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Sichuan (; , ; alternatively romanized as Szechuan or Szechwan) is a landlocked
province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are g ...
in
Southwest China Southwest China () is a region in the south of the People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, most ...

Southwest China
occupying most of the
Sichuan Basin The Sichuan Basin (), formerly transliterated as the Szechwan Basin, sometimes called the Red Basin, is a Sedimentary basin, lowland region in southwestern China. It is surrounded by mountains on all sides and is drained by the upper Yangtze River ...
and the easternmost part of the
Tibetan Plateau The Tibetan Plateau (, also known as the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau or the Qing–Zang Plateau () or as the Himalayan Plateau in India, is a vast elevated plateau In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λ ...
between the Jinsha River on the west, the
Daba Mountains The Daba Mountains, also known by their Chinese language, Chinese name as the Dabashan, are a mountain range in Central China between the watersheds of the Yellow River, Yellow and Yangtze Rivers. Part of the larger Qin Mountains, Qinling mounta ...
in the north and the Yungui Plateau to the south. Sichuan's capital city is
Chengdu Chengdu (, ; simplified Chinese Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters Chinese characters, also called ''hanzi'' (), are logogram In a written language A written language is the representa ...

Chengdu
. The population of Sichuan stands at 83 million. Sichuan neighbors the
Qinghai Qinghai (; alternately romanized as Tsinghai, Ch'inghai), also known Kokonor, is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdi ...

Qinghai
to the northwest,
Gansu Gansu (, ; alternately romanized as Kansu) is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnatio ...

Gansu
to the north,
Shaanxi Shaanxi (; , ; Chinese postal romanization, alternately Shensi) is a landlocked Provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China. Officially part of Northwest China, it borders the province-level divisions of Shanxi (NE, ...

Shaanxi
to the northeast,
Chongqing Chongqing ( ; ; Sichuanese dialects, Sichuanese pronunciation: , Standard Mandarin pronunciation: ), Postal Romanization, alternately romanized as Chungking, is a Direct-administered municipalities of China, municipality in southwest China. ...

Chongqing
to the east,
Guizhou Guizhou (; alternately Kweichow) is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational enti ...

Guizhou
to the southeast,
Yunnan Yunnan () is a landlocked Provinces of China, province in Southwest China, the southwest of the People's Republic of China. The province spans approximately and has a population of 48.3 million (as of 2018). The capital of the province is Ku ...

Yunnan
to the south, and the
Tibet Autonomous Region The Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) or Xizang Autonomous Region, called Tibet or Xizang for short, is a province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' pr ...
to the west. In antiquity, Sichuan was the home of the ancient states of Ba and
Shu Shu may refer to: China * Sichuan, China, officially abbreviated as Shu (蜀) * Shu (state) (conquered by Qin in 316 BC), an ancient state in modern Sichuan * Shu Han (221–263) during the Three Kingdoms Period * Western Shu (405–413), also k ...
. Their conquest by
QinQin may refer to: Dynasties and states * Qin (state) (秦), a major state during the Zhou Dynasty of ancient China * Qin dynasty (秦), founded by the Qin state in 221 BC and ended in 206 BC * Daqin (大秦), ancient Chinese name for the Roman Empi ...
strengthened it and paved the way for the
Qin Shi Huang Qin Shi Huang (, ; 259–210 BCE), or Shihuangdi, was the founder of the Qin dynasty, and first Emperor of China, emperor of a unified China. Rather than maintain the title of "Chinese king, king" ( ''wáng'') borne by the previous Shang dyna ...
's unification of China under the
Qin dynasty The Qin dynasty, or Ch'in dynasty in Wade–Giles Wade–Giles () is a Romanization of Chinese, romanization system for Standard Chinese, Mandarin Chinese. It developed from a system produced by Thomas Francis Wade, during the mid-19th ...

Qin dynasty
. During the
Three Kingdoms The Three Kingdoms () from 220 to 280 AD was the tripartite division of China among the states of Cao Wei, Wei, Shu Han, Shu, and Eastern Wu, Wu. The Three Kingdoms period started with the End of the Han dynasty, end of the Han dynasty#East ...

Three Kingdoms
era,
Liu Bei Liu Bei (, ; ; 161 – Summer 223), courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in the East Asian cultural sphere ...

Liu Bei
's
Shu Shu may refer to: China * Sichuan, China, officially abbreviated as Shu (蜀) * Shu (state) (conquered by Qin in 316 BC), an ancient state in modern Sichuan * Shu Han (221–263) during the Three Kingdoms Period * Western Shu (405–413), also k ...
was based in Sichuan. The area was devastated in the 17th century by
Zhang Xianzhong Zhang Xianzhong (张献忠 or Chang Hsien-chung, 18 September 1606 to 2 January 1647), nicknamed ''Yellow Tiger'', was a leader of a peasant revolt from Yan'an Yan'an (; ) is a prefecture-level city Image:Yangxin-renmin-huanyin-ni-0022.j ...
's rebellion and the area's subsequent
Manchu The Manchu (; ) are an officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym and endonym, exonym for a historical and geographic region of Russia and China in Northeast Asia (mostly in N ...
conquest, but recovered to become one of China's most productive areas by the 19th century. During
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
,
Chongqing Chongqing ( ; ; Sichuanese dialects, Sichuanese pronunciation: , Standard Mandarin pronunciation: ), Postal Romanization, alternately romanized as Chungking, is a Direct-administered municipalities of China, municipality in southwest China. ...

Chongqing
served as the temporary capital of the
Republic of China Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. It shares Maritime boundary, maritime borders with the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the sout ...
, making it the focus of
Japanese bombing
Japanese bombing
. It was one of the last
mainland Mainland is defined as "relating to or forming the main part of a country or continent, not including the islands around it egardless of status under territorial jurisdiction by an entity" The term is often human geography, politically, econo ...

mainland
areas captured by the
People's Liberation Army The People's Liberation Army (PLA) is the armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict between St ...
during the
Chinese Civil War The Chinese Civil War was a civil war in China fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led Nationalist government, government of the Republic of China (1912–1949), Republic of China (ROC) and forces of the Communist Party of China (CPC) lastin ...
and was divided into four parts from 1949 to 1952, with Chongqing restored two years later. It suffered gravely during the
Great Chinese Famine The Great Chinese Famine (, "three years of great famine") was a period between 1959 and 1961 in the history of the People's Republic of China The History of the People's Republic of China details the history of mainland China Mainland ...
of 1959–61 but remained China's most populous province until
Chongqing Municipality Chongqing ( ; ; Sichuanese pronunciation: , Standard Mandarin Standard Chinese (), in linguistics known as Standard Northern Mandarin, Standard Beijing Mandarin or simply Mandarin, is a dialect of Mandarin that emerged as the lingu ...
was again separated from it in 1997. The
Han Chinese The Han Chinese (), or the Han people (), is an East Asian East Asia is the east East is one of the four cardinal direction The four cardinal directions, or cardinal points, are the directions north North is one of the four ...
people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason Reason is the capacity of consciously applying logic Logic is an interdisciplinary field wh ...
of Sichuan speak a unique form of
Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat A bureaucrat is a member of a bureaucracy and can compose the administration o ...
, which took shape during the area's repopulation under the
Ming The Ming dynasty (), officially the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an eth ...

Ming
. The family of dialects is now spoken by about 120 million people, which would make it the 10th most spoken language in the world if counted separately. The area's warm damp climate long caused
Chinese medicine Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a branch of traditional medicine Traditional medicine (also known as indigenous or folk medicine) comprises medical aspects of traditional knowledge that developed over generations within the folk bel ...
to advocate spicy dishes; the native
Sichuan pepper Sichuan pepper () (also Szechuan pepper, Szechwan pepper, Chinese prickly ash, Chinese pepper, rattan pepper, and mala pepper) is a spice commonly used in the Sichuan cuisine of China's southwestern Sichuan Province. When eaten it produces a ting ...

Sichuan pepper
helped to form modern
Sichuan cuisine Sichuan cuisine, alternatively romanized as Szechwan cuisine or Szechuan cuisine (, Standard Mandarin Standard Chinese, in linguistics known as Standard Northern Mandarin, Standard Beijing Mandarin or simply Mandarin, is a Mandarin Chinese ...
, whose dishes—including
Kung Pao chicken Kung Pao chicken (), also Romanization of Chinese, transcribed Gong Bao or Kung Po, is a spicy, Stir frying, stir-fried Chinese dish made with cubes of chicken, peanuts, vegetables (traditionally Welsh onion only), and chili peppers. The classi ...

Kung Pao chicken
and
mapo tofu Mapo tofu () is a popular Chinese dish from Sichuan Sichuan (; , ; Postal romanization, alternatively romanized as Szechuan or Szechwan) is a landlocked Provinces of China, province in Southwest China occupying most of the Sichuan Basin ...
—have become staples of Chinese cuisine around the world. In 1950, the province of
Xikang Xikang (also Sikang or Hsikang) was an illusory province formed by the Republic of China Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's ...

Xikang
was dissolved and its territory was later split between the newly established
Tibet Autonomous Region The Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) or Xizang Autonomous Region, called Tibet or Xizang for short, is a province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' pr ...
and the Province of Sichuan. The western and northwestern part of Sichuan is made up of
Tibetan Tibetan may mean: * of, from, or related to Tibet * Tibetan people, an ethnic group * Tibetan language: ** Classical Tibetan, the classical language used also as a contemporary written standard ** Standard Tibetan, the most widely used spoken dialec ...
and Qiang autonomous areas.


Names

It is commonly believed that the name ''Sichuan'' means "four
rivers A river is a natural flowing watercourse A watercourse is the channel Channel, channels, channeling, etc., may refer to: Geography * Channel (geography), in physical geography, a landform consisting of the outline (banks) of the path o ...
", and in
folk etymology Folk etymology (also known as popular etymology, analogical reformation, reanalysis, morphological reanalysis or etymological reinterpretation) is a change in a word or phrase resulting from the replacement of an unfamiliar form by a more familia ...
this is usually taken to mean four of the province's major rivers: the
Jialing
Jialing
, Jinsha (or Wu), Min, and Tuo. According to historical geographer
Tan Qixiang Tan Qixiang (; 25 February 1911 − 28 August 1992) was a Chinese geographer and historian who is considered a founder of the field of historical geography Historical geography is the branch of geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geogr ...
, "four rivers" is an erroneous interpretation of the place name. The name of the province is actually a contraction of the phrases ''Sì Chuānlù'' "Four Plain
CircuitsCircuit may refer to: Science and technology Electrical engineering * Electrical circuit, a complete electrical network with a closed-loop giving a return path for current ** Analog circuit, uses continuous signal levels ** Balanced circuit, p ...
") and ''Chuānxiá Sìlù'' "Four Circuits of Chuanxia"),''Si'' (四) means "four", ''Chuan'' (川) means "plain", and ''Xia'' ("峡") could be understood as "gorge". ''Sì Chuānlù'' and ''Chuānxiá Sìlù'' are general names for the Four Circuits,. referring to the division of the existing
imperial Imperial is that which relates to an empire, emperor, or imperialism. Imperial or The Imperial may also refer to: Places United States * Imperial, California * Imperial, Missouri * Imperial, Nebraska * Imperial, Pennsylvania * Imperial, Texas * ...
administrative circuit in the area into four during the
Northern Song dynasty #REDIRECT Northern Song Dynasty#REDIRECT Northern Song Dynasty The Northern Song (北宋; 4 February 960 – 20 March 1127) is an era during the Song dynasty, Song Dynasty. It came to an end when its capital city, the city of Kaifeng, was conquere ...
, which were
Yizhou Yi Prefecture or Yizhou may refer to: * Yi Prefecture (Shandong) (), active between the 7th and 18th centuries * Yi Prefecture (Guangxi) (), active between the 7th and 13th centuries * Yi Prefecture (Hebei) * Yi Prefecture (Korea), now known as Ui ...
, Lizhou, Zizhou, and Kuizhou. The word ''chuan'' () here means "
plain In geography, a plain is a flat expanse of land that generally does not change much in elevation, and is primarily treeless. Plains occur as lowlands along valleys or at the base of mountains, as coastal plains, and as plateaus or Highland, up ...

plain
", not its normal meaning of "river" as popularly assumed. In addition to its postal map and Wade-Giles forms, the name has also been irregularly romanized as Szű-chuan and Szechuan. In antiquity, the area of modern Sichuan including the now separated Chongqing Municipality was known to the
Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a populat ...
as , in reference to the ancient states of Ba and
Shu Shu may refer to: China * Sichuan, China, officially abbreviated as Shu (蜀) * Shu (state) (conquered by Qin in 316 BC), an ancient state in modern Sichuan * Shu Han (221–263) during the Three Kingdoms Period * Western Shu (405–413), also k ...
that once occupied the
Sichuan Basin The Sichuan Basin (), formerly transliterated as the Szechwan Basin, sometimes called the Red Basin, is a Sedimentary basin, lowland region in southwestern China. It is surrounded by mountains on all sides and is drained by the upper Yangtze River ...
. Shu continued to be used to refer to the Sichuan region all through its history right up to the present day; a number of states formed in the area used the same name, for example the
Shu Shu may refer to: China * Sichuan, China, officially abbreviated as Shu (蜀) * Shu (state) (conquered by Qin in 316 BC), an ancient state in modern Sichuan * Shu Han (221–263) during the Three Kingdoms Period * Western Shu (405–413), also k ...
of the
Three Kingdoms The Three Kingdoms () from 220 to 280 AD was the tripartite division of China among the states of Cao Wei, Wei, Shu Han, Shu, and Eastern Wu, Wu. The Three Kingdoms period started with the End of the Han dynasty, end of the Han dynasty#East ...

Three Kingdoms
period, and
Former Shu Great Shu (Chinese: 大蜀, Pinyin: Dàshǔ) called in retrospect Former Shu (Chinese: 前蜀, Pinyin: Qiánshǔ) or occasionally Wang Shu (王蜀), was one of the Ten Kingdoms formed during the chaotic period between the rules of the Tang dynast ...
and
Later Shu Later may refer to: * Future The future is the time after the past and present. Its arrival is considered inevitable due to the existence of time and the laws of physics. Due to the apparent nature of reality and the unavoidability of the fut ...
of the
Ten Kingdoms The Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period (907–979) was an era of political upheaval and division in 10th-century Imperial China The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang d ...
period. Currently, both the characters for ''Shu'' and ''Chuan'' are commonly used as abbreviations for Sichuan.


History


Prehistory

The
Sichuan Basin The Sichuan Basin (), formerly transliterated as the Szechwan Basin, sometimes called the Red Basin, is a Sedimentary basin, lowland region in southwestern China. It is surrounded by mountains on all sides and is drained by the upper Yangtze River ...
and adjacent areas of the
Yangtze The Yangtze or Yangzi ( or ) is the longest river in Asia, the third-longest in the world and the longest in the world to flow entirely within one country. It rises at Jari Hill in the Tanggula Mountains The Tanggula ( Chinese:  ...
watershed were a cradle of indigenous civilizations dating back to at least the 15th century BC, coinciding with the
Shang The Shang dynasty (), also historically known as the Yin dynasty (), was a Chinese dynasty Dynasties in Chinese history, or Chinese dynasties, were hereditary monarchical regimes that ruled over China during much of its history. From ...

Shang
in northern China. The region had its own distinct religious beliefs and worldview. The earliest culture found in the region through archaeological investigation is the
Baodun culture The Baodun culture (2700 BC – 1700 BC) was a Neolithic culture centered on the Chengdu Plain in Sichuan, China. Dates Archaeologists have divided the culture into four phases (I-IV). The only radiocarbon dates for the Baodun Culture come from Bi ...
(2700–1750 BC) excavated in the Chengdu Plain.


Ba and Shu Kingdoms

The most important native states were those of Ba and Shu. Ba stretched into Sichuan from the Han Valley in
Shaanxi Shaanxi (; , ; Chinese postal romanization, alternately Shensi) is a landlocked Provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China. Officially part of Northwest China, it borders the province-level divisions of Shanxi (NE, ...

Shaanxi
and
Hubei Hubei (; ; alternately Hupeh) is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity ...

Hubei
down the
Jialing River The Jialing River, formerly known by #Names, numerous other names, is a major tributary of the Yangtze River in the Sichuan Basin. It is named after the Jialing Valley in Feng County, Shaanxi, Feng County, Shaanxi through which it flows. The Jia ...

Jialing River
as far as its confluence with the
Yangtze The Yangtze or Yangzi ( or ) is the longest river in Asia, the third-longest in the world and the longest in the world to flow entirely within one country. It rises at Jari Hill in the Tanggula Mountains The Tanggula ( Chinese:  ...
at
Chongqing Chongqing ( ; ; Sichuanese dialects, Sichuanese pronunciation: , Standard Mandarin pronunciation: ), Postal Romanization, alternately romanized as Chungking, is a Direct-administered municipalities of China, municipality in southwest China. ...

Chongqing
.
Shu Shu may refer to: China * Sichuan, China, officially abbreviated as Shu (蜀) * Shu (state) (conquered by Qin in 316 BC), an ancient state in modern Sichuan * Shu Han (221–263) during the Three Kingdoms Period * Western Shu (405–413), also k ...
occupied the valley of the Min, including
Chengdu Chengdu (, ; simplified Chinese Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters Chinese characters, also called ''hanzi'' (), are logogram In a written language A written language is the representa ...

Chengdu
and other areas of western Sichuan. The existence of the early state of Shu was poorly recorded in the main historical records of China. It was, however, referred to in the ''
Book of Documents The ''Book of Documents'' (''Shūjīng'', earlier ''Shu King'') or ''Classic of History'', also known as the ''Shangshu'' ("Esteemed Documents"), is one of the Five Classics The Four Books and Five Classics () are the authoritative books of ...
'' as an ally of the Zhou. Accounts of Shu exist mainly as a mixture of mythological stories and historical legends recorded in local annals such as the ''
Chronicles of Huayang The ''Chronicles of Huayang'' or ''Huayang Guo Zhi'' is the oldest extant gazetteer A gazetteer is a geographical dictionary A dictionary is a listing of lexemes from the lexicon of one or more specific languages, often arranged Alphabet ...
'' compiled in the
Jin dynasty (266–420) The Jin dynasty (; ) or the Jin Empire, sometimes distinguished as the (司馬晉) or the (兩晉), was a list of Chinese dynasties, Chinese dynasty traditionally dated from 266 to 420 AD. It was founded by Emperor Wu of Jin, Sima ...
, and the Han dynasty compilation ''Shuwang benji'' (). These contained folk stories such as that of Emperor Duyu () who taught the people agriculture and transformed himself into a cuckoo after his death. The existence of a highly developed civilization with an independent bronze industry in Sichuan eventually came to light with an archaeological discovery in 1986 at a small village named
Sanxingdui Sanxingdui () is the name of an archaeological site and a major Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric Periodization, period that was characterized by the use of bronze, in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civi ...
in
Guanghan Guanghan () is a county-level city A county-level municipality (), county-level city or county city, formerly known as prefecture-controlled city (1949–1970: ; 1970–1983: ), is a county-level administrative division of the Peopl ...
, Sichuan. This site, believed to be an ancient city of Shu, was initially discovered by a local farmer in 1929 who found jade and stone artefacts. Excavations by archaeologists in the area yielded few significant finds until 1986 when two major sacrificial pits were found with spectacular bronze items as well as artefacts in jade, gold, earthenware, and stone. This and other discoveries in Sichuan contest the conventional historiography that the local culture and technology of Sichuan were undeveloped in comparison to the technologically and culturally "advanced"
Yellow River The Yellow River (Chinese: , Jin: uə xɔ Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat A bureaucrat is ...
valley of north-central China.


Qin dynasty

The rulers of the expansionist state of
QinQin may refer to: Dynasties and states * Qin (state) (秦), a major state during the Zhou Dynasty of ancient China * Qin dynasty (秦), founded by the Qin state in 221 BC and ended in 206 BC * Daqin (大秦), ancient Chinese name for the Roman Empi ...
, based in present-day
Gansu Gansu (, ; alternately romanized as Kansu) is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnatio ...

Gansu
and
Shaanxi Shaanxi (; , ; Chinese postal romanization, alternately Shensi) is a landlocked Provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China. Officially part of Northwest China, it borders the province-level divisions of Shanxi (NE, ...

Shaanxi
, were the first strategists to realize that the area's military importance matched its commercial and agricultural significance. The Sichuan basin is surrounded by the
Hengduan Mountains The Hengduan Mountains () are a group of mountain ranges in southwest China, southwest China that connect the southeast portions of the Tibetan Plateau with the Yunnan–Guizhou Plateau. The Hengduan Mountains are primarily large north-south mo ...
to the west, the
Qin Mountains The Qinling () or Qin Mountains, formerly known as the Nanshan ("Southern Mountains"), are a major east-west mountain range A mountain range is a series of mountains ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mounta ...
to the north, and Yungui Plateau to the south. Since the Yangtze flows through the basin and then through the perilous Three Gorges to eastern and southern China, Sichuan was a staging area for amphibious military forces and a haven for political refugees. Qin armies finished their conquest of the kingdoms of Shu and Ba by 316 BC. Any written records and civil achievements of earlier kingdoms were destroyed. Qin administrators introduced improved agricultural technology.
Li Bing Li Bing (; Circa, c. 3rd century BC) was a Chinese hydraulic engineer and official of the Warring States period. He served the Qin (state), state of Qin as an administrator and is revered for his work on the Dujiangyan Irrigation System, Dujiangy ...
, engineered the
Dujiangyan irrigation system The Dujiangyan () is an ancient irrigation system in Dujiangyan City, Sichuan Sichuan (, Standard Chinese, Standard Mandarin pronunciation: ; Postal romanization, alternatively romanized as Szechuan or Szechwan) is a landlocked Provinces ...

Dujiangyan irrigation system
to control the Min River, a major
tributary A tributary, or affluent, is a stream A stream is a body of water (Lysefjord) in Norway Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway,Names in the official and recognised languages: Bokmål Bokmål (, ; literally "book tongue") ...
of the Yangtze. This innovative hydraulic system was composed of movable weirs which could be adjusted for high or low water flow according to the season, to either provide irrigation or prevent floods. The increased agricultural output and taxes made the area a source of provisions and men for Qin's unification of China.


Han dynasty

Sichuan was subjected to the autonomous control of kings named by the imperial family of Han dynasty. Following the declining central government of the
Han dynasty#REDIRECT Han dynasty The Han dynasty () was the second Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu Bang and ruled by the House of Liu. Preceded by the short-lived Qin dynas ...

Han dynasty
in the second century, the Sichuan basin, surrounded by mountains and easily defensible, became a popular place for upstart generals to found kingdoms that challenged the authority of Yangtze Valley emperors over China.


Three Kingdoms

In 221, during the partition following the fall of the
Eastern Han#REDIRECT Han dynasty The Han dynasty () was the second Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu Bang and ruled by the House of Liu. Preceded by the short-lived Qin dynas ...
– the era of the
Three Kingdoms The Three Kingdoms () from 220 to 280 AD was the tripartite division of China among the states of Cao Wei, Wei, Shu Han, Shu, and Eastern Wu, Wu. The Three Kingdoms period started with the End of the Han dynasty, end of the Han dynasty#East ...

Three Kingdoms
Liu Bei Liu Bei (, ; ; 161 – Summer 223), courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in the East Asian cultural sphere ...

Liu Bei
founded the southwest kingdom of
Shu Han Han (; 221–263), known in historiography as Shu Han ( ; often shortened to Shu ; pinyin ''Hanyu Pinyin'' (), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese, Standard Mandarin Chinese in mainland ...
(; 221–263) in parts of Sichuan, Guizhou and Yunnan, with
Chengdu Chengdu (, ; simplified Chinese Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters Chinese characters, also called ''hanzi'' (), are logogram In a written language A written language is the representa ...

Chengdu
as its capital. Shu-Han claimed to be the successor to the Han dynasty. In 263, the Jin dynasty of North China, conquered the Kingdom of Shu-Han as its first step on the path to reunify China, under their rule.
Salt production Salt is a mineral In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rock (geology), rocks of which it is ...
becomes a major business in Ziliujing District. During this
Six Dynasties __NOTOC__ Six Dynasties (; 220–589 or 222–589) is a collective term for six Han Han may refer to: Ethnic groups * Han Chinese The Han Chinese,
period of Chinese disunity, Sichuan began to be populated by non-
Han Han may refer to: Ethnic groups * Han Chinese The Han Chinese,
. Huayuqiao.org. Retrieved on ...
ethnic minority peoples, owing to the migration of
Gelao people Gelao may refer to: * Gelao language Gelao (autonym Autonym may refer to: * Autonym, the name used by a person to refer to themselves or their language; see Exonym and endonym * Autonym (botany), an automatically created infrageneric or infraspec ...
from the
Yunnan–Guizhou Plateau Using a wider definition, the Yunnan–Guizhou Highlands make up the light green area on the lower part of this map The Yunnan–Guizhou Plateau or Yungui Plateau () is a highland region located in southwest China. The region is primarily sprea ...
to the Sichuan basin.


Tang dynasty

Sichuan came under the firm control of a Chinese central government during the
Sui dynasty The Sui dynasty (, ) was a short-lived Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China of pivotal significance. The Sui unified the Northern and Southern dynasties and reinstalled the rule of ethnic Han Chinese, Han in the entirety of ...

Sui dynasty
, but it was during the subsequent
Tang dynasty The Tang dynasty (, ; ), or Tang Empire, was an imperial dynasty of China that ruled from 618 to 907, with an interregnum An interregnum (plural interregna or interregnums) is a period of discontinuity or "gap" in a government, organiza ...
where Sichuan regained its previous political and cultural prominence for which it was known during the Han. Chengdu became nationally known as a supplier of armies and the home of
Du Fu Du Fu (; 712–770) was a Chinese poet and politician of the Tang dynasty The Tang dynasty (, ; ), or Tang Empire, was an imperial dynasty of China that ruled from 618 to 907, with an interregnum An interregnum (plural interregna o ...

Du Fu
, who is sometimes called China's greatest poet. During the
An Lushan Rebellion The An Lushan Rebellion was an uprising against the Tang dynasty The Tang dynasty (, ; ), or Tang Empire, was an imperial dynasty of China that ruled from 618 to 907, with an interregnum An interregnum (plural interregna or interregn ...

An Lushan Rebellion
(755–763),
Emperor Xuanzong of Tang Emperor Xuanzong of Tang (; 8 September 685 – 3 May 762), also commonly known as Emperor Ming of Tang or Illustrious August, personal name Li Longji, was the seventh emperor An emperor (from la, imperator The Latin word "imperator" ...
fled from
Chang'an Chang'an (; ) is the traditional name of Xi'an Xi'an ( , ; ; Chinese: ), sometimes romanized as Sian, is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between ...
to Sichuan which became his refuge. The region was torn by constant warfare and economic distress as it was besieged by the
Tibetan Empire The Tibetan Empire (, ; ) was an empire centered on the Tibetan Plateau, formed as a result of imperial expansion under the Yarlung dynasty heralded by its 33rd king, Songsten Gampo in the 7th century. The empire further expanded under the 38th ...

Tibetan Empire
.


Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms

In the
Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period The Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period (), from 907 to 979 was an era of political upheaval and division in 10th-century history of China, Imperial China. Five states quickly succeeded one another in the Central Plain (China), Central Plain ...
, Sichuan became the centre of the Shu kingdom with its capital in
Chengdu Chengdu (, ; simplified Chinese Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters Chinese characters, also called ''hanzi'' (), are logogram In a written language A written language is the representa ...

Chengdu
founded by Wang Jian. In 925 the kingdom was absorbed into
Later Tang Tang, known in historiography as the Later Tang, was a short-lived imperial dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford Unive ...

Later Tang
but would regain independence under
Meng Zhixiang Meng Zhixiang ( zh, 孟知祥; 10 May 874–7 September 934, courtesy name Baoyin, ;''New History of the Five Dynasties'', :zh:s:新五代史/卷64, vol. 64. formally Emperor Gaozu of (Later) Shu ) was a general of the Later Tang who went on to ...
who founded
Later Shu Later may refer to: * Future The future is the time after the past and present. Its arrival is considered inevitable due to the existence of time and the laws of physics. Due to the apparent nature of reality and the unavoidability of the fut ...
in 934. Later Shu would continue until 965 when it was absorbed by the
Song A song is a musical composition Musical composition can refer to an piece or work of , either or , the of a musical piece or to the process of creating or writing a new piece of music. People who create new compositions are called s ...
.


Song dynasty

During
Song dynasty The Song dynasty (; ; 960–1279) was an imperial dynasty of China that began in 960 and lasted until 1279. The dynasty was founded by Emperor Taizu of Song Emperor Taizu of Song (21 March 927 – 14 November 976), personal name Zhao Kua ...
(960–1279), Sichuanese were able to protect themselves from
Tibetan Tibetan may mean: * of, from, or related to Tibet * Tibetan people, an ethnic group * Tibetan language: ** Classical Tibetan, the classical language used also as a contemporary written standard ** Standard Tibetan, the most widely used spoken dialec ...
attacks with the help of central government. Sichuan also saw cultural revival like great poets
Su Xun Su Xun (; 22 May 1009 – 21 May 1066) was a Chinese writer during the Song dynasty The Song dynasty (; ; 960–1279) was an imperial dynasty of China that began in 960 and lasted until 1279. The dynasty was founded by Emperor Taizu of Son ...
(),
Su Shi Su Shi (; 8 January 1037 – 24 August 1101), courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in the East Asian cultural ...

Su Shi
, and
Su Zhe Su Zhe (; 1039–1112), or Su Che, courtesy names Ziyou and Tongshu , was a Chinese essayist, historian, poet, and politician from Meishan Meishan (; Sichuanese Pinyin Sichuanese Pinyin (Si4cuan1hua4 Pin1yin1; ), is a romanization Romaniza ...
. Although paper currency was known in the Tang dynasty, in 1023 AD, the first true
paper money A banknote (often known as a bill (in the US and Canada), paper money, or simply a note) is a type of negotiable promissory note A promissory note, sometimes referred to as a note payable, is a legal instrument ''Legal instrument'' is a ...
in human history, termed ''jiaozi'' (), was issued in
Chengdu Chengdu (, ; simplified Chinese Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters Chinese characters, also called ''hanzi'' (), are logogram In a written language A written language is the representa ...

Chengdu
. It was also during the Song dynasty that the bulk of the native
Ba people BA, B.A., Ba, or ba may refer to: Businesses and organizations * Bangladesh Army The Bangladesh Army ( bn, বাংলাদেশ সেনাবাহিনী, ''Bangladesh Senabahini'') is the land warfare Ground warfare or land warfa ...
of eastern Sichuan assimilated into the Han Chinese ethnicity. In the 12th and 13th centuries, the Southern Song dynasty established coordinated defenses against the
Mongolian Mongolian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Mongolia, a country in Asia * Mongolian people, or Mongols * Mongolia (1911–24), the government of Mongolia, 1911–1919 and 1921–1924 * Mongolian language * Mongolian alphabet * Mongo ...

Mongolian
Yuan dynasty The Yuan dynasty (), officially the Great Yuan (; xng, , , literally "Great Yuan State"), was a successor state Successor is someone who, or something which succeeds or comes after (see success and succession) Film and TV * ''The Succ ...
, in Sichuan and
Xiangyang Xiangyang is a prefecture-level city in northwestern Hubei Hubei (; ; Hupeh) is a landlocked of the , and is part of the region. The name of the province means "north of the lake", referring to its position north of . The provinci ...
. The Southern Song state monopolized the Sichuan tea industry to pay for warhorses, but this state intervention eventually brought devastation to the local economy. The line of defense was finally broken through after the first use of
firearm A firearm is any type of gun A gun is a ranged weapon designed to use a shooting tube ( gun barrel) to launch typically solid projectiles, but can also project pressurized liquid (e.g. water guns/ cannons, spray guns for painting ...
s in history during the six-year
Battle of Xiangyang The Battle of Xiangyang () was a protracted series of battles between the invading Mongols The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; ) are an East Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia Mongolia (, Mongolian langua ...
, which ended in 1273. Allegedly there were a million pieces of unspecified types of skeleton bones belonging to war animals and both Song and Yuan soldiers who perished in the fighting over the city, although the figure may have been grossly exaggerated. The recorded number of families in Sichuan dropped from 2,640,000 families, as recorded from the census taken in 1162 AD, to 120,000 families in 1282 AD. Possible causes include forced population transfer to nearby areas, evacuation to nearby provinces, census under-reporting or inaccuracy, and war-related deaths. One instance of the deportation of Sichuanese civilians to Mongolia occurred in the aftermath of a battle in 1259, when more than 80,000 people were taken captive from one city in Sichuan and moved to Mongolia.


Ming dynasty

The Ming dynasty defeated
Ming Yuzhen Ming Yuzhen (; 1331 – summer 1366) was a peasant who established the dynasty of Ming Xia during the late Yuan dynasty in China. Ming was born in Suizhou (today Sui County, Hubei, Sui County, Hubei) in a farmer family. He changed the character ...
's Xia polity which ruled Sichuan. During the
Ming dynasty The Ming dynasty (), officially the Great Ming, was the Dynasties in Chinese history, ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol Empire, Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Ming dynasty was the last imperial dynas ...

Ming dynasty
, major architectural works were created in Sichuan. Buddhism remained influential in the region. Bao'en Temple is a well-preserved 15th century monastery complex built between 1440 and 1446 during the Emperor Yingzong of Ming, Zhengtong Emperor's reign (1427–64). Dabei Hall enshrines a thousand-armed wooden image of Guanyin and Huayan Hall is a repository with a revolving sutra cabinet. The wall paintings, sculptures and other ornamental details are masterpieces of the Ming period. In the middle of the 17th century, the peasant rebel leader
Zhang Xianzhong Zhang Xianzhong (张献忠 or Chang Hsien-chung, 18 September 1606 to 2 January 1647), nicknamed ''Yellow Tiger'', was a leader of a peasant revolt from Yan'an Yan'an (; ) is a prefecture-level city Image:Yangxin-renmin-huanyin-ni-0022.j ...
(1606–1646) from Yan'an,
Shaanxi Shaanxi (; , ; Chinese postal romanization, alternately Shensi) is a landlocked Provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China. Officially part of Northwest China, it borders the province-level divisions of Shanxi (NE, ...

Shaanxi
Province, nicknamed ''Yellow Tiger'', led his peasant troop from north China to the south, and conquered Sichuan. Upon capturing it, he declared himself emperor of the Daxi dynasty (). In response to the resistance from local elites, he massacred a large number of people in Sichuan. As a result of the massacre as well as years of turmoil during the Qing conquest of the Ming, Ming-Qing transition, the population of Sichuan fell sharply, requiring a massive resettlement of people from the neighboring Huguang Province (modern Hubei and Hunan) and other provinces during the Qing dynasty.


Qing dynasty

Sichuan was originally the origin of the Deng lineage until one of them was hired as an official in Guangdong during the Ming dynasty but during the Qing plan to increase the population in 1671 they came to Sichuan again. Deng Xiaoping was born in Sichuan. During the Qing dynasty, Sichuan was merged with
Shaanxi Shaanxi (; , ; Chinese postal romanization, alternately Shensi) is a landlocked Provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China. Officially part of Northwest China, it borders the province-level divisions of Shanxi (NE, ...

Shaanxi
and Shanxi to create "Shenzhuan" during 1680-1731 and 1735–1748. The current borders of Sichuan (which then included
Chongqing Chongqing ( ; ; Sichuanese dialects, Sichuanese pronunciation: , Standard Mandarin pronunciation: ), Postal Romanization, alternately romanized as Chungking, is a Direct-administered municipalities of China, municipality in southwest China. ...

Chongqing
) were established in the early 18th century. In the aftermath of the Sino-Nepalese War on China's southwestern border, the Qing gave Sichuan's provincial government direct control over the minority-inhabited areas of Sichuan west of Kangding, which had previously been handled by an amban. A landslide dam on the Dadu River (Sichuan), Dadu River caused by an earthquake gave way on 10 June 1786. The resulting flood killed 100,000 people.


Republic of China

In the early 20th century, the newly founded
Republic of China Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. It shares Maritime boundary, maritime borders with the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the sout ...
established Chuanbian Special Administrative District (), which acknowledged the unique culture and economy of the region largely differing from that of mainstream northern China in the
Yellow River The Yellow River (Chinese: , Jin: uə xɔ Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat A bureaucrat is ...
region. The Special District later became the province of
Xikang Xikang (also Sikang or Hsikang) was an illusory province formed by the Republic of China Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's ...

Xikang
, incorporating the areas inhabited by Yi, Tibetan and Qiang ethnic minorities to its west, and eastern part of today's
Tibet Autonomous Region The Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) or Xizang Autonomous Region, called Tibet or Xizang for short, is a province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' pr ...
. In the 20th century, as Beijing, Shanghai, Nanjing, and Wuhan had all been occupied by the Japanese during the Second Sino-Japanese War, the capital of the Republic of China had been temporary relocated to
Chongqing Chongqing ( ; ; Sichuanese dialects, Sichuanese pronunciation: , Standard Mandarin pronunciation: ), Postal Romanization, alternately romanized as Chungking, is a Direct-administered municipalities of China, municipality in southwest China. ...

Chongqing
, then a major city in Sichuan. An enduring legacy of this move is that nearby inland provinces, such as
Shaanxi Shaanxi (; , ; Chinese postal romanization, alternately Shensi) is a landlocked Provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China. Officially part of Northwest China, it borders the province-level divisions of Shanxi (NE, ...

Shaanxi
,
Gansu Gansu (, ; alternately romanized as Kansu) is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnatio ...

Gansu
, and
Guizhou Guizhou (; alternately Kweichow) is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational enti ...

