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Royal Dutch Shell plc (to be renamed Shell plc effective 24 January 2022), commonly known as Shell, is a
British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people The British people, or Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the British Overseas Territories, and the Crown dependenc ...

British
-
multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, a sovereign state that comprises two or more nat ...
oil An oil is any nonpolar chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that can b ...

oil
and
gas Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually Deformation (mechanics), deforms (flows) under an appl ...

gas
company headquartered in
London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city stands on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its estuary leading to the Nor ...

London
at The Shell Centre . It is one of the oil and gas "s", and, measured by 2020 revenues, the 19th-largest company in the world. It is the largest based in
Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven regions are commonly regarded as continents. Ordered from largest ...

Europe
and is the largest company overall which is not based in either China or the United States. In the 2020
Forbes Global 2000 The Forbes Global 2000 is an annual ranking of the top 2,000 public companies in the world by ''Forbes ''Forbes'' () is an American business magazine owned by Integrated Whale Media Investments and the Forbes family (publishers), Forbes fami ...
, Shell was ranked as the 21st-largest public company in the world. Shell was first in the 2013
Fortune Global 500 The ''Fortune'' Global 500, also known as Global 500, is an annual ranking of the top 500 corporation A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company—authorized by the state to act as a single entity (a legal enti ...
list of the world's largest companies; in that year its revenues were equivalent to 84% of the Dutch national $556 billion GDP. Since then, Shell has dropped to the fifth largest company on the Global 500, but is still the largest non- state-owned energy corporation in the world and the second-largest non-Chinese corporation in the world, falling short only to
Walmart Walmart Inc. (; formerly Wal-Mart Stores, Inc.) is an American multinational retail corporation that operates a chain of hypermarkets, discount department stores, and grocery stores from the United States The United States of Americ ...

Walmart
. Shell is
vertically integrated In microeconomics Microeconomics (from Greek prefix ''mikro-'' meaning "small" + ''economics'') is a branch of economics that studies the behavior of individuals and Theory of the firm, firms in making decisions regarding the allocation o ...
and is active in every area of the oil and gas industry, including
exploration Exploration is the act of searching for the purpose of discovery Discovery may refer to: * Discovery (observation) Discovery is the act of detecting something new, or something previously unrecognized as meaningful. With reference to scienc ...
and
production Production may be: Economics and business * Production (economics) * Production, the act of manufacturing goods * Production, in the outline of industrial organization, the act of making products (goods and services) * Production as a statistic, g ...
,
refining{{Unreferenced, date=December 2009 Refining (also perhaps called by the mathematical term affining) is the process of purification of a (1) substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote the base or owner ...
,
transport Transport (commonly used in the U.K.), or transportation (used in the U.S.), is the Motion, movement of humans, animals and cargo, goods from one location to another. In other words, the action of transport is defined as a particular movement ...
, distribution and marketing,
petrochemical Petrochemicals (sometimes abbreviated as petchems) are the product (chemistry), chemical products obtained from petroleum by refining. Some chemical compounds made from petroleum are also obtained from other fossil fuels, such as coal or natural g ...
s,
power generation Electricity generation is the process of generating electric power Electric power is the rate, per unit time, at which electrical energy is transferred by an electric circuit. The SI unit of power is the watt The watt (symbol: W) is a ...
, and
trading Trade involves the transfer of goods or services from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money. Economists refer to a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to ...

trading
. It also has
renewable energy Renewable energy is useful energy that is collected from renewable resource File:Global Vegetation.jpg, Global vegetation A renewable resource, also known as a flow resource, is a natural resource which will replenish to replace the portio ...
activities, including
biofuels Biofuel is fuel that is produced through contemporary processes from biomass, rather than by the very slow geological processes involved in the formation of fossil fuels, such as oil. Since biomass technically can be used as a fuel directly (e.g ...
,
hydrogen Hydrogen is the chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of the chemical elements In chemistry, an element is a pure substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same ...
and
wind Wind is the natural movement of air or other gases relative to a planet's surface. Wind occurs on a range of scales, from thunderstorm flows lasting tens of minutes, to local breezes generated by heating of land surfaces and lasting a few hours, ...

wind
and
solar Solar may refer to: Astronomy * Of or relating to the Sun. ** A solar telescope 175px, The Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope at Roque de los Muchachos Observatory, La Palma in the Canary Islands. A solar telescope is a special purpose telescope used ...

