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The Scottish National Party (SNP; sco, Scots National Pairty, gd, Pàrtaidh Nàiseanta na h-Alba ) is a Scottish nationalist and
social democratic Social democracy is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other forms of power relations among individuals, such as the distribution of resources or status. ...
political party in Scotland. The SNP supports and campaigns for Scottish independence from the United Kingdom and for membership of the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a supranational union, supranational political union, political and economic union of Member state of the European Union, member states that are located primarily in Europe, Europe. The union has a total area of ...

European Union
, with a platform based on
civic nationalism Civic nationalism, also known as liberal nationalism, is a form of nationalism Nationalism is an idea and movement that holds that the nation should be congruent with the State (polity), state. As a movement, nationalism tends to promo ...
. The SNP is the largest political party in
Scotland Scotland (, ) is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. Covering the northern third of the island of Great Britain, mainland Scotland has a Anglo-Scottish border, border with England to the southeast ...

Scotland
, where it has the most seats in the
Scottish Parliament The Scottish Parliament ( gd, Pàrlamaid na h-Alba ; sco, Scots Pairlament) is the devolution in the United Kingdom, devolved, unicameralism, unicameral legislature of Scotland. Located in the Holyrood, Edinburgh, Holyrood area of the capital ...

Scottish Parliament
and 45 out of the 59 Scottish seats in the
House of Commons The House of Commons is the name for the elected lower house of the bicameral parliaments of the United Kingdom and Canada. In both of these countries, the Commons holds much more legislative power than the nominally upper house of parliament. T ...

House of Commons
at
Westminster Westminster is an area of Central London, part of the wider City of Westminster. The area, which extends from the River Thames to Oxford Street, has many Tourism in London, visitor attractions and historic landmarks, including the Palace of W ...
, and it is the third-largest political party by membership in the United Kingdom, behind the Labour Party and the Conservative Party. The current Scottish National Party leader,
Nicola Sturgeon Nicola Ferguson Sturgeon (born 19 July 1970) is a Scottish politician serving as First Minister of Scotland and Leader of the Scottish National Party (SNP) since 2014 Scottish National Party leadership election, 2014. She is the first woman ...

Nicola Sturgeon
, has served as First Minister of Scotland since 20 November 2014. Founded in 1934 with the amalgamation of the National Party of Scotland and the Scottish Party, the party has had continuous parliamentary representation in Westminster since Winnie Ewing won the 1967 Hamilton by-election. With the establishment of the devolved Scottish Parliament in 1999, the SNP became the second-largest party, serving two terms as the opposition. The SNP gained power under
Alex Salmond Alexander Elliot Anderson Salmond (; born 31 December 1954) is a Scottish politician and economist who served as First Minister of Scotland from 2007 File:2007 Events Collage.png, From top left, clockwise: Steve Jobs unveils Apple Inc., Appl ...

Alex Salmond
at the
2007 Scottish Parliament election The 2007 Scottish Parliament election was held on Thursday 3 May 2007 to elect members to the Scottish Parliament. It was the third general election to the devolved Scottish Parliament since it was created in 1999. 2007 Scottish local elections, ...
, forming a
minority government A minority government, minority cabinet, minority administration, or a minority parliament is a government and cabinet formed in a parliamentary system when a political party or coalition of parties does not have a majority of overall seats ...
, before going on to win the 2011 Parliament election, after which it formed 's first
majority government A majority government is a government by one or more Ruling party, governing parties that hold an absolute majority of seats in a legislature. This is as opposed to a minority government, where the largest party in a legislature only has a Plurali ...
. After Scotland voted against independence in the 2014 referendum, Salmond resigned and was succeeded by Sturgeon. The SNP was reduced back to being a minority government at the 2016 election. In the 2021 election, the SNP gained one seat and entered a power-sharing agreement with the
Scottish Greens The Scottish Greens (also known as the Scottish Green Party; gd, Pàrtaidh Uaine na h-Alba ; sco, Scots Green Pairtie) are a green Green is the color Color (American English) or colour (British English) is the visual percepti ...
. The SNP is the largest political party in Scotland in terms of both seats in the Westminster and Holyrood parliaments, and membership, reaching 125,691 members as of March 2021, 45
Members of Parliament A member of parliament (MP) is the representative in parliament of the people who live in their electoral district. In many countries with Bicameralism, bicameral parliaments, this term refers only to members of the lower house since upper house ...
(MPs), 64
Members of the Scottish Parliament Member of the Scottish Parliament (MSP; gd, Ball Pàrlamaid na h-Alba, BPA; sco, Memmer o the Scots Pairliament, MSP) is the title given to any one of the 129 individuals elected to serve in the Scottish Parliament. Electoral system The addi ...
(MSPs) and over 450 local councillors. The SNP is a member of the
European Free Alliance The European Free Alliance (EFA) is a European political party that consists of various Regionalism (politics), regionalist, Separatism, separatist and Ethnic group, ethnic political parties of minorities, minority political parties in Europe. ...

European Free Alliance
(EFA). The party does not have any members of the
House of Lords The House of Lords, also known as the House of Peers, is the Bicameralism, upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Membership is by Life peer, appointment, Hereditary peer, heredity or Lords Spiritual, official function. Like the ...

House of Lords
, as it has always maintained a position of objecting to an unelected upper house.


History


Foundation and early breakthroughs (1934–1970)

The SNP was formed in 1934 through the merger of the National Party of Scotland and the Scottish Party, with the
Duke of Montrose Duke of Montrose (named for Montrose, Angus) is a title that has been created twice in the Peerage of Scotland. The title was created anew in 1707, for James Graham, 1st Duke of Montrose, James Graham, 4th Marquess of Montrose, great-grandson o ...
and as its first, joint, presidents. Sir Alexander MacEwen was its first chairman. The party was divided on its approach to the Second World War. Professor Douglas Young, who was SNP leader from 1942 to 1945, campaigned for the Scottish people to refuse
conscription Conscription (also called the draft in the United States) is the state-mandated enlistment of people in a national service, mainly a military service. Conscription dates back to Ancient history, antiquity and it continues in some countries to th ...

conscription
and his activities were popularly vilified as undermining the British war effort against the
Axis powers The Axis powers, ; it, Potenze dell'Asse ; ja, 枢軸国 ''Sūjikukoku'', group=nb originally called the Rome–Berlin Axis, was a military coalition that initiated World War II and fought against the Allies of World War II, Allies. Its p ...
. Young was imprisoned for refusing to be conscripted. However, others in the party were explicitly pro-Nazi.
Hugh MacDiarmid Christopher Murray Grieve (11 August 1892 – 9 September 1978), best known by his pen name Hugh MacDiarmid (), was a Scottish poet, journalist, essayist and political figure. He is considered one of the principal forces behind the Scottish Rena ...
, who stood as an SNP candidate in 1945, believed that the Nazis were "less dangerous than our own government" and wrote a poem about the
London Blitz The Blitz was a German bombing campaign against the United Kingdom in 1940 and 1941, during the World War II, Second World War. The term was first used by the British press and originated from the term , the German word meaning 'lightning wa ...
that included the line "I hardly care". Arthur Donaldson, who went on to lead the party between 1961 and 1969, believed a Nazi invasion would benefit Scotland:
"The government would leave the country and England's position would be absolutely hopeless, as poverty and famine would be their only reward for declaring war on Germany. Scotland, on the other hand, had great possibilities."
The party suffered its first split during this period with John MacCormick leaving the party in 1942, owing to his failure to change the party's policy from supporting all-out independence to
Home Rule Home rule is government of a colony, dependent country, or region by its own citizens. It is thus the power of a part (administrative division) of a State (polity), state or an external dependent country to exercise such of the state's powers o ...
at that year's conference in Glasgow. McCormick went on to form the
Scottish Covenant Association The Scottish Covenant Association was a non-partisan political organisation in Scotland Scotland (, ) is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. Covering the northern third of the island of Great Bri ...
, a non-partisan political organisation campaigning for the establishment of a devolved Scottish Assembly. However, wartime conditions also enabled the SNP's first parliamentary success at the Motherwell by-election in 1945, but Robert McIntyre MP lost the seat at the
general election A general election is a political voting election where generally all or most members of a given political body are chosen. These are usually held for a nation, state, or territory's primary legislative body, and are different from by-election ...
three months later. The 1950s were characterised by similarly low levels of support, and this made it difficult for the party to advance. Indeed, in most general elections they were unable to put up more than a handful of candidates. The 1960s, however, offered more electoral successes, with candidates polling credibly at Glasgow Bridgeton in 1961,
West Lothian West Lothian ( sco, Wast Lowden; gd, Lodainn an Iar) is one of the 32 council areas of Scotland, and was one of its shires of Scotland, historic counties. The county was called Linlithgowshire until 1925. The historic county was bounded geogra ...
in 1962 and Glasgow Pollok in 1967. Indeed, this foreshadowed Winnie Ewing's surprise victory in a by-election at the previously safe Labour seat of Hamilton. This brought the SNP to national prominence, leading to the establishment of the Kilbrandon Commission.


Becoming a notable force (1970s)

Despite this breakthrough, the 1970 general election was to prove a disappointment for the party as, despite an increase in vote share, Ewing failed to retain her seat in Hamilton. The party did receive some consolation with the capture of the
Western Isles The Outer Hebrides () or Western Isles ( gd, Na h-Eileanan Siar or or ("islands of the strangers"); sco, Waster Isles), sometimes known as the Long Isle/Long Island ( gd, An t-Eilean Fada, links=no), is an Archipelago, island chain off t ...
, making Donald Stewart the party's only MP. This was to be the case until the 1973 by-election at Glasgow Govan where a hitherto safe Labour seat was claimed by Margo MacDonald. 1974 was to prove something of an ''
annus mirabilis ''Annus mirabilis'' (pl. ''anni mirabiles'') is a Latin phrase that means "marvelous year", "wonderful year", "miraculous year", or "amazing year". This term has been used to refer to several years during which events of major importance are rem ...
'' for the party as it deployed its highly effective '' It's Scotland's oil'' campaign. The SNP gained 6 seats at the February general election before hitting a high point in the October re-run, polling almost a third of all votes in Scotland and returning 11 MPs to Westminster. Furthermore, during that year's local elections the party claimed overall control of Cumbernauld and Kilsyth. This success was to continue for much of the decade, and at the 1977 district elections the SNP saw victories at councils including
East Kilbride East Kilbride (; gd, Cille Bhrìghde an Ear ) is the largest town in South Lanarkshire in Scotland and the country's List of towns and cities in Scotland by population, sixth-largest locality by population. It was also designated Scotland's firs ...
and
Falkirk Falkirk ( gd, An Eaglais Bhreac, sco, Fawkirk) is a large town in the Central Lowlands of Scotland, historically within the county of Stirlingshire. It lies in the Forth Valley, northwest of Edinburgh and northeast of Glasgow. Falkirk had a ...
and held the balance of power in
Glasgow Glasgow ( ; sco, Glesca or ; gd, Glaschu ) is the most populous city A city is a human settlement of notable size.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ' ...
. However, this level of support was not to last and by 1978 Labour revival was evident at three by-elections ( Glasgow Garscadden, Hamilton and Berwick and East Lothian) as well as the regional elections. This was to culminate when the party experienced a large drop in its support at the 1979 general election, precipitated by the party bringing down the incumbent Labour minority government following the controversial failure of that year's devolution referendum. Reduced to just 2 MPs, the successes of October 1974 were not to be surpassed until the 2015 general election. In 1979 the party's MPs supported
Margaret Thatcher Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher (; 13 October 19258 April 2013) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and Leader of the Conservative Party (UK), Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990. S ...

Margaret Thatcher
's Motion of No Confidence in
James Callaghan Leonard James Callaghan, Baron Callaghan of Cardiff, ( ; 27 March 191226 March 2005), commonly known as Jim Callaghan, was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1976 to 1979 and Leader of the Labour Party (UK), Leader of the Labour Party ...

James Callaghan
's Labour Government, with the motion carried by 311 votes to 310. Callaghan taunted the party that they were like “the turkeys who voted for Christmas” and the party went on to lose all but two of its seats in the subsequent election that ushered in 18 years of Tory rule.


Factional divisions and infighting (1980s)

Following this defeat, a period of internal strife occurred within the party, culminating with the formation of two internal groups: the ultranationalist Siol nan Gaidheal and left-wing
79 Group The 79 Group was a faction within the Scottish National Party (SNP), named after its year of formation, 1979. The group sought to persuade the SNP to take an active left-wing stance, arguing that it would win more support, and were highly critic ...
. Traditionalists within the party, centred around Winnie Ewing, by this time an MEP, responded by establishing the Campaign for Nationalism in Scotland which sought to ensure that the primary objective of the SNP was campaigning for independence without a traditional left-right orientation, even though this would have undone the work of figures such as , who developed a clearly
social democratic Social democracy is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other forms of power relations among individuals, such as the distribution of resources or status. ...
policy platform throughout the 1970s. These events ensured the success of a leadership motion at the party's annual conference of 1982, in Ayr, despite the 79 Group being bolstered by the merger of Jim Sillars' Scottish Labour Party (SLP) although this influx of ex-SLP members further shifted the characteristics of the party leftwards. Despite this, traditionalist figure Gordon Wilson remained party leader through the electoral disappointments of
1983 The year 1983 saw both the official beginning of the Internet and the first mobile cellular telephone call. Events January * January 1 – The migration of the ARPANET to Internet protocol suite, TCP/IP is officially completed (this is consid ...
and
1987 File:1987 Events Collage.png, From top left, clockwise: The MS Herald of Free Enterprise capsizes after leaving the Port of Zeebrugge in Belgium, killing 193; Northwest Airlines Flight 255 crashes after takeoff from Detroit Metropolitan Airport, k ...
, where he lost his own Dundee East seat won 13 years prior. Through this period, Sillars' influence in the party grew, developing a clear socio-economic platform including ''Independence in Europe,'' reversing the SNP's previous opposition to membership of the which had been unsuccessful in a 1975 referendum. This position was enhanced further by Sillars reclaiming Glasgow Govan in a
by-election A by-election, also known as a special election in the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in No ...
in 1988. Despite this moderation, the party did not join Labour, the Scottish Liberal Democrats, Liberal Democrats and the Scottish Greens, Greens as well as civil society in the Scottish Constitutional Convention which developed a blueprint for a devolved
Scottish Parliament The Scottish Parliament ( gd, Pàrlamaid na h-Alba ; sco, Scots Pairlament) is the devolution in the United Kingdom, devolved, unicameralism, unicameral legislature of Scotland. Located in the Holyrood, Edinburgh, Holyrood area of the capital ...

Scottish Parliament
due to the unwillingness of the convention to discuss independence as a constitutional option.


First Salmond era (1990s)

Alex Salmond Alexander Elliot Anderson Salmond (; born 31 December 1954) is a Scottish politician and economist who served as First Minister of Scotland from 2007 File:2007 Events Collage.png, From top left, clockwise: Steve Jobs unveils Apple Inc., Appl ...

Alex Salmond
had been elected MP for Banff and Buchan (UK Parliament constituency), Banff and Buchan in 1987, after the re-admittance of 79 Group members, and was able to seize the party leadership after Wilson's resignation in 1990 Scottish National Party leadership election, 1990 after a contest with Margaret Ewing. This was a surprise victory as Ewing had the backing of much of the party establishment, including Sillars and then-Party Secretary John Swinney. The defection of Labour MP Dick Douglas further evidenced the party's clear left-wing positioning, particularly regarding opposition to the Poll tax (Great Britain), poll tax. Despite this, Salmond's leadership was unable to avert a fourth successive general election disappointment in 1992 United Kingdom general election, 1992 with the party reduced back from 5 to 3 MPs. The mid-90s offered some successes for the party, with North East Scotland (European Parliament constituency), North East Scotland being gained at the 1994 European Parliament election in the United Kingdom, 1994 European elections and the party securing a 1995 Perth and Kinross by-election, by-election at Perth and Kinross (UK Parliament constituency), Perth and Kinross in 1995 after a near-miss at 1994 Monklands East by-election, Monklands East the previous year. 1997 offered the party's most successful 1997 United Kingdom general election, general election for 23 years, although in the face of the Labour landslide the party was unable to match either of the two 1974 elections. That September, the party joined with the members of the Scottish Constitutional Convention in the successful Yes-Yes campaign in the 1997 Scottish devolution referendum, devolution referendum which lead to the establishment of a
Scottish Parliament The Scottish Parliament ( gd, Pàrlamaid na h-Alba ; sco, Scots Pairlament) is the devolution in the United Kingdom, devolved, unicameralism, unicameral legislature of Scotland. Located in the Holyrood, Edinburgh, Holyrood area of the capital ...

Scottish Parliament
with tax-varying powers. By 1999, the 1999 Scottish Parliament election, first elections to the parliament were being held, although the party suffered a disappointing result, gaining just 35 MSPs in the face of Salmond's unpopular 'Kosovo Broadcast' which opposed NATO intervention in Kosovo, NATO intervention in the country.


Opposing Labour-Liberal Democrat coalitions (1999–2007)

This meant that the party began as the official opposition in the parliament to a Dewar government, Labour-Liberal Democrat coalition government. Salmond found the move to a more consensual politics difficult and sought a return to Westminster, resigning the leadership in 2000 Scottish National Party leadership election, 2000 with John Swinney, like Salmond a Fundamentalists and gradualists, gradualist, victorious in the ensuring leadership election. Swinney's leadership proved ineffectual, with a loss of one MP in 2001 United Kingdom general election, 2001 and a further reduction to 27 MSPs in 2003 Scottish Parliament election, 2003 despite the Officegate scandal unseating previous First Minister of Scotland, First Minister Henry McLeish. However, the only parties to gain seats in that election were the
Scottish Greens The Scottish Greens (also known as the Scottish Green Party; gd, Pàrtaidh Uaine na h-Alba ; sco, Scots Green Pairtie) are a green Green is the color Color (American English) or colour (British English) is the visual percepti ...
and the Scottish Socialist Party, Scottish Socialist Party (SSP) which like the SNP support independence. Following an unsuccessful 2003 Scottish National Party leadership election, leadership challenge in 2003, Swinney stepped down following disappointing results in the 2004 European Parliament election in the United Kingdom, European elections of 2004 with Salmond victorious in the 2004 Scottish National Party leadership election, subsequent leadership contest despite initially refusing to be candidate.
Nicola Sturgeon Nicola Ferguson Sturgeon (born 19 July 1970) is a Scottish politician serving as First Minister of Scotland and Leader of the Scottish National Party (SNP) since 2014 Scottish National Party leadership election, 2014. She is the first woman ...

Nicola Sturgeon
was elected Depute Leader and became the party's leader in the Scottish Parliament until Salmond was able to return at the next parliamentary election.


Salmond governments (2007–2014)

In 2007 Scottish Parliament election, 2007, the SNP emerged as the largest party in the Scottish Parliament with 47 of 129 seats, narrowly ousting Scottish Labour with 46 seats and
Alex Salmond Alexander Elliot Anderson Salmond (; born 31 December 1954) is a Scottish politician and economist who served as First Minister of Scotland from 2007 File:2007 Events Collage.png, From top left, clockwise: Steve Jobs unveils Apple Inc., Appl ...

Alex Salmond
becoming First Minister of Scotland, First Minister after ousting the Liberal Democrats in Gordon (Scottish Parliament constituency), Gordon. The
Scottish Greens The Scottish Greens (also known as the Scottish Green Party; gd, Pàrtaidh Uaine na h-Alba ; sco, Scots Green Pairtie) are a green Green is the color Color (American English) or colour (British English) is the visual percepti ...
supported Salmond's election as First Minister, and his subsequent appointments of ministers, in return for early tabling of the Climate Change (Scotland) Act 2009, climate change bill and the SNP nominating a Green MSP to chair a parliamentary committee. Despite this, Salmond's minority government tended to strike budget deals with the Scottish Conservatives, Conservatives to stay in office. In 2011 Scottish Parliament election, May 2011, the SNP won an overall majority in the Scottish Parliament with 69 seats. This was a significant feat as the Additional member system used for Scottish Parliament elections was specifically designed to prevent one party from winning an outright majority. This was followed by a reverse in the party's previous opposition to NATO membership at the party's annual conference in 2012 despite Salmond's refusal to apologise for the Kosovo broadcast on the occasion of the 2008 Kosovo declaration of independence, Kosovo Declaration of Independence. This majority enabled the SNP government to hold a 2014 Scottish independence referendum, referendum on Scottish independence in 2014. The "No" vote prevailed in a close-fought campaign, prompting the resignation of First Minister
Alex Salmond Alexander Elliot Anderson Salmond (; born 31 December 1954) is a Scottish politician and economist who served as First Minister of Scotland from 2007 File:2007 Events Collage.png, From top left, clockwise: Steve Jobs unveils Apple Inc., Appl ...

Alex Salmond
. Forty-five percent of Scottish voters cast their ballots for independence, with the "Yes" side receiving less support than late polling predicted. Exit polling by Lord Ashcroft suggested that many No voters thought independence too risky, while others voted for the Union because of their emotional attachment to Britain. Older voters, women and middle class voters voted no in margins above the national average. Following the Yes campaign's defeat, Salmond resigned and
Nicola Sturgeon Nicola Ferguson Sturgeon (born 19 July 1970) is a Scottish politician serving as First Minister of Scotland and Leader of the Scottish National Party (SNP) since 2014 Scottish National Party leadership election, 2014. She is the first woman ...

Nicola Sturgeon
won that 2014 Scottish National Party leadership election, year's leadership election unopposed.


Sturgeon years (2014 onwards)

The SNP rebounded from their loss at the independence referendum at the 2015 United Kingdom general election, 2015 UK general election eight months later, led by former Depute Leader
Nicola Sturgeon Nicola Ferguson Sturgeon (born 19 July 1970) is a Scottish politician serving as First Minister of Scotland and Leader of the Scottish National Party (SNP) since 2014 Scottish National Party leadership election, 2014. She is the first woman ...

Nicola Sturgeon
. The party went from holding six seats in the House of Commons to 56, ending 51 years of dominance by the Scottish Labour Party. All but three of the fifty-nine constituencies in the country elected an SNP candidate in the party's most comprehensive electoral victory at any level. At the 2016 Scottish Parliament election, 2016 Scottish election, the SNP lost a net total of 6 seats, losing its overall majority in the Scottish Parliament, but returning for a third consecutive term as a minority government despite gaining an additional 1.1% of the constituency vote, for the party's best-ever result, from the 2011 election however 2.3% of the regional list vote. On the constituency vote, the SNP gained 11 seats from Labour, but lost the Edinburgh Southern (Scottish Parliament constituency), Edinburgh Southern constituency to Labour. The Conservatives and Liberal Democrats each gained two constituency seats from the SNP on 2011 (Aberdeenshire West (Scottish Parliament constituency), Aberdeenshire West and Edinburgh Central (Scottish Parliament constituency), Edinburgh Central for the Conservatives and Edinburgh Western (Scottish Parliament constituency), Edinburgh Western and North East Fife (Scottish Parliament constituency), North East Fife for the Liberal Democrats). This election was followed by the 2016 United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, 2016 European Union referendum after which the SNP joined with the Liberal Democrats (UK), Liberal Democrats and Scottish Greens, Greens to call for continued UK membership of the EU. Despite a consequential increase in the Conservative Party vote at the 2017 Scottish local elections, 2017 local elections the SNP for the first time became the largest party in each of Scotland's four city councils: 2017 Aberdeen City Council election, Aberdeen, 2017 Dundee City Council election, Dundee, 2017 City of Edinburgh Council election, Edinburgh and 2017 Glasgow City Council election, Glasgow, where a Labour administration was ousted after 37 years. At the 2017 United Kingdom general election, 2017 UK general election, the SNP underperformed compared to polling expectations, losing 21 seats to bring their number of Commons seats down to 35 – however this was still the party's second-best result ever at the time. This was largely attributed by many, including former Deputy First Minister John Swinney, to their stance on holding a proposed second Scottish independence referendum, second Scottish independence referendum and saw a swing to the unionist parties, with seats being picked up by the Conservatives, Labour and the Liberal Democrats and a reduction in their majorities in the other seats. Stephen Gethins, MP for North East Fife (UK Parliament constituency), North East Fife, came out of this election with a majority of just two votes to the Liberal Democrat candidate. High-profile losses included SNP Commons leader: Angus Robertson in Moray (UK Parliament constituency), Moray and former SNP leader and First Minister
Alex Salmond Alexander Elliot Anderson Salmond (; born 31 December 1954) is a Scottish politician and economist who served as First Minister of Scotland from 2007 File:2007 Events Collage.png, From top left, clockwise: Steve Jobs unveils Apple Inc., Appl ...

Alex Salmond
in Gordon (UK Parliament constituency), Gordon. The SNP went on to achieve its best-ever European Parliament result 2019 European Parliament election in the United Kingdom, in the final election before Brexit, the party taking its Member of European Parliament, MEP total to 3 or half of Scotland (European Parliament constituency), Scottish seats and achieving a record vote share for the party. This was also the best performance of any party in the era of proportional elections to the European Parliament in Scotland (European Parliament constituency), Scotland. This was suggested as being due to the party's Pro-Europeanism, europhile sentiment during what amounted to a single-issue election, with parties that lacked a clear message performing poorly, such as Labour finishing in fifth place and losing all of their Scottish MEPs for the first time. Later that year, the SNP experienced a surge in support at the 2019 United Kingdom general election, 2019 general election, winning a 45.0% share of the vote and 48 seats, its second-best result ever. Although the party North East Fife (UK Parliament constituency), lost its most marginal seat to Wendy Chamberlain of the Liberal Democrats, it gained the East Dunbartonshire (UK Parliament constituency), seat of then Liberal Democrat leader Jo Swinson, along with 7 from the Conservatives and 6 from Labour. Swinson's loss triggered a leadership contest in the Liberal Democrats as a result. This victory was generally attributed to Sturgeon's cautious approach regarding holding a second independence referendum and a strong emphasis on retaining EU membership during the election campaign. The following January, the strengthened Second Johnson ministry, Conservative government ensured that the UK left the European Union on 31 January 2020. At the 2021 Scottish Parliament election, 2021 Scottish election, the SNP won 64 seats, one seat short of a majority, albeit achieving a record high number of votes, vote share and constituency seats, and leading to another minority government led by the SNP. Sturgeon emphasised after her party's victory that it would focus on controlling the COVID-19 pandemic in Scotland, COVID-19 pandemic as well as pushing for a second referendum on independence. Although in 2021 they won with a minority, a majority of MSPs elected had come from parties that supported Scottish independence, this prompted negotiations started between the SNP and the Scottish Green Party to secure some form of deal that would see Green ministers appointed to government and the
Scottish Greens The Scottish Greens (also known as the Scottish Green Party; gd, Pàrtaidh Uaine na h-Alba ; sco, Scots Green Pairtie) are a green Green is the color Color (American English) or colour (British English) is the visual percepti ...
backing SNP policies, with hopes that this united front on independence would solidify the SNP's mandate for the second independence referendum. The Alba Party, led by former First Minister and SNP leader
Alex Salmond Alexander Elliot Anderson Salmond (; born 31 December 1954) is a Scottish politician and economist who served as First Minister of Scotland from 2007 File:2007 Events Collage.png, From top left, clockwise: Steve Jobs unveils Apple Inc., Appl ...

Alex Salmond
, did not achieve an electoral breakthrough at Holyrood as expected, however they intended to cooperate to create a "super majority" for Scottish independence if elected. The Third Sturgeon government was formed with Green support. In the 2022 Scottish local elections, the SNP remained as the biggest party, winning a record number of councillors and securing majority control of 2022 Dundee City Council election, Dundee.


Constitution and structure

The local Branches are the primary level of organisation in the SNP. All of the Branches within each Scottish Parliament constituency form a Constituency Association, which coordinates the work of the Branches within the constituency, coordinates the activities of the party in the constituency and acts as a point of liaison between an MSP or MP and the party. Constituency Associations are composed of delegates from all of the Branches within the constituency. The annual National Conference is the supreme governing body of the SNP and is responsible for determining party policy and electing the National Executive Committee. The National Conference is composed of: * delegates from every Branch and Constituency Association * the members of the National Executive Committee * every SNP MSP and MP * all SNP councillors * delegates from each of the SNP's Affiliated Organisations (Young Scots for Independence, SNP Students, SNP Trade Union Group, the Association of Nationalist Councillors, the Disabled Members Group, the SNP BAME Network, Scots Asians for Independence, and Out for Independence) There are also regular meetings of the National Assembly, which provides a forum for detailed discussions of party policy by party members.


Membership

The SNP experienced a large surge in membership following the 2014 Scottish independence referendum. In 2013 the party's membership stood at just 20,000, but that number had swelled to over 100,000 by 2015. Annual accounts submitted by the party to the Electoral Commission (United Kingdom), Electoral Commission showed the SNP to have over 119,000 members in 2021. By the end of 2021, the party reported to have 103,884 members.


European affiliation

The SNP retains close links with Plaid Cymru, its counterpart in Wales. UK MPs, MPs from both parties co-operate closely with each other and work as a single parliamentary group within the House of Commons. Both the SNP and Plaid Cymru are members of the
European Free Alliance The European Free Alliance (EFA) is a European political party that consists of various Regionalism (politics), regionalist, Separatism, separatist and Ethnic group, ethnic political parties of minorities, minority political parties in Europe. ...

European Free Alliance
(EFA), a European political party comprising regionalism (politics), regionalist political parties. The EFA co-operates with the larger European Green Party to form The Greens–European Free Alliance (Greens/EFA) group in the European Parliament. Before its affiliation with The Greens–European Free Alliance, the SNP had previously been allied with the European Progressive Democrats (1979–1984), Rainbow Group (1989–1994), Rainbow Group (1989–1994) and European Radical Alliance (1994–1999). As the UK is no longer a member of the EU, the SNP has no MEPs. In the 2019 European Parliament election in the United Kingdom, 2019 European Parliament election, the SNP won 3 out of 6 seats in Scotland (European Parliament constituency), Scotland.


Policies


Ideology

The Scottish National Party did not have a clear ideological position until the 1970s, when it sought to explicitly present itself as a social democratic party in terms of party policy and publicity. During the period from its foundation until the 1960s, the SNP was essentially a moderate centrism, centrist party. Debate within the party focused more on the SNP being distinct as an all-Scotland national movement, with it being neither of the Left-wing politics, left nor the Right-wing politics, right, but constituting a new politics that sought to put Scotland first. The SNP was formed through the merger of the centre-left National Party of Scotland (NPS) and the centre-right Scottish Party. The SNP's founders were united over self-determination in principle, though not its exact nature, or the best strategic means to achieve self-government. From the mid-1940s onwards, SNP policy was Radical politics, radical and Redistribution of income and wealth, redistributionist concerning land and in favour of 'the diffusion of economic power', including the Decentralization, decentralisation of industries such as coal to include the involvement of local authorities and regional planning bodies to control industrial structure and development. Party policies supported the economic and social policy status quo of the post-war Welfare state in the United Kingdom, welfare state. By the 1960s, the SNP was starting to become defined ideologically, with a social democratic tradition emerging as the party grew in urban, industrial Scotland, and its membership experienced an influx of social democrats from the Labour Party, the trade unions and the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament. The emergence of Billy Wolfe (politician), Billy Wolfe as a leading figure in the SNP also contributed to the leftwards shift. By this period, the Labour Party was also the dominant party in Scotland, in terms of electoral support and representation. Targeting Labour through emphasising left-of-centre policies and values was therefore electorally logical for the SNP, as well as tying in with the ideological preferences of many new party members. In 1961, the SNP conference expressed the party's opposition to the siting of the United States, US UGM-27 Polaris, Polaris submarine base at the Holy Loch. This policy was followed in 1963 by a motion opposed to nuclear weapons: a policy that has remained in place ever since. The 1964 policy document, ''SNP & You'', contained a clear centre-left policy platform, including commitments to full employment, government intervention in fuel, power and transport, a state bank to guide economic development, encouragement of cooperatives and credit unions, extensive building of council houses (social housing) by central and local government, pensions adjusted to cost of living, a minimum wage and an improved NHS Scotland, national health service. The 1960s also saw the beginnings of the SNP's efforts to establish an industrial organisation and mobilise amongst trade unionists in Scotland, with the establishment of the SNP Trade Union Group, and identifying the SNP with industrial campaigns, such as the Upper Clyde Shipbuilders, Upper-Clyde Shipbuilders Work-in and the attempt of the workers at the Scottish ''Daily Express'' to run as a co-operative. For the party manifestos for the two 1974 general elections, the SNP finally self-identified as a social democratic party, and proposed a range of social democratic policies. There was also an unsuccessful proposal at the 1975 party conference to rename the party as the ''Scottish National Party (Social Democrats)''. In the UK-wide referendum on Britain's membership of the European Economic Community (EEC) in the same year as the aforementioned attempted name change, the SNP campaigned for Britain to leave the EEC. There were further ideological and internal struggles after 1979, with the
79 Group The 79 Group was a faction within the Scottish National Party (SNP), named after its year of formation, 1979. The group sought to persuade the SNP to take an active left-wing stance, arguing that it would win more support, and were highly critic ...
attempting to move the SNP further to the left, away from being what could be described a "social-democratic" party, to an expressly "Socialism, socialist" party. Members of the 79 Group – including future party leader and First Minister of Scotland, First Minister
Alex Salmond Alexander Elliot Anderson Salmond (; born 31 December 1954) is a Scottish politician and economist who served as First Minister of Scotland from 2007 File:2007 Events Collage.png, From top left, clockwise: Steve Jobs unveils Apple Inc., Appl ...

Alex Salmond
– were expelled from the party. This produced a response in the shape of the Campaign for Nationalism in Scotland from those who wanted the SNP to remain a "broad church", apart from arguments of left vs. right. The 1980s saw the SNP further define itself as a party of the political left, such as campaigning against the introduction of the community charge, poll tax in Scotland in 1989; one year before the tax was imposed on the rest of the UK. Ideological tensions inside the SNP are further complicated by arguments between the so-called SNP gradualists and SNP fundamentalists. In essence, gradualists seek to advance Scotland to independence through further devolution, in a "step-by-step" strategy. They tend to be in the moderate left grouping, though much of the
79 Group The 79 Group was a faction within the Scottish National Party (SNP), named after its year of formation, 1979. The group sought to persuade the SNP to take an active left-wing stance, arguing that it would win more support, and were highly critic ...
was gradualist in approach. However, this 79 Group gradualism was as much a reaction against the fundamentalists of the day, many of whom believed the SNP should not take a clear left or right position.


Economy

During the 1970s the SNP campaigned widely on the political slogan It's Scotland's oil, where it was argued that the discovery of North Sea oil off the coast of Scotland, and the revenue that it created would not benefit Scotland to any significant degree while Scotland remained part of the United Kingdom. The Second Sturgeon government, Sturgeon Government in 2017 adjusted income tax rates so that low earners would pay less and those earning more than £33,000 a year would pay more. Previously the party had replaced the flat rate Stamp duty in the United Kingdom, Stamp Duty with the Land and Buildings Transaction Tax, LBTT, which uses a graduated tax rate. Whilst in government, the party was also responsible for the establishment of Revenue Scotland to administer devolved taxation. Having previously defined itself in opposition to the Poll tax (Great Britain), poll tax the SNP has also championed progressive taxation at a local level. Despite pledging to introduce a Local income tax in Scotland, local income tax the First Salmond government, Salmond Government found itself unable to replace the Council Tax in Scotland, council tax and the party has, particularly since the ending of the council tax freeze under Nicola Sturgeon's leadership, committing to increasing the graduated nature of the tax. Conversely, the party has also supported capping and reducing Business rates in Scotland, Business Rates in an attempt to support small businesses. It has been noted that the party contains a broader spectrum of opinion regarding economic policy than most political parties in the UK due to its status as "the only viable vehicle for Scottish independence", with the party's parliamentary group at Westminster in 2016 including socialists such as Tommy Sheppard (politician), Tommy Sheppard and Mhairi Black, capitalists such as Stewart Hosie and former Conservative, Tasmina Ahmed-Sheikh.


Social justice

When Robin Cook MP moved an amendment to legalise homosexual acts to the Bill which became the Criminal Justice (Scotland) Act 1980, he stated "The clause bears the names of hon. Members from all three major parties. I regret that the only party represented among Scottish Members of Parliament from which there has been no support for the clause is the Scottish National Party. I am pleased to see both representatives of that party in their place, and I hope to convert them in the remainder of my remarks." When the amendment came to a vote, the SNP's MPs Gordon Wilson and Donald Stewart (Scottish politician), Donald Stewart both voted against the decriminalisation of homosexual acts. Under Nicola Sturgeon, Sturgeon's leadership, Scotland was twice in succession named the best country in Europe for LGBT, LGBT+ legal equality. The party is considered very tolerant of gays, lesbians and bisexuals - something that historically was not the case, as stated above. Party policy aims to introduce Transgender rights in the United Kingdom, gender self-identification to allow an easier process of gender recognition for transgender community. However, the policy is highly controversial within the SNP and many of the party's social conservatives have expressed concerns that the reforms would be open to abuse and allow predatory men into women's spaces. The Scottish Government paused the legislation in order to find "maximum consensus" on the issue and commentators described the issue as having divided the SNP like no other, with many dubbing the debate a "civil war". In January 2021 a former trans officer in the SNP's LGBT wing, Teddy Hopes, quit the party, describing it was one of the “core hubs of transphobia in Scotland". Large numbers of LGBT activists followed suit and Sturgeon released a video message in which she said that transphobia is "not acceptable" and that she hoped they would one day rejoin the party. Particularly since
Nicola Sturgeon Nicola Ferguson Sturgeon (born 19 July 1970) is a Scottish politician serving as First Minister of Scotland and Leader of the Scottish National Party (SNP) since 2014 Scottish National Party leadership election, 2014. She is the first woman ...

Nicola Sturgeon
's elevation to First Minister of Scotland, First Minister the party has highlighted its commitments to gender equality – with her first act being to appoint a First Sturgeon government, gender balanced cabinet. The SNP have also taken steps to implement all-women shortlists whilst Sturgeon has introduced a mentoring scheme to encourage women's political engagement. The SNP supports multiculturalism with Scotland receiving thousands of refugees from the Syrian civil war, Syrian Civil War. To this end it has been claimed that refugees in Scotland are better supported than those in England. More generally, the SNP seeks to increase immigration to combat a declining population and calling for a separate Scottish visa even within the UK.


Foreign affairs and defence

Despite traditionally supporting Neutral country, military neutrality the SNP's policy has in recent years moved to support both the Atlanticism, Atlanticist and Pro-Europeanism, Europeanist traditions. This is particularly evident in the conclusion of the NATO debate in the Scottish National Party, NATO debate within the party in favour of those who support membership of the military alliance. This is despite the party's continuing opposition to Scotland hosting Nuclear weapons of the United Kingdom, nuclear weapons and then-leader Alex Salmond, Salmond's criticism of both the Kosovo War, Kosovo intervention and the Iraq War. The party has placed an emphasis on developing positive relations with the United States in recent years despite a lukewarm reaction to the 2016 United States presidential election, election of part-Scottish Americans, Scottish American Donald Trump as President of the United States, President due to long running legal disputes. Having opposed continued membership in the 1975 referendum, the party has supported membership of the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a supranational union, supranational political union, political and economic union of Member state of the European Union, member states that are located primarily in Europe, Europe. The union has a total area of ...

European Union
since the adoption of the Independence in Europe policy during the 1980s. Consequentially, the SNP supported remaining within the EU during the 2016 United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, 2016 referendum where every Scottish council area backed this position. Consequently, the party opposed Brexit and sought a Proposed referendum on the Brexit withdrawal agreement, further referendum on the Brexit withdrawal agreement, withdrawal agreement, ultimately unsuccessfully. The SNP would like to see an Scottish independence, independent Scotland as a member of the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a supranational union, supranational political union, political and economic union of Member state of the European Union, member states that are located primarily in Europe, Europe. The union has a total area of ...

European Union
and NATO and has left open the prospect of an independent Scotland joining the euro. The SNP has also taken a stance against Russian interference abroad – the party supporting the enlargement of the European Union, EU and NATO to areas such as the Western Balkans and Ukraine to counter this influence. The party called for repercussions for Russia regarding the poisoning of Sergei and Yulia Skripal and has criticised former leader
Alex Salmond Alexander Elliot Anderson Salmond (; born 31 December 1954) is a Scottish politician and economist who served as First Minister of Scotland from 2007 File:2007 Events Collage.png, From top left, clockwise: Steve Jobs unveils Apple Inc., Appl ...

Alex Salmond
for broadcasting a The Alex Salmond Show, chat show on Government of Russia, Kremlin-backed network RT (TV network), RT. Consequently, party representatives have expressed support for movements such as Euromaidan that support the independence of countries across Eastern Europe. The party have supported measures including Aid, foreign aid which seek to facilitate international development through various charitable organisations. In recognition of Scotland's historic links to the country, these programmes are mostly focused in Malawi in common with previous Scottish governments. With local authorities across the country, including Glasgow City Council being involved in this partnership since before the SNP took office in 2007 Scottish Parliament election, 2007.


Health and education

The SNP have pledged to uphold the public service nature of NHS Scotland and are consequently opposed to any attempts at privatisation of the health service, including any inclusion in a post-Brexit trade deal with the United States. The party has been fond of increasing provision under the NHS with the introduction of universal Maternity package, baby boxes based on the Finland, Finnish scheme. This supported child development alongside other commitments including the expansion of free childcare for children younger than school age and the introduction of universal free school meals in the first three years of school. Previously, SNP governments have abolished hospital parking charges as well as prescription charges in efforts to promote enhanced public health outcomes by increasing access to care and treatment. Furthermore, during Sturgeon's premiership, Scotland became the first country in the world to introduce Alcohol (Minimum Pricing) (Scotland) Act 2012, alcohol minimum unit pricing to counter Alcoholism, alcohol problems. Recently, the party has also committed to providing universal access to Menstrual hygiene management, sanitary products and the liberalisation of Drug policy, drugs policy through Devolution in the United Kingdom, devolution, in an effort to increase access to treatment and improve public health outcomes. Between 2014 and 2019 the party slashed the budget for drug and alcohol treatments by 6.3% - a cut that has been linked with Scotland recording the highest number of drug deaths per head in Europe. The party aspires to promote universal access to education, with one of the first acts of the First Salmond government, Salmond government being to abolish Tuition fees in the United Kingdom, tuition fees - although it has also introduced a cap on the number of Scots who can attend university and cut funding for further education colleges. More recently, the party has turned its attention to widening access to higher education with Nicola Sturgeon stating that education is her number one priority. At school level, the Curriculum for Excellence is currently undergoing a review.


Constitution

The foundations of the SNP are a belief that
Scotland Scotland (, ) is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. Covering the northern third of the island of Great Britain, mainland Scotland has a Anglo-Scottish border, border with England to the southeast ...

Scotland
would be more prosperous by being governed Scottish independence, independently from the United Kingdom, although the party was defeated in the 2014 referendum on this issue. The party has since sought to hold a Proposed second Scottish independence referendum, second referendum at some point in the future, perhaps related to the outcome of Brexit, as the party sees a Independence referendum, referendum as the only route to independence. In 2016 the party convened the Sustainable Growth Commission to advise on the economy and currency of an independent Scotland. Although the Sustainable Growth Commission's report, published in 2018, divides opinion it contains the party's official economic recommendations in the event of independence. The party is Constitutionalism, constitutionalist and as such rejects holding such a referendum Unilateral declaration of independence, unilaterally or any course of actions that could lead to comparisons with cases such as Catalan declaration of independence, Catalonia with the party seeing independence as a process that should be undertaken through a consensual process alongside the Government of the United Kingdom, UK Government. As part of this process towards independence, the party supports increased Devolution in the United Kingdom, devolution to the
Scottish Parliament The Scottish Parliament ( gd, Pàrlamaid na h-Alba ; sco, Scots Pairlament) is the devolution in the United Kingdom, devolved, unicameralism, unicameral legislature of Scotland. Located in the Holyrood, Edinburgh, Holyrood area of the capital ...

Scottish Parliament
and the Scottish Government, particularly in areas such as welfare and immigration. Official SNP policy is supportive of the Monarchy of the United Kingdom, monarchy. Many party members are republicans but party leader,
Nicola Sturgeon Nicola Ferguson Sturgeon (born 19 July 1970) is a Scottish politician serving as First Minister of Scotland and Leader of the Scottish National Party (SNP) since 2014 Scottish National Party leadership election, 2014. She is the first woman ...

Nicola Sturgeon
, believes it is a "model with many merits", although she has proposed reducing the funds spent on the royal family. Separately, the SNP has always opposed the UK's House of Lords, unelected upper house and would like to see both it and the House of Commons elected by a form of proportional representation. The party also supports the introduction of a Constitution, codified constitution, either for an independent Scotland or the UK as a whole, going as far as producing a proposed interim constitution for Scotland during the independence referendum campaign.


Fundamentalists and gradualists

There have always been divisions within the party on how to achieve Scottish independence, with one wing described as 'fundamentalists' and the other 'gradualists'. The SNP leadership generally subscribes to the gradualist viewpoint, that being the idea that independence can be won by the accumulation by the
Scottish Parliament The Scottish Parliament ( gd, Pàrlamaid na h-Alba ; sco, Scots Pairlament) is the devolution in the United Kingdom, devolved, unicameralism, unicameral legislature of Scotland. Located in the Holyrood, Edinburgh, Holyrood area of the capital ...

Scottish Parliament
of powers that the UK Parliament currently has over time. Fundamentalism stands in opposition to the so-called gradualist point of view, which believes that the SNP should emphasise independence more widely to achieve it. The argument goes that if the SNP is unprepared to argue for its central policy then it is unlikely ever to persuade the public of its worthiness.


Leadership


Leader of the Scottish National Party


Depute Leader of the Scottish National Party


President of the Scottish National Party

* James Graham, 6th Duke of Montrose and Cunninghame Graham, Robert Bontine Cunninghame Graham (joint), 1934–1936 * Roland Muirhead, 1936–1950 * Tom Gibson (Scottish politician), Tom Gibson, 1950–1958 * Robert McIntyre, 1958–1980 * Billy Wolfe (politician), William Wolfe, 1980–1982 * Donald Stewart (Scottish politician), Donald Stewart, 1982–1987 * Winnie Ewing, 1987–2005 * Ian Hudghton, 2005–2020 * Michael Russell (Scottish politician), Michael Russell, 2020–present


National Secretary of the Scottish National Party

* John MacCormick, 1934–1942 * Robert McIntyre, 1942–1947 * Mary Fraser Dott, 1947–1951 * Robert Curran (Scottish politician), Robert Curran, 1951–1954 * John Smart, 1954–1963 * Malcolm Shaw, 1963–1964 * Gordon Wilson, 1964–1971 * Muriel Gibson (SNP), Muriel Gibson, 1971–1972 * Rosemary Hall (political activist), Rosemary Hall, 1972–1975 * Muriel Gibson (SNP), Muriel Gibson, 1975–1977 * Chrissie MacWhirter, 1977–1979 * Iain Murray, 1979–1981 * Neil MacCallum, 1981–1986 * John Swinney, 1986–1992 * Alasdair Morgan, 1992–1997 * Stewart Hosie, 1999–2003 * Alasdair Allan, 2003–2006 * Duncan Ross (Scottish politician), Duncan Ross, 2006–2009 * William Henderson, 2009–2012 * Patrick Grady, 2012–2016 * Angus MacLeod, 2016–2020 * Stewart Stevenson, 2020–2021 * Lorna Finn, 2021-present


Leader of the parliamentary party, Scottish Parliament

*
Alex Salmond Alexander Elliot Anderson Salmond (; born 31 December 1954) is a Scottish politician and economist who served as First Minister of Scotland from 2007 File:2007 Events Collage.png, From top left, clockwise: Steve Jobs unveils Apple Inc., Appl ...

Alex Salmond
(Banff and Buchan (Scottish Parliament constituency), Banff and Buchan), 1999–2000 * John Swinney (North Tayside (Scottish Parliament constituency), North Tayside), 2000–2004 *
Nicola Sturgeon Nicola Ferguson Sturgeon (born 19 July 1970) is a Scottish politician serving as First Minister of Scotland and Leader of the Scottish National Party (SNP) since 2014 Scottish National Party leadership election, 2014. She is the first woman ...

Nicola Sturgeon
(Glasgow (Scottish Parliament electoral region), Glasgow), 2004–2007 *
Alex Salmond Alexander Elliot Anderson Salmond (; born 31 December 1954) is a Scottish politician and economist who served as First Minister of Scotland from 2007 File:2007 Events Collage.png, From top left, clockwise: Steve Jobs unveils Apple Inc., Appl ...

Alex Salmond
(Aberdeenshire East (Scottish Parliament constituency), Aberdeenshire East), 2007–2014 *
Nicola Sturgeon Nicola Ferguson Sturgeon (born 19 July 1970) is a Scottish politician serving as First Minister of Scotland and Leader of the Scottish National Party (SNP) since 2014 Scottish National Party leadership election, 2014. She is the first woman ...

Nicola Sturgeon
(Glasgow Southside (Scottish Parliament constituency), Glasgow Southside) 2014–present


Leader of the parliamentary party, House of Commons

* Donald Stewart (Scottish politician), Donald Stewart (
Western Isles The Outer Hebrides () or Western Isles ( gd, Na h-Eileanan Siar or or ("islands of the strangers"); sco, Waster Isles), sometimes known as the Long Isle/Long Island ( gd, An t-Eilean Fada, links=no), is an Archipelago, island chain off t ...
),
1974–1987 * Margaret Ewing (Moray (UK Parliament constituency), Moray), 1987–1999 * Alasdair Morgan (Galloway and Upper Nithsdale (UK Parliament constituency), Galloway and Upper Nithsdale), 1999–2001 *
Alex Salmond Alexander Elliot Anderson Salmond (; born 31 December 1954) is a Scottish politician and economist who served as First Minister of Scotland from 2007 File:2007 Events Collage.png, From top left, clockwise: Steve Jobs unveils Apple Inc., Appl ...

Alex Salmond
(Banff and Buchan (UK Parliament constituency), Banff and Buchan), 2001–2007 * Angus Robertson (Moray (UK Parliament constituency), Moray), 2007–2017 * Ian Blackford (Ross, Skye and Lochaber (UK Parliament constituency), Ross, Skye and Lochaber), 2017–2022 * Stephen Flynn (Scottish politician), Stephen Flynn (Aberdeen South (UK Parliament constituency), Aberdeen South), 2022–present


Chief Executive Officer

* Michael Russell (Scottish politician), Michael Russell, 1994–1999 * Peter Murrell, 1999–present


Current SNP Council Leaders

* Clackmannanshire: Les Sharp (Clackmannanshire West), since 2017 Clackmannanshire Council election, 2017 * Dundee, Dundee City: John Alexander (councillor), John Alexander (Strathmartine (ward), Strathmartine), since 2017 Dundee City Council election, 2017 * East Ayrshire: Douglas Reid (Kilmarnock West and Crosshouse), since 2007 East Ayrshire Council election, 2007 * East Renfrewshire: Tony Buchanan (Newton Mearns North & Neilston (ward), Newton Mearns North and Neilston), since 2017 East Renfrewshire Council election, 2017 * City of Edinburgh Council, City of Edinburgh: Adam McVey (Leith (Edinburgh ward), Leith), since 2017 City of Edinburgh Council election, 2017 *
Falkirk Falkirk ( gd, An Eaglais Bhreac, sco, Fawkirk) is a large town in the Central Lowlands of Scotland, historically within the county of Stirlingshire. It lies in the Forth Valley, northwest of Edinburgh and northeast of Glasgow. Falkirk had a ...
: Cecil Meiklejohn (Falkirk North (ward), Falkirk North), since 2017 Falkirk Council election, 2017 *Fife: David Alexander (Leven, Kennoway and Largo), since 2017 Fife Council election, 2017 * Glasgow City Council, Glasgow City: Susan Aitken (Langside (ward), Langside), since 2017 Glasgow City Council election, 2017 * Moray: Graham Leadbitter (Elgin City South (ward), Elgin South), since 2018 * Renfrewshire: Iain Nicolson (Erskine and Inchinnan), since 2017 Renfrewshire Council election, 2017 * South Ayrshire: Douglas Campbell (Ayr North), since 2017 South Ayrshire Council election, 2017 * South Lanarkshire: John Ross (Hamilton South (ward), Hamilton South), since 2017 South Lanarkshire Council election, 2017 * Stirling (council area), Stirling: Scott Farmer (Stirling West (ward), Stirling West), since 2017 Stirling Council election, 2017 * West Dunbartonshire: Jonathon McColl (Lomond (ward), Lomond), since 2017 West Dunbartonshire Council election, 2017


Scottish Parliament


Members of the Scottish Parliament

The SNP has formed the Scottish Government since 2007. , Third Sturgeon government, the Cabinet of the Scottish Government is as follows:


Parliament of the United Kingdom


Members of Parliament

The SNP hold a majority of Scottish seats in the House of Commons, and does not take seats in the House of Lords. As of December 2022, the Frontbench Team of Stephen Flynn, SNP frontbench team in the House of Commons is as follows.


Local Government


Councillors

The SNP had 431 councillors in local government in Scotland, Local Government elected from the 2017 Scottish local elections.


Electoral performance


Scottish Parliament


House of Commons


Local councils


Results by council (2022)


European Parliament (1979–2020)


Two-tier local councils (1975–1996)


See also

* Bo'ness Branch SNP * Culture of Scotland * Politics of Scotland * History of Scottish devolution * It's Scotland's oil * Radio Free Scotland * Scottish Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament * The National (Scotland), ''The National'' (Scotland)


References


Further reading

* Brand, Jack, ''The National Movement in Scotland'', Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1978 * Brand, Jack, 'Scotland', in Watson, Michael (ed.), ''Contemporary Minority Nationalism'', Routledge, 1990 * Winnie Ewing, Michael Russell (Scottish politician), Michael Russell, ''Stop the World; The Autobiography of Winnie Ewing'' Birlinn (publisher), Birlinn, 2004 * Richard J. Finlay, ''Independent and Free: Scottish Politics and the Origins of the Scottish National Party 1918–1945'', John Donald Publishers, 1994 * Hanham, H.J., ''Scottish Nationalism'', Harvard University Press, 1969 * Christopher Harvie, ''Scotland and Nationalism: Scottish Society and Politics 1707 to the Present'', Routledge (4th edition), 2004 * Gerry Hassan (ed.), ''The Modern SNP: From Protest to Power'', Edinburgh University Press, 2009, * Lynch, Peter, ''SNP: The History of the Scottish National Party'', Welsh Academic Press, 2002 * John MacCormick, ''The Flag in the Wind: The Story of the National Movement in Scotland'', Victor Gollancz Ltd, 1955 * Mitchell, James, ''Strategies for Self-government: The Campaigns for a Scottish Parliament'', Birlinn (publisher), Polygon, 1996 * Mitchell, James, Bennie, Lynn and Johns, Rob, ''The Scottish National Party: Transition to Power'', Oxford University Press, 2011, * Mitchell, James and Hassan, Gerry (eds), ''Scottish National Party Leaders'', Biteback, 2016. * Jim Sillars, ''Scotland: the Case for Optimism'', Polygon, 1986 * , ''Scotland Lives: the Quest for Independence'', Reprographia, 1973


External links


Scottish National Party
– Official website {{Authority control Scottish National Party, 1934 establishments in Scotland Centre-left parties in the United Kingdom Constitution of the United Kingdom European Free Alliance Nationalist parties in the United Kingdom Organisations based in Edinburgh Political parties established in 1934 Scottish independence Social democratic parties Social democratic parties in the United Kingdom