it consists of all list of sovereign states and dependent territories i ...

sub-Saharan Africa
remains the region with the largest access deficit).
Renewable energy Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resource File:Global Vegetation.jpg, Global vegetation A renewable resource, also known as a flow resource, is a natural resource which will replenish to replace the portion resou ...
accounted for 17.5% of global total energy consumption in 2016. Of the three end uses of
renewables Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resource File:Global Vegetation.jpg, Global vegetation A renewable resource, also known as a flow resource, is a natural resource which will replenish to replace the portion resour ...
(
electricity Electricity is the set of physical Physical may refer to: *Physical examination, a regular overall check-up with a doctor *Physical (album), ''Physical'' (album), a 1981 album by Olivia Newton-John **Physical (Olivia Newton-John song), "Physi ...

electricity
,
heat In thermodynamics Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with heat, Work (thermodynamics), work, and temperature, and their relation to energy, entropy, and the physical properties of matter and radiation. The behavior of these ...

heat
, and
transport Transport (in British English), or transportation (in American English), is the Motion, movement of humans, animals, and cargo, goods from one location to another. In other words, the action of transport is defined as a particular movement of ...

transport
) the use of renewables grew fastest with respect to electricity. Between 2018 and 2030, the annual average investment will need to reach approximately $55 billion to expand energy access, about $700 billion to increase renewable energy and $600 billion to improve energy efficiency.


Goal 8: Decent work and economic growth

is to: "Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all". Over the past five years, economic growth in least developed countries has been increasing at an average rate of 4.3 per cent. In 2018, the global growth rate of real
GDP per capita Lists of countries by GDP per capita list the countries in the world by their gross domestic product Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary Image:National-Debt-Gillray.jpeg, In a 1786 James Gillray caricature, the plentiful money ba ...
was 2 per cent. In addition, the rate for
least developed countries The least developed countries (LDCs) are a list of developing countries 450px, Example of Older Classifications by the IMF and the United Nations, UN from 2008 A developing country is a country with a less developed industrial base and ...
was 4.5 per cent in 2018 and 4.8 per cent in 2019, less than the 7 per cent growth rate targeted in SDG 8. In 2019, 22 per cent of the world's young people were not in employment, education or training, a figure that has hardly changed since 2005. Addressing youth
employment Employment is the relationship between two parties Image:'Hip, Hip, Hurrah! Artist Festival at Skagen', by Peder Severin Krøyer (1888) Demisted with DXO PhotoLab Clearview; cropped away black border edge.jpg, 300px, ''Hip, Hip, Hurrah!'' ...

employment
means finding solutions with and for young people who are seeking a decent and productive job. Such solutions should address both supply, i.e. education, skills development and training, and demand. In 2018, the number of women engaged in the labor force was put at 48 per cent while that of men was 75 per cent.


Goal 9: Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure

is to: "Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization, and foster innovation". In 2019, 14% of the world's workers were employed in
manufacturing Manufacturing is the creation or production Production may be: Economics and business * Production (economics) * Production, the act of manufacturing goods * Production, in the outline of industrial organization, the act of making products (g ...
activities. This percentage has not changed much since 2000. The share of manufacturing employment was the largest in (18 percent) and the smallest in sub-Saharan Africa (6 percent). The intensity of global
carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide (chemical formula A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of s that constitute a particular or molecule, using symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as pare ...

carbon dioxide
emissions has declined by nearly one quarter since 2000, showing a general decoupling of carbon dioxide emissions from GDP growth. As at 2020, nearly the entire world population lives in an area covered by a mobile network. Millions of people are still unable to access the internet due to cost, coverage, and other reasons. It is estimated that just 53% of the world's population are currently internet users.


Goal 10: Reduced inequality

is to: "Reduce
income inequality 270px, Global share of wealth by wealth group, Credit Suisse, 2021 There are wide varieties of economic inequality, most notably measured using the distribution of incomeIn economics Economics () is the social science that studies ho ...
within and among countries". In 73 countries during the period 2012–2017, the bottom 40 per cent of the population saw its incomes grow. Still, in all countries with data, the bottom 40 per cent of the population received less than 25 per cent of the overall income or consumption. Women are more likely to be victims of discrimination than men. Among those with disabilities, 3 in 10 personally experienced discrimination, with higher levels still among women with disabilities. The main grounds of discrimination mentioned by these women was not the disability itself, but religion, ethnicity and sex, pointing to the urgent need for measures to tackle multiple and intersecting forms of discrimination.United Nations (2020
Sustainable development goals report
, New York
In 2019, 54 per cent of countries have a comprehensive set of policy measures to facilitate orderly, safe, regular and responsible migration and mobility of people.


Goal 11: Sustainable cities and communities

is to: "Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient, and sustainable". The number of slum dwellers reached more than 1 billion in 2018, or 24 per cent of the urban population. The number of people living in urban slums is highest in ,
sub-Saharan Africa Sub-Saharan Africa (commonly called Black Africa) is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara. According to the United Nations, it consists of all list of sovereign states and dependent territories i ...

sub-Saharan Africa
and . In 2019, only half of the world's urban population had convenient access to public transport, defined as living within 500 metres' walking distance from a low-capacity transport system (such as a bus stop) and within 1 km of a high-capacity transport system (such as a railway). In the period 1990–2015, most
urban area An urban area, or built-up area, is a human settlement with a high population density and infrastructure of built environment. Urban areas are created through urbanization and are categorized by urban morphology as city, cities, towns, conurbat ...
s recorded a general increase in the extent of built-up area per person..


Goal 12: Responsible consumption and production

is to: "Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns". By 2019, 79 countries and the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
have reported on at least one national policy instrument to promote
sustainable consumption Sustainable consumption (sometimes abbreviated to "SC") is the use of material products, energy and immaterial services in such a way that their use minimizes impacts on the environment, so that human needs can be met not only in the present but als ...
and production patterns. This was done to work towards the implementation of the "10-Year Framework of Programmes on Sustainable Consumption and Production Patterns". Global fossil fuel subsidies in 2018 were $400 billion. This was double the
estimated Estimation (or estimating) is the process of finding an estimate, or approximation, which is a value that is usable for some purpose even if input data may be incomplete, uncertainty, uncertain, or Instability, unstable. The value is nonetheless ...

estimated
subsidies for renewables and is detrimental to the task of reducing global carbon dioxide emissions. To ensure that plastic products are more sustainable, thus reducing plastic waste, changes such as decreasing usage and increasing the circularity of the plastic economy are expected to be required. An increase in domestic recycling and a reduced reliance on the global plastic waste trade are other actions that might help meet the goal.


Goal 13: Climate action

is to: "Take urgent action to combat
climate change Contemporary climate change includes both the global warming caused by humans, and its impacts on Earth's weather patterns. There have been previous periods of climate change, but the current changes are more rapid than any known even ...
and its impacts by regulating emissions and promoting developments in renewable energy".


Goal 14: Life below water

is to: "Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for
sustainable development Sustainable development is the organizing principle for meeting human development goals while simultaneously sustaining the ability of natural systems to provide the natural resources and ecosystem services Social forestry in India, Social ...

sustainable development
". The current efforts to protect oceans, marine environments and small-scale fishers are not meeting the need to protect the resources. One of the key drivers of global overfishing is illegal fishing. It threatens marine ecosystems, puts food security and regional stability at risk, and is linked to major human rights violations and even organized crime. Increased ocean temperatures and oxygen loss act concurrently with
ocean acidification Ocean acidification is the ongoing decrease in the pH value of the Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of cont ...
and constitute the "deadly trio" of climate change pressures on the marine environment. One indicator (14.1.1b) under Goal 14 specifically relates to reducing impacts from
marine plastic pollutionMarine plastic pollution (or plastic pollution in the ocean) is a type of Water pollution, marine pollution by Plastic pollution, plastics, ranging in size from large original material such as bottles and bags, down to microplastics formed from the f ...
.


Goal 15: Life on land

is to: "Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial
ecosystem An ecosystem (or ecological system) consists of all the organisms and the physical environment with which they interact. These biotic and abiotic components are linked together through nutrient cycles and energy flows. Energy enters the syst ...

ecosystem
s, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land
degradation Degradation may refer to: Science * Degradation (geology), lowering of a fluvial surface by erosion * Degradation (telecommunications), of an electronic signal * Biodegradation of organic substances by living organisms * Environmental degradation i ...
and halt
biodiversity loss Biodiversity loss includes the extinction Extinction is the termination of a kind of organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an individual entity. All organisms are composed of cells ...
". The proportion of forest area fell, from 31.9 per cent of total land area in 2000 to 31.2 per cent in 2020, representing a net loss of nearly 100 million ha of the world's forests. This was due to decreasing forest area decreased in Latin America, sub-Saharan
Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', ...

Africa
 and South-Eastern Asia, driven by deforestation for agriculture. Desertification affects as much as one-sixth of the world's population, 70% of all drylands, and one-quarter of the total land area of the world. It also leads to spreading
poverty Poverty is the state of having little material possessions or income In microeconomics, income is the Consumption (economics), consumption and saving opportunity gained by an entity within a specified timeframe, which is generally expresse ...

poverty
and the
degradation Degradation may refer to: Science * Degradation (geology), lowering of a fluvial surface by erosion * Degradation (telecommunications), of an electronic signal * Biodegradation of organic substances by living organisms * Environmental degradation i ...
of billion hectares of . A report in 2020 stated that globally, the risk has worsened by about 10 per cent over the past three decades.


Goal 16: Peace, justice and strong institutions

is to: "Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels". With more than a quarter of children under 5 unregistered worldwide as of 2015, about 1 in 5 countries will need to accelerate progress to achieve universal birth registration by 2030. Data from 38 countries over the past
decade A decade is a period of 10 years. The word is derived (via French and Latin) from the grc, δεκάς, dekas, which means ''a group of ten''. Decades may describe any ten-year period, such as those of a person's life, or refer to specific groupin ...
suggest that high-income countries have the lowest prevalence of
bribery Bribery is defined by ''Black's Law Dictionary ''Black's Law Dictionary'' is the most widely used law dictionary Image:Legal Dictionaries.jpg, 300px, Several English and Russian legal dictionaries A law dictionary (also known as legal dictionary) ...

bribery
(an average of 3.7 per cent), while lower-income countries have high levels of bribery when accessing public services (22.3 per cent).


Goal 17: Partnership for the goals

is to: "Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development". This goal has 19 outcome targets and 24 indicators. Increasing
international cooperation In international relations, multilateralism refers to an alliance of multiple countries pursuing a common goal. Definitions Multilateralism, in the form of membership in international institutions, serves to bind powerful nations, discourage uni ...
is seen as vital to achieving each of the 16 previous goals. Goal 17 is included to assure that countries and organizations cooperate instead of compete. Developing multi-stakeholder partnerships to share knowledge, expertise,
technology Technology ("science of craft", from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. I ...

technology
, and financial support is seen as critical to overall success of the SDGs. The goal encompasses improving north–south and South-South cooperation, and Public–private partnership, public-private partnerships which involve civil societies are specifically mentioned. With US$5 trillion to $7 trillion in annual investment required to achieve the SDGs, total official development assistance reached US$147.2 billion in 2017. This, although steady, is below the set target. In 2016, six countries met the international target to keep official development assistance at or above 0.7 percent of gross national income. Humanitarian crises brought on by conflict or natural disasters have continued to demand more financial resources and aid. Even so, many countries also require official development assistance to encourage growth and trade.


Monitoring

The UN High-level Political Forum on Sustainable Development, High-Level Political Forum on Sustainable Development (HLPF) is the annual space for global monitoring of the SDGs, under the auspices of the United Nations Economic and Social Council, United Nations economic and Social Council. In July 2020 the meeting took place online for the first time due to the
COVID-19 pandemic The COVID-19 pandemic is an ongoing global pandemic A pandemic (from , , "all" and , , "local people" the 'crowd') is an of an that has spread across a large region, for instance multiple or worldwide, affecting a substantial numbe ...

COVID-19 pandemic
. The theme was "Accelerated action and transformative pathways: realizing the decade of action and delivery for sustainable development" and a ministerial declaration was adopted. High-level progress reports for all the SDGs are published in the form of reports by the Secretary-General of the United Nations, United Nations Secretary General. The most recent one is from April 2020. The online publication SDG-Tracker was launched in June 2018 and presents data across all available indicators. It relies on the Our World In Data, Our World in Data database and is also based at the University of Oxford.Ritchie, Roser, Mispy, Ortiz-Ospina. "Measuring progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals."
SDG-Tracker.org
, website'' (2018).
The publication has global coverage and tracks whether the world is making progress towards the SDGs. It aims to make the data on the 17 goals available and understandable to a wide audience. The website "allows people around the world to hold their governments accountable to achieving the agreed goals". The SDG-Tracker highlights that the world is currently (early 2019) very far away from achieving the goals. The Global "SDG Index and Dashboards Report" is the first publication to track countries' performance on all 17 Sustainable Development Goals. The annual publication, co-produced by Bertelsmann Stiftung and SDSN, includes a ranking and dashboards that show key challenges for each country in terms of implementing the SDGs. The publication features trend analysis to show how countries performing on key SDG Performance indicator, metrics have changed over recent years in addition to an analysis of government efforts to implement the SDGs.


Cross-cutting issues

To achieve sustainable development, three sectors need to come together: The economic, socio-political, and environmental sectors are all critically important and interdependent. Progress will require multidisciplinary and Transdisciplinarity, trans-disciplinary research across all three sectors. This proves difficult when major governments fail to support it. According to the , the target is to reach the community farthest behind. Commitments should be transformed into effective actions requiring a correct perception of target populations. Data or information must address all vulnerable groups such as children, elderly folks, Disability, persons with disabilities, refugees, indigenous peoples, Migrant worker, migrants, and Internally displaced person, internally-displaced persons. Cross cutting issues include for example
gender equality Gender equality, also known as sexual equality or equality of the sexes, is the state of equal ease of access to resources and opportunities regardless of gender, including economic participation and decision-making; and the state of valuing d ...

gender equality
, education, culture and health. These are just some examples of various interlinkages inherent in the SDGs.


Gender equality

The widespread consensus is that progress on all of the SDGs will be stalled if women's empowerment and gender equality are not prioritized, and treated holistically. The SDGs look to policy makers as well as private sector executives and board members to work toward gender equality. Statements from diverse sources, such as the OECD, Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), UN Women and the World Pensions & Investments Forum, World Pensions Forum, have noted that investments in women and girls have positive impacts on economies. National and global development investments in women and girls often exceed their initial scope. Gender equality is mainstreamed throughout the SDG framework by ensuring that as much sex-disaggregated data as possible are collected.UNESCO (2019
Culture , 2030 Indicators
, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Paris, France, , CC-BY-ND 3.0 IGO


Education

Education for sustainable development (ESD) is explicitly recognized in the SDGs as part of Target 4.7 of the SDG on education. UNESCO promotes the Global citizenship education, Global Citizenship Education (GCED) as a complementary approach. At the same time, it is important to emphasize ESD's importance for all the other 16 SDGs. With its overall aim to develop cross-cutting sustainability competencies in learners, ESD is an essential contribution to all efforts to achieve the SDGs. This would enable individuals to contribute to sustainable development by promoting societal, economic and political change as well as by transforming their own behavior.


Culture

Culture is explicitly referenced in SDG 11 Target 4 ("Strengthen efforts to protect and safeguard the world's cultural and natural heritage"). However, culture is seen as a cross-cutting theme because it impacts several SDGs. For example, culture plays a role in SDGs related to: * environment and resilience (Targets 11.4 Cultural & natural heritage, 11.7 Inclusive public spaces, 12.b Sustainable tourism management, 16.4 Recovery of stolen assets), * prosperity and livelihoods (Targets 8.3 Jobs, entrepreneurship & innovation; 8.9 Policies for sustainable tourism), * knowledge and skills, * inclusion and participation (Targets 11.7 Inclusive public spaces, 16.7 Participatory decision-making).


Health

SDGs 1 to 6 directly address health disparities, primarily in developing countries. These six goals address key issues in Global health, Global Public Health, Poverty, Hunger and Food security, Health, Education, Gender equality and women's empowerment, and Drinking water, water and sanitation. Public health officials can use these goals to set their own agenda and plan for smaller scale initiatives for their organizations. These goals are designed to lessen the burden of disease and inequality faced by developing countries and lead to a healthier future. The links between the various sustainable development goals and public health are numerous and well established: * Living below the poverty line is attributed to poorer health outcomes and can be even worse for persons living in developing countries where
extreme poverty Extreme poverty, deep poverty, abject poverty, absolute poverty, destitution, or penury, is the most severe type of poverty Poverty is the state of having little material possessions or income Income is the consumption and saving oppor ...
is more common. A child born into poverty is twice as likely to die before the age of five compared to a child from a wealthier family. * The detrimental effects of hunger and malnutrition that can arise from systemic challenges with food security are enormous. The World Health Organization estimates that 12.9 percent of the population in developing countries is undernourished. * Health challenges in the developing world are enormous, with "only half of the women in developing nations receiving the recommended amount of healthcare they need. * Educational equity has yet to be reached in the world. Public health efforts are impeded by this, as a lack of education can lead to poorer health outcomes. This is shown by children of mothers who have no education having a lower survival rate compared to children born to mothers with primary or greater levels of education. Cultural differences in the role of women vary by country, many Gender inequality, gender inequalities are found in developing nations. Combating these inequalities has shown to also lead to a better public health outcome. * In studies done by the World Bank on populations in developing countries, it was found that when women had more control over household resources, the children benefit through better access to food, healthcare, and education. * Basic sanitation resources and access to clean sources of water are a basic Right to water, human right. However, 1.8 billion people globally use a source of drinking water that is contaminated by feces, and 2.4 billion people lack access to basic sanitation facilities like toilets or pit latrines. A lack of these resources is what causes approximately 1000 children a day to die from Diarrhea, diarrheal diseases that could have been prevented from better water and sanitation infrastructure.


Implementation and support

Implementation of the SDGs started worldwide in 2016. This process can also be called "Localizing the SDGs". Individual people, universities, governments, institutions and organizations of all kinds work are working separately but one or more goals at the same time. Individual governments must translate the goals into national legislation, develop a plan of action, and establish their own budget. However, at the same time, they must be open to and actively searching for partners. Coordination at the international level is crucial, making partnerships valuable. The SDGs note that countries with less access to financial resources need partnerships with more well-to-do countries. The co-chairs of the SDG negotiations each produced a book to help people to understand the Sustainable Development Goals and how they evolved. The books are: "Negotiating the Sustainable Development Goals: A transformational agenda for an insecure world" by Ambassador David Donoghue, Felix Dodds and Jimena Leiva and "Transforming Multilateral Diplomacy: The Inside Story of the Sustainable Development Goals" by Macharia Kamau, David O'Connor and Pamela Chasek. A 2018 study in the journal ''Nature (journal), Nature'' found that while "nearly all African countries demonstrated improvements for children under 5 years old for stunting, wasting, and underweight... much, if not all of the continent will fail to meet the Sustainable Development Goal target—to end malnutrition by 2030". To meet the long-term United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), sustained long-term investment in green innovation is required: to Decarbonization, decarbonize the physical capital stock – energy, industry, and transportation infrastructure – and ensure its resilience to a changing future climate; to preserve and enhance natural capital – forests, oceans, and wetlands; and to train people to work in a climate-neutral economy.


Allocation

In 2019 five progress reports on the 17 SDGs were published. Three came from the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA), one from the Bertelsmann Foundation and one from the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
. According to a review of the five reports in a synopsis, the allocation of the Goals and themes by the ''Basel Institute of Commons and Economics'', the allocation was the following: In explanation of the findings, the Basel Institute of Commons and Economics said Biodiversity, Peace and Social Inclusion were "left behind" by quoting the official SDGs motto "Leaving no one behind".


Challenges


Impacts of COVID-19 pandemic

The
COVID-19 pandemic The COVID-19 pandemic is an ongoing global pandemic A pandemic (from , , "all" and , , "local people" the 'crowd') is an of an that has spread across a large region, for instance multiple or worldwide, affecting a substantial numbe ...

COVID-19 pandemic
in 2020 has offered countries an opportunity to build recovery plans that will change current trends and also change consumption and production patterns towards achieving a more sustainable future. The pandemic has proved that weaknesses emerge from our systems, and to meet sustainable development goals, responsibility should begin from our governments down to other civil servants.


Costs and sources of finance


Costs

''The Economist'' estimated that alleviating poverty and achieving the other sustainable development goals will require about US$2–3 trillion per year for the next 15 years which they called "pure fantasy". Estimates for providing clean water and sanitation for the whole population of all continents have been as high as US$200 billion. The World Bank says that estimates need to be made country by country, and reevaluated frequently over time. In 2014, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, UNCTAD estimated the annual costs to achieving the UN Goals at US$2.5 trillion per year. Another estimate from 2018 (by the Basel Institute of Commons and Economics, that conducts the World Social Capital Monitor) found that to reach all of the SDGs this would require between US$2.5 and $5.0 trillion per year.Alexander Dill (2018
The SDGs are public goods - Costs, Sources and Measures of Financing for Development
- Policy paper to the UN Inter-Agency Taskforce on Financing for Development, Basel Institute of Commons and Economics


Financing

The Rockefeller Foundation asserts that "The key to financing and achieving the SDGs lies in mobilizing a greater share of the $200+ trillion in annual private capital investment flows toward development efforts, and philanthropy has a critical role to play in catalyzing this shift." Large-scale funders participating in a Rockefeller Foundation-hosted design thinking workshop concluded that "while there is a moral imperative to achieve the SDGs, failure is inevitable if there aren't drastic changes to how we go about financing large scale change". In 2017 the launched the Inter-agency Task Force on Financing for Development ( IATF on FfD) that invited to a public dialogue. The top-5 sources of financing for development were estimated in 2018 to be: Real new Government debt, sovereign debt OECD countries, Military budget, military expenditures, official increase sovereign debt OECD countries, remittances from expats to developing countries, official development assistance (ODA).


SDG-driven investment

Stewardship, Capital stewardship is expected to play a crucial part in the progressive advancement of the SDG agenda: : "No longer absentee landlords', pension fund trustees have started to exercise more forcefully their governance prerogatives across the boardrooms of Britain, Benelux and America: coming together through the establishment of engaged pressure groups [...] to shift the [whole economic] system towards sustainable investment" by using the SDG framework across all asset classes. In 2017, 2018 and early 2019, the World Pensions & Investments Forum, World Pensions Council (WPC) held a series of ESG-focused discussions with pension board members (trustees) and senior investment executives from across G20 nations in Toronto, London (with the UK Association of Member-Nominated Trustees, AMNT), Paris and
New York New York most commonly refers to: * New York City, the most populous city in the United States, located in the state of New York * New York (state), a state in the northeastern United States New York may also refer to: Film and television * New ...

New York
– notably on the sidelines of the 73rd session of the
United Nations General Assembly The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; french: link=no, Assemblée générale, AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), serving as the main deliberative, policymaking, and representative organ of the UN. Its ...
. Many pension investment executives and board members confirmed they were in the process of adopting or developing SDG-informed investment processes, with more ambitious investment governance requirements – notably when it comes to Climate Action, Gender equality, Gender Equity and Social Fairness: “they straddle key Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), including, of course, Gender equality, Gender Equality () and Reduced Inequality () [...] Many pension trustees are now playing for keeps”. The notion of "SDG Driven Investment" gained further ground amongst institutional investors in the second semester of 2019, notably at the World Pensions & Investments Forum, WPC-led G7 Pensions Roundtable held in Biarritz, 26 August 2019, and the Business Roundtable held in Washington, DC, on 19 August 2019.


Communication and advocacy

UN agencies which are part of the United Nations Development Group decided to support an independent campaign to communicate the new SDGs to a wider audience. This campaign, "Project Everyone," had the support of corporate institutions and other international organizations. Using the text drafted by diplomats at the level, a team of communication specialists developed icons for every goal. They also shortened the title "The 17 Sustainable Development Goals" to "Global Goals/17#GlobalGoals," then ran workshops and conferences to communicate the Global Goals to a global audience. An early concern was that 17 goals would be too much for people to grasp and that therefore the SDGs would fail to get a wider recognition. Without wider recognition the necessary momentum to achieve them by 2030 would not be achieved. Concerned with this, British film-maker Richard Curtis started the organization in 2015 called Project Everyone with the aim to bring the goals to everyone on the planet. Curtis approached Swedish designer Jakob Trollbäck who rebranded them as The Global Goals and created the 17 iconic visuals with clear short names as well as a logotype for the whole initiative. The communication system is available for free. In 2018, Jakob Trollbäck and his company (The New Division), went on to extend the communication system to also include the 169 targets that describe how the goals can be achieved. The benefits of engaging the affected public in decision making that affects their livelihoods, communities, and environment have been widely recognized. The Aarhus Convention is a United Nations Treaty, convention passed in 2001, explicitly to encourage and promote effective public engagement in environmental decision making. Information transparency related to social media and the engagement of youth are two issues related to the Sustainable Development Goals that the convention has addressed.


Advocates

In 2019, Secretary-General of the United Nations, United Nations Secretary-General António Guterres appointed new SDG advocates. The role of these 17 public figures is to raise awareness, inspire greater ambition, and push for faster action on the SDGs. They are: ;Co-Chairs * Nana Akufo-Addo, Nana Addo Dankwa Akufo-Addo, President of Ghana. * Erna Solberg, Prime Minister of Norway. ;Members * Queen Mathilde of Belgium, Queen Mathilde of the Belgians * Sanusi Lamido Sanusi, Muhammadu Sanusi II, Emir of Kano (city), Kano. * Moza bint Nasser, Sheikha Moza bint Nasser, founder of the Education Above All Foundation. * Richard Curtis, screenwriter, producer and film director. * Hindou Oumarou Ibrahim, environmental and indigenous rights activist. * Jack Ma, founder and executive chairman of the Alibaba Group. * Graça Machel, founder of Graça Machel Trust. * Dia Mirza, actress, film producer, and Environment Program Goodwill Ambassador for
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest country by area, the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous ...

India
. * Alaa Murabit, founder of The Voice of Libyan Women. * Nadia Murad, Nobel Laureate, chair and president of Nadia's Initiative, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, UN Office on Drugs and Crime Goodwill Ambassador. * Eddie Ndopu, Edward Ndopu, founder of Global Strategies on Inclusive Education. * Paul Polman, chair of the International Chamber of Commerce, vice-chair of the board of United Nations Global Compact. * Jeffrey Sachs, director of the Center for Sustainable development, Sustainable Development at Columbia University. * Marta (footballer), Marta Vieira da Silva, footballer for Orlando Pride and UN Women Goodwill Ambassador. * Forest Whitaker, actor, founder and CEO of Whitaker Peace & Development Initiative.


Events


Global Goals Week

Global Goals Week is an annual week-long event in September for action, awareness, and accountability for the Sustainable Development Goals. Its a shared commitment for over 100 partners to ensure quick action on the SDGs by sharing ideas and transformative solutions to global problems. It first took place in 2016. It is often held concurrently with Climate Week NYC. Lagos SDGs Week The Lagos SDSs Week is an annual week-long event commemorated by coalescing cross-sectoral stakeholders to synergise Altruism, Advocacy & Action with a view to identifying solutions, reviewing progress, amplifying   awareness, collaborating   and   reaffirming   commitment   towards accelerating   efforts to achieve the 2030 SDGs. The SDGs week features the following programmes: Mr. Governor’s Virtual Meet-And-Greet with Lagos SDGs Enablers, Open Goal Adoption by Prominent Lagosians, Neighbourhood   Outreach   Campaign, Future   of   Lagos   Hackathon, Lagos Local   Government / LCDAs Discourse on SDGs. These programmes are intrinsically linked in their purpose to fast-track efforts towards progress for the delivery of the SDGs in Lagos State.


Film festivals

The annual "Le Temps Presse" festival in Paris utilizes cinema to sensitize the public, especially young people, to the Sustainable Development Goals. The origin of the festival was in 2010 when eight directors produced a film titled "8," which included eight short films, each featuring one of the
Millennium Development Goals The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were eight international development goals for the year 2015 that had been established following the Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000, following the adoption of the United Nations Millennium ...
. After 2.5 million viewers saw "8" on YouTube, the festival was created. It now showcases young directors whose work promotes social, environmental and human commitment. The festival now focuses on the Sustainable Development Goals. The Arctic Film Festival is an annual film festival organized by HF Productions and supported by the SDGs' Partnership Platform. Held for the first time in 2019, the festival is expected to take place every year in September in Longyearbyen, Svalbard, Norway.


History

In 1972, governments met in Stockholm, Sweden for the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment to consider the rights of the family to a healthy and productive environment. In 1983, the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as ''member states''), or of other organizations through formal ...

United Nations
created the Brundtland Commission, World Commission on Environment and Development (later known as the Brundtland Commission), which defined
sustainable development Sustainable development is the organizing principle for meeting human development goals while simultaneously sustaining the ability of natural systems to provide the natural resources and ecosystem services Social forestry in India, Social ...

sustainable development
as "meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs". In 1992, the first United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) or Earth Summit was held in Rio de Janeiro, where the first agenda for Environment and Development, also known as Agenda 21, was developed and adopted. In 2012, the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (UNCSD), also known as United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, Rio+20, was held as a 20-year follow up to UNCED. Colombia proposed the idea of the SDGs at a preparation event for Rio+20 held in Indonesia in July 2011. In September 2011, this idea was picked up by the United Nations Department of Public Information 64th NGO Conference in Bonn, Germany. The outcome document proposed 17 sustainable development goals and associated targets. In the run-up to Rio+20 there was much discussion about the idea of the SDGs. At the Rio+20 Conference, a resolution known as "The Future We Want" was reached by member states. Among the key themes agreed on were poverty eradication, energy, water and sanitation, health, and human settlement. The Rio+20 outcome document mentioned that "at the outset, the OWG [Open Working Group] will decide on its methods of work, including developing modalities to ensure the full involvement of relevant stakeholders and expertise from civil society, Indigenous Peoples, the scientific community and the United Nations system in its work, in order to provide a diversity of perspectives and experience". In January 2013, the 30-member United Nations General Assembly, UN General Assembly Open Working Group on Sustainable Development Goals was established to identify specific goals for the SDGs. The Open Working Group (OWG) was tasked with preparing a proposal on the SDGs for consideration during the 68th session of the General Assembly, September 2013 – September 2014. On 19 July 2014, the OWG forwarded a proposal for the SDGs to the Assembly. After 13 sessions, the OWG submitted their proposal of 8 SDGs and 169 targets to the 68th session of the General Assembly in September 2014. On 5 December 2014, the UN General Assembly accepted the Secretary-General of the United Nations, Secretary General's Synthesis Report, which stated that the agenda for the post-2015 SDG process would be based on the OWG proposals. Ban Ki-moon, the Secretary-General of the United Nations, United Nations Secretary-General from 2007 to 2016, has stated in a November 2016 press conference that: "We don't have plan B because there is no planet B." This thought has guided the development of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The
Post-2015 Development Agenda The Post-2015 Development Agenda was a process from 2012 to 2015 led by the United Nations to define the future global development framework that would succeed the Millennium Development Goals. The new framework, starting from 2016 is called Sustain ...
was a process from 2012 to 2015 led by the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as ''member states''), or of other organizations through formal ...

United Nations
to define the future global development framework that would succeed the
Millennium Development Goals The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were eight international development goals for the year 2015 that had been established following the Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000, following the adoption of the United Nations Millennium ...
. The SDGs were developed to succeed the
Millennium Development Goals The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were eight international development goals for the year 2015 that had been established following the Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000, following the adoption of the United Nations Millennium ...
(MDGs) which ended in 2015. The gaps and shortcomings of MDG Goal 8 (To develop a global partnership for development) led to identifying a problematic "donor-recipient" relationship. Instead, the new SDGs favor collective action by all countries. The UN-led process involved its 193 Member states of the United Nations, Member States and global civil society. The resolution is a broad intergovernmental agreement that acts as the
Post-2015 Development Agenda The Post-2015 Development Agenda was a process from 2012 to 2015 led by the United Nations to define the future global development framework that would succeed the Millennium Development Goals. The new framework, starting from 2016 is called Sustain ...
. The SDGs build on the principles agreed upon in Resolution A/RES/66/288, entitled "The Future We Want". This was a non-binding document released as a result of United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, Rio+20 Conference held in 2012.


Reception

The SDGs have been criticized for setting contradictory goals and for trying to do everything first, instead of focusing on the most urgent or fundamental priorities. The SDGs were an outcome from a UN conference that was not criticized by any major non-governmental organization (NGO). Instead, the SDGs received broad support from many NGOs. A commentary in ''The Economist'' in 2015 said that the SDGs are "a mess" compared to the eight
Millennium Development Goals The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were eight international development goals for the year 2015 that had been established following the Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000, following the adoption of the United Nations Millennium ...
(MDGs) used previously. Others have pointed out that the SDGs mark a shift from the MDGs and emphasise the interconnected environmental, social and economic aspects of development, by putting sustainability at their centre. The SDGs may simply maintain the ''status quo'' and fall short of delivering on the ambitious development agenda. The current status quo has been described as "separating human wellbeing and environmental sustainability, failing to change governance and to pay attention to trade-offs, root causes of poverty and environmental degradation, and social justice issues". Regarding the targets of the SDGs, there is generally weak evidence linking the "means of implementation" to outcomes. The targets about "means of implementation" (those denoted with a letter, for example, Target 6.a) are imperfectly conceptualized and inconsistently formulated, and tracking their largely qualitative indicators will be difficult.


Competing and too many goals

A commentary in ''The Economist'' in 2015 argued that 169 targets for the SDGs is too many, describing them as "sprawling, misconceived" and "a mess". The goals are said to ignore local context. All other 16 goals might be contingent on achieving SDG 1, ending poverty, which should have been at the top of a very short list of goals. On the other hand, nearly all stakeholders engaged in negotiations to develop the SDGs agreed that the high number of 17 goals was justified because the agenda they address is all-encompassing.


Weak on environmental sustainability

Continued global economic growth of 3 percent (Goal 8) may not be reconcilable with ecological sustainability goals, because the required rate of absolute global eco-economic decoupling is far higher than any country has achieved in the past. Anthropologists have suggested that, instead of targeting aggregate GDP growth, the goals could target resource use per capita, with "substantial reductions in high‐income nations." Environmental constraints and planetary boundaries are underrepresented within the SDGs. For instance, the paper "Making the Sustainable Development Goals Consistent with Sustainability" points out that the way the current SDGs are structured leads to a negative correlation between environmental sustainability and SDGs. This means, as the environmental sustainability side of the SDGs is underrepresented, the resource security for all, particularly for lower-income populations, is put at risk. This is not a criticism of the SDGs ''per se'', but a recognition that their environmental conditions are still weak. The SDGs have been criticized for their inability to protect biodiversity. They could unintentionally promote Environmental degradation, environmental destruction in the name of sustainable development. Scientists have proposed several ways to address the weaknesses regarding environmental sustainability in the SDGs: * The monitoring of essential variables to better capture the essence of coupled environmental and social systems that underpin sustainable development, helping to guide coordination and systems transformation. * More attention to the context of the biophysical systems in different places (e.g., coastal river deltas, mountain areas) * Better understanding of feedbacks across scales in space (e.g., through globalization) and time (e.g., affecting future generations) that could ultimately determine the success or failure of the SDGs.


Importance of technology and connectivity

Several years after the launch of the SDGs, growing voices called for more emphasis on the need for technology and internet connectivity within the goals. In September 2020, the UN Broadband Commission for Sustainable Development called for digital connectivity to be established as a “foundational pillar” for achieving all the SDGs. In a document titled “Global Goal of Universal Connectivity Manifesto”, the Broadband Commission said: “As we define the ‘new normal’ for our post-COVID world, leaving no one behind means leaving no one offline.”


Country examples


Asia and Pacific


Australia

The Australia, Commonwealth of Australia was one of the 193 countries that adopted the 2030 Agenda in September 2015. Implementation of the agenda is led by the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (Australia), Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT) and the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet (PM&C) with different federal government agencies responsible for each of the goals. Australia is not on-track to achieve the SDGs by 2030. Four modelled scenarios based on different development approaches found that the 'Sustainability Transition' scenario could deliver "rapid and balanced progress of 70% towards SDG targets by 2020, well ahead of the business-as-usual scenario (40%)". In 2020, Australia's overall performance in the SDG Index is ranked 37th out of 166 countries (down from 18th out of 34 countries in 2015).


Bangladesh

Bangladesh, as an active participant in the global process of preparing the Agenda 2030, started its implementation from the very beginning through the integration of SDGs into the national development agenda. The SDGs were integrated with the country's 7th Five Year Plan (7FYP, 2016- 2020) and these were given emphasis while setting the priority areas of the 7FYP such that the achievement of Plan objectives and targets also can contribute towards the achievement of the SDGs. All the 17 goals were integrated into the 7FYP. A Development Results Framework (DRF)- -a robust and rigorous result based monitoring and evaluation framework—was also embedded in the Plan for monitoring the 7FYP. The outcomes and targets in the DRF were aligned with the SDGs focus on macroeconomic development, poverty reduction, employment, education, health, water and sanitation, transport and communication, power, energy and mineral resources, gender and inequality, environment, climate change and disaster management, ICT, urban development, governance, and international cooperation and partnership.


Bhutan

The Sustainable development process in Bhutan has a more meaningful purpose than economic growth alone. The nation's holistic goal is the pursuit of Gross National Happiness (GNH), a term coined in 1972 by the Fourth King of Bhutan, Jigme Singye Wangchuck, which has the principal guiding philosophy for the long term journey as a nation. Therefore, the SDGs find a natural place within the framework of GNH sharing a common vision of prosperity, peace, and harmony where no one is left behind. Just as GNH is both an ideal to be pursued and a practical tool so too the SDGs inspire and guide sustainable action. Guided by the development paradigm of GNH, Bhutan is committed to achieving the goals of SDGs by 2030 since its implementation in September 2015. In line with Bhutan's commitment to the implementation of the SDGs and sustainable development, Bhutan has participated in the Voluntary National Review in the 2018 High-Level Political Forum. As the country has progressed in its 12th Five-Year Plans of Bhutan, five-year plan (2019–2023), the national goals have been aligned with the SDGs and every agency plays a vital role in its own ways to collectively achieving the committed goals of SDGs.


India

The Government of India established the NITI Aayog to attain sustainable development goals.Business in India keen: delegation
, Dec 2017.
In March 2018 Haryana became the first state in India to have its annual budget focused on the attainment of SDG with a 3-year action plan and a 7-year strategy plan to implement sustainable development goals when Captain Abhimanyu, Finance Minister of Government of Haryana, unveiled a annual 2018-19 budget.[Haryana Budget 2018 Presented by Captain Abhimanyu: Highlights Haryana Budget 2018 Presented by Captain Abhimanyu: Highlights], India.com, 9 Mar 2018. Also, NITI Aayog starts the exercise of measuring India and its States’ progress towards the SDGs for 2030, culminating in the development of the first SDG India Index - Baseline Report 2018


Africa

Countries in Africa such as Ethiopia, Angola and South Africa worked with Country Teams and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) to provide support to create awareness about SDGs among government officers, private sector workers, Member of parliament, MPs and the civil society. In Cape Verde, the government received support from the United Nations Development Programme, UNDP to convene an international conference on SDGs in June 2015. This contributed to the worldly discussions on the specific needs of Small Island Developing States in the view of the new global agenda on
sustainable development Sustainable development is the organizing principle for meeting human development goals while simultaneously sustaining the ability of natural systems to provide the natural resources and ecosystem services Social forestry in India, Social ...

sustainable development
. In the country team context, the government received support from United Nations Development Programme, UNDP to develop a roadmap (a plan) to place SDGs at the middle of its national development planning processes. In Liberia, the government received support from United Nations Development Programme, UNDP to develop a roadmap to domesticate the African Union, AU Agenda 2063 and 2030 Agenda into the country's next national development plan. Outlines from the roadmap are steps to translate the Agenda 2063 and the SDGs into policies, plans and programs whiles considering the country is a Fragile state, Fragile State and applies the New Deal Principles. Uganda was also claimed to be one of the first countries to develop its 2015/16-2019/20 National Development Plan, national development plan in line with SDGs. It was estimated by its government that about 76% of the SDGs targets were reflected in the plan and was adapted to the national context. The Country Team was claimed to have supported the government to integrate the SDGs. In Mauritania, the Ministry for the Economy and Finances received support from the United Nations Development Programme, UNDP to convene partners such as Non-governmental organization, NGOs, government agencies, other ministries and the private sector in the discussion for implementing of the SDGs in the country, in the context of the Country Team. A national workshop was also supported by the United Nations Development Programme, UNDP to provide the methodology and tools for mainstreaming the SDGs into the country's new strategy. The government of countries such as Togo, Sierra Leone, Madagascar and Uganda were claimed to have volunteered to conduct national reviews of their implementation of the 2030 Agenda. Support from United Nations Development Programme, UNDP was received to prepare their respective reports presented at the High-Level Political Forum. It was held during 11–20 July 2016 in
New York New York most commonly refers to: * New York City, the most populous city in the United States, located in the state of New York * New York (state), a state in the northeastern United States New York may also refer to: Film and television * New ...

New York
in the United States. This forum was the United Nations, UN global platform to review and follow up the SDGs and 2030 Agenda. It is said to provide guidance on policy to countries for implementing the goals.


Nigeria

Nigeria is one of the countries that presented its Voluntary National Review (VNR) in 2017 & 2020 on the implementation of the SDGs at the High-level Political Forum on Sustainable Development, High-Level Political Forum on Sustainable Development (HLPF). In 2020, Nigeria ranked 160 on the 2020 world's SDG Index. The government affirmed that Nigeria's current development priorities and objectives are focused on achieving the SDGs. The Lagos SDGs Youth Alliance is another pivotal SDGs Initiative in Nigeria aimed at promoting the involvement of youth in achieving the 2030 Agenda and supporting long-term sustainable development strategy of Lagos state.


Ghana

Ghana aims to align its development priorities in partnership with Civil society organization, CSOs and the private sector to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals and Ghana, SDGs in Ghana together.


Europe and Middle East

Baltic nations, via the Council of the Baltic Sea States, have created the Baltic 21, Baltic 2030 Action Plan. The World Pensions & Investments Forum, World Pensions Forum has observed that the United Kingdom, UK and
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
pension fund, pension investors have been at the forefront of ESG-driven (Environmental, Social and Governance) asset allocation at home and abroad and early adopters of "SDG-centric" investment practices.


Iran

In December 2016 the Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran held a special ceremony announcing a national education initiative that was arranged by the UNESCO office in Iran to implement the educational objectives of this global program. The announcement created a stir among politicians and Marja' in the country.


Lebanon

Lebanon adopted the Sustainable Development Goals in 2015. It presented its first Voluntary National Review VNR in 2018 at the High Level Political Forum in New York. A national committee chaired by the Lebanese Prime Minister is leading the work on the SDGs in the country. In 2019, Lebanon's overall performance in the SDG Index ranked 6th out of 21 countries in the Arab region.


United Kingdom

The UK's approach to delivering the Global SDGs is outlined in Agenda 2030: Delivering the Global Goals, developed by the Department for International Development. In 2019, the Bond network analyzed the UK's global progress on the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The Bond report highlights crucial gaps where attention and investment are most needed. The report was compiled by 49 organizations and 14 networks and working groups.


Americas


United States

193 governments including the United States ratified the SDGs. However, the UN reported minimal progress after three years within the 15-year timetable of this project. Funding remains trillions of dollars short. The United States stand last among the G20 nations to attain these Sustainable Development Goals and 36th worldwide.


See also

* Education 2030 Agenda * Planetary management * Social Progress Index * Belt and Road Initiative International Green Development Coalition


Notes


References


Sources

*


External links


Take Action for the Sustainable Development GoalsUN Sustainable Development Knowledge Platform – The SDGs"Global Goals" Campaign
Campaign on the SDGs published by Project Everyone
The UN SDG Action CampaignGlobal SDG Indicators Database of the United NationsSDG-Tracker.org
– Visualized tracking of progress towards the SDGs
SDG Pathfinder
– Explore content on SDGs from six international organizations (powered by the OECD)
The ThinkGlobal Institute

Federation of Sustainable Development Organizations Member Directory
{{Authority control International sustainable development United Nations documents Global policy organizations Sustainable development Sustainable Development Goals, Sustainability