HOME

TheInfoList




Siberia (; rus, Сибирь, r=Sibir', p=sʲɪˈbʲirʲ, a=Ru-Сибирь.ogg) is an extensive
geographical region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment (environmental geography). Geographic reg ...
, constituting all of
North Asia North Asia or Northern Asia, also referred to as Siberia, is the northern region of Asia, which is defined in Geography, geographical terms and is coextensive with the Asian part of Russia, and consists of three Russian regions east of the Ural ...
, from the
Ural Mountains The Ural Mountains (; rus, Ура́льские го́ры, r=Uralskiye gory, p=ʊˈralʲskʲɪjə ˈgorɨ; ba, Урал тауҙары, ''Ural tauźarı'') or simply the Urals, are a mountain range that runs approximately from north to south ...
in the west to the
Pacific Ocean The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. ...

Pacific Ocean
in the east. It has been a part of
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...

Russia
since the latter half of the 16th century, after the Russians conquered lands east of the
Ural Mountains The Ural Mountains (; rus, Ура́льские го́ры, r=Uralskiye gory, p=ʊˈralʲskʲɪjə ˈgorɨ; ba, Урал тауҙары, ''Ural tauźarı'') or simply the Urals, are a mountain range that runs approximately from north to south ...
. Siberia is vast and sparsely populated, covering an area of over , but home to merely one-fifth of Russia's population.
Novosibirsk Novosibirsk (, also ; rus, Новосиби́рск, p=nəvəsʲɪˈbʲirsk, a=ru-Новосибирск.ogg) is the largest city and administrative centre of Novosibirsk Oblast and Siberian Federal District in Russia. It has a population of&n ...
and
Omsk Omsk (; rus, Омск, p=omsk) is the administrative centerAn administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local government, or a county town, or the place where the central administration of a Township, commune is located. In ...
are the largest cities in the region. Because Siberia is a geographic and historic region and not a political entity, there is no single precise definition of its territorial borders. Traditionally, Siberia extends eastwards from the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean, and includes most of the
drainage basin A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water. The drainage basin includes all the surface water from surface runoff, rain runoff, snowm ...

drainage basin
of the
Arctic Ocean The Arctic Ocean is the smallest and shallowest of the world's five major s. It spans an area of approximately and is also known as the coldest of all the oceans. The (IHO) recognizes it as an ocean, although some call it the Arctic Medit ...

Arctic Ocean
. The river
Yenisey The Yenisey (russian: Енисе́й, ''Yeniséy''; mn, Енисей мөрөн, ''Yenisei mörön''; Buryat: Горлог мүрэн, ''Gorlog müren''; Tyvan: Улуг-Хем, ''Uluğ-Hem''; Khakas: Ким суғ, ''Kim suğ''), also rom ...
divides Siberia into two parts,
Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town in the US *Western Creek, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western Junction, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western world, countries that ide ...
and
Eastern Eastern may refer to: Transportation *China Eastern Airlines, a current Chinese airline based in Shanghai *Eastern Air, former name of Zambia Skyways *Eastern Air Lines, a defunct American airline that operated from 1926 to 1991 *Eastern Air Lin ...
. Siberia stretches southwards from the
Arctic Ocean The Arctic Ocean is the smallest and shallowest of the world's five major s. It spans an area of approximately and is also known as the coldest of all the oceans. The (IHO) recognizes it as an ocean, although some call it the Arctic Medit ...

Arctic Ocean
to the hills of north-central
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan ( kk, Қазақстан, Qazaqstan; russian: Казахстан, Kazakhstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan,; russian: Республика Казахстан, Respublika Kazakhstan, link=no) is a country located mainly in ...

Kazakhstan
and to the northern parts of
Mongolia Mongolia (, mn, Монгол Улс, Mongol Uls, Mongolian script, Traditional Mongolian: '; literal translation, lit. "Mongol Nation" or "State of Mongolia") is a landlocked country in East Asia. It is bordered by Russia Mongolia–Russia ...

Mongolia
and China. The central part of Siberia (
West 250px, A compass rose with west highlighted in black West or Occident is one of the four cardinal directions or points of the compass The points of the compass are the vectors by which planet-based directions are conventionally defined. A co ...
and East Siberian economic regions) was considered the core part of the region in the Soviet Union. Beyond the core, Siberia's western part includes some territories of the
Ural Ural may refer to: *Ural (region) Ural (russian: Ура́л) is a geographical region located around the Ural Mountains, between the East European Plain, East European and West Siberian Plain, West Siberian plains. It is considered a part of E ...
region, the far eastern part has been historically called the
Russian Far East The Russian Far East ( rus, Дальний Восток России, r=Dal'niy Vostok Rossii, p=ˈdalʲnʲɪj vɐˈstok rɐˈsʲiɪ) is a region in . It is the easternmost part of and the n continent; and is administered as part of the , w ...

Russian Far East
. Siberia is known worldwide primarily for its long, harsh winters, with a January average of −25 °C (−13 °F). It is geographically situated in Asia; however, due to it being colonized and incorporated into Russia, it is culturally and politically a part of Europe. European cultural influences, specifically
Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (россияне), Russian language term ...
, predominate throughout the region, due to it having had Russian emigration from Europe since the 16th century, forming the
Siberian Siberia (; rus, Сибирь, r=Sibir', p=sʲɪˈbʲirʲ, a=Ru-Сибирь.ogg) is an extensive geographical region spanning much of Northern Asia. Siberia has been part of modern Russia since the latter half of the 16th century. Novosibirs ...

Siberian
Russian sub-ethnic group.
Slavs Slavs are an ethno-linguistic group of people who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic language, Balto-Slavic linguistic group of the Indo-European languages. They are native to Eurasia, stretching from Central Europe, ...

Slavs
and other Indo-Europeans comprise the vast majority of Siberia's population, and over 85% of the region's population is of European descent.


Etymology

The origin of the name is unknown. Some sources say that "Siberia" originates from the
Siberian Tatar Siberia (; rus, Сибирь, r=Sibir', p=sʲɪˈbʲirʲ, a=Ru-Сибирь.ogg) is an extensive geographical region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact chara ...
word for "sleeping land" (Sib Ir). Another account sees the name as the ancient tribal ethnonym of the (also "Syopyr" (sʲɵpᵻr)), a Paleoasiatic ethnic group assimilated by the Nenets. The modern usage of the name was recorded in the Russian language after the Empire's conquest of the
Siberian Khanate The Khanate of Sibir ( sty, Sıbır Qağanlıq), also historically called the Khanate of Turan, was a Turkic Khanate A khaganate or khanate was a political entity ruled by a khan, khagan Khagan or Qaghan ( otk, 𐰴𐰍𐰣, Kaɣan, m ...
. A further variant claims that the region was named after the
Xibe people The Sibe or Xibo (, , ; ), are an East Asian East Asia is the eastern region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, feature ...
. The Polish historian Chyliczkowski has proposed that the name derives from the
proto-Slavic Proto-Slavic is the unattested, reconstructed Reconstruction may refer to: Politics, history, and sociology *Reconstruction (law), the transfer of a company's (or several companies') business to a new company *''Perestroika'' (Russian for ...
word for "north" (север, ''sever''), same as
Severia Severia or Siveria ( orv, Сѣверія, uk, Сіверія or , translit. ''Siveria'' or ''Sivershchyna'', russian: Северщина, translit=Severshchina) is a historical region in present-day central-west Russia Russia (russian: li ...

Severia
. Anatole Baikaloff has dismissed this explanation. He said that the neighbouring Chinese, Turks, and Mongolians, who have similar names for the region, would not have known Russian. He suggests that the name might be a combination of two words with
Turkic Turkic may refer to: * anything related to the country of Turkey * Turkic languages, a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages ** Turkic alphabets (disambiguation) ** Turkish language, the most widely spoken Turkic language * T ...

Turkic
origin, ''"su"'' (water) and ''"bir"'' (wild land).


History


Prehistory

The region has
paleontological Paleontology, also spelled palaeontology or palæontology (), is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene The Holocene ( ) is the current geological epoch. It began approximate ...
significance, as it contains bodies of
prehistoric Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's past. It is understood through archaeology, anthropology, genetics, and linguistics, ...
animals from the
Pleistocene The Pleistocene ( , often referred to as the ''Ice Age'') is the geological Epoch (geology), epoch that lasted from about 2,580,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the earth’s most recent period of repeated glaciations. Before a change finally ...
Epoch In chronology 222px, Joseph Scaliger's ''De emendatione temporum'' (1583) began the modern science of chronology Chronology (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-E ...
, preserved in ice or in
permafrost Permafrost is ground that continuously remains below 0 °C (32 °F) for two or more years, located on land or under the ocean The ocean (also the or the world ocean) is the body of that covers approximately 70.8% of the surfa ...

permafrost
. Specimens of Goldfuss cave lion cubs, Yuka the mammoth and another
woolly mammoth The woolly mammoth (''Mammuthus primigenius'') is a species of mammoth A mammoth is any species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a u ...

woolly mammoth
from
Oymyakon Oymyakon, ; sah, Өймөкөөн, ''Öymököön'', is a rural locality (a ''selo'') in Oymyakonsky District Oymyakonsky District (russian: Оймяко́нский улу́с; sah, Өймөкөөн улууһа, ''Öymököön uluuha'', ) is ...
, a
woolly rhinoceros The woolly rhinoceros (''Coelodonta antiquitatis'') is an extinct species of rhinoceros A rhinoceros (, , ), commonly abbreviated to rhino, is a member of any of the five Extant taxon, extant species of odd-toed ungulates in the family (biol ...
from the
Kolyma Kolyma (russian: Колыма́, ) is a region located in the Russian Far East. It is bounded to the north by the East Siberian Sea and the Arctic Ocean, and by the Sea of Okhotsk to the south. The region gets its name from the Kolyma River and ...
, and
bison Bison are large, even-toed ungulate The even-toed ungulates (Artiodactyla , ) are ungulate Ungulates ( ) are members of the diverse clade A clade (; from grc, , ''klados'', "branch"), also known as a monophyletic group or natural gro ...

bison
and
horse The horse (''Equus ferus caballus'') is a domesticated Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to ...

horse
s from Yukagir have been found. The
Siberian Traps The Siberian Traps (russian: Сибирские траппы, ) is a large region of volcanic rock Volcanic rock (often shortened to volcanics in scientific contexts) is a Rock (geology), rock formed from lava erupted from a volcano. In other ...
were formed by one of the largest-known volcanic events of the last 251 million years of Earth's geological history. Their activity continued for a million years and some scientists consider it a possible cause of the "
Great Dying Great may refer to: Descriptions or measurements * Great, a relative measurement in physical space, see Size * Greatness, being divine, majestic, superior, majestic, or transcendent People with the name * "The Great", a historical suffix to people ...
" about 250 million years ago, – estimated to have killed 90% of species existing at the time. At least three species of human lived in Southern Siberia around 40,000 years ago: '''', '' H. neanderthalensis'', and the
Denisovans The Denisovans or Denisova hominins ) are an extinct Extinction is the termination of a kind of organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual contiguous system ...
.
DNA identifies new ancient human dubbed 'X-woman'
" BBC News. 25 March 2010.
In 2010 DNA evidence identified the last as a separate species.


Early history

During past millennia different groups of
nomad A nomad ( frm, nomade "people without fixed habitation") is a member of a community without fixed habitation who regularly moves to and from the same areas. Such groups include hunter-gatherer A hunter-gatherer is a human Humans (''Homo ...

nomad
s – such as the Enets, the Nenets, the
Huns The Huns were a nomadic people A nomad ( frm, nomade "people without fixed habitation") is a member of a community without fixed habitation which regularly moves to and from the same areas. Such groups include hunter-gatherers, pastoral ...

Huns
, the
Xiongnu The Xiongnu (, ) were a tribal confederation A confederation (also known as a confederacy or league) is a union of sovereign groups or states united for purposes of common action. Usually created by a treaty A treaty is a formal ...

Xiongnu
, the
Scythians The Scythians (from grc, Σκύθης , ) or Scyths, also known as Saka and Sakae ( ; egy, 𓋴𓎝𓎡𓈉 The ancient Egyptian Hill-country or "Foreign land" hieroglyph (𓈉) is a member of the sky, earth, and water hieroglyphs. A ...
and the
Uyghurs The Uyghurs ( or ; ; ; zh, s=, t=, p=Wéiwú'ěr, IPA: ), alternatively spelled Uighurs, Uyghers, Uygurs or Uigurs, are a Turkic peoples, Turkic ethnic group originating from and culturally affiliated with the general region of Central Asi ...
inhabited various parts of Siberia. The proto-Mongol
Khitan people The Khitan people (Khitan small script The Khitan small script () was one of two writing systems used for the now-extinct Khitan language Khitan or Kitan ( in large script or in small, ''Khitai''; , ''Qìdānyǔ''), also known as Liao, is a ...
also occupied parts of the region. In the year 630 the Khan of Sibir in the vicinity of modern
Tobolsk Tobolsk (russian: Тобо́льск, sty, Pîcek-tora) is a types of inhabited localities in Russia, town in Tyumen Oblast, Russia, located at the confluence of the Tobol River, Tobol and Irtysh River, Irtysh rivers. Founded in 1590, Tobolsk is ...

Tobolsk
was known as a prominent figure who endorsed
Kubrat Kubrat ( el, Κοβρᾶτος, Kούβρατος; bg, Кубрат ) was the ruler of the Onogur–Bulgars The Bulgars (also Bulghars, Bulgari, Bolgars, Bolghars, Bolgari, Proto-Bulgarians) were Turkic semi-nomadic warrior tribes that flour ...

Kubrat
as ''Khagan'' of
Old Great Bulgaria Old Great Bulgaria or Great Bulgaria (Medieval Greek: Παλαιά Μεγάλη Βουλγαρία, ''Palaiá Megálē Voulgaría''), also often known by the Latin names ''Magna Bulgaria'' and ''Patria Onoguria'' ("Onoğurs, Onogur land"), w ...

Old Great Bulgaria
. In the 13th century, during the period of the
Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire of the 13th and 14th centuries was the List of largest empires, largest contiguous land empire in history and the second largest empire by landmass, second only to the British Empire. Originating in Mongolia in East Asia, the ...
, the Mongols conquered a large part of this area. With the breakup of the
Golden Horde The Golden Horde, self-designated as Ulug Ulus, 'Great State' in Turkic, was originally a Mongol The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an ethnic group to the , and the of Russia. ...
, the
autonomous The federal subject The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (russian: субъекты Российской Федерации, subyekty Rossiyskoy Federatsii) or simply as the subjects o ...
Khanate of Sibir The Khanate of Sibir, also historically called the Khanate of Turan, was a Turkic peoples , Turkic Khanate located in southwestern Siberia with a Turco-Mongol tradition, Turco-Mongol ruling class. Throughout its history, members of the Shiban, Sh ...

Khanate of Sibir
formed in the late-15th century. Turkic-speaking Yakut migrated north from the
Lake Baikal Lake Baikal (; russian: Oзеро Байкал, Ozero Baykal ; bua, Байгал далай, Baigal dalai; mn, Байгал нуур, Baigal nuur) is a rift lake A rift lake is a lake A lake is an area filled with water, localized i ...

Lake Baikal
region under pressure from the Mongol tribes during the 13th to 15th century. Siberia remained a sparsely populated area. Historian John F. Richards wrote: "... it is doubtful that the total early modern Siberian population exceeded 300,000 persons". The growing power of
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...
in the West began to undermine the Siberian Khanate in the 16th century. First, groups of traders and
Cossack The Cossacks * russian: казаки́ or * be, казакi * pl, Kozacy * cs, kozáci * sk, kozáci * hu, kozákok, cazacii * fi, Kasakat, cazacii * et, Kasakad, cazacii are a group of predominantly East Slavic languages, East Slav ...
s began to enter the area. The Russian Army was directed to establish forts farther and farther east to protect new Russian settlers who migrated from Europe. Towns such as
Mangazeya Mangazeya (russian: Мангазе́я) was a Northwest Siberia Siberia (; rus, Сибирь, r=Sibir', p=sʲɪˈbʲirʲ, a=Ru-Сибирь.ogg) is an extensive geographical region spanning much of Northern Asia. Siberia has been Russian con ...

Mangazeya
,
Tara Tara may refer to: Arts and entertainment Film and television * ''Tara'' (1992 film), an Indian film directed by Bijaya Jena * ''Tara'' (2001 film), an American film, also known as ''Hood Rat'', directed by Leslie Small * ''Tara'' (2010 film), a ...
,
Yeniseysk Yeniseysk ( rus, Енисейск, p=jɪnʲɪˈsʲejsk) is a town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably ...
and
Tobolsk Tobolsk (russian: Тобо́льск, sty, Pîcek-tora) is a types of inhabited localities in Russia, town in Tyumen Oblast, Russia, located at the confluence of the Tobol River, Tobol and Irtysh River, Irtysh rivers. Founded in 1590, Tobolsk is ...

Tobolsk
developed, the last becoming the ''de facto'' capital of Siberia from 1590. At this time, ''Sibir'' was the name of a fortress at Qashlik, near Tobolsk.
Gerardus Mercator Gerardus Mercator (; 5 March 1512 – 2 December 1594) was a 16th-century geographer A geographer is a physical scientist, social scientist or humanist whose area of study is geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', lite ...

Gerardus Mercator
, in a map published in 1595, marks ''Sibier'' both as the name of a settlement and of the surrounding territory along a left tributary of the Ob. Other sources contend that the Xibe, an indigenous
Tungusic people Tungusic peoples are an ethno-linguistic group formed by the speakers of (or Manchu–Tungus languages). They are and . The Tungusic phylum is divided into two main branches, northern (Evenic or Tungus) and southern (–). An intermediate group ...
, offered fierce resistance to Russian expansion beyond the Urals. Some suggest that the term "Siberia" is a russification of their ethnonym.


Russian Empire

By the mid-17th century Russia had established areas of control that extended to the Pacific Ocean. Some 230,000 Russians had settled in Siberia by 1709. Siberia became one of the destinations for sending
internal exile To be in exile means to be forced away from one's home (i.e. village A village is a clustered human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people li ...
s. Exiles were the main Russian punitive practice with more than 800,000 people exiled during the nineteenth century. The first great modern change in Siberia was the
Trans-Siberian Railway The Trans–Siberian Railway (TSR) ( rus, Транссибирская магистраль, r=Transsibirskaya magistral', p=trənsʲsʲɪˈbʲirskəjə məgʲɪˈstralʲ) is a network of railways connecting Moscow Moscow (, ; rus, links=no ...
, constructed during 1891–1916. It linked Siberia more closely to the rapidly industrialising Russia of
Nicholas II Nicholas II or Nikolai II Alexandrovich Romanov . ( 186817 July 1918), known in the Russian Orthodox Church as Saint Nicholas the Passion-Bearer, . was the last Emperor of All Russia, ruling from 1 November 1894 until Abdication of Nicholas II ...

Nicholas II
(). Around seven million Russians moved to Siberia from Europe between 1801 and 1914. Between 1859 and 1917 more than half a million people migrated to the Russian Far East. Siberia has extensive natural resources: during the 20th century, large-scale exploitation of these took place, and industrial towns cropped up throughout the region. At 7:15 a.m. on 30 June 1908 the
Tunguska Event The Tunguska event (occasionally also called the Tunguska incident) was a tremendous ~12 megaton explosion An explosion is a rapid expansion in volume associated with an extremely vigorous outward release of energy, usually with the gener ...
felled millions of trees near the in central Siberia. Most scientists believe this resulted from the air burst of a meteor or a comet. Even though no crater has ever been found, the landscape in the (sparsely inhabited) area still bears the scars of this event.


Soviet Union

In the early decades of the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
(especially in the 1930s and 1940s), the government used the
Gulag The Gulag, GULAG, or GULag (russian: ГУЛАГ, ГУЛаг, an acronym An acronym is a word In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by h ...

Gulag
state agency to administer a system of penal
labour camp A labor camp (or labour camp, see spelling differences Despite the various English dialects spoken from country to country and within different regions of the same country, there are only slight regional variations in English orthograph ...
s, replacing the previous
katorga Katorga ( rus, ка́торга, p=ˈkatərgə; from medieval and modern Greek: ''katergon, κάτεργον'', "galley") was a system of penal labor in the Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . was a historical empire that extended across Eu ...
system. According to semi-official Soviet estimates, which did not become public until after the fall of the Soviet government in 1991, from 1929 to 1953 more than 14 million people passed through these camps and prisons, many of them in Siberia. Another seven to eight million people were internally deported to remote areas of the Soviet Union (including entire nationalities or ethnicities in several cases). Half a million (516,841) prisoners died in camps from 1941 to 1943 during
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
. At other periods, mortality was comparatively lower. The size, scope, and scale of the Gulag slave-labour camps remain subjects of much research and debate. Many Gulag camps operated in extremely remote areas of northeastern Siberia. The best-known clusters included ''
Sevvostlag Sevvostlag (russian: Северо-восточные исправительно-трудовые лагеря, Севвостлаг, СВИТЛ, North-Eastern Corrective Labor Camps) was a system of forced labor camp A labor camp (or labou ...
'' (''the North-East Camps'') along the
Kolyma Kolyma (russian: Колыма́, ) is a region located in the Russian Far East. It is bounded to the north by the East Siberian Sea and the Arctic Ocean, and by the Sea of Okhotsk to the south. The region gets its name from the Kolyma River and ...
and ''
Norillag Norillag, Norilsk Corrective Labor Camp (russian: Норильлаг, Норильстрой, Норильский ИТЛ) was a gulag labor camp set by Norilsk, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia and headquartered there. It existed from June 25, 1935 to Aug ...
'' near
Norilsk Norilsk ( rus, Нори́льск, p=nɐˈrʲilʲsk, ''Norílʹsk'') is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Soci ...

Norilsk
, where 69,000 prisoners lived in 1952. Major industrial cities of Northern Siberia, such as Norilsk and
Magadan Magadan ( rus, Магадан, p=məɡɐˈdan) is a Port of Magadan, port types of inhabited localities in Russia, town and the administrative center of Magadan Oblast, Russia, located on the Sea of Okhotsk in Nagayev Bay (within Taui Bay) and ser ...
, developed from camps built by prisoners and run by former prisoners.


Geography

Siberia spans an area of , covering the vast majority of Russia's total territory, and almost 9% of Earth's land surface (). It geographically falls in Asia, but is culturally and politically considered European, since it is a part of Russia. Major geographical zones within Siberia include the
West Siberian Plain Western Siberian plain on a satellite map of North Asia The West Siberian Plain, also known as Zapadno-Sibirskaya Ravnina, (russian: За́падно-Сиби́рская равни́на) is a large plain that occupies the western portion of Si ...
and the
Central Siberian Plateau The Central Siberian Plateau (russian: Среднесибирское плоскогорье, Srednesibirskoye ploskogorye; sah, Орто Сибиир хаптал хайалаах сирэ) is a vast mountainous area in Siberia, one of the Great ...
. Eastern and central
Sakha Sakha, also known as Yakutia or Yakutiya,; sah, Саха Сирэ, r= Saqa Sire, p= saˈxa sɪrjə), and officially known as the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) ( rus, Республика Саха (Якутия), r= Respublika Sakha (Yakutiya), p= ...
comprises numerous north–south mountain ranges of various ages. These mountains extend up to almost , but above a few hundred metres they are almost completely devoid of vegetation. The
Verkhoyansk Range The Verkhoyansk Range (russian: Верхоянский хребет, ''Verkhojanskiy Khrebet''; sah, Үөһээ Дьааҥы сис хайата, ''Üöhee Caañı sis xayata'') is a mountain range in the Sakha Republic, Russia Russia (r ...
was extensively glaciated in the Pleistocene, but the climate was too dry for glaciation to extend to low elevations. At these low elevations are numerous valleys, many of them deep and covered with
larch Larches are deciduous In the fields of horticulture Horticulture is the art of cultivating plants in gardens to produce food and medicinal ingredients, or for comfort and ornamental purposes. Horticulturists grow flowers, fruits and nuts, v ...

larch
forest, except in the extreme north where the
tundra In physical geography Physical geography (also known as physiography) is one of the two fields of geography Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα ...

tundra
dominates. Soils are mainly turbels (a type of gelisol). The active layer tends to be less than one metre deep, except near rivers. The highest point in Siberia is the active
volcano A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object A planet is an astronomical body orbit In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an physical body, object, such as the trajectory of a planet a ...

volcano
Klyuchevskaya Sopka Klyuchevskaya Sopka (russian: Ключевская сопка; also known as Klyuchevskoi, russian: Ключевской) is a stratovolcano, the highest mountain on the Kamchatka Peninsula of Russia and the highest active volcano of Eurasia. It is ...

Klyuchevskaya Sopka
, on the
Kamchatka Peninsula The Kamchatka Peninsula (, ''Poluostrov Kamchatka'', ) is a peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from 'almost' and 'island') is a landform A landform is a natural or artificial feature of the solid surface of the Earth or other pla ...

Kamchatka Peninsula
. Its peak reaches .


Mountain ranges

*
Altai Mountains The Altai Mountains (), also spelled Altay Mountains, are a mountain range A mountain range is a series of mountains ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with simil ...

Altai Mountains
*
Anadyr Highlands The Anadyr Highlands ( rus, Анадырское нагорье, r=Anadyrskoye Nagorye) are a mountainous area in the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Far Eastern Federal District, Russia. Geography The Anadyr Highlands are one of the two main mounta ...
*
Baikal Mountains The Baikal Mountains or Baikal Range (russian: Байкальский хребет, ''Bajkaljskij hrebet''; bua, Байгалай дабаан, ''Baigalai dabaan'') are a mountain range that rises steeply over the northwestern shore of Lake Baikal ...
* Khamar-Daban *
Chersky Range The Chersky Range (, ) is a chain of mountain A mountain is an elevated portion of the Earth's crust, generally with steep sides that show significant exposed bedrock. A mountain differs from a plateau in having a limited summit area, and ...
*
Chukotka Mountains The Chukotka Mountains ( rus, Чукотское нагорье) or Chukotka Upland ''(Чукотская горная страна)'' is a mountainous area in the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug Chukotka Autonomous Okrug ( rus, Чукотский а ...
*
Dzhugdzhur Mountains The Dzhugdzhur Mountains (russian: Джугджу́р) or Jugjur Mountains, meaning 'big bulge' in Evenki, are a mountain range in the far east of Siberia Siberia (; rus, Сибирь, r=Sibir', p=sʲɪˈbʲirʲ, a=Ru-Сибирь.ogg) i ...
*
Kolyma Mountains The Kolyma Mountains or Kolyma Upland ( rus, Колымское нагорье, r=Kolymskoye Nagorye) is a mountain range in northeastern Siberia Siberia (; rus, Сибирь, r=Sibir', p=sʲɪˈbʲirʲ, a=Ru-Сибирь.ogg) is an extensive ...
* Koryak Mountains * Sayan Mountains *
Tannu-Ola Mountains The Tannu-Ola mountains tyv, Таңды-Уула, ''Tañdı-Uula'', uniturk, Taᶇdь-Uula, – Tangdy-Uula mountains; mn, Тагнын нуруу, ''Tağnîn nurú'', , russian: Танну-Ола, ) is a mountain range in southern Siberia ...
*
Ural Mountains The Ural Mountains (; rus, Ура́льские го́ры, r=Uralskiye gory, p=ʊˈralʲskʲɪjə ˈgorɨ; ba, Урал тауҙары, ''Ural tauźarı'') or simply the Urals, are a mountain range that runs approximately from north to south ...
*
Verkhoyansk Mountains The Verkhoyansk Range (russian: Верхоянский хребет, ''Verkhojanskiy Khrebet''; sah, Үөһээ Дьааҥы сис хайата, ''Üöhee Caañı sis xayata'') is a mountain range in the Sakha Republic, Russia. It is part of the ...
* Yablonoi Mountains


Geomorphological regions

*
Central Siberian Plateau The Central Siberian Plateau (russian: Среднесибирское плоскогорье, Srednesibirskoye ploskogorye; sah, Орто Сибиир хаптал хайалаах сирэ) is a vast mountainous area in Siberia, one of the Great ...
* Central Yakutian Lowland * East Siberian Lowland * East Siberian Mountains * North Siberian Lowland * South Siberian Mountains * West Siberian Lowland


Lakes and rivers

* Alazeya * Anabar (river), Anabar * Angara * Indigirka * Irtysh *
Kolyma Kolyma (russian: Колыма́, ) is a region located in the Russian Far East. It is bounded to the north by the East Siberian Sea and the Arctic Ocean, and by the Sea of Okhotsk to the south. The region gets its name from the Kolyma River and ...
*
Lake Baikal Lake Baikal (; russian: Oзеро Байкал, Ozero Baykal ; bua, Байгал далай, Baigal dalai; mn, Байгал нуур, Baigal nuur) is a rift lake A rift lake is a lake A lake is an area filled with water, localized i ...

Lake Baikal
* Lena (river), Lena * Nizhnyaya Tunguska * Novosibirsk Reservoir * Ob * Podkamennaya Tunguska * Popigay (river), Popigay * Upper Angara * Uvs Nuur * Yana (river), Yana *
Yenisey The Yenisey (russian: Енисе́й, ''Yeniséy''; mn, Енисей мөрөн, ''Yenisei mörön''; Buryat: Горлог мүрэн, ''Gorlog müren''; Tyvan: Улуг-Хем, ''Uluğ-Hem''; Khakas: Ким суғ, ''Kim suğ''), also rom ...


Grasslands

* Ukok Plateau—part of a UNESCO World Heritage Site


Geology

The West Siberian Plain, consisting mostly of Cenozoic alluvial deposits, is somewhat flat. In the mid-Pleistocene, many deposits on this plain resulted from Proglacial lake, ice dams which produced a large glacial lake. This mid- to late-
Pleistocene The Pleistocene ( , often referred to as the ''Ice Age'') is the geological Epoch (geology), epoch that lasted from about 2,580,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the earth’s most recent period of repeated glaciations. Before a change finally ...
lake blocked the northward flow of the Ob and
Yenisey The Yenisey (russian: Енисе́й, ''Yeniséy''; mn, Енисей мөрөн, ''Yenisei mörön''; Buryat: Горлог мүрэн, ''Gorlog müren''; Tyvan: Улуг-Хем, ''Uluğ-Hem''; Khakas: Ким суғ, ''Kim suğ''), also rom ...
rivers, resulting in a redirection southwest into the Caspian Sea, Caspian and Aral Sea, Aral seas via the Turgai Valley. The area is very swampy, and soils are mostly peaty histosols and, in the treeless northern part, histels. In the south of the plain, where
permafrost Permafrost is ground that continuously remains below 0 °C (32 °F) for two or more years, located on land or under the ocean The ocean (also the or the world ocean) is the body of that covers approximately 70.8% of the surfa ...

permafrost
is largely absent, rich grasslands that are an extension of the Kazakh Steppe formed the original vegetation, most of which is no longer visible. The Central Siberian Plateau is an ancient craton (sometimes named ''Angaraland'') that formed an independent continent before the Permian (see the Siberia (continent), Siberian continent). It is exceptionally rich in minerals, containing large deposits of gold, diamonds, and ores of manganese, lead, zinc, nickel, cobalt, and molybdenum. Much of the area includes the
Siberian Traps The Siberian Traps (russian: Сибирские траппы, ) is a large region of volcanic rock Volcanic rock (often shortened to volcanics in scientific contexts) is a Rock (geology), rock formed from lava erupted from a volcano. In other ...
—a large igneous province. A massive eruptive period approximately coincided with the Permian–Triassic extinction event. The volcanic event is said to be the largest known volcanic eruption in History of the Earth, Earth's history. Only the extreme northwest was glaciated during the Quaternary, but almost all is under exceptionally deep permafrost, and the only tree that can thrive, despite the warm summers, is the deciduous Siberian Larch (''Larix sibirica'') with its very shallow roots. Outside the extreme northwest, the taiga is dominant, covering a significant fraction of the entirety of Siberia. Soils here are mainly Gelisols, turbels, giving way to spodosols where the active layer becomes thicker and the ice-content lower. The ''Lena-Tunguska petroleum province'' includes the Central Siberian platform (some authors refer to it as the "Eastern Siberian platform"), bounded on the northeast and east by the Late Carboniferous through Jurassic Verkhoyansk foldbelt, on the northwest by the Paleozoic Taymr foldbelt, and on the southeast, south and southwest by the Middle Silurian to Middle Devonian Baykalian foldbelt.Meyerhof, A. A., 1980, "Geology and Petroleum Fields in Proterozoic and Lower Cambrian Strata, Lena-Tunguska Petroleum Province, Eastern Siberia, USSR", in ''Giant Oil and Gas Fields of the Decade: 1968–1978'', AAPG Memoir 30, Halbouty, M. T., editor, Tulsa: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, A regional geologic reconnaissance study begun in 1932 and followed by surface and subsurface mapping revealed the Markova-Angara Arch (anticline). This led to the discovery of the Markovo Oil Field in 1962 with the Markovo—1 well, which produced from the Early Cambrian Osa Horizon Shoal, bar-sandstone at a depth of . The ''Sredne-Botuobin Gas Field'' was discovered in 1970, producing from the Osa and the Proterozoic Parfenovo Horizon. The Yaraktin Oil Field was discovered in 1971, producing from the Vendian Yaraktin Horizon at depths of up to , which lies below Permian to Lower Jurassic Flood basalt, basalt traps.


Climate

The climate of Siberia varies dramatically, but it typically has short summers and long, brutally cold winters. On the north coast, north of the Arctic Circle, there is a very short (about one month long) summer. Almost all the population lives in the south, along the route of the
Trans-Siberian Railway The Trans–Siberian Railway (TSR) ( rus, Транссибирская магистраль, r=Transsibirskaya magistral', p=trənsʲsʲɪˈbʲirskəjə məgʲɪˈstralʲ) is a network of railways connecting Moscow Moscow (, ; rus, links=no ...
. The climate in this southernmost part is humid continental climate (Köppen ''Dfb'') with cold winters but fairly warm summers lasting at least four months. The annual average temperature is about . January averages about and July about , while daytime temperatures in summer typically exceed . With a reliable growing season, an abundance of sunshine and exceedingly fertile chernozem soils, southern Siberia is good enough for profitable agriculture, as was demonstrated in the early 20th century. By far the most commonly occurring climate in Siberia is continental subarctic climate, subarctic (Koppen ''Dfc'' or ''Dwc''), with the annual average temperature about and an average for January of and an average for July of , although this varies considerably, with a July average about in the taiga–tundra ecotone. The commerce, business-oriented website and blog ''Business Insider'' lists Verkhoyansk and
Oymyakon Oymyakon, ; sah, Өймөкөөн, ''Öymököön'', is a rural locality (a ''selo'') in Oymyakonsky District Oymyakonsky District (russian: Оймяко́нский улу́с; sah, Өймөкөөн улууһа, ''Öymököön uluuha'', ) is ...
, in Siberia's Sakha Republic, as being in competition for the title of the Northern Hemisphere's ''Pole of Cold''.
Oymyakon Oymyakon, ; sah, Өймөкөөн, ''Öymököön'', is a rural locality (a ''selo'') in Oymyakonsky District Oymyakonsky District (russian: Оймяко́нский улу́с; sah, Өймөкөөн улууһа, ''Öymököön uluuha'', ) is ...
is a village which recorded a temperature of on 6 February 1933. Verkhoyansk, a town further north and further inland, recorded a temperature of for three consecutive nights: 5, 6 and 7 February 1933. Each town is alternately considered the Northern Hemisphere's Pole of Cold - the coldest inhabited point in the Northern hemisphere. Each town also frequently reaches in the summer, giving them, and much of the rest of Russian Siberia, the world's greatest temperature-variation between summer's highs and winter's lows, often well over between the seasons. Southwesterly winds bring warm air from Central Asia and the Middle East. The climate in West Siberia (Omsk, or Novosibirsk) is several degrees warmer than in the East (Irkutsk, or Chita) where in the north an extreme winter subarctic climate (Köppen ''Dfd'' or ''Dwd'') prevails. But summer temperatures in other regions can reach . In general,
Sakha Sakha, also known as Yakutia or Yakutiya,; sah, Саха Сирэ, r= Saqa Sire, p= saˈxa sɪrjə), and officially known as the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) ( rus, Республика Саха (Якутия), r= Respublika Sakha (Yakutiya), p= ...
is the coldest Siberian region, and the basin of the Yana (river), Yana has the lowest temperatures of all, with permafrost reaching . Nevertheless, Imperial Russian plans of settlement never viewed cold as an impediment. In the winter, southern Siberia sits near the center of the semi-permanent Siberian High, so winds are usually light in the winter. Precipitation (meteorology), Precipitation in Siberia is generally low, exceeding only in Kamchatka Peninsula, Kamchatka, where moist winds flow from the Sea of Okhotsk onto high mountains – producing the region's only major glaciers, though volcanic eruptions and low summer temperatures allow only limited forests to grow. Precipitation is high also in most of Primorsky Krai, Primorye in the extreme south, where monsoonal influences can produce quite heavy summer rainfall.


Global warming

Researchers, including Sergei Kirpotin at Tomsk State University and Judith Marquand at Oxford University, warn that West Siberian Plain, Western Siberia has begun to thaw as a result of global warming. The frozen peat bogs in this region may hold billions of tons of methane gas, which may be released into the atmosphere. Methane is a greenhouse gas Global warming potential, 22 times more powerful than carbon dioxide. In 2008 a research expedition for the American Geophysical Union detected levels of methane up to 100 times above normal in the atmosphere above the Siberian Arctic, likely the result of methane clathrates being released through holes in a frozen "lid" of seabed
permafrost Permafrost is ground that continuously remains below 0 °C (32 °F) for two or more years, located on land or under the ocean The ocean (also the or the world ocean) is the body of that covers approximately 70.8% of the surfa ...

permafrost
around the outfall of the Lena (river), Lena and the area between the Laptev Sea and East Siberian Sea. Since 1988, experimentation at Pleistocene Park has proposed to restore the grasslands of prehistoric times by conducting research on the effects of large herbivores on permafrost, suggesting that animals, rather than climate, maintained the past ecosystem. The nature reserve park also conducts climatic research on the changes expected from the reintroduction of grazing animals or large herbivores, hypothesizing that a transition from
tundra In physical geography Physical geography (also known as physiography) is one of the two fields of geography Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα ...

tundra
to grassland would lead to a net change in energy emission to absorption ratios. Sergey A. Zimov (6 May 2005)
"Pleistocene Park: Return of the mammoths' ecosystem"
In: ''Science (journal), Science'', pages 796–798. Article also to be found i
www.pleistocenepark.ru/en/ – Materials.
Retrieved 5 May 2013.
According to Vasily Kryuchkov, approximately 31,000 square kilometers of the Russian Artic has subject to severe environmental disturbance.


Fauna


Birds


Order Galliformes


Family Grouse, Tetraonidae

* Hazel grouse * Siberian grouse * Black grouse * Black-billed capercaillie * Western capercaillie * Willow ptarmigan * Rock ptarmigan


Family Phasianidae

* Daurian partridge * Grey partridge * Altai snowcock * Japanese quail * Common quail * Common pheasant, Ring-necked pheasant


Mammals


Order Even-toed ungulate, Artiodactyla

* Moose * Bactrian camel * European bison, Wisent (European bison) * Red deer * Wild boar * Siberian roe deer * Manchurian wapiti * Siberian musk deer Database entry includes a brief justification of why this species is of vulnerable.


Order Carnivora


Family Canidae

* Wolf, Grey wolf * Tundra wolf * Arctic fox * Red fox


Family Felidae

* Snow leopard * Amur leopard * Siberian tiger


Family Mustelidae

* Least weasel * Stoat * Mountain weasel * Siberian weasel * Steppe polecat * Sable * Eurasian otter, Eurasian river otter * Asian badger * Wolverine


Family Bear, Ursidae

* Asian black bear * Brown bear * Polar bear


Flora

* ''Larix sibirica'' * ''Larix gmelinii'' * ''Picea obovata'' * ''Pinus pumila''


Politics

; Notable sovereign states in Siberia * Xianbei state (1st–3rd century CE) * First Turkic Khaganate (6th–7th century) * Eastern Turkic Khaganate (7th century) * Second Turkic Khaganate (7th–8th century) * Balhae (7th–10th century CE) *
Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire of the 13th and 14th centuries was the List of largest empires, largest contiguous land empire in history and the second largest empire by landmass, second only to the British Empire. Originating in Mongolia in East Asia, the ...
(13th–14th century) *
Khanate of Sibir The Khanate of Sibir, also historically called the Khanate of Turan, was a Turkic peoples , Turkic Khanate located in southwestern Siberia with a Turco-Mongol tradition, Turco-Mongol ruling class. Throughout its history, members of the Shiban, Sh ...

Khanate of Sibir
(1468–1598) * Tsardom of Russia (1598–1721) * Russian Empire (1721–1917) * Russian Republic (1917–1918) * Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic (1918–1922) * Far Eastern Republic (1920–1922) *
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
(1922–1991) ** Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (1922–1991) * Russian Federation (1991 – present)


Borders and administrative division

] The term "Siberia" has a long history. Its meaning has gradually changed during ages. Historically, Siberia was defined as the whole part of Russia and North Kazakhstan to the east of
Ural Mountains The Ural Mountains (; rus, Ура́льские го́ры, r=Uralskiye gory, p=ʊˈralʲskʲɪjə ˈgorɨ; ba, Урал тауҙары, ''Ural tauźarı'') or simply the Urals, are a mountain range that runs approximately from north to south ...
, including the
Russian Far East The Russian Far East ( rus, Дальний Восток России, r=Dal'niy Vostok Rossii, p=ˈdalʲnʲɪj vɐˈstok rɐˈsʲiɪ) is a region in . It is the easternmost part of and the n continent; and is administered as part of the , w ...

Russian Far East
. According to this definition, Siberia extended eastward from the
Ural Mountains The Ural Mountains (; rus, Ура́льские го́ры, r=Uralskiye gory, p=ʊˈralʲskʲɪjə ˈgorɨ; ba, Урал тауҙары, ''Ural tauźarı'') or simply the Urals, are a mountain range that runs approximately from north to south ...
to the Pacific coast, and southward from the Arctic Ocean to the border of Central Asia and the national borders of both Mongolia and China. Soviet-era sources (''Great Soviet Encyclopedia'' and others)Сибирь — Большая советская энциклопедия
(The ''Great Soviet Encyclopedia'', in Russian)
and modern Russian ones usually define Siberia as a region extending eastward from the Ural Mountains to the drainage divide, watershed between Pacific Ocean, Pacific and Arctic Ocean, Arctic drainage basins, and southward from the Arctic Ocean to the hills of north-central
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan ( kk, Қазақстан, Qazaqstan; russian: Казахстан, Kazakhstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan,; russian: Республика Казахстан, Respublika Kazakhstan, link=no) is a country located mainly in ...

Kazakhstan
and the national borders of both Mongolia and China. By this definition, Siberia includes the Federal subjects of Russia, federal subjects of the Siberian Federal District, and some of the Ural Federal District, as well as Sakha Republic, Sakha (Yakutia) Republic, which is a part of the Far Eastern Federal District. Geographically, this definition includes subdivisions of several other subjects of Urals and Far Eastern federal districts, but they are not included administratively. This definition excludes Sverdlovsk Oblast and Chelyabinsk Oblast, both of which are included in some wider definitions of Siberia. Other sources may use either a somewhat wider definition that states the Pacific coast, not the watershed, is the eastern boundary (thus including the whole Russian Far East), as well as all Northern
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan ( kk, Қазақстан, Qazaqstan; russian: Казахстан, Kazakhstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan,; russian: Республика Казахстан, Respublika Kazakhstan, link=no) is a country located mainly in ...

Kazakhstan
is its subregion in the south-west or a somewhat narrower one that limits Siberia to the Siberian Federal District (thus excluding all subjects of other districts). In Russian, the word for Siberia is used as a substitute for the name of the federal district by those who live in the district itself and less commonly used to denote the federal district by people residing outside of it.


Major cities

The most populous city of Siberia, as well as the third most populous city of Russia, is the city of
Novosibirsk Novosibirsk (, also ; rus, Новосиби́рск, p=nəvəsʲɪˈbʲirsk, a=ru-Новосибирск.ogg) is the largest city and administrative centre of Novosibirsk Oblast and Siberian Federal District in Russia. It has a population of&n ...
. Present-day Novosibirsk is an important business, science, manufacturing and cultural center of the Asian part of Russia.
Omsk Omsk (; rus, Омск, p=omsk) is the administrative centerAn administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local government, or a county town, or the place where the central administration of a Township, commune is located. In ...
is historic capital of Siberia and currently its second-largest city. It played an important role in the Russian Civil War serving as a provisional Russian capital, as well in the expansion into and governing of Russian conquest of Central Asia, Central Asia. In addition to its cultural status, it has become a major oil-refining, education, transport and agriculture hub. Other historic cities of Siberia include
Tobolsk Tobolsk (russian: Тобо́льск, sty, Pîcek-tora) is a types of inhabited localities in Russia, town in Tyumen Oblast, Russia, located at the confluence of the Tobol River, Tobol and Irtysh River, Irtysh rivers. Founded in 1590, Tobolsk is ...

Tobolsk
(the first capital and the only Tobolsk Kremlin, kremlin in Siberia), Tomsk (formerly a wealthy merchant's town) and Irkutsk (former seat of Eastern Siberia's governor general, near lake Baikal). Other major cities include: Barnaul, Kemerovo, Krasnoyarsk, Novokuznetsk, Tyumen. Wider definitions of geographic Siberia also include the cities of: Chelyabinsk and Yekaterinburg in the Urals, Khabarovsk and Vladivostok in the Russian Far East, and even Petropavlovsk in Kazakhstan and Harbin in China.


Economy

Novosibirsk Novosibirsk (, also ; rus, Новосиби́рск, p=nəvəsʲɪˈbʲirsk, a=ru-Новосибирск.ogg) is the largest city and administrative centre of Novosibirsk Oblast and Siberian Federal District in Russia. It has a population of&n ...
is the largest by population and the most important city for the Siberian economy; with an extra boost since 2000 when it was designated a regional center for the executive bureaucracy (Siberian Federal District).
Omsk Omsk (; rus, Омск, p=omsk) is the administrative centerAn administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local government, or a county town, or the place where the central administration of a Township, commune is located. In ...
is a historic and currently the second largest city in the region, and since 1950s hosting Russia's largest oil refinery. Siberia is extraordinarily rich in minerals, containing ores of almost all economically valuable metals. It has some of the world's largest deposits of Norilsk#Norilsk-Talnakh nickel deposits, nickel, gold, lead, coal, molybdenum, gypsum, diamonds, diopside, silver and zinc, as well as extensive unexploited resources of oil and natural gas. Around 70% of Russia's developed List of oil fields, oil fields are in the Khanty-Mansiysk region. Russia contains about 40% of the world's known resources of nickel at the
Norilsk Norilsk ( rus, Нори́льск, p=nɐˈrʲilʲsk, ''Norílʹsk'') is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Soci ...

Norilsk
deposit in Siberia. Norilsk Nickel is the world's biggest nickel and palladium producer. Siberian agriculture is severely restricted by the short growing season of most of the region. However, in the southwest where soils are exceedingly fertile black earths and the climate is a little more moderate, there is extensive cropping of wheat, barley, rye and potatoes, along with the grazing of large numbers of sheep and cattle. Elsewhere food production, owing to the poor fertility of the podzolic soils and the extremely short growing seasons, is restricted to the herding of Reindeer herding, reindeer in the tundra—which has been practiced by natives for over 10,000 years. Siberia has the world's largest forests. Timber remains an important source of revenue, even though many forests in the east have been logged much more rapidly than they are able to recover. The Sea of Okhotsk is one of the two or three richest fisheries in the world owing to its cold currents and very large tide, tidal ranges, and thus Siberia produces over 10% of the world's annual fish catch, although fishing has declined somewhat since the collapse of the USSR in 1991. Reported in 2009, the development of renewable energy in Russia is held back by the lack of a conducive government policy framework, , Siberia still offers special opportunities for off-grid renewable energy developments. Remote parts of Siberia are too costly to connect to central electricity and gas grids, and have therefore historically been supplied with costly diesel, sometimes flown in by helicopter. In such cases renewable energy is often cheaper.


Sport

Professional football teams include FC Tom Tomsk, FC Novosibirsk, and FK Yenisey Krasnoyarsk. The BC Yenisey Krasnoyarsk, Yenisey Krasnoyarsk basketball team has played in the VTB United League since 2011–12. Russia's third most popular sport, bandy, is important in Siberia. In the 2015–16 Russian Bandy Super League, 2015–16 Russian Bandy Super League season Yenisey Krasnoyarsk Bandy Club, Yenisey from Krasnoyarsk became champions for the third year in a row by beating Baykal-Energiya from Irkutsk in the final. Two or three more teams (depending on the definition of Siberia) play in the Super League, the 2016–17 Russian Bandy Super League, 2016–17 champions SKA-Neftyanik Khabarovsk, SKA-Neftyanik from Khabarovsk (disambiguation), Khabarovsk as well as Kuzbass Kemerovo Bandy Club, Kuzbass from Kemerovo and Sibselmash from
Novosibirsk Novosibirsk (, also ; rus, Новосиби́рск, p=nəvəsʲɪˈbʲirsk, a=ru-Новосибирск.ogg) is the largest city and administrative centre of Novosibirsk Oblast and Siberian Federal District in Russia. It has a population of&n ...
. In 2007 Kemerovo got Russia's first indoor arena specifically built for bandy. Now Khabarovsk has the world's largest indoor arena specifically built for bandy, Arena Yerofey. It was venue for Division A of the 2018 Bandy World Championship, 2018 World Championship. In time for the 2020 Bandy World Championship, 2020 World Championship, an indoor arena will be ready for use in Irkutsk. That one will also have a speed skating rink, speed skating oval. The 2019 Winter Universiade was hosted by Krasnoyarsk.


Demographics

According to the Russian Census (2010), Russian Census of 2010, the Siberian Federal District, Siberian and Far Eastern Federal District, Far Eastern Federal Districts, located entirely east of the
Ural Mountains The Ural Mountains (; rus, Ура́льские го́ры, r=Uralskiye gory, p=ʊˈralʲskʲɪjə ˈgorɨ; ba, Урал тауҙары, ''Ural tauźarı'') or simply the Urals, are a mountain range that runs approximately from north to south ...
, together have a population of about 25.6 million. Tyumen Oblast, Tyumen and Kurgan Oblast, Kurgan Oblasts, which are geographically in Siberia but administratively part of the Urals Federal District, together have a population of about 4.3 million. Thus, the whole region of Siberia (in the broadest usage of the term) is home to approximately 30 million people. It has a population density of about three people per square kilometre. The largest ethnic group in Siberia is Slavic-origin Russians, including their sub-ethnic group Siberians, and russified Ukrainians in Siberia, Ukrainians. There are also other groups of indigenous Siberian and non-indigenous ethnic origin. A minority of the current population are descendants of Mongol or Turkic people (Buryats, Yakuts) or northern indigenous people. The largest non-Slavic groups are the Volga Germans and Russified Romanians with ancestral origins in Bessarabia (present-day Moldova). The original indigenous groups of Siberia, including Mongol and Turkic peoples, Turkic groups such as Buryats, Tuvinians and Siberian Tatars, are minorities outnumbered by all other non-indigenous Siberians. Indeed, Slavic-origin Russians by themselves outnumber all of the indigenous peoples combined, both in Siberia as a whole and its cities, except in the Republics of Tuva and Sakha . Slavic-origin Russians make up the majority in the Buryat and Altai Republics, outnumbering indigenous Buryats and Altai people, Altai. The Buryat make up only 30% of their own republic, and the Altai each are only one-third, and the Chukchi, Evenks, Evenk, Khanty people, Khanti, Mansi people, Mansi, and Nenets are outnumbered by non-indigenous peoples by 90% of the population. According to the 2002 census there are 500,000 Siberian Tatars, Tatars in Siberia, but of these, 300,000 are Volga Tatars who also settled in Siberia during periods of colonization and are thus also non-indigenous Siberians, in contrast to the 200,000 Siberian Tatars which are indigenous to Siberia. Of the indigenous Siberians, the Mongol-speaking Buryats, numbering approximately 500,000, are the most numerous group in Siberia, and they are mainly concentrated in their homeland, the Buryatia, Buryat Republic. According to the Demographics of Russia#Ethnic groups, 2010 census there were 478,085 indigenous Turkic-speaking Yakuts. Other ethnic groups indigenous to Siberia include Ket people, Kets, Evenks, Chukchis, Koryaks, Yupik peoples, Yupiks, and Yukaghirs. About seventy percent of Siberia's people live in cities, mainly in apartments. Many people also live in rural areas, in simple, spacious, log houses.
Novosibirsk Novosibirsk (, also ; rus, Новосиби́рск, p=nəvəsʲɪˈbʲirsk, a=ru-Новосибирск.ogg) is the largest city and administrative centre of Novosibirsk Oblast and Siberian Federal District in Russia. It has a population of&n ...
is the largest city in Siberia, with a population of about 1.6 million.
Tobolsk Tobolsk (russian: Тобо́льск, sty, Pîcek-tora) is a types of inhabited localities in Russia, town in Tyumen Oblast, Russia, located at the confluence of the Tobol River, Tobol and Irtysh River, Irtysh rivers. Founded in 1590, Tobolsk is ...

Tobolsk
, Tomsk, Tyumen, Krasnoyarsk, Irkutsk, and
Omsk Omsk (; rus, Омск, p=omsk) is the administrative centerAn administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local government, or a county town, or the place where the central administration of a Township, commune is located. In ...
are the older, historical centers.


Religion

There are a variety of beliefs throughout Siberia, including Eastern Orthodox Church, Orthodox Christianity, other denominations of Christianity, Tibetan Buddhism and Islam. The Siberian Federal District alone has an estimation of 250,000 Muslims. An estimated 70,000 History of the Jews in Russia and the Soviet Union, Jews live in Siberia, some in the Jewish Autonomous Region. The predominant religious group is the Russian Orthodox Church. Tradition regards Siberia the archetypal home of shamanism, and polytheism is popular.Hoppál 2005:13 These native sacred practices are considered by the tribes to be very ancient. There are records of Siberian tribal healing practices dating back to the 13th century. The vast territory of Siberia has many different local traditions of gods. These include: Ak Ana, Anapel, Bugady Musun, Kayra, Kara Khan, Khaltesh-Anki, Kini'je, Ku'urkil, Nga (god), Nga, Nu'tenut, Num-Torum, Yukaghir Pon, Pon, Pugu (deity), Pugu, Todote, Toko'yoto, Tomam, Xaya Iccita and Zonget. Places with sacred areas include Olkhon, an island in
Lake Baikal Lake Baikal (; russian: Oзеро Байкал, Ozero Baykal ; bua, Байгал далай, Baigal dalai; mn, Байгал нуур, Baigal nuur) is a rift lake A rift lake is a lake A lake is an area filled with water, localized i ...

Lake Baikal
.


Transport

Many cities in northern Siberia, such as Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, cannot be reached by road, as there are virtually none connecting from other major cities in Russia or Asia. Siberia can be reached through the
Trans-Siberian Railway The Trans–Siberian Railway (TSR) ( rus, Транссибирская магистраль, r=Transsibirskaya magistral', p=trənsʲsʲɪˈbʲirskəjə məgʲɪˈstralʲ) is a network of railways connecting Moscow Moscow (, ; rus, links=no ...
. The Trans-Siberian Railway operates from Moscow in the west to Vladivostok in the east. Cities that are located far from the railway are reached by air or by the separate Baikal–Amur Mainline, Baikal–Amur Railway (BAM).


Culture


Cuisine

Stroganina is a raw fish dish of the indigenous people of northern Arctic Siberia made from raw, thin, long-sliced frozen fish. It is a popular dish with native Siberians. Siberia is also known for its pelmeni dumpling; which in the winter are traditionally frozen and stored outdoors. In addition, there are various berry, nut and mushroom dishes making use of the riches of abundant nature.


See also

*Siberian regionalism


References


Bibliography

* * * * * Nicholas B. Breyfogle, Abby Schrader and Willard Sunderland (eds), ''Peopling the Russian Periphery: Borderland Colonization in Eurasian history'' (London, Routledge, 2007). * * * James Forsyth, ''A History of the Peoples of Siberia: Russia's North Asian Colony, 1581–1990'' (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1994). * * Steven G. Marks, ''Road to Power: The Trans-Siberian Railroad and the Colonization of Asian Russia, 1850–1917'' (London, I.B. Tauris, 1991). * * Igor V. Naumov, ''The History of Siberia''. Edited by David Collins (London, Routledge, 2009) (Routledge Studies in the History of Russia and Eastern Europe). * * * * Alan Wood (ed.), ''The History of Siberia: From Russian Conquest to Revolution'' (London, Routledge, 1991). * * {{Authority control Siberia, North Asia Eurasian Steppe Geography of Russia Regions of Russia Geography of Kazakhstan