Guizhou
, which previously never had History of education in China, modern Western-style universities, began to be developed in this regard. The difficulty of accessing the region overland from the eastern part of China and the foggy climate hindering the accuracy of Sichuan invasion, Japanese bombing of the
Sichuan Basin The Sichuan Basin (), formerly transliterated as the Szechwan Basin, sometimes called the Red Basin, is a Sedimentary basin, lowland region in southwestern China. It is surrounded by mountains on all sides and is drained by the upper Yangtze River ...
, made the region the stronghold of Chiang Kai-shek's Kuomintang government during 1938–45, and led to the Bombing of Chongqing. The Second Sino-Japanese War was soon followed by the resumed
Chinese Civil War The Chinese Civil War was a civil war in China fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led Nationalist government, government of the Republic of China (1912–1949), Republic of China (ROC) and forces of the Communist Party of China (CPC) lastin ...
, and the cities of East China are obtained by the Communists one after another, the Kuomintang government again tried to make Sichuan its stronghold on the mainland, although it already saw some Communist activity since it was one area on the road of the Long March. Chiang Kai-shek himself flew to Chongqing from Taiwan in November 1949 to lead the defense. But the same month Chongqing switched to the Communists, followed by Chengdu on 10 December. The Kuomintang general Wang Sheng (soldier), Wang Sheng wanted to stay behind with his troops to continue anticommunist guerilla war in Sichuan, but was recalled to Taiwan. Many of his soldiers made their way there as well, via Burma.


People's Republic of China

The People's Republic of China was founded in 1949, and it split Sichuan into four areas and separated out Chongqing municipality. Sichuan was reconstituted in 1952, with Chongqing added in 1954, while the former
Xikang Xikang (also Sikang or Hsikang) was an illusory province formed by the Republic of China Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's ...

Xikang
province was split between Tibet Autonomous Region, Tibet in the west and Sichuan in the east. The province was deeply affected by the
Great Chinese Famine The Great Chinese Famine (, "three years of great famine") was a period between 1959 and 1961 in the history of the People's Republic of China The History of the People's Republic of China details the history of mainland China Mainland ...
of 1959–1961, during which period some 9.4 million people (13.07% of the population at the time) died. In 1978, when Deng Xiaoping took power, Sichuan was one of the first provinces to experiment with market economic enterprise. From 1955 until 1997 Sichuan had been China's most populous province, hitting 100 million mark shortly after the 1982 census figure of 99,730,000. This changed in 1997 when the Sub-provincial city of Chongqing as well as the three surrounding prefectures of Fuling, Wanxian, and Qianjiang District, Qianjiang were split off into the new Chongqing, Chongqing Municipality. The new municipality was formed to spearhead China's effort to economically develop its western provinces, as well as to coordinate the resettlement of residents from the reservoir areas of the Three Gorges Dam project. In 1997 when Sichuan split, the sum of the two parts was recorded to be 114,720,000 people. As of 2010, Sichuan ranks as both the List of Chinese administrative divisions by area, 3rd largest (the largest among Chinese List of People's Republic of China administrative divisions by population, provinces with population greater than 50 million) and 4th most populous province in China. In May 2008, 2008 Sichuan earthquake, an earthquake with a magnitude of 7.9/8.0 hit just northwest of the provincial capital of Chengdu. Official figures recorded a death toll of nearly 70,000 people, and millions of people were left homeless., and


Administrative divisions

Sichuan consists of twenty-one prefecture-level divisions: eighteen Prefecture-level city, prefecture-level cities (including a Sub-provincial divisions in the People's Republic of China, sub-provincial city) and three autonomous prefectures: The twenty Prefectures of the People's Republic of China, Prefecture of Sichuan are subdivided into 183 county-level divisions (53 District of China, districts, 17 county-level cities, 109 County (People's Republic of China), counties, and 4 Autonomous counties of the People's Republic of China, autonomous counties). At the end of year 2017, the total population is 83.02 million.


Urban areas


Geography and biodiversity

Sichuan consists of two geographically very distinct parts. The eastern part of the province is mostly within the fertile Sichuan basin (which is shared by Sichuan with Chongqing Municipality). The western Sichuan consists of the numerous mountain ranges forming the easternmost part of the
Tibetan Plateau The Tibetan Plateau (, also known as the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau or the Qing–Zang Plateau () or as the Himalayan Plateau in India, is a vast elevated plateau In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λ ...
, which are known generically as
Hengduan Mountains The Hengduan Mountains () are a group of mountain ranges in southwest China, southwest China that connect the southeast portions of the Tibetan Plateau with the Yunnan–Guizhou Plateau. The Hengduan Mountains are primarily large north-south mo ...
. One of these ranges, Daxue Mountains, contains the highest point of the province Gongga Shan, at above sea level. The mountains are formed by the collision of the Tibetan Plateau with the Yangtze Plate. Faults here include the Longmenshan Fault which ruptured during the 2008 Sichuan earthquake. Other mountain ranges surround the Sichuan Basin from north, east, and south. Among them are the
Daba Mountains The Daba Mountains, also known by their Chinese language, Chinese name as the Dabashan, are a mountain range in Central China between the watersheds of the Yellow River, Yellow and Yangtze Rivers. Part of the larger Qin Mountains, Qinling mounta ...
, in the province's northeast. The Yangtze River and its tributaries flows through the mountains of western Sichuan and the Sichuan Basin; thus, the province is upstream of the great cities that stand along the Yangtze River further to the east, such as
Chongqing Chongqing ( ; ; Sichuanese dialects, Sichuanese pronunciation: , Standard Mandarin pronunciation: ), Postal Romanization, alternately romanized as Chungking, is a Direct-administered municipalities of China, municipality in southwest China. ...

Chongqing
, Wuhan, Nanjing and Shanghai. One of the major tributaries of the Yangtze within the province is the Min River of central Sichuan, which joins the Yangtze at Yibin. There are also a number of other rivers, such as
Jialing River The Jialing River, formerly known by #Names, numerous other names, is a major tributary of the Yangtze River in the Sichuan Basin. It is named after the Jialing Valley in Feng County, Shaanxi, Feng County, Shaanxi through which it flows. The Jia ...

Jialing River
, Tuo River, Yalong River, Wu River (Yangtze tributary), Wu River and Jinsha River, and any four of the various rivers are often grouped as the "four rivers" that the name of Sichuan is commonly and mistakenly believed to mean. Due to great differences in terrain, the climate of the province is highly variable. In general it has strong monsoonal influences, with rainfall heavily concentrated in the summer. Under the Köppen climate classification, the
Sichuan Basin The Sichuan Basin (), formerly transliterated as the Szechwan Basin, sometimes called the Red Basin, is a Sedimentary basin, lowland region in southwestern China. It is surrounded by mountains on all sides and is drained by the upper Yangtze River ...
(including
Chengdu Chengdu (, ; simplified Chinese Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters Chinese characters, also called ''hanzi'' (), are logogram In a written language A written language is the representa ...

Chengdu
) in the eastern half of the province experiences a humid subtropical climate (Köppen ''Cwa'' or ''Cfa''), with long, hot, wet summers and short, mild to cool, dry and cloudy winters. Consequently, it has China's lowest sunshine totals. The western region has mountainous areas producing a cooler but sunnier climate. Having cool to very cold winters and mild summers, temperatures generally decrease with greater elevation. However, due to high altitude and its inland location, many areas such as Garze County and Zoige County in Sichuan exhibit a subarctic climate (Köppen climate classification, Köppen ''Dwc'')- featuring extremely cold winters down to −30 °C and even cold summer nights. The region is geologically active with landslides and earthquakes. Average elevation ranges from 2,000 to 3,500 meters; average temperatures range from 0 to 15 °C. The southern part of the province, including Panzhihua and Xichang, has a sunny climate with short, very mild winters and very warm to hot summers. Sichuan borders
Qinghai Qinghai (; alternately romanized as Tsinghai, Ch'inghai), also known Kokonor, is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdi ...

Qinghai
to the northwest,
Gansu Gansu (, ; alternately romanized as Kansu) is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnatio ...

Gansu
to the north,
Shaanxi Shaanxi (; , ; Chinese postal romanization, alternately Shensi) is a landlocked Provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China. Officially part of Northwest China, it borders the province-level divisions of Shanxi (NE, ...

Shaanxi
to the northeast,
Chongqing Chongqing ( ; ; Sichuanese dialects, Sichuanese pronunciation: , Standard Mandarin pronunciation: ), Postal Romanization, alternately romanized as Chungking, is a Direct-administered municipalities of China, municipality in southwest China. ...

Chongqing
to the east,
Guizhou Guizhou (; alternately Kweichow) is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational enti ...

Guizhou
to the southeast,
Yunnan Yunnan () is a landlocked Provinces of China, province in Southwest China, the southwest of the People's Republic of China. The province spans approximately and has a population of 48.3 million (as of 2018). The capital of the province is Ku ...

Yunnan
to the south, and the
Tibet Autonomous Region The Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) or Xizang Autonomous Region, called Tibet or Xizang for short, is a province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' pr ...
to the west. File:Larix potaninii trees Huluhai.jpg, ''Larix potaninii'' in autumn colour. File:1 Seda facing south.jpg, Garzê Prefecture File:Zitong-sichuan-china.jpg, Zitong County File:A Typical Linpan unit in Pi County.jpg, Linpan in Chengdu Plain is a well-known landmark in Chengdu Plain, Sichuan.


Giant panda

Giant pandas live in Bamboo, bamboo forests and low mountainous areas such as the Min Mountains, Minshan Mountains in Sichuan. The majority of the panda population lives in Sichuan, with their range spreading into
Shaanxi Shaanxi (; , ; Chinese postal romanization, alternately Shensi) is a landlocked Provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China. Officially part of Northwest China, it borders the province-level divisions of Shanxi (NE, ...

Shaanxi
and
Gansu Gansu (, ; alternately romanized as Kansu) is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnatio ...

Gansu
. As it is abundant where they live, pandas' diet consists of 99% bamboo, with small other plants, or small animals consisting of the other 1%. As the panda is native to China, they have become a national symbol of China.


Linpan settlements

The Linpan in Chengdu Plain is a special settlement in Chengdu Plain, which consists of farm house with woods around, irrigation system, farm land and is elementary unit of the village within the scattered locations. The rural landscape of Chengdu Plain is unique because of the typical element "Linpan".


Politics

The politics of Sichuan is structured in a dual party-government system like all other governing institutions in mainland China. The governor of Sichuan is the highest-ranking official in the People's Government of Sichuan. However, in the province's dual party-government governing system, the Governor has less power than the Sichuan Communist Party of China's Party Committee Secretary, colloquially termed the "Sichuan CPC Party Chief".


Economy

Sichuan has been historically known as the "Province of Abundance". It is one of the major agricultural production bases of China. Grain, including rice and wheat, is the major product with output that ranked first in China in 1999. Commercial crops include citrus fruits, sugar cane, sweet potatoes, peaches and grapes. Sichuan also had the largest output of pork among all the provinces and the second largest output of silkworm cocoons in 1999. Sichuan is rich in mineral resources. It has more than 132 kinds of proven underground mineral resources including vanadium, titanium, and lithium being the largest in China. The Panxi region alone possesses 13.3% of the reserves of iron, 93% of titanium, 69% of vanadium, and 83% of the cobalt of the whole country. Sichuan also possesses China's largest proven natural gas reserves, the majority of which is transported to more developed eastern regions. Sichuan is one of the major industrial centers of China. In addition to heavy industries such as coal, energy, iron and steel, the province has also established a light industrial sector comprising building materials, wood processing, food and silk processing.
Chengdu Chengdu (, ; simplified Chinese Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters Chinese characters, also called ''hanzi'' (), are logogram In a written language A written language is the representa ...

Chengdu
and Mianyang are the production centers for textiles and electronics products. Deyang, Panzhihua, and Yibin are the production centers for machinery, metallurgical industries, and wine, respectively. Sichuan's wine production accounted for 21.9% of the country's total production in 2000. Great strides have been made in developing Sichuan into a modern hi-tech industrial base, by encouraging both domestic and foreign investments in electronics and information technology (such as software), machinery and metallurgy (including automobiles), hydropower, pharmaceutical, food and beverage industries. The auto industry is an important and key sector of the machinery industry in Sichuan. Most of the auto manufacturing companies are located in Chengdu, Mianyang, Nanchong, and Luzhou. Other important industries in Sichuan include aerospace and defense (military) industries. A number of China's rockets (Long March rockets) and satellites were launched from the Xichang Satellite Launch Center, located in the city of Xichang. Sichuan's landscapes and rich historical relics have also made the province a center for tourism. The Three Gorges Dam, the largest dam ever constructed, was built on the Yangtze River in nearby
Hubei Hubei (; ; alternately Hupeh) is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity ...

Hubei
province to control flooding in the Sichuan Basin, neighboring
Yunnan Yunnan () is a landlocked Provinces of China, province in Southwest China, the southwest of the People's Republic of China. The province spans approximately and has a population of 48.3 million (as of 2018). The capital of the province is Ku ...

Yunnan
province, and downstream. The plan is hailed by some as China's efforts to shift towards alternative energy sources and to further develop its industrial and commercial bases, but others have criticised it for its potentially harmful effects, such as massive resettlement of residents in the reservoir areas, loss of archeological sites, and ecological damages. Sichuan has one of the largest economy in western China. Its nominal GDP for 2017 was 3.69 trillion yuan (US$547.71 billion), equivalent to 44,651 RMB (US$6,613) per capita. In 2008, the per capita net income of rural residents was 4,121 yuan (US$593), up 16.2% from 2007. The per capita disposable income of the urbanites averaged 12,633 yuan (US$1,819), up 13.8% from 2007.


Foreign trade

According to the Sichuan Department of Commerce, the province's total foreign trade was US$22.04 billion in 2008, with an annual increase of 53.3 percent. Exports were US$13.1 billion, an annual increase of 52.3 percent, while imports were US$8.93 billion, an annual increase of 54.7 percent. These achievements were accomplished because of significant changes in China's foreign trade policy, acceleration of the yuan's appreciation, increase of commercial incentives and increase in production costs. The 18 cities and counties witnessed a steady rate of increase. Chengdu, Suining, Nanchong, Dazhou, Ya'an, Abazhou, and Liangshan all saw an increase of more than 40 percent while Leshan, Neijiang, Luzhou, Meishan, Ziyang, and Yibin saw an increase of more than 20 percent. Foreign trade in Zigong, Panzhihua, Guang'an, Bazhong and Ganzi remained constant.


Minimum wage

The Sichuan government raised the minimum wage in the province by 12.5 percent at the end of December 2007. The monthly minimum wage went up from 400 to 450 yuan, with a minimum of 4.9 yuan per hour for part-time work, effective 26 December 2007. The government also reduced the four-tier minimum wage structure to three. The top tier mandates a minimum of 650 yuan per month, or 7.1 yuan per hour. National law allows each province to set minimum wages independently, but with a floor of 450 yuan per month.


Economic and technological development zones


Chengdu Economic and Technological Development Zone

Chengdu Economic and Technological Development Zone () was approved as state-level development zone in February 2000. The zone now has a developed area of and has a planned area of . Chengdu Economic and Technological Development Zone (CETDZ) lies east of Chengdu, the capital city of Sichuan Province and the hub of transportation and communication in southwest China. The zone has attracted investors and developers from more than 20 countries to carry out their projects there. Industries encouraged in the zone include mechanical, electronic, new building materials, medicine and food processing.


Chengdu Export Processing Zone

Chengdu Export Processing Zone ()) was ratified by the State Council as one of the first 15 export processing zones in the country in April 2000. In 2002, the state ratified the establishment of the Sichuan Chengdu Export Processing West Zone with a planned area of , located inside the west region of the Chengdu Hi-tech Zone.


Chengdu Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone

Established in 1988, Chengdu Hi-tech Industrial Development Zone () was approved as one of the first national hi-tech development zones in 1991. In 2000, it was open to APEC and has been recognized as a national advanced hi-tech development zone in successive assessment activities held by China's Ministry of Science and Technology. It ranks 5th among the 53 national hi-tech development zones in China in terms of comprehensive strength. Chengdu Hi-tech Development Zone covers an area of , consisting of the South Park and the West Park. By relying on the city sub-center, which is under construction, the South Park is focusing on creating a modernized industrial park of science and technology with scientific and technological innovation, incubation R&D, modern service industry and Headquarters economy playing leading roles. Priority has been given to the development of software industry. Located on both sides of the "Chengdu-Dujiangyan-Jiuzhaigou" golden tourism channel, the West Park aims at building a comprehensive industrial park targeting at industrial clustering with complete supportive functions. The West Park gives priority to three major industries i.e. electronic information, biomedicine and precision machinery.


Mianyang Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone

Mianyang Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone was established in 1992, with a planned area of . The zone is situated 96 kilometers away from Chengdu, and is away from Mianyang Airport. Since its establishment, the zone accumulated 177.4 billion yuan of industrial output, 46.2 billion yuan of gross domestic product, fiscal revenue 6.768 billion yuan. There are more than 136 high-tech enterprises in the zone and they accounted for more than 90% of the total industrial output. The zone is a leader in the electronic information industry, biological medicine, new materials and production of motor vehicles and parts.


Transportation

For millennia, Sichuan's rugged and riverine landscape presented enormous challenges to the development of transportation infrastructure, and the lack of roads out of the Sichuan Basin contributed to the region's isolation. Since the 1950s, numerous highways and railways have been built through the Qinling in the north and the Bashan in the east. Dozens of bridges Yangtze River bridges and tunnels, across the Yangtze and its tributaries to the south and west have brought greater connectivity with Yunnan and Tibet.


Airports

Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport is the 4th-busiest airport in mainland China. It was among the world's top 30 busiest airports in 2015, and the busiest in western and central China. It was also the fifth-busiest airport in terms of cargo traffic in China for 2013. Chengdu airport is the hub of Sichuan Airlines, Chengdu Airlines, Shenzhen Airlines, Tibet Airlines, China Southern Airlines, China Eastern Airlines, Lucky Air and Air China. Alongside Shangliu Airport, Chengdu Tianfu International Airport is under construction. Chengdu airports are also 144-hour transit visa-free airports for foreigners from many countries like Albania, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malta, Mexico, Republic of Montenegro, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom and United States.


Expressways

On 3 November 2007, the Sichuan Transportation Bureau announced that the G93 Chengyu Ring Expressway, Suining-Chongqing Expressway was completed after three years of construction. After completion of the Chongqing section of the road, the expressway connected G42 Shanghai–Chengdu Expressway, Chengdu-Nanchong Expressway and formed the shortest expressway from
Chengdu Chengdu (, ; simplified Chinese Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters Chinese characters, also called ''hanzi'' (), are logogram In a written language A written language is the representa ...

Chengdu
to
Chongqing Chongqing ( ; ; Sichuanese dialects, Sichuanese pronunciation: , Standard Mandarin pronunciation: ), Postal Romanization, alternately romanized as Chungking, is a Direct-administered municipalities of China, municipality in southwest China. ...

Chongqing
. The new expressway is shorter than the pre-existing road between Chengdu and Chongqing; thus journey time between the two cities was reduced by an hour, now taking two and a half hours. The Sui-Yu Expressway is a four lane overpass with a speed limit of . The total investment was 1.045 billion Chinese yuan, yuan.


Rail

Major railways in Sichuan include the Baoji–Chengdu Railway, Baoji–Chengdu, Chengdu–Chongqing Railway, Chengdu–Chongqing, Chengdu–Kunming Railway, Chengdu–Kunming, Neijiang–Kunming Railway, Neijiang–Kunming, Suining-Chongqing and Chengdu–Dazhou Railways. A high-speed rail line Chengdu-Dujiangyan High-Speed Railway, connects Chengdu and Dujiangyan.


Demographics

The majority of the province's population is
Han Chinese The Han Chinese (), or the Han people (), is an East Asian East Asia is the east East is one of the four cardinal direction The four cardinal directions, or cardinal points, are the directions north North is one of the four ...
(95% of provincial population), who are found scattered throughout the region with the exception of the far western areas. Thus, significant minorities of
Tibetan Tibetan may mean: * of, from, or related to Tibet * Tibetan people, an ethnic group * Tibetan language: ** Classical Tibetan, the classical language used also as a contemporary written standard ** Standard Tibetan, the most widely used spoken dialec ...
, Yi people, Yi, Qiang and Nakhi people reside in the western portion that are impacted by inclement weather and natural disasters, environmentally fragile, and impoverished. Sichuan's capital of
Chengdu Chengdu (, ; simplified Chinese Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters Chinese characters, also called ''hanzi'' (), are logogram In a written language A written language is the representa ...

Chengdu
is home to a large community of Tibetans, with 30,000 permanent Tibetan residents and up to 200,000 Tibetan floating population. The Eastern Lipo, included with either the Yi or the Lisu people, as well as the A-Hmao, also are among the ethnic groups of the provinces. Sichuan was China's List of Chinese administrative divisions by population, most populous province before
Chongqing Chongqing ( ; ; Sichuanese dialects, Sichuanese pronunciation: , Standard Mandarin pronunciation: ), Postal Romanization, alternately romanized as Chungking, is a Direct-administered municipalities of China, municipality in southwest China. ...

Chongqing
became a directly controlled municipality; it is currently the fourth most populous, after Guangdong, Shandong and Henan. As of 1832, Sichuan was the most populous of the 18 provinces in China, with an estimated population at that time of 21 million. It was the third most populous sub-national entity in the world, after Uttar Pradesh, India and the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic until 1991, when the Soviet Union was dissolved. It is also one of the only eight subnational divisions to ever reach 100 million people (Uttar Pradesh, Russian RSFSR, Maharashtra, Sichuan, Bihar, Shandong, Guangdong, and Punjab, Pakistan, Punjab). It is currently ranked 10th.


Religion

The predominant religions in Sichuan are Chinese folk religions, Taoism, Taoist traditions and Chinese Buddhism. According to surveys conducted in 2007 and 2009, 10.6% of the population believes and is involved in Chinese ancestral religion, cults of ancestors, while 0.68% of the population identifies as Christian. According to the Japanese publication ''Tokyo Sentaku'' in 1999 there were 2 million members of Yiguandao (Tiandao) in Sichuan, equal to 2.4% of the province's population. The reports didn't give figures for other types of religion; the vast majority of the population may be either irreligious or involved in Chinese folk religion, worship of nature deities, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, Chinese salvationist religions, folk religious sects, and small minorities of Muslims. Tibetan Buddhism is widespread, especially in areas inhabited by ethnic Tibetans. Sichuan is one of the cradles of the early Zhengyi Taoism, Heavenly Masters' Taoist religious movements. File:Huanglong Sichuan China Multicolored-ponds-04.jpg, View of the Temple of the Yellow Dragon (Chinese Buddhism) in Huanglong Scenic and Historic Interest Area, Huanglong. File:Litang8.jpg, Statues of buddhas at Litang Monastery of the Tibetan tradition. File:Main altar before Shangqing Temple on Qingchengshan, in Chengdu, Sichuan.jpg, A pavilion of the Shangqing Temple (Taoist) in Qingchengshan,
Chengdu Chengdu (, ; simplified Chinese Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters Chinese characters, also called ''hanzi'' (), are logogram In a written language A written language is the representa ...

Chengdu
. File:China - Mount Emei - EmeiShan - Sichuan 11.jpg, Golden Temple of Mount Emei (Chinese Buddhism).


Culture

The ''Sichuanese people'' (Sichuanese Mandarin, Sichuanese: Ba1su2ren2; International Phonetic Alphabet, IPA: ; alternatively , , or ) are a subgroup of Han Chinese living in mostly Sichuan province and the neighboring
Chongqing Chongqing ( ; ; Sichuanese dialects, Sichuanese pronunciation: , Standard Mandarin pronunciation: ), Postal Romanization, alternately romanized as Chungking, is a Direct-administered municipalities of China, municipality in southwest China. ...

Chongqing
municipality. Beginning from the 9th century BC,
Shu Shu may refer to: China * Sichuan, China, officially abbreviated as Shu (蜀) * Shu (state) (conquered by Qin in 316 BC), an ancient state in modern Sichuan * Shu Han (221–263) during the Three Kingdoms Period * Western Shu (405–413), also k ...
(on the Chengdu Plain) and Ba (which had its first capital at Enshi City in
Hubei Hubei (; ; alternately Hupeh) is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity ...

Hubei
and controlled part of the Han River (Shaanxi and Hubei), Han Valley) emerged as cultural and administrative centers where two rival kingdoms were established. Although eventually the
Qin dynasty The Qin dynasty, or Ch'in dynasty in Wade–Giles Wade–Giles () is a Romanization of Chinese, romanization system for Standard Chinese, Mandarin Chinese. It developed from a system produced by Thomas Francis Wade, during the mid-19th ...

Qin dynasty
destroyed the kingdoms of Shu and Ba, the Qin government accelerated the technological and agricultural advancements of Sichuan making it comparable to that of the
Yellow River The Yellow River (Chinese: , Jin: uə xɔ Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat A bureaucrat is ...
Valley. The now-extinct Ba-Shu Chinese, Ba-Shu language was derived from Qin-era settlers and represents the earliest documented division from what is now called Middle Chinese. During the Yuan dynasty, Yuan and
Ming The Ming dynasty (), officially the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an eth ...

Ming
dynasties, the population of the area was reduced through wars and the bubonic plague and settlers arrived from the area of modern Hubei, replacing the earlier common Chinese with a new standard. The Li Bai Memorial, located in Jiangyou, is a museum in memory of Li Bai, a Chinese poet of Tang dynasty, Tang China (618–907) built at the place where he grew up. Building was begun in 1962 on the occasion of 1200th anniversary of his death, completed in 1981 and opened to the public in October 1982. The memorial is built in the style of the classic Tang garden. In 2003, Sichuan had "88 art performing troupes, 185 culture centers, 133 libraries and 52 museums". Companies based in Sichuan also produced 23 television series and one film.


Languages

The Sichuanese once spoke their own variety of Spoken Chinese called Ba-Shu Chinese, or Old Sichuanese, before it became extinct during the Ming dynasty. Now most of them speak Sichuanese Mandarin. The Minjiang dialects are thought by some linguists to be a bona fide descendant of Old Sichuanese, but there is no conclusive evidence whether Minjiang dialects are derived from Old Sichuanese or Southwestern Mandarin. The languages of Sichuan are primarily members of three subfamilies of the Sino-Tibetan languages. The most widely used variety of Chinese spoken in Sichuan is Sichuanese Mandarin, which is the lingua franca in Sichuan,
Chongqing Chongqing ( ; ; Sichuanese dialects, Sichuanese pronunciation: , Standard Mandarin pronunciation: ), Postal Romanization, alternately romanized as Chungking, is a Direct-administered municipalities of China, municipality in southwest China. ...

Chongqing
and parts of
Tibet Autonomous Region The Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) or Xizang Autonomous Region, called Tibet or Xizang for short, is a province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' pr ...
. Although Sichuanese is generally classified as a dialect of Mandarin Chinese, it is highly divergent in phonology, vocabulary, and even grammar from Standard Chinese. The Minjiang dialect is especially difficult for speakers of other Mandarin dialects to understand. Garzê Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture and Ngawa Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture in western Sichuan are populated by Tibetan people, Tibetans and Qiang people. Tibetans speak the Khams Tibetan, Khams and Amdo Tibetan, which are Tibetic languages, as well as various Qiangic languages. The Qiang speak Qiangic languages and often Tibetic languages as well. The Yi people of Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture in southern Sichuan speak the Nuosu language, which is one of the Lolo-Burmese languages; Yi is written using the Yi script, a syllabary standardized in 1974. The Southwest University for Nationalities has one of China's most prominent Tibetology departments, and the Southwest Minorities Publishing House prints literature in minority languages. In the minority-inhabited regions of Sichuan, there is bilingual signage and public school instruction in non-Mandarin minority languages.


Cuisine

Sichuan is well known for its spicy cuisine and use of
Sichuan pepper Sichuan pepper () (also Szechuan pepper, Szechwan pepper, Chinese prickly ash, Chinese pepper, rattan pepper, and mala pepper) is a spice commonly used in the Sichuan cuisine of China's southwestern Sichuan Province. When eaten it produces a ting ...

Sichuan pepper
s due to its more humid climate. The Sichuanese are proud of their cuisine, known as one of the Four Great Traditions of Chinese cuisine. The cuisine here is of "one dish, one shape, hundreds of dishes, hundreds of tastes", as the saying goes, to describe its acclaimed diversity. The most prominent traits of Sichuanese cuisine are described by four words: spicy, hot, fresh and fragrant. Sichuan cuisine is popular in the whole nation of China, so are Sichuan chefs. Two well-known Sichuan chefs are Chen Kenmin and his son Chen Kenichi, who was Iron Chef Chinese on the Japanese television series "Iron Chef". Another famous Sichuan cuisine is hotpot. Hot pot is a Chinese soup containing a variety of East Asian foodstuffs and ingredients, prepared with a simmering pot of soup stock at the dining table. While the hot pot is kept simmering, ingredients are placed into the pot and are cooked at the table. Typical hot pot dishes include thinly sliced meat, leaf vegetables, mushrooms, wontons, egg dumplings, tofu, and seafood. The cooked food is usually eaten with a dipping sauce. File:Kung-pao-shanghai.jpg,
Kung Pao chicken Kung Pao chicken (), also Romanization of Chinese, transcribed Gong Bao or Kung Po, is a spicy, Stir frying, stir-fried Chinese dish made with cubes of chicken, peanuts, vegetables (traditionally Welsh onion only), and chili peppers. The classi ...

Kung Pao chicken
, one of the best known dishes of Sichuan cuisine File:Mabodoufu with rice.jpg, Mapo doufu File:Stinky tofu with goose blood.JPG, Hot pot in Mala style File:Dan-dan noodles, Shanghai.jpg, Dandan noodles File:Mixed sauce noodles.JPG, Mixed sauce noodles ()


Education


Colleges and universities

*Sichuan University (
Chengdu Chengdu (, ; simplified Chinese Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters Chinese characters, also called ''hanzi'' (), are logogram In a written language A written language is the representa ...

Chengdu
) *Southwest Jiaotong University (Chengdu) *Southwestern University of Finance and Economics (Chengdu) *University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (Chengdu) *Chengdu University of Technology *Chengdu University of Information Technology *Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine *Southwest University for Nationalities (Chengdu) *Sichuan Agricultural University (Ya'an, Chengdu, Dujiangyan) *Southwest Petroleum University (Nanchong and Chengdu) *Sichuan Normal University (Chengdu) *Southwest University of Science and Technology (Mianyang) *China West Normal University (Nanchong) *Sichuan Police College (Luzhou) *North Sichuan Medical College (Nanchong) *Sichuan University of Science and Engineering (Zigong and Yibin) *Chengdu University *Xihua University (Chengdu) *Panzhihua University (Panzhihua) *Xichang University (Xichang) *Aba Teachers University (Ngawa Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture) *Civil Aviation Flight University of China (
Guanghan Guanghan () is a county-level city A county-level municipality (), county-level city or county city, formerly known as prefecture-controlled city (1949–1970: ; 1970–1983: ), is a county-level administrative division of the Peopl ...
)


Tourism

File:Beauty of Jiuzhaigou National Park - Apr 2017.png, Jiuzhaigou File:Yading - panoramio (1).jpg, Yading File:1 huanglong pools aerial 2011.jpg, Huanglong Scenic and Historic Interest Area File:QinChengHouShan WuLongGou.jpg, Waterfalls at Mount Qincheng UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Sichuan province and Chongqing municipality include: * Dazu Rock Carvings and Wulong Karst (
Chongqing Chongqing ( ; ; Sichuanese dialects, Sichuanese pronunciation: , Standard Mandarin pronunciation: ), Postal Romanization, alternately romanized as Chungking, is a Direct-administered municipalities of China, municipality in southwest China. ...

Chongqing
municipality) * Huanglong Scenic and Historic Interest Area * Jiuzhaigou Valley Scenic and Historic Interest Area * Mount Emei Scenic Area, including Leshan Giant Buddha Scenic Area * Mount Qincheng and the Dujiangyan Irrigation System * Sichuan Giant Panda Sanctuaries As of July 2013, the world's largest building the New Century Global Center is located in the city of Chengdu. At high, long, and wide, the Center houses retail outlets, a 14-theater cinema, offices, hotels, the Paradise Island waterpark, an artificial beach, a -long Light-emitting diode, LED screen, skating rink, pirate ship, fake Mediterranean village, 24-hour artificial sun, and 15,000-spot parking area.


Notable individuals

*Bao Sanniang (), a possibly fictional woman warrior of the
Three Kingdoms The Three Kingdoms () from 220 to 280 AD was the tripartite division of China among the states of Cao Wei, Wei, Shu Han, Shu, and Eastern Wu, Wu. The Three Kingdoms period started with the End of the Han dynasty, end of the Han dynasty#East ...

Three Kingdoms
period. *Li Bai (701–762), poet of the Tang dynasty * Guifeng Zongmi (; 780–841), Tang dynasty Buddhist scholar-monk, fifth patriarch of the Huayan () school as well as a patriarch of the Heze lineage of Southern Chan * Ouyang Xiu (1007–22 September 1072), Confucian historian, essayist, calligrapher, poet, and official bureaucrat of the Song dynasty *
Su Xun Su Xun (; 22 May 1009 – 21 May 1066) was a Chinese writer during the Song dynasty The Song dynasty (; ; 960–1279) was an imperial dynasty of China that began in 960 and lasted until 1279. The dynasty was founded by Emperor Taizu of Son ...
(), poet and prose-writer of the Song dynasty *
Su Shi Su Shi (; 8 January 1037 – 24 August 1101), courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in the East Asian cultural ...

Su Shi
(8 January 1037 – 24 August 1101), Confucian bureaucrat official, poet, artist, calligrapher, pharmacologist, gastronome, and official bureaucrat of the Song dynasty *
Su Zhe Su Zhe (; 1039–1112), or Su Che, courtesy names Ziyou and Tongshu , was a Chinese essayist, historian, poet, and politician from Meishan Meishan (; Sichuanese Pinyin Sichuanese Pinyin (Si4cuan1hua4 Pin1yin1; ), is a romanization Romaniza ...
(1039–1112), poet and essayist, Confucian bureaucratic official of the Song dynasty * Ba Jin (25 November 1904 – 17 October 2005), novelist and writer * Deng Xiaoping, Chinese Paramount Leader during the 1980s, his Deng Xiaoping's Former Residence, former residence is now a museum. * Chen Kenmin (27 June 1912 – 12 May 1990), chef who specialized in Szechwan cuisine. Father of well-known Iron Chef, Chen Kenichi. * Li Ching-Yuen (; died 6 May 1933), Herbalism, herbalist, Martial arts, martial artist and tactical advisor, also known for extreme longevity claims * Che Yongli (28 January 1980), actress * SM Rookies#Past members, Xu Yiyang (12 August 1997), singer * Chen Shou, official and writer * Huang Jiguang, highly decorated soldier during the Korean War * Zhao Yiman, resistance fighter * Liu Yonghao, businessman * GAI (musician), GAI, rapper, singer, and songwriter * Zhang Yong (restaurateur), Singapore's richest man in 2019 * Wang Jianlin, business magnate, investor, and philanthropist * Jiang Zhuyun, revolutionary martyr * Zhang Daqian, artists * Wang Xiaoya, television host and media personality * Li Yifeng, actor and singer * Li Yuchun, singer, songwriter, and actress * Tan Weiwei, singer and actress * Tang Chun-i, philosopher and scholar * Luo Ruiqing, army officer and politician * Zhuo Wenjun, poet * Yang Xiong (author), Yang Xiong, poet, philosopher, and politician * Zheng Ji (biochemist), Zheng Ji, nutritionist and pioneering biochemist * Zhu De, general, warlord, politician, and revolutionary * Zhang Lan, political activist * Zou Rong, revolutionary martyr * Guo Moruo, author, poet, historian, archaeologist, and government official * Zhang Qun, premier of the Republic of China * Bai Ling, actress * Xu Youyu, scholar * Cheung Chung-kiu, business magnate * Song Yonghua, scholar * Sanyu (painter) * Zhang Aiping, from Tongchuan District, Dazhou City, Vice Premier, State Councilor and Minister of Defense * Jane Zhang, Zhang Liangying, singer and songwriter


Sports

Professional sports teams in Sichuan include: * Chinese Basketball Association ** Sichuan Blue Whales * China League Two ** Sichuan Jiuniu F.C. * Chinese Volleyball League ** Sichuan Volleyball Team * China Table Tennis Super League ** Sichuan Quan-Xing Table-Tennis Team


Sister states and regions

* Washington (state), Washington, United States (1982) * Michigan, United States (1982) * Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan (1984) * Yamanashi Prefecture, Japan (1985) * South P'yŏngan, North Korea (1985) * Midi-Pyrénées, France (1987) * North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany (1988) * Leicestershire, United Kingdom (1988) * Piedmont, Italy (1990) * Pernambuco, Brazil (1992) * Tolna (county), Tolna County, Hungary (1993) * Valencian Community, Spain (1994) * Brussels-Capital Region, Belgium (1995) * Barinas State, Venezuela (2001) * Friesland, Netherlands (2001) * Almaty Province, Kazakhstan (2001) * Mpumalanga, South Africa (2002) * Suphan Buri, Thailand (2010) * Victoria (Australia), Victoria, Australia (2015) * Lavalleja, Uruguay (2020)


See also

* Sichuan dialect *
Sichuan cuisine Sichuan cuisine, alternatively romanized as Szechwan cuisine or Szechuan cuisine (, Standard Mandarin Standard Chinese, in linguistics known as Standard Northern Mandarin, Standard Beijing Mandarin or simply Mandarin, is a Mandarin Chinese ...
* Bashu culture * Sichuan Airlines * Sichuan Giant Panda Sanctuaries * 2008 Sichuan earthquake * Christianity in Sichuan * Eight Immortals from Sichuan * List of prisons in Sichuan * Major national historical and cultural sites (Sichuan), Major national historical and cultural sites in Sichuan * Qutang Gorge * ''
Chronicles of Huayang The ''Chronicles of Huayang'' or ''Huayang Guo Zhi'' is the oldest extant gazetteer A gazetteer is a geographical dictionary A dictionary is a listing of lexemes from the lexicon of one or more specific languages, often arranged Alphabet ...
'' * ''The Good Person of Szechwan, The Good Person of Sezuan''


Notes


References


External links

*
Economic profile for Sichuan
at Hong Kong Trade Development Council, HKTDC
Ancient silver coins of Sichuan
* {{Authority control Sichuan, Provinces of the People's Republic of China Western China