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Salerno (, , ; nap, label=
Salernitano
Salernitano
, Saliernë, ) is an ancient city and ''
comune The (; plural: ) is a Administrative division, local administrative division of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides essential public services: Civil registry, registry of births a ...
'' in
Campania it, Campano (man) it, Campana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 ...
(southwestern Italy) and is the capital of the namesake province. It is located on the
Gulf of Salerno The Gulf of Salerno (Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional It ...

Gulf of Salerno
on the
Tyrrhenian Sea The Tyrrhenian Sea (; it, Mar Tirreno , french: Mer Tyrrhénienne , sc, Mare Tirrenu, co, Mari Tirrenu, scn, Mari Tirrenu, nap, Mare Tirreno) is part of the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by ...
. The city is divided into three distinct zones: the medieval sector, the 19th century sector and the more densely populated post-war area, with its several apartment blocks. Human settlement at Salerno has a rich and vibrant past, dating back to pre-historic times. The site has been one of the most important and strategic ports on the Mediterranean sea, yielding a rich
Greco-Roman The term "Greco-Roman world" (also "Greco-Roman culture" or ; spelled Graeco-Roman in the Commonwealth), as understood by modern scholars and writers, refers to geographical regions and countries that culturally—and so historically—were ...
heritage. It was an independent Lombard principality,
Principality of Salerno The Lombard The term Lombard refers to members of or things related to Lombardy (man) it, Lombarda (woman) lmo, Lombard (man) lmo, Lombarda (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank ...
, in the
early Middle Ages The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, sometimes referred to as the Dark Ages, is typically regarded by historians as lasting from the late 5th or early 6th century to the 10th century. They marked the start of the Middle Ages ...
. During this time, the
Schola Medica Salernitana The Schola Medica Salernitana ( it, Scuola Medica Salernitana) was a Medieval medical school A medical school is a tertiary educational institution, or part of such an institution, that teaches medicine Medicine is the Art (skill), art, scie ...
, the first medical school in the world, was founded. The Normans in 1077 made Salerno the capital of their rule in all continental southern Italy. In the 16th century, under the
Sanseverino* Sanseverino (family): The Sanseverino are one of the historical families most famous in the Kingdom of Naples and all of Italy, having 300 strongholds, 40 counties, nine marquisates, twelve duchies and ten principalities primarily distributed in C ...
family, among the most powerful feudal lords in southern Italy, the city became a great centre of learning, culture and the arts, and the family hired several of the greatest intellectuals of the time. Later, in 1694, the city was struck by several catastrophic earthquakes and plagues. During a period of Spanish rule the city suffered a crisis which would last until the 18th century, but under
Napoleon Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader. He rose to prominence during the French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) refers to the period that began with the Estates General o ...

Napoleon
Salerno became part of the
Parthenopean Republic The Parthenopean Republic ( it, Repubblica Partenopea, french: République Parthénopéenne) or Neapolitan Republic (''Repubblica Napoletana'') was a short-lived, semi-autonomous republic A republic ( la, res publica, links=yes, meaning "publ ...
. In the 19th century Salerno supported ideas of the
Risorgimento Italian unification ( it, Unità d'Italia ), also known as the Risorgimento (, ; meaning "Resurgence"), was the 19th-century political and social movement that resulted in the Merger (politics), consolidation of List of historic states of Ital ...

Risorgimento
and welcomed
Garibaldi Giuseppe Maria Garibaldi ( , ; 4 July 1807 – 2 June 1882) was an Italian general, patriot and republican. He contributed to the Italian unification Italian unification ( it, Unità d'Italia ), also known as the Risorgimento (, ; meaning " ...

Garibaldi
in 1861. In recent history the city hosted
Victor Emmanuel III Victor or Viktor may refer to: Arts and entertainment Film * ''Victor'' (1951 film), a French drama film * ''Victor'' (1993 film), a French short film * ''Victor'' (2008 film), a 2008 TV film about Canadian swimmer Victor Davis * ''Victor ...

Victor Emmanuel III
, the
King of Italy King of Italy ( it, links=no, Re d'Italia; la, links=no, Rex Italiae) was the title given to the ruler of the Kingdom of Italy after the fall of the Western Roman Empire The Western Roman Empire comprises the western provinces of the Ro ...

King of Italy
, who moved from Rome in 1943 after Italy negotiated a peace with the Allies in
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, making Salerno the capital of the "Government of the South" (''Regno del Sud'') and therefore provisional government seat for six months. Some of the
Allied An alliance is a relationship among people, groups, or sovereign state, states that have joined together for mutual benefit or to achieve some common purpose, whether or not explicit agreement has been worked out among them. Members of an alli ...
landings during
Operation Avalanche Operation Avalanche was the codename for the Allied landings near the port of Salerno, executed on 9 September 1943, part of the Allied invasion of Italy. The Italians withdrew from the war the day before the invasion, but the Allies landed i ...
(the invasion of Italy) occurred near Salerno. Today Salerno is an important cultural and economic centre in Campania and Italy. A
patron saint A patron saint, patroness saint, patron hallow or heavenly protector is a saint who in Catholic Church, Catholicism, Anglicanism, or Eastern Orthodoxy is regarded as the heavenly advocacy, advocate of a nation, place, craft, activity, class, c ...
of Salerno is
Saint Matthew Matthew the Apostle,, shortened to ''Matti'' (whence ar, مَتَّى, Mattā), meaning "Gift of YHWH"; arc, , Mattai; grc-koi, Μαθθαῖος, ''Maththaîos'' or , ''Matthaîos''; cop, ⲙⲁⲧⲑⲉⲟⲥ, Mattheos; la, Matthaeus a ...

Saint Matthew
, the
Apostle An apostle (), in its most literal sense, is an emissary, from Greek ἀπόστολος (''apóstolos''), literally "one who is sent off", from the verb A verb, from the Latin ''wikt:verbum#Latin, verbum'' meaning ''word'', is a word (part o ...

Apostle
, whose
relics In religion, a relic is an object or article of religious significance from the past, it usually consists of the physical remains of a saint or the personal effects of the saint or venerated person preserved for purposes of veneration Veneratio ...

relics
are kept here at the
crypt A crypt (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in r ...

crypt
of
Salerno Cathedral Salerno Cathedral (or duomo) is the main church in the city of Salerno in southern Italy and a major tourist attraction. It is dedicated to Saint Matthew, whose relics are inside the crypt. The Cathedral was built when the city was the capital of ...
.


History


Prehistory and antiquity

The area of what is now Salerno has been continuously settled since pre-historical times, as the discoveries of Neolithic mummy remains documents. Inhabited by Oscan-speaking populations, the region was colonized by the
Etruscans The Etruscan civilization () of List of ancient peoples of Italy, ancient Italy covered a territory, at its greatest extent, of roughly what is now Tuscany, western Umbria, and northern Lazio, as well as what are now the Po Valley, Emilia-Romagna ...
, who founded the city of ''Irnthi'' in the 6th century BC, across the Irno river, in what is today city quarter of Fratte, as a part of their ''Dodecapolis'' political model they essentially replicated in
Campania it, Campano (man) it, Campana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 ...
. This settlement represented an important base for Etruscan trade with the nearby Greek colonies of
Posidonia ''Posidonia'' is a genus of flowering plant The flowering plants, also known as Angiospermae (), or Magnoliophyta (), are the most diverse group of Embryophyte, land plants, with 64 Order(biology), orders, 416 Family (biology), families, appro ...

Posidonia
and . It was occupied by the
Samnites The Samnites were an ancient Italic people The Italic peoples were an ethnolinguistic group identified by their use of Italic languages a branch of the Indo-European language family. The Italic peoples are descended from the Indo-European speak ...
around the 5th century BC as a consequence of the
Battle of Cumae The Battle of Cumae was one of several battles between Cumae Cumae ( grc, Κύμη, (Kumē) or or ; it, Cuma) was the first ancient Greek colony on the mainland of Italy, founded by settlers from Euboea in the 8th century BC and soon beco ...
(474 BC) as part of the
Syracusan Syracuse ; scn, Sarausa or scn, Seragusa, label=none ; lat, Syrācūsae ; grc-att, Συράκουσαι, Syrákousai ; grc-dor, Συράκοσαι, Syrā́kosai ; grc-x-medieval, Συρακοῦσαι, Syrakoûsai is a historic ci ...
sphere of influence In the field of international relations, a sphere of influence (SOI) is a spatial region or concept division over which a state or organization has a level of cultural Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and ...
. With the
Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Laz ...
advance in Campania, Irna began to lose its importance, being supplanted by the new Roman colony (197 BC) of ''Salernum'', developing around an initial ''
castrum In the Roman Republic The Roman Republic ( la, Rēs pūblica Rōmāna ) was a state of the classical Roman civilization, run through public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating ...
''. The new city, which gradually lost its military function in favour of its role as a trade centre, was connected to Rome by the
Via Popilia__NOTOC__ The Via Popilia is the name of two different ancient Roman road Roman roads ( la, viae Romanae ; singular: ; meaning "Roman way") were physical infrastructure vital to the maintenance and development of the Roman state, and were buil ...

Via Popilia
, which ran towards
Lucania Lucania ( grc-gre, Λευκανία, Leukanía, Lefkanía (Modern Greek)) was a historical region of Southern Italy. It was the land of the Lucanians, Lucani, an Oscan people. It extended from the Tyrrhenian Sea to the Gulf of Taranto. It borde ...

Lucania
and
Reggio Calabria Reggio di Calabria ( scn, label= Southern Calabrian, Riggiu; el, label=Calabrian Greek The Calabrian dialect of Greek language, Greek, or Grecanico
. Archaeological remains, although fragmentary, suggest the idea of a flourishing and lively city. Under the Emperor
Diocletian Diocletian (; la, Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus; born Diocles; 22 December c. 244 – 3 December 311) was from 284 to 305. Born to a family of low status in , Diocletian rose through the ranks of the military to become a commander of ...
, in the late 3rd century AD, Salernum became the administrative centre of the "Lucania and Bruttii" province. In the following century, during the
Gothic WarsThe Goths, Gothic Wars were a long series of conflicts against the Roman Empire between the years 249 and 554. The main wars are detailed below. Gothic War (249–253) (Goths under Cniva against the Roman Empire) The War was probably instigated a ...
, the Goths were defeated by the , and the Salerno briefly returned to the control of Constantinople (from 553 to 568), before the
Lombards The Lombards () or Langobards ( la, Langobardi) were a Germanic people The Germanic peoples were a historical group of people living in Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe between Western Europe and Eastern Europe, based on ...
invaded almost the whole peninsula. Like many coastal cities of southern Italy (
Gaeta Gaeta (; lat, Cāiēta; grc, Καιήτη, Kaiḗtē) is a city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a basic Administrative division, constituent entity of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function T ...

Gaeta
,
Sorrento Sorrento (, ; nap, Surriento ; la, Surrentum) is a town overlooking the Gulf of Naples, Bay of Naples in Southern Italy. A popular tourist destination, Sorrento is located on the Sorrentine Peninsula at the south-eastern terminus of the Circu ...

Sorrento
,
Amalfi Amalfi (, , ) is a town and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a local administrative division of Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern It ...

Amalfi
), Salerno initially remained untouched by the newcomers, falling only in 646. It subsequently became part of the
Duchy of Benevento The Duchy of Benevento (after 774, Principality of Benevento) was the southernmost Lombard The term Lombard refers to members of or things related to Lombardy (man) it, Lombarda (woman) lmo, Lombard (man) lmo, Lombarda (woman) , population ...
.


Middle Ages to early modern age

Under the Lombard dukes Salerno enjoyed the most splendid period of its history. In 774
Arechis II of Benevento Arechis II (also ''Aretchis'', ''Arichis'', ''Arechi'' or ''Aregis'') (born According to the '' Chronicon Salernitanum'', Arechis ''vixit autem quinquaginta tres (53) annos; obiit septimo Kal. Septembris, anno ab incarnacione Domini 787, indictio ...
transferred the seat of the Duchy of Benevento to Salerno, in order to elude
Charlemagne Charlemagne ( , ) or Charles the Great ( la, Carolus Magnus; 2 April 748 – 28 January 814) was King of the Franks The Franks—Germanic-speaking peoples that invaded the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century—were first led by i ...

Charlemagne
's offensive and to secure for himself the control of a strategic area, the centre of coastal and internal communications in Campania. With Arechis II, Salerno became a centre of studies with its famous
Medical School A medical school is a tertiary education Tertiary education, also referred to as third-level, third-stage or post-secondary education, is the education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowled ...
. The Lombard prince ordered the city to be fortified; the Castle on the Bonadies mountain had already been built with walls and towers. In 839 Salerno declared independence from Benevento, becoming the capital of a flourishing principality stretching out to
Capua Capua (, ) is a city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a Administrative division, local administrative division of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides essential public services ...

Capua
, northern
Calabria it, Calabrese , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demogr ...

Calabria
and
Apulia it, Pugliese , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = , demographics1_titl ...

Apulia
up to
Taranto Taranto (, also ; ; nap, label=Tarantino Quentin Jerome Tarantino (; born March 27, 1963) is an American film director, screenwriter, producer, and actor. His films are characterized by nonlinear narrative, nonlinear storylines, dark humo ...

Taranto
. In 871–872, the
Aghlabids 300px, An Aghlabid cistern in Kairouan The Aghlabids ( ar, الأغالبة) were an Arab dynasty of emirs from the Najd Najd, ( ar, نَجْدٌ, ) or the Nejd, forms the geographic center of Saudi Arabia (Shahada) , national_anthe ...
besieged Salerno, but the city was relieved by
Louis II of Italy Louis II (825 – 12 August 875), sometimes called the Younger, was the king of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and officially the Emperor of the Romans ( la, Imperator Romanorum, german: Kaiser der Römer ...

Louis II of Italy
. Around the year 1000 prince Guaimar IV annexed
Amalfi Amalfi (, , ) is a town and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a local administrative division of Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern It ...

Amalfi
,
Sorrento Sorrento (, ; nap, Surriento ; la, Surrentum) is a town overlooking the Gulf of Naples, Bay of Naples in Southern Italy. A popular tourist destination, Sorrento is located on the Sorrentine Peninsula at the south-eastern terminus of the Circu ...

Sorrento
,
Gaeta Gaeta (; lat, Cāiēta; grc, Καιήτη, Kaiḗtē) is a city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a basic Administrative division, constituent entity of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function T ...

Gaeta
and the whole duchy of Apulia and Calabria, starting to conceive a future unification of the whole southern Italy under Salerno's arms. The coins minted in the city circulated all over the Mediterranean, with the ''Opulenta Salernum'' wording to certify its richness. However, the stability of the Principate was continually shaken by the
Saracen file:Erhard Reuwich Sarazenen 1486.png, upright 1.5, Late 15th century German woodcut depicting Saracens Saracens () were primarily Arab Muslims, but also Turkish people, Turks, Persian people, Persians or other Muslims as referred to by Christian ...
attacks and, most of all, by internal struggles. In 1056, one of the numerous plots led to the fall of Guaimar. His weaker son Gisulf II succeeded him, but the decline of the principality had begun. In 1077 Salerno reached its zenith but soon lost all its territory to the Normans. On 13 December 1076, the Norman conqueror
Robert Guiscard Robert Guiscard (; Modern ; – 17 July 1085) was a Normans, Norman adventurer remembered for the Norman conquest of southern Italy, conquest of southern Italy and Sicily. Robert was born into the Hauteville family in Normandy, went on to become ...

Robert Guiscard
, who had married Guaimar IV's daughter
SikelgaitaSikelgaita (also ''Sichelgaita'' or ''Sigelgaita'') (1040 – 16 April 1090) was a Lombard princess, the daughter of Guaimar IV, Prince of Salerno Image:Italy 1000 AD.svg, The Principality of Salerno in Italy around 1000 This page is a list of ...
, besieged Salerno and defeated his brother-in-law Gisulf. In this period the royal palace of Castel Terracena and the
cathedral A cathedral is a church Church may refer to: Religion * Church (building) A church building, church house, or simply church, is a building used for Christian worship services and other Christian religious activities. The term is used ...

cathedral
were built, and science was boosted as the
Schola Medica Salernitana The Schola Medica Salernitana ( it, Scuola Medica Salernitana) was a Medieval medical school A medical school is a tertiary educational institution, or part of such an institution, that teaches medicine Medicine is the Art (skill), art, scie ...
, considered the most ancient medical institution of the European West, reached its maximum splendour. At this time in the late 11th century, the city was home to 50,000 people. In 1100, Salerno was made the capital of Norman southern Italy, after
Melfi Melfi (Lucano: ) is a town and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a Administrative division, local administrative division of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides essential public serv ...

Melfi
. Salerno was the most important city of the Normans for half a century, but with the
Norman conquest of southern Italy The Norman conquest of southern Italy lasted from 999 to 1139, involving many battles and independent conquerors. In 1130, the territories in southern Italy Southern Italy ( it, Sud Italia; nap, 'o Sudde; scn, Italia dû Sud), also known ...
, the city of Palermo started to substitute Salerno as the most important city for the Normans. Indeed, Salerno played a little part in the fall of the
County of Sicily The County of Sicily, also known as County of Sicily and Calabria, was a Italo-Normans, Norman state comprising the islands of Sicily and Malta and part of Calabria from 1071 until 1130. The county began to form during the Norman conquest of sout ...
, after the
Emperor Henry VI Henry VI (Heinrich VI) (November 1165 – 28 September 1197), a member of the House of Hohenstaufen, Hohenstaufen dynasty, was List of German monarchs, King of Germany (King of the Romans) from 1169 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1191 until his death ...

Emperor Henry VI
's invasion on behalf of his wife,
Constance Constance may refer to: Places *Konstanz Konstanz (, , locally: ; also written as Constance in English) is a with approximately 83,000 inhabitants located at the western end of in the south of . The city houses the and was the residence o ...

Constance
, the heiress to the kingdom, in 1191, Salerno surrendered and promised loyalty on the mere news of an incoming army. This so disgusted the archbishop, Nicolò d'Aiello (from Naples), that he abandoned the city and fled to
Naples Naples (; it, Napoli ; nap, Napule ), from grc, Νεάπολις, Neápolis, lit=new city. is the regional capital of and the third-largest city of , after and , with a population of 967,069 within the city's administrative limits as of ...

Naples
, which held out in a siege. In 1194, the situation reversed itself: Naples capitulated, along with most other cities of the Mezzogiorno, and only Salerno resisted. It was sacked and pillaged, much reducing its importance and prosperity. Henry had his reasons, though. He had entrusted Constance to some important Salerno citizens (advised & "ruled" by the archbishop d'Aiello) and after his retreat from invasion in 1191 they had received letters about the events from Nicolò D'Aiello and so betrayed Henry, attacked Constance at Castel Terracena and handed her over to King
Tancred of Sicily Tancred of Lecce (113820 February 1194) was a King of Sicily from 1189 to 1194. He was born in Lecce Lecce (, , ; scn, label= Salentino, Lècce; el, label= Griko, Luppìu, script=Latn; la, Lupiae; grc, Λουπίαι, translit=Loupía ...

Tancred of Sicily
, making the Empress captive for nearly one year. The combined treachery and stubbornness of D'Aiello and his followers cost Salerno much after the
Hohenstaufen The Hohenstaufen (, , ), also called Staufer, was a noble dynasty of unclear origin that rose to rule the Duchy of Swabia The Duchy of Swabia ( German: ''Herzogtum Schwaben'') was one of the five stem duchies of the medieval German Kingdom. I ...

Hohenstaufen
conquest: Henry's son,
Frederick IIFrederick II, Frederik II or Friedrich II may refer to: * Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor (1194–1250), King of Sicily from 1198; Holy Roman Emperor from 1220 * Frederick II of Denmark (1534–1588), king of Denmark and Norway 1559–1588 * Freder ...

Frederick II
, moreover, issued a series of edicts that reduced Salerno's role in favour of Naples (in particular, the foundation of the
University of Naples The University of Naples Federico II ( it, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II) is a public university #REDIRECT Public university #REDIRECT Public university #REDIRECT Public university#REDIRECT Public university A public university ...
in that city). From the 14th century onwards, most of the Salerno province became the territory of the Princes of
Sanseverino* Sanseverino (family): The Sanseverino are one of the historical families most famous in the Kingdom of Naples and all of Italy, having 300 strongholds, 40 counties, nine marquisates, twelve duchies and ten principalities primarily distributed in C ...
, powerful feudal lords who acted as real owners of the region. They accumulated enormous political and administrative power and attracted artists and men of letters in their own princely palace. In the 15th century, the city was the scene of battles between the
Angevin Angevin or House of Anjou may refer to: *Anjou, a historic province in western France **Angevin (language), the traditional langue d'oïl spoken in Anjou **Counts and Dukes of Anjou *House of Ingelger, a Frankish noble family who were counts of Anjo ...
and the
Aragonese Aragonese or Aragones may refer to: * Something related to Aragon, an autonomous community and former kingdom in Spain * the Aragonese people, those originating from or living in the historical region of Aragon, in north-eastern Spain * the Aragone ...
royal houses with whom the local lords took sides alternatingly. In the first decades of the 16th century, the last descendant of the Sanseverino princes, Ferdinando Sanseverino, was in conflict with the viceroy of the king of
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...
, mainly because of his opposition to the
Inquisition The Inquisition, in historical ecclesiastical terminology also referred to as the "Holy Inquisition", was a group of institutions within the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the , with 1. ...

Inquisition
, causing the ruin of the whole family and the beginning of a long period of decadence for the city. A slow renewal of the city occurred in the 18th century with the end of the Spanish dominion and the construction of many refined houses and churches characterising the main streets of the historical centre. In 1799 Salerno was incorporated into the
Parthenopean Republic The Parthenopean Republic ( it, Repubblica Partenopea, french: République Parthénopéenne) or Neapolitan Republic (''Repubblica Napoletana'') was a short-lived, semi-autonomous republic A republic ( la, res publica, links=yes, meaning "publ ...
. During the
Napoleonic era The Napoleonic era is a period in the history of France The first written records for the history of France appeared in the Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, three-age division of the prehistor ...
, first
Joseph Bonaparte it, Giuseppe-Napoleone Buonaparte es, José Napoleón Bonaparte , house = Bonaparte , father = Carlo Buonaparte Carlo Maria Buonaparte or Charles-Marie Bonaparte (27 March 1746 – 24 February 1785) was a Corsicans, Corsican ...

Joseph Bonaparte
and then
Joachim Murat it, Gioacchino-Napoleone Murat , religion = Roman Catholic Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ancien ...

Joachim Murat
ascended the Neapolitan throne. The latter decreed the closing of the Schola Medica Salernitana, which had been declining for decades to the level of a theoretical school. In the same period, even the religious orders were suppressed and numerous ecclesiastical properties were confiscated. The city expanded beyond the ancient walls and sea connections were potentiated as they represented an important road network that crossed the town connecting the eastern plain with the area leading to Vietri and
Naples Naples (; it, Napoli ; nap, Napule ), from grc, Νεάπολις, Neápolis, lit=new city. is the regional capital of and the third-largest city of , after and , with a population of 967,069 within the city's administrative limits as of ...

Naples
.


Late modern and contemporary

Salerno was an active center of
Carbonari The Carbonari () was an informal network of secret society, secret revolutionary societies active in Italy from about 1800 to 1831. The Italian Carbonari may have further influenced other revolutionary groups in France, Greece, Spain, Portugal, R ...

Carbonari
activities supporting the unification of Italy in the 19th century. The majority of the population of Salerno supported ideas of the
Risorgimento Italian unification ( it, Unità d'Italia ), also known as the Risorgimento (, ; meaning "Resurgence"), was the 19th-century political and social movement that resulted in the Merger (politics), consolidation of List of historic states of Ital ...

Risorgimento
, and in 1861 many of them joined
Garibaldi Giuseppe Maria Garibaldi ( , ; 4 July 1807 – 2 June 1882) was an Italian general, patriot and republican. He contributed to the Italian unification Italian unification ( it, Unità d'Italia ), also known as the Risorgimento (, ; meaning " ...

Garibaldi
in his struggle for unification. After the
unification of Italy The unification of Italy ( it, Unità d'Italia ), also known as the ''Risorgimento'' (, ; meaning "Resurgence"), was the 19th-century political and social movement that resulted in the consolidation of different states of the Italian Penins ...
, a slow urban development continued, many suburban areas were enlarged and large public and private buildings were created. The city went on developing until
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
. Its population rose from 20,000 people around 1861s unification to 80,000 in the early 20th century. During the 19th century, foreign industries started settling in Salerno: in 1830 the first textile mill was established by the Swiss entrepreneur Züblin Vonwiller, followed by Schlaepfer-Wenner's textile mills and dye factories; the Wenner family settled permanently in Salerno. In 1877 the city was the site of as many as 21 textile mills employing around ten thousand workers; in comparison with the four thousand employed in Turin's textile industry, Salerno was sometimes referred to as the "
Manchester Manchester () is the most-populous city and metropolitan borough A metropolitan borough is a type of local government district The districts of England (also known as local authority districts or local government districts to distinguis ...

Manchester
of the two Sicilies". In September 1943, during World War II, Salerno was the scene of
Operation Avalanche Operation Avalanche was the codename for the Allied landings near the port of Salerno, executed on 9 September 1943, part of the Allied invasion of Italy. The Italians withdrew from the war the day before the invasion, but the Allies landed i ...
, the invasion of Italy launched by the
Allies of World War II The Allies of World War II were a group of countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the World War II, Second World War (1939–1945). The Allies promoted the alliance as a means to defeat Nazi Germany, the Empire of Japan, Fa ...
, and suffered a great deal of damage. Henry Wellesley, 6th Duke of Wellington, who was killed in action during the fighting, is buried in Salerno War Cemetery. From 12 February to 17 July 1944, it hosted the Government of Marshal
Pietro Badoglio Pietro Badoglio, 1st Duke of Addis Abeba, 1st Marquess of Sabotino (, ; 28 September 1871 – 1 November 1956), was an Italian general during both World War A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states ...

Pietro Badoglio
. In those months Salerno was the provisional government seat of the
Kingdom of Italy The Kingdom of Italy ( it, Regno d'Italia) was a state that existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II en, Victor Emmanuel Mario Albert Eugene Ferdinand Thomas , house = House of Savoy, Savoy , father = Charles Albert o ...
, and the King
Vittorio Emanuele III Victor Emmanuel III (Vittorio Emanuele Ferdinando Maria Gennaro di Savoia; it, Vittorio Emanuele III, sq, Viktor Emanueli III, amh, ቪቶርዮ አማኑኤል, translit=Vītoriyo Āmanu’ēli; 11 November 1869 – 28 December 1947) reign ...

Vittorio Emanuele III
lived in a mansion in its outskirts. After the war the population of the city doubled in a few years, going from 80,000 in 1946 to nearly 160,000 in 1976.


Geography

The city is situated at the northwestern end of the plain of the Sele River, at the exact beginning of the
Amalfi coast The Amalfi Coast ( it, Costiera Amalfitana) is a stretch of coastline on the Tyrrhenian Sea The Tyrrhenian Sea (; it, Mar Tirreno , french: Mer Tyrrhénienne , sc, Mare Tirrenu, co, Mari Tirrenu, scn, Mari Tirrenu, nap, Mare Tirreno) is p ...
. The small river Irno crosses through the central section of Salerno. The highest point is "Monte Stella" with its .


Climate

Salerno has a
Mediterranean climate A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by dry summers and mild, wet winters. The climate Climate is the long-term pattern of weather Weather is the state of the atmosphere, describing for example the degre ...
, with a hot and relatively dry summer (highs of in July and August) and a rainy fall and winter (highs of in January). Usually there is nearly of rain every year. The strong wind that comes from the mountains toward the
Gulf of Salerno The Gulf of Salerno (Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional It ...

Gulf of Salerno
makes the city very windy (mainly in winter). However, this gives Salerno the advantage of being one of the sunniest towns in Italy.


Demographics

In 2007, there were 140,580 people residing in Salerno, located in the province of Salerno,
Campania it, Campano (man) it, Campana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 ...
, of whom 46.7% were male and 53.3% were female. Minors (children ages 18 and younger) totalled 19.61 per cent of the population compared to pensioners who number 21.86 per cent. This compares with the Italian average of 18.06 per cent (minors) and 19.94 per cent (pensioners). The average age of Salerno residents is 42 compared to the Italian average of 42. In the five years between 2002 and 2007, the population of Salerno grew by 2.02 per cent, while Italy as a whole grew by 3.85 per cent. The current birth rate of Salerno is 7.77 births per 1,000 inhabitants compared to the Italian average of 9.45 births. As of 31 December 2010, there were 4,355 foreigners in Salerno. The largest immigrant group came from other European countries (mainly Ukraine and Romania). The population is overwhelmingly Roman Catholic.


Economy

The economy of Salerno is mainly based on services and tourism, as most of the city's manufacturing base did not survive the economic crisis of the 1970s. The remaining ones are connected to
pottery Pottery is the process and the products of forming vessels and other objects with clay Clay is a type of fine-grained natural soil Surface-water- gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland.">Northern_Ireland.html" ;"title="g ...

pottery
and food production and treatment. The Port of Salerno is one of the most active of the
Tyrrhenian Sea The Tyrrhenian Sea (; it, Mar Tirreno , french: Mer Tyrrhénienne , sc, Mare Tirrenu, co, Mari Tirrenu, scn, Mari Tirrenu, nap, Mare Tirreno) is part of the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by ...
. It handles about 10 million tons of cargo per year, 60% of which is made up by containers.


Transport

Salerno is connected to the A2, Autostrada A3 and Autostrada A30 motorways. is the main railway station of the city. It is connected to the High-speed rail in Italy, high-speed railway network via the Milan-Salerno corridor. The main bus stop of Salerno is also at the train station, with both CSTP buses and SITA buses. A metro light rail line connects the train station with Stadio Arechi, with seven intermediate stops. A new Maritime Terminal Station, designed by Zaha Hadid Architects, was completed in 2016 and was opened for the 2017 cruise season. Salerno features three marinas: Manfredi Pier, Masuccio Salernitano, and Marina di Arechi (opened in 2015). Salerno Costa d'Amalfi Airport, Salerno airport is located in the neighboring towns of Pontecagnano Faiano and Bellizzi.


Education

Salerno hosted the oldest medical school in the world, the
Schola Medica Salernitana The Schola Medica Salernitana ( it, Scuola Medica Salernitana) was a Medieval medical school A medical school is a tertiary educational institution, or part of such an institution, that teaches medicine Medicine is the Art (skill), art, scie ...
, the most important source of medical knowledge in Europe in the early Middle Ages. It was closed in 1811 by
Joachim Murat it, Gioacchino-Napoleone Murat , religion = Roman Catholic Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ancien ...

Joachim Murat
. In 1944 king Vittorio Emanuele III established Istituto Universitario di Magistero "Giovanni Cuomo". In 1968 the university became state-controlled. Today University of Salerno is located in the neighboring town of Fisciano and has about 34,000 students and ten faculties: Arts and Philosophy, Economics, Education, Engineering, Foreign language and literature, Law, Mathematics, Physics and Natural Sciences, Medicine, Pharmacy and Political Science.


Sport

The city's main association football, football team is U.S. Salernitana 1919, that plays in Serie A (the first highest football division in Italy). Their home stadium is Stadio Arechi, opened in 1990 and with a capacity of 37,245. The most successful team in the city is the women's handball team PDO Handball Team Salerno, with its four national titles, four national cups and two national supercups; other noteworthy teams are Arechi in rugby football, rugby and Rari Nantes Salerno in water polo. The city has also a tradition in motorsport.


Attractions

Salerno is located at the geographical center of a triangle nicknamed ''Tourist Triangle of the 3 P's'' (namely a triangle with the corners in Pompei, Paestum and Positano). This peculiarity gives Salerno special tourist characteristics that are increased by the many local points of tourist interest like the ''Lungomare Trieste'' (''Trieste Seafront Promenade''), the ''Castello di Arechi'' (''Arechis' Castle''), the ''Salerno Cathedral, Duomo'' (cathedral) and the ''Museo Didattico della Scuola Medica Salernitana'' (''Educational Museum of the Schola Medica Salernitana, Salernitan Medical School'').


Secular sights

* ''Lungomare Trieste'' (''Trieste Seafront Promenade''). This promenade was created from the sea during the 1950s and it is one of the best in Italy, at the level (and imitation) of those in the French Riviera. It has an extension of nearly five miles () with many rare palms. * ''Castello di Arechi'' ("Arechis' Castle") is a large castle commanding the city from a hill. It was enlarged by Arechis II over a pre-existing Roman-Byzantine construction. Today it houses rooms for exhibitions and congresses. The Castle offers views of the city and the
Gulf of Salerno The Gulf of Salerno (Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional It ...

Gulf of Salerno
. * ''Centro storico di Salerno''. The "Historical Downtown of Salerno" is believed to be one of the best maintained in the Italian peninsula. Its "Via dei mercanti" (Merchant street) is even today one of the main shopping streets in the city. The Salerno Cathedral, Duomo is its centre. * ''Giardino della Minerva''. "Minerva's Garden (Salerno), Minerva's Garden" is situated on the fringes of the castle hill that dominates the old Salerno. In it can be found the medieval "Hortus sanitatis" (Health garden) of the
Schola Medica Salernitana The Schola Medica Salernitana ( it, Scuola Medica Salernitana) was a Medieval medical school A medical school is a tertiary educational institution, or part of such an institution, that teaches medicine Medicine is the Art (skill), art, scie ...
, that was the first European "orto botanico" (botanical garden). * ''Parco del Mercatello''. The "Park of Mercatello (little market)" is situated in the eastern section of the city. It was made in 1998 and with its about twenty acres is one of the biggest in Italy. * ''Forte La Carnale''. The "La Carnale Castle" got its name from a medieval battle against the Arabs and is part of a sports complex (with pool, tennis courts and hockey). Actually, it is used as a cultural centre for expositions and meetings. * ''Villa Comunale di Salerno'' (''Municipal Park of Salerno''). The garden of the old city hall is actually a huge recreation area in front of the Salerno Theatre (the "Teatro Verdi"), with a fountain (called "Don Tullio") done in 1790. * ''Colle Bellara'' (''Bellara Hill''), a hill from which it is possible to see the Amalfi Coast up to the Cilento. * ''Teatro Verdi''. The Salerno Theater ("Teatro Verdi") was done in 1872 and is decorated with paintings of Gaetano D'Agostino. The theatre was heavily damaged during the 1980 earthquake and rebuilt in 1994, during the celebrations for the fifty years of "#World War II, "Salerno Capital" and actual developments, Salerno Capital of Italy". * ''Palazzo di Città di Salerno'' (''Town Hall of Salerno''). It was constructed in 1936 in typical Fascist architecture, Fascist style. Its main saloon, the "Marmol Saloon" was the meeting room for the first Government of the
Kingdom of Italy The Kingdom of Italy ( it, Regno d'Italia) was a state that existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II en, Victor Emmanuel Mario Albert Eugene Ferdinand Thomas , house = House of Savoy, Savoy , father = Charles Albert o ...
after the fall of Fascism in 1943. * ''Palazzo Genovese''. In baroque style of the 17th century, was rebuilt by the architect Ferdinando Sanfelice. * ''Palazzo Pinto''. It is situated in the middle of the "Via dei Mercanti" (merchant street) and has the "Pinacoteca Provinciale" (Provincial Pinacotheca). * ''Palazzo De Ruggiero''. Noble building done in the 16th century, situated near the cathedral. * ''Castel Terracena'' (''Terracena Castle''), built by
Robert Guiscard Robert Guiscard (; Modern ; – 17 July 1085) was a Normans, Norman adventurer remembered for the Norman conquest of southern Italy, conquest of southern Italy and Sicily. Robert was born into the Hauteville family in Normandy, went on to become ...

Robert Guiscard
in 1076–1086 as a royal mansion, next to the Eastern walls. Only scarce remains (mainly tower-houses in tuff) can be seen today, as it was destroyed by an earthquake in 1275. * ''Palazzo Fruscione''. Medieval palace erected in the 12th century. It includes walls of the Arechis II Royal Mansion. * ''Palazzo Copeta''. It is situated in the Lombards, Lombard section of the city. It hosted the last lessons of the
Schola Medica Salernitana The Schola Medica Salernitana ( it, Scuola Medica Salernitana) was a Medieval medical school A medical school is a tertiary educational institution, or part of such an institution, that teaches medicine Medicine is the Art (skill), art, scie ...
during
Napoleon Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader. He rose to prominence during the French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) refers to the period that began with the Estates General o ...

Napoleon
times. * ''Palazzo d'Avossa''. Noble palace rebuilt in the 17th century by the architect Ferdinando Sanfelice. It has frescoes inspired by Torquato Tasso's ''Gerusalemme liberata'' * ''Palazzo Ruggi d'Aragona''. Palace built in the 15th century near the "Via dei Mercanti" (merchant street). * ''Palazzo Morese''. Built in the 14th century and later renovated in Baroque style, facing the cathedral.


Churches

* The Cathedral of Salerno is the main tourist attraction of the city. In its
crypt A crypt (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in r ...

crypt
is the tomb of one of the twelve apostles of Christ,
Saint Matthew Matthew the Apostle,, shortened to ''Matti'' (whence ar, مَتَّى, Mattā), meaning "Gift of YHWH"; arc, , Mattai; grc-koi, Μαθθαῖος, ''Maththaîos'' or , ''Matthaîos''; cop, ⲙⲁⲧⲑⲉⲟⲥ, Mattheos; la, Matthaeus a ...

Saint Matthew
the Evangelist. * ''Chiesa della SS. Annunziata'' (14th century) is located near the northern entrance of medieval Salerno (called "Portacatena"). It has a belltower done by the architect Ferdinando Sanfelice. * ''Chiesa di San Gregorio''. The church was built in the 10th century near the "Via dei Mercanti" (merchant street): a document states its existence in 1058. Actually is the home of the "Museo didattico della Scuola Medica Salernitana" (Museum of the Salerno Medical School). * ''Chiesa di San Giorgio''. The church of St. George is a Baroque church in Salerno which has paintings of Andrea Sabatini and high-quality frescoes by Francesco Solimena, Francesco and Angelo Solimena (late 17th century). It is related to one of the most ancient monasteries of the city, dating back to the early 9th century, in which remains of apse frescoes have been recently brought to light. * ''Chiesa di San Pietro in Vinculis''. It is located on the "Piazza Portanova" (Portanova Square) and has Renaissance paintings. * ''Chiesa di San Benedetto''. The St. Benedict church was originally part of a monastery from the 7th–9th centuries, connected to a massive aqueduct whose remains are still visible today. After the Arabs destruction in 884, it was rebuilt by Abbot Angelarius with a nave and two aisles. Remains of an entrance quadriporticus can still be seen. * ''Chiesa di Sant'Agostino''. The church is renowned for the "Madonna di Costantinopoli" (Our Lady of Costantinople) inside. * ''Chiesa del SS. Crocifisso''. The church located in the "Via dei Mercanti" (merchant street) has a ''Cripta'' of the 10th century. * ''Chiesa di San Pietro a Corte''. A Lombard church from the 10th century, it was part of Arechis II's royal mansion with the name "Cappella Palatina". * ''Chiesa dell'Annunziatella''. The church is located near the old Roman Forum and has a 16th-century fountain near the entrance.


Monuments

* ''Faro della Giustizia'' (''Justice Lighthouse''). Monument of the Judiciary Citadel of Salerno, near the "Colle Bellara". * ''Monumento al Marinaio'' (''Monument to the Sailor''), situated in Concordia square, in front of the "Masuccio Salernitano" tourist port. *La Statua La Spigolatrice di Sapri. Sculpted in tribute to an 1857 Poetry, poem written by Luigi Mercantini


Museums and galleries

* ''Museo Archeologico Provinciale'' (''Provincial Archaeological Museum''). The oldest museum of the city is the ''Museo archeologico provinciale'' (Provincial Archeological Museum), built in 1927 and restored in 2013, located in ''Palazzo Durazzo'' (Durazzo Palace), also known as ''Castelnovo Reale'', the historical house of Queen Margareth. The museum offers a wide collection of historical artefacts from the Sannitico, Etruscan and Roman periods which have been found all around the province or in Salerno itself, especially in the archaeological area of ''Fratte'' (a district of Salerno). One of the most beautiful exhibits is the ''Testa di Apollo'' (Apollo's head), attributed to ''Pasiteles'', found in a fishnet in 1930.). * ''Museo Didattico della Scuola Medica Salernitana'' (''Educational Museum of the Salernitan Medical School''). Located inside the Lombard church of San Gregorio. The Museum has noteworthy documents from the
Schola Medica Salernitana The Schola Medica Salernitana ( it, Scuola Medica Salernitana) was a Medieval medical school A medical school is a tertiary educational institution, or part of such an institution, that teaches medicine Medicine is the Art (skill), art, scie ...
. Restored and renovated in 2009, the museum shows a large variety of old medical tools and, thanks to its brand new multimedia exhibition, it is also possible to interact with Medieval codes and old medical treaties which show the history of the ''Scuola Medica Salernitana''. * ''Museo Diocesano di Salerno'' The ''Museo diocesan''o (Diocesan Museum), located in the ex Archdiocesan Seminary, offers a collection of paintings and ivories that date back to the period that goes from XII to XVIII. What seems to be extremely important is the section of religious art from the Middle Ages in which stand out the famous ivories from Salerno and the ''exulted'' (codice minato). The painting section houses paintings by Francesco Solimena, Andrea Sabatini, Luca Giordano and Cesare de Sesto * ''Pinacoteca Provinciale'' (''Provincial Pinacotheca''). Located in :it:Palazzo Pinto, Palazzo Pinto, houses paintings from Renaissance to Futurism, like those of Solimena, Sabatini (who worked in the Sistine Chapel, Giovan Battista Caracciolo, Luca Giordano and foreign artists who were fascinated by the colours and the landscapes of Salerno.


Archaeological sites

* ''Area archeologica Etruscan civilization, etrusco-Samnites, sannitica di Fratte''. The ''Archaeological site of the Etruscans and Samnites in Fratte'' is the most southern in Italy and is located in the eastern outskirts of Salerno. It has a huge necropolis.


Events

Various are the events that animate, or have animated, the city of Salerno during the year: The most important holiday in Salerno occurs on September 21 and is the Feast of San Matteo, apostle and evangelist, patron of the city. On this occasion, the silver statue of the saint crosses the city centre in a procession deeply felt by the population. The attraction of the festival is the traditional "rowing of S. Matteo" which takes place on the morning of the 21st in the body of water in front of Lungomare Trieste, and in which the six crews made up of the "paranze" who carry the Saints in the procession take part. On the occasion of the celebrations, band ensembles of national and international fame are hired and they generally perform in Piazza Amendola. By ancient custom, the party ends after the splendid midnight firework display, fired from a pontoon to the sea in front of the promenade. The classic final blow officially puts an end to the celebrations in honour of the patron saint. The Salerno Film Festival reached its 69th edition in 2015. The "Linea D'Ombra - Festival Culture Giovani " (Shadow Line - Culture Youth Festival) is an event that takes place annually since 1995, born as a rib of the Giffoni Film Festival, it presents events related to contemporary creativity. The Fiera del Crocifisso (Crucifix Fair) takes up in a modern key the "San Matteo Fair" which was established in the Middle Ages by Manfredi of Swabia and attracted merchants from all over central and southern Italy. The event includes shows, historical re-enactments and is a showcase for local crafts and is considered one of the most important historical re-enactment events in all of Italy.


Luci d'artista

Luci d'artista (Artist lights) is an event that takes place since 2006 in the period between early November and late January, making it the main tourist attraction for the city in autumn and winter. Following the model of what was done in Turin, lights of particular scenographic effects and luminous works by local and non-local artists are installed in the main streets of the city and in the municipal villa. During the editions, the works of Domenico Luca Pannoli, Nello Ferrigno, Enrica Borghi, Eduardo Giannattasio, Luigi Stoisa, Francesco Casorati, Rebecca Horn, Chiara Dynys and Giulio Paolini were positioned in the 27 linear km of surface covered by the installations. The monumental sand Nativity that is made by famous international sculptors is another of the important events that from December attract large crowds from all over Italy for the Salerno Christmas. In 2016 the sand nativity attracted over 52,000 spectators. The event is completed by the 25-meter tree located in Piazza Portanova and the Christmas market set up in the squares of the historic centre and on the Trieste waterfront.


Salerno Literature Festival

The Salerno Literature Festival is a cultural event born in 2013 which is held every year in the last week of June. During the festival, there are several meetings with authors, readings, theatrical and musical performances, concerts and exhibitions. The culminating event of the event is the Salerno Book of Europe Award. It has been called the most important literary festival in Southern Italy, [92] [93] and has established collaborations with other literary events of national importance. In 2014 the festival reached 12,000 admissions. Events take place in the historic city center, often in places usually closed to the public.


Comic-cons

The city hosted three different comic book fairs. The first was the Salerno Comicon, organized for 3 years (from 2011 to 2013) in collaboration with Napoli Comicon. From 2013 to 2015 it hosted the "Salerno in Fantasy" (SiF) fair every summer which also had a winter edition, which was held in the city of Fisciano. The only comic fair that still takes place in the city is FantaExpo, first held in 2012, which is held every September in the Parco Urbano dell'Irno and which ends every year with a concert by an artist linked to the world of cartoons soundtrack or with a rap or indie singer of the moment. Furthermore, from 2018 the "Irno Comix & Games" fair, usually held in the summer in Baronissi, holds its winter edition in the Villa Carrara in conjunction with the Luci d'Artista.


Twin towns – sister cities

Salerno is twin towns and sister cities, twinned with:


See also

* List of Princes of Salerno *
Principality of Salerno The Lombard The term Lombard refers to members of or things related to Lombardy (man) it, Lombarda (woman) lmo, Lombard (man) lmo, Lombarda (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank ...
*
Schola Medica Salernitana The Schola Medica Salernitana ( it, Scuola Medica Salernitana) was a Medieval medical school A medical school is a tertiary educational institution, or part of such an institution, that teaches medicine Medicine is the Art (skill), art, scie ...
* Salerno Ivories * Salerno railway station * University of Salerno * U.S. Salernitana 1919 *
Operation Avalanche Operation Avalanche was the codename for the Allied landings near the port of Salerno, executed on 9 September 1943, part of the Allied invasion of Italy. The Italians withdrew from the war the day before the invasion, but the Allies landed i ...
*
Salerno Cathedral Salerno Cathedral (or duomo) is the main church in the city of Salerno in southern Italy and a major tourist attraction. It is dedicated to Saint Matthew, whose relics are inside the crypt. The Cathedral was built when the city was the capital of ...


References


Bibliography

* Bonfanti, Giuseppe. ''Dalla Svolta di Salerno al 18 aprile 1948''. Editrice La Scuola. Brescia 1979. * Crisci, Generoso. ''Salerno sacra:ricerca storica''. Edizioni della Curia arcivescovile. Salerno 1962. * D'Episcopo, Francesco. ''Salerno. Sulla scia di Alfonso Gatto. Masuccio e l'Ottocento salernitano''. Editrice Il Sapere. Ancona 2004. * De Renzi, Salvatore. ''Storia documentata della Scuola Medica di Salerno''. Tipografie Gaetano Nobile. Naples, 1857. * Di Martino, Maristella. ''Le Ricette di Salerno. La cultura gastronomica della città''. Editore Il Raggio di Luna. Salerno 2006. * Errico, Ernesto. ''Cinquant'anni fa a Salerno''. Ripostes Editore. Salerno 2004. * Felici, Maria. ''Palazzi nobiliari a Salerno''. Edizioni La Veglia. Salerno 1996. * Fonzo, Erminio
''Partiti ed elezioni in provincia di Salerno nella crisi dello Stato liberale (1919–1923)''
in Rassegna storica lucana, nn. 49–50, 2011, pp. 43–113. * Fonzo, Erminio
''Il fascismo conformista. Le origini del regime nella provincia di Salerno (1920–1926)''
Edizioni del Paguro, Mercato San Severino (SA), 2011. * Giordano, Gaetano. ''Il Profeta della Grande Salerno. Cento anni di storia meridionale nei ricordi di Alfonso Menna''. Avagliano Editore. Salerno 1999. * Iannizzaro, Vincenzo. ''Salerno. La Cinta Muraria dai Romani agli Spagnoli''. Editore Elea Press. Salerno 1999. * Iovino, Giorgia. ''Riqualificazione urbana e sviluppo locale a Salerno. Attori, strumenti e risorse di una città in trasformazione''. Edizioni Scientifiche Italiane. Naples, 2002. * Mazzetti, Massimo. ''Salerno Capitale d'Italia''. Edizioni del Paguro. Salerno 2000. * Musi, Aurelio. ''Salerno moderna''. Editore Avagliano. Salerno 1999. * Ferraiolo Marco ''Storia di un anno di anni fa – Racconti di vita salernitana degli anni 60–70'' . Edizioni Ripostes . Salerno 2005 * Roma, Adelia. ''I giardini di Salerno''. Editore Elea Press. Salerno 1997. * Seton-Watson, Christopher. ''Italy from Liberalism to Fascism, 1870–1925''. John Murray Publishers. London, 1967.


External links


Photo of the "Cripta" of the Salerno Cathedral, where is the tomb of the Apostle Matthew

Information about the city of Salerno (in Italian)
* * {{Authority control Salerno, Coastal towns in Campania Cities founded by Rome