solar
. Shell has operations in over 99 countries, produces around 3.7 million
barrels of oil equivalent The barrel of oil equivalent (BOE) is a unit of energy based on the approximate energy released by burning one barrel A barrel or cask is a hollow cylindrical container with a bulging center, longer than it is wide. They are traditionally ma ...
per day and has around 44,000 service stations worldwide. As of 31 December 2019, Shell had total proved reserves of of oil equivalent.
Shell Oil Company Shell Oil Company is the United States-based wholly owned subsidiary of Royal Dutch Shell, a transnational corporation "oil major" of Anglo-Dutch origins, which is amongst the largest oil company, oil companies in the world. Approximately 80,00 ...
, its principal subsidiary in the United States, is one of its largest businesses. Shell holds 44% of Raízen, a publicly listed joint venture with
Cosan Cosan is a public listed company, a Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 m ...

Cosan
, which is the third-largest
Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America South America is a continent entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, ...
-based energy company by revenues and a major producer of
ethanol Ethanol (also called ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, drinking alcohol, or simply alcohol) is an organic Organic may refer to: * Organic, of or relating to an organism, a living entity * Organic, of or relating to an anatomical organ (anatomy), o ...
. Shell was formed in 1907 through the merger of the Royal Dutch Petroleum Company, based in the Netherlands, and the "Shell" Transport and Trading Company, based in the United Kingdom. The combined company rapidly became the leading competitor of the American
Standard Oil Standard Oil Co. was an American oil An oil is any nonpolar chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by havin ...

Standard Oil
and by 1920 Shell was the largest producer of oil in the world. Shell first entered the chemicals industry in 1929. Shell was one of the " Seven Sisters" which dominated the global petroleum industry from the mid-1940s to the mid-1970s. In 1964 Shell was a partner in the world's first commercial sea transportation of liquefied natural gas (LNG). In 1970 Shell acquired the mining company
Billiton BHP, formerly known as BHP Billiton, is the trading entity of BHP Group Limited and BHP Group plc, an Anglo-Australian multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple count ...
, which it subsequently sold in 1994 and now forms part of
BHP BHP, formerly known as BHP Billiton, is the trading entity of BHP Group Limited and BHP Group plc, an Anglo-Australian multinational mining, metals and petroleum dual-listed public company A public company, publicly traded company, publi ...
. In recent decades gas has become an increasingly important part of Shell's business and Shell acquired
BG Group BG Group plc was a United Kingdom, British Multinational corporation, multinational petroleum, oil and natural gas, gas company headquartered in Reading, Berkshire, Reading, United Kingdom. On 8 April 2015, Royal Dutch Shell announced that it had ...
in 2016. Shell has a primary listing on the
London Stock Exchange London Stock Exchange (LSE) is a stock exchange in the City of London The City of London is a City status in the United Kingdom, city, Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county and local government district that contains the histori ...
and is a constituent of the
FTSE 100 Index The Financial Times Stock Exchange 100 Index, also called the FTSE 100 Index, FTSE 100, FTSE, or, informally, the "Footsie" , is a share index of the 100 companies A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personality, legal entity rep ...

FTSE 100 Index
. It had a
market capitalisation Market capitalization, commonly called market cap, is the market value of a publicly traded company's outstanding shares. Market capitalization is equal to the share price multiplied by the number of shares outstanding. Since outstanding sto ...
of £216 billion at the close of trading on 27 June 2019, by far the largest of any company listed on the London Stock Exchange. It has secondary listings on
Euronext Amsterdam A bond from the Dutch East India Company, dating from 7 November 1623, for the amount of 2,400 florins. Euronext Amsterdam is a stock exchange based in Amsterdam Amsterdam (, , ) is the Capital of the Netherlands, capital and Mun ...
and the
New York Stock Exchange The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE, nicknamed "The Big Board") is an American stock exchange in the Financial District, Manhattan, Financial District of Lower Manhattan in New York City. It is by far the List of stock exchanges, world's largest st ...

New York Stock Exchange
. There are two types of shares: A (code RDSA) and B (code RDSB). Until its unification in 2005 the firm operated as a
dual-listed company A dual-listed company or DLC is a corporate structure in which two corporations A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personality, legal entity representing an ...
, whereby the British and Dutch companies maintained their legal existence but operated as a single-unit partnership for business purposes. In November 2021 the firm announced plans to end the dual share structure, move its headquarters to Britain, and change its name to Shell plc. The Shell logo is known as the "pecten" after the sea shell ''
Pecten maximus ''Pecten maximus'', common names Common may refer to: Places * Common, a townland in County Tyrone County Tyrone (; ) is one of the thirty-two counties of Ireland Ireland (; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an i ...
'', on which its design is based; the current version of the logo was designed by
Raymond Loewy Raymond Loewy ( , ; November 5, 1893 – July 14, 1986) was a French-born American industrial designer who achieved fame for the magnitude of his design efforts across a variety of industries. He was recognized for this by '' Time'' magaz ...
in 1971. As of February 2020, Shell's largest shareholder (A and B shares combined as a percent of the company) was the Netherlands Central Institute for Cashless Securities Transactions with 21.19%, ahead of Guaranty Nominees Limited in second with 18.03%,
BlackRock BlackRock, Inc. is an American multinational investment management corporation based in New York City New York City (NYC), often simply called New York, is the List of United States cities by population, most populous city in the Unite ...
with 7.14%, and The Capital Group with 4.99%. According to the CDP Carbon Majors Report 2017, when taking into account its scope 3 greenhouse gas emissions (emissions caused by the public and other companies using its products), Shell was the ninth-largest corporate producer of
greenhouse gas emissions Greenhouse gas emissions from human activities strengthen the greenhouse effect The greenhouse effect is the process by which radiation from a planet's atmosphere warms the planet's surface to a temperature above what it would be without th ...
in the period 1988–2015. In 2018, Shell announced it hoped to achieve
net zero Carbon neutrality refers to achieving net-zero carbon dioxide emissions. This can be done by balancing emissions of carbon dioxide with its removal (often through carbon offset A carbon offset is a reduction in emissions of carbon dioxide or oth ...
greenhouse gas emissions Greenhouse gas emissions from human activities strengthen the greenhouse effect The greenhouse effect is the process by which radiation from a planet's atmosphere warms the planet's surface to a temperature above what it would be without th ...
by 2050 or sooner. Shell's speed of implementing its emissions mitigation strategies was the main subject of the landmark legal case '' Milieudefensie et al v Royal Dutch Shell''.


History


Origins

The Royal Dutch Shell Group was created in April 1907 through the amalgamation of two rival companies: the Royal Dutch Petroleum Company ( nl, Koninklijke Nederlandse Petroleum Maatschappij) of the Netherlands and the Shell Transport and Trading Company Limited of the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shortha ...

United Kingdom
. It was a move largely driven by the need to compete globally with
Standard Oil Standard Oil Co. was an American oil An oil is any nonpolar chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by havin ...

Standard Oil
. The Royal Dutch Petroleum Company was a Dutch company founded in 1890 to develop an oilfield in Pangkalan Brandan,
North Sumatra North Sumatra ( id, Sumatra Utara) is a Provinces of Indonesia, province of Indonesia. It consists of a large northwestern belt of the island of Sumatra and its capital is Medan, Indonesia, Medan. North Sumatra is the fourth most-populous province ...
, and initially led by August Kessler, Hugo Loudon, and
Henri Deterding Henri Wilhelm August Deterding (19 April 1866 – 4 February 1939) was one of the first executives of the Royal Dutch Petroleum Company and was its general manager for 36 years, from 1900 to 1936, and was also chairman of the combined Royal Dutch/S ...
. The "Shell" Transport and Trading Company (the quotation marks were part of the legal name) was a
British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people The British people, or Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the British Overseas Territories, and the Crown dependenc ...

British
company, founded in 1897 by Marcus Samuel, 1st Viscount Bearsted, and his brother . Their father had owned an antique company in
Houndsditch Houndsditch is a street running through parts of the Portsoken and Bishopsgate, Bishopsgate Without wards of the City of London; areas which are also a part of the East End of London The road follows the line of the outside edge of the ditch whic ...

Houndsditch
, London, which expanded in 1833 to import and sell seashells, after which the company "Shell" took its name. For various reasons, the new firm operated as a
dual-listed company A dual-listed company or DLC is a corporate structure in which two corporations A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personality, legal entity representing an ...
, whereby the merging companies maintained their legal existence but operated as a single-unit partnership for business purposes. The terms of the merger gave 60 percent stock ownership of the new group to Royal Dutch, and 40 percent to Shell. Both became
holding companies A holding company is a company A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personality, legal entity representing an association of people, whether Natural person, natural, Legal personality, legal or a mixture of both, with a specific objecti ...
for Bataafsche Petroleum Maatschappij, containing the production and refining assets, and Anglo-Saxon Petroleum Company, containing the transport and storage assets. National patriotic sensibilities would not permit a full-scale merger or takeover of either of the two companies. The Dutch company, ''Koninklijke Nederlandsche Petroleum Maatschappij'' at
The Hague The Hague ( ; nl, Den Haag or ) is a List of cities in the Netherlands by province, city and Municipalities of the Netherlands, municipality on the western coast of the Netherlands on the North Sea. It is the administrative and royal capital o ...

The Hague
, was in charge of production and manufacture. The British ''Anglo-Saxon Petroleum Company'' was based in London, to direct the transport and storage of the products. In 1912, Royal Dutch Shell purchased the
Rothschilds The Rothschild family () is a wealthy Ashkenazi Jewish Ashkenazi Jews ( are a Jews, Jewish Jewish diaspora, diaspora population who Coalescent theory, coalesced in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the first millennium. The trad ...
' Russian oil assets in a stock deal. The Group's production portfolio then consisted of 53 percent from the
East Indies File:Indies.PNG, 300px, The East Indies, and the Indies, are Archaism, archaic terms referring to the lands, as the names suggest, east of the Indian subcontinent, most particularly Maritime Southeast Asia and parts of East Asia.Oxford D ...
, 29 percent from the
Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, succeeding the Tsardom of Russia following the Treaty of Nystad that ended the Great Northern War. T ...
, and 17 percent from
Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Europe, Central, Eastern Europe, Eastern and Southeast Europe, Southeastern Europe. It borders Bulgaria to the south, Ukraine to the north, Hungary to the west, Serbia to t ...

Romania
.


20th century

During the
First World War World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war that began on 28 July 1914 and ended on 11 November 1918. It involved much of Europe, as well as Russia, the Unite ...

First World War
, Shell was the main supplier of fuel to the British Expeditionary Force. It was also the sole supplier of
aviation fuel 250px, At some airports, underground fuel pipes allow refueling without the need for tank trucks. Trucks carry the necessary hoses and pumping equipment, but no fuel. Aviation fuels are petroleum-based fuels, or petroleum and synthetic fuel blends ...
and supplied 80 percent of the British Army's
TNT Trinitrotoluene (; TNT), or more specifically 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, is a chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entity, molecular entities) composed of atoms from more ...

TNT
. It also volunteered all of its shipping to the
British Admiralty The Admiralty was the British government department The departments of the Government of the United Kingdom are the principal units through which it exercises executive authority; a few of them are titled Ministry (government department), min ...
. The in 1916 saw 17% of the group's worldwide production destroyed. In 1919, Shell took control of the
Mexican Eagle Petroleum Company ''Compañía Mexicana de Petróleo El Águila SA'', (''El Águila'' for short), called in English the Mexican Eagle Oil Company or Mexican Eagle Petroleum Corporation, was a Mexican oil company in the 20th century. History Sir Weetman Pearson, ...
and in 1921 formed Shell-Mex Limited which marketed products under the "Shell" and "Eagle" brands in the United Kingdom. During the
Genoa Conference The Genoa Economic and Financial Conference was a formal conclave of 34 nations held in Genoa Genoa ( ; it, Genova ; lij, Zêna ; English, historically, and la, Genua) is the capital of the Italian region of Liguria and the sixth-largest cit ...
of 1922 Royal Dutch Shell was in negotiations for a
monopoly A monopoly (from Greek el, μόνος, mónos, single, alone, label=none and el, πωλεῖν, pōleîn, to sell, label=none) is as described by Irving Fisher, a market with the "absence of competition", creating a situation where a specific ...

monopoly
over Soviet oilfields in
Baku Baku (, ; az, Bakı, ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and sm ...

Baku
and , although the leak of a draft treaty led to breakdown of the talks. In 1929,
Shell Chemicals Shell Chemicals is the petrochemicals Petrochemicals (sometimes abbreviated as petchems) are the chemical products obtained from petroleum Petroleum (), also known as crude oil and oil, is a #Latent heat of vaporization, naturally occurring, ...
was founded. By the end of the 1920s, Shell was the world's leading oil company, producing 11 percent of the world's
crude oil Petroleum, also known as crude oil and oil, is a naturally occurring, yellowish-black liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible In fluid mechanics or more generally continuum mechanics, incompressible flow (isochoric process, isocho ...
supply and owning 10 percent of its tanker tonnage.
Shell Mex House Shell Mex House, also known as 80 Strand, is a grade II listed building located at number 80 Strand in London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. ...
was completed in 1931, and was the head office for Shell's marketing activity worldwide. In 1932, partly in response to the difficult economic conditions of the
Great Depression The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning Great Depression in the United States, in the United States. The timing of the Great Depression varied around the world; in mos ...
, Shell-Mex merged its UK marketing operations with those of to create Shell-Mex & BP, a company that traded until the brands separated in 1975. Royal Dutch Company ranked 79th among United States corporations in the value of
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a World war, global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved World War II by country, the vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great ...
military production contracts. The 1930s saw Shell's Mexican assets seized by the local government. After the invasion of the Netherlands by
Nazi Germany Nazi Germany, (lit. "National Socialist State"), ' (lit. "Nazi State") for short; also ' (lit. "National Socialist Germany") officially known as the German Reich from 1933 until 1943, and the Greater German Reich from 1943 to 1945, was t ...

Nazi Germany
in 1940, the head office of the Dutch companies was moved to . In 1945 Shell's Danish headquarters in
Copenhagen Copenhagen ( da, København ) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark Denmark ( da, Danmark, ) is a Nordic countries, Nordic country in Northern Europe. It is the most populous and politically central Constituent state, constit ...

Copenhagen
, at the time being used by the
Gestapo The (), abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of letters, or words taken from the full version of the word or phrase; for e ...

Gestapo
, was bombed by
Royal Air Force The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's Air force, air and space force. It was formed towards the end of the World War I, First World War on 1 April 1918, becoming the first independent air force in the world, by regrouping the Royal ...
in Operation Carthage. Around 1952, Shell was the first company to purchase and use a
computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operations known as Computer program, programs. These programs enable compu ...

computer
in the Netherlands. The computer, a Ferranti Mark 1*, was assembled and used at the Shell laboratory in Amsterdam. In 1970 Shell acquired the mining company
Billiton BHP, formerly known as BHP Billiton, is the trading entity of BHP Group Limited and BHP Group plc, an Anglo-Australian multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple count ...
, which it subsequently sold in 1994.


21st century

In November 2004, following a period of turmoil caused by the revelation that Shell had been overstating its
oil reserves Oil reserves denote the amount of crude oil Petroleum (), also known as crude oil and oil, is a naturally occurring, yellowish-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface. It is commonly refined into various ty ...

oil reserves
, it was announced that the Shell Group would move to a single capital structure, creating a new parent company to be named Royal Dutch Shell plc, with its primary listing on the
London Stock Exchange London Stock Exchange (LSE) is a stock exchange in the City of London The City of London is a City status in the United Kingdom, city, Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county and local government district that contains the histori ...
(LSE), a secondary listing on the
Amsterdam Stock Exchange A bond from the Dutch East India Company, dating from 7 November 1623, for the amount of 2,400 florins. Euronext Amsterdam is a stock exchange A stock exchange, securities exchange, or bourse is an Exchange (organized market), excha ...
, its headquarters and tax residency in
The Hague The Hague ( ; nl, Den Haag or ) is a List of cities in the Netherlands by province, city and Municipalities of the Netherlands, municipality on the western coast of the Netherlands on the North Sea. It is the administrative and royal capital o ...

The Hague
, Netherlands and its registered office in London. The unification was completed on 20 July 2005 and the original owners delisted their companies from the respective exchanges. On 20 July 2005, the Shell Transport & Trading Company plc was delisted from the LSE, whereas, Royal Dutch Petroleum Company from
NYSE The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE, nicknamed "The Big Board") is an American stock exchange A stock exchange, securities exchange, or bourse is an Exchange (organized market), exchange where stockbrokers and stock trader, traders can buy and ...

NYSE
on 18 November 2005. The shares of the company were issued at a 60/40 advantage for the shareholders of Royal Dutch in line with the original ownership of the Shell Group. During the 2009 Iraqi oil services contracts tender, a consortium led by Shell (45%) and which included
Petronas Petroliam Nasional Berhad (National Petroleum Limited), commonly known as Petronas, is a Malaysian petroleum, oil and natural gas, gas company. Established in 1974 and wholly owned by the Government of Malaysia, the corporation is vested with ...

Petronas
(30%) was awarded a production contract for the "Majnoon field" in the south of Iraq, which contains an estimated of oil. The "West Qurna 1 field" production contract was awarded to a consortium led by
ExxonMobil Exxon Mobil Corporation, stylized as ExxonMobil, is an American multinational oil and gas corporation headquartered in Irving, Texas. It is the largest direct descendant of John D. Rockefeller's Standard Oil, and was formed on November 30, ...
(60%) and included Shell (15%). In February 2010 Shell and
Cosan Cosan is a public listed company, a Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 m ...

Cosan
formed a 50:50 joint-venture, Raízen, comprising all of Cosan's Brazilian ethanol, energy generation, fuel distribution and sugar activities, and all of Shell's Brazilian retail fuel and aviation distribution businesses. In March 2010, Shell announced the sale of some of its assets, including its liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) business, to meet the cost of a planned $28bn capital spending programme. Shell invited buyers to submit indicative bids, due by 22 March, with a plan to raise $2–3bn from the sale. In June 2010, Shell agreed to acquire all the business of East Resources for a cash consideration of $4.7 billion. The transaction included East Resources' tight gas fields. Over the course of 2013, the corporation began the sale of its US shale gas assets and canceled a US$20 billion gas project that was to be constructed in the US state of
Louisiana Louisiana (Standard French Standard French (in French: ''le français standard'', ''le français normé'', ''le français neutre'' eutral Frenchor ''le français international'' nternational French is an unofficial term for a standard v ...

Louisiana
. A new CEO Ben van Beurden was appointed in January 2014, prior to the announcement that the corporation's overall performance in 2013 was 38 percent lower than in 2012—the value of Shell's shares fell by 3 percent as a result. Following the sale of the majority of its
Australian Australians, colloquially referred to as "Aussies", are the citizens Citizenship is the Status (law), status of a person recognized under the law of a country (and/or local jurisdiction) of belonging to thereof. In international law it i ...

Australian
assets in February 2014, the corporation plans to sell a further US$15 billion worth of assets in the period leading up to 2015, with deals announced in Australia, Brazil and Italy. Shell announced on 8 April 2015 it had agreed to buy
BG Group BG Group plc was a United Kingdom, British Multinational corporation, multinational petroleum, oil and natural gas, gas company headquartered in Reading, Berkshire, Reading, United Kingdom. On 8 April 2015, Royal Dutch Shell announced that it had ...
for £47 billion (US$70 billion), subject to shareholder and regulatory approval. The acquisition was completed in February 2016, resulting in Shell surpassing
Chevron Corporation Chevron Corporation is an American multinational List of oil exploration and production companies, energy corporation. One of the Standard Oil#Successor companies, successor companies of Standard Oil, it is headquartered in San Ramon, California ...
and becoming the world's second largest non-state oil company. On 7 June 2016, Shell announced that it would build an ethane cracker plant near
Pittsburgh Pittsburgh ( ) is a city in the Commonwealth A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, ...

Pittsburgh
,
Pennsylvania Pennsylvania ( ) ( pdc, Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a U.S. state, state in the Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid-Atlantic, Northeastern United States, Northeastern, and Appalachia, Appalachian regions of the ...

Pennsylvania
, after spending several years doing an environmental cleanup of the proposed plant's site. In January 2017, Shell agreed to sell £2.46bn worth of
North Sea The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Great Britain (specifically England and Scotland), Norway, Jutland (in Denmark), Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium and Hauts-de-France (in France). An epeiric sea, epeiric (or "shelf") sea on ...

North Sea
assets to oil exploration firm Chrysaor. In 2017, Shell sold its
oil sands , United States Oil sands, tar sands, crude bitumen, or bituminous sands, are a type of unconventional oil, unconventional petroleum deposit. Oil sands are either loose sands or partially consolidated sandstone containing a naturally occurri ...
assets to
Canadian Natural Resources Canadian Natural Resources Limited, or CNRL or Canadian Natural is a Canadian company engaged in hydrocarbon exploration Hydrocarbon exploration (or oil and gas exploration) is the search by petroleum geologists and geophysicists for deposits of ...
in exchange of approximately 8.8% stake in that company. In May 2017, it was reported that Shell plans to sell its shares in Canadian Natural Resources fully exiting the oil sands business. On 30 April 2020, Shell announced that it would cut its
dividend A dividend is a distribution of profit Profit may refer to: Business and law * Profit (accounting), the difference between the purchase price and the costs of bringing to market * Profit (economics), normal profit and economic profit * Profit ...

dividend
for the first time since the
Second World War World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a World war, global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved World War II by country, the vast majority of the world's countries—including all of the gr ...
, due to the oil price collapse following the reduction in oil demand during the
COVID-19 pandemic The COVID-19 pandemic is an ongoing global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The novel virus was first identified from an outbreak in the Chinese city of ...

COVID-19 pandemic
. Shell stated that their net income adjusted for the cost of supply dropped to US$2.9 billion in three months to 31 March. This compared with US$5.3 billion in the same period the previous year. On 30 September 2020, the company said that it would cut up to 9,000 jobs as a result of the economic effects caused by the pandemic and announced a "broad restructuring". In December 2020, Shell forecast another write-down of $3.5-4.5 billion for the fourth quarter due to lower oil prices, following $16.8 billion of impairment in the second quarter. In February 2021, Shell announced a loss of $21.7 billion in 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic, despite reducing its operating expenses by 12%, or $4.5 billion, according to a Morningstar analysis cited by Barron's. In November 2021, Shell announced that it is planning to relocate their headquarters to London, abandon its dual share structure, and change its name from Royal Dutch Shell plc to Shell plc.


Environmental record

The presence of companies like Shell has led to extreme
environmental issues in the Niger DeltaThe key environmental issues in the Niger Delta of Nigeria relate to Petroleum industry in Nigeria, its petroleum industry. The delta covers within wetlands of formed primarily by sediment deposition. Home to 20 million people and 40 different Et ...
. Many pipelines in the Niger Delta owned by Shell are old and corroded. Shell has acknowledged its responsibility for keeping the pipelines new but has also denied responsibility for environmental causes. This has led to mass protests from the
Niger Delta Image:NigerDeltaStates.png, 375px, Map of Nigeria numerically showing states typically considered part of the Niger Delta region: 1. Abia State, Abia, 2. Akwa Ibom State, Akwa Ibom, 3. Bayelsa State, Bayelsa, 4. Cross River State, Cross River, 5. D ...
inhabitants,
Amnesty International Amnesty International (also referred to as Amnesty or AI) is a non-governmental organization File:Europe in a suitcase - UK.jpg, upright=1.3, alt=A roomful of people, Europe-Georgia Institute head George Melashvili addresses the audience at th ...

Amnesty International
, and
Friends of the Earth Friends of the Earth International (FoEI) is an international network of environmental organizations in 74 countries. Friends of the Earth was founded in 1969 in San Francisco by David Brower, Donald Aitken and Gary Soucie after Brower's split ...
the Netherlands against Shell. It has also led to action plans to boycott Shell by
environmental A biophysical environment is a life, biotic and Abiotic component, abiotic surrounding of an organism or population, and consequently includes the factors that have an influence in their survival, development, and evolution. A biophysical environ ...
and human rights groups. In January 2013, a Dutch court rejected four out of five allegations brought against the firm over oil pollution in the Niger Delta but found a subsidiary guilty of one case of pollution, ordering compensation to be paid to a Nigerian farmer. On 15 January 1999, off the
Argentinian Argentines (also known as Argentinians or Argentineans; es, Grammatical gender, masculine argentinos; Grammatical gender, feminine ') are people identified with the country of Argentina. This connection may be residential, legal, historical ...

Argentinian
town of
Magdalena, Buenos Aires Magdalena () is a town in Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. It is the headquarters town for the Magdalena Partido. Founded in 1611, the hamlet grew slowly until the late nineteenth century. The Parish of Santa María Magdalena (Mary Magdalene), con ...
, the Shell tanker Estrella Pampeana collided with a German
freighter A freighter is a vehicle or person that transports cargo, supplies, or goods, and may refer to: *Cargo ship *A large motor vehicle used to transport goods, known as a truck in the US and a "lorry" in the UK *The combination of a tractor unit with a ...

freighter
, emptying its contents into the lake, polluting the environment, drinkable water, plants and animals. Over a decade after the spill, a referendum held in Magdalena determined the acceptance of a US$9.5 million compensatory payout from Shell. Shell denied responsibility for the spill, but an Argentine court ruled in 2002 that the corporation was responsible. In 1989, Shell redesigned a $3-billion North Sea natural gas platform in the
North Sea The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Great Britain (specifically England and Scotland), Norway, Jutland (in Denmark), Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium and Hauts-de-France (in France). An epeiric sea, epeiric (or "shelf") sea on ...

North Sea
, raising its height one to two meters, to accommodate an anticipated
sea level rise Tide gauge measurements show that the current global sea level rise began at the start of the 20th century. Between 1900 and 2017, the globally averaged sea level rose by . More precise data gathered from satellite radar measurements reveal an a ...

sea level rise
due to
global warming Contemporary climate change includes both the global warming caused by humans, and its impacts on Earth's weather patterns. There have been previous periods of climate change, but the current changes are more rapid than any known event ...
. In 2013, Royal Dutch Shell PLC reported emissions of 81 million metric tonnes. In 2020, the was announced, which is a joint project between Equinor, Shell and Total, operating in the European Union (Norway) and aiming to store liquid beneath the seabed. Shell is known to be processing oil from the Amazon region of
South America South America is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven regions are commonly regarded as continents. Ordered fr ...

South America
, a large concern for environmentalists trying to protect the area. In the United States, the Martinez refinery (CA) and the Puget Sound Refinery (WA) carry Amazonian oil. In 2015, 14% of the Martinez refinery's gross, at 19,570 barrels per day, came from the Amazon. In 2021, Shell was ranked as the 10th most environmentally responsible company out of 120 oil, gas, and mining companies involved in resource extraction north of the Arctic Circle in the Arctic Environmental Responsibility Index (AERI).


Climate change

In 2017, a public information film ("Climate of Concern") unseen for years resurfaced and showed Shell had clear grasp of global warming 26 years earlier but has not acted accordingly since, said critics. Shell is responsible for 1.67% of global industrial
greenhouse gas emissions Greenhouse gas emissions from human activities strengthen the greenhouse effect The greenhouse effect is the process by which radiation from a planet's atmosphere warms the planet's surface to a temperature above what it would be without th ...
from 1988 to 2015. Shell wants to achieve net zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 or sooner.


Corporate affairs


Management

On 4 August 2005, the board of directors announced the appointment of
Jorma Ollila Jorma Jaakko Ollila (born 15 August 1950) is a Finnish businessman who was chairman of Royal Dutch Shell from 1 June 2006 to May 2015, and at Nokia, Nokia Corporation chairman from 1999 to 2012 and CEO from 1992 to 2006. He has been a director ...

Jorma Ollila
, chairman and CEO of
Nokia Nokia Corporation (natively Nokia Oyj, referred to as Nokia; stylized as NOKIA) is a Finnish multinational corporation, multinational telecommunications, information technology company, information technology, and consumer electronics company, ...

Nokia
at the time, to succeed Aad Jacobs as the company's non-executive chairman on 1 June 2006. Ollila is the first Shell chairman to be neither Dutch nor British. Other non-executive directors include
Maarten van den Bergh Maarten Albert van den Bergh (born 19 April 1942 in New York City New York City (NYC), often simply called New York, is the List of United States cities by population, most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2019 population ...
,
Wim Kok Willem "Wim" Kok (; 29 September 1938 – 20 October 2018) was a Dutch politician of the Labour Party Labour Party or Labor Party may refer to: Angola *MPLA, known for some years as "Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola – Labour Par ...

Wim Kok
, Nina Henderson,
Lord Kerr Brian Francis Kerr, Baron Kerr of Tonaghmore, (; 22 February 19481 December 2020) was a British barrister and senior judge who was Lord Chief Justice of Northern Ireland and then a Justice of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom. At the tim ...
, Adelbert van Roxe, and Christine Morin-Postel. Since 3 January 2014, Ben van Beurden has been CEO of Shell. His predecessor was
Peter Voser Peter Robert Voser (born 29 August 1958) is a businessman, who is currently the Chairman and interim Chief Executive Officer of the Sweden, Swedish-Switzerland, Swiss company ABB. He served as the chief executive officer, CEO of the Anglo-Dutch co ...

Peter Voser
who became CEO of Shell on 1 July 2009. Following a career at the corporation, in locations such as Australia and Africa, Ann Pickard was appointed as the executive vice president of the Arctic at Royal Dutch Shell, a role that was publicized in an interview with
McKinsey & Company McKinsey & Company is a management consulting firm, founded in 1926 by University of Chicago professor James O. McKinsey, that advises on strategic management to corporations, governments, and other organizations. McKinsey is the oldest and large ...
in June 2014.


Board of directors

The Board of directors as of 16 May 2020 was as follows: * Charles O. Holliday (chairman), former chairman of Bank of America, former chairman and CEO of DuPont * Gerard Kleisterlee, chairman of Vodafone, former president and CEO of Philips * Ben van Beurden, CEO of Royal Dutch Shell * Jessica Uhl, CFO of Royal Dutch Shell * Neil Carson (businessman), Neil Carson, former CEO of Johnson Matthey * Ann Godbehere, former CFO of Swiss Re and Northern Rock * Euleen Goh, former CFO of Standard Chartered Singapore * Catherine J. Hughes, former executive at Nexen, Husky Oil, and Schlumberger * Roberto Setubal, former CEO of Itau Unibanco * Nigel Sheinwald, former List of Ambassadors from the United Kingdom to the United States, British Ambassador to the United States * Linda Stuntz, energy lawyer * Gerrit Zalm, former List of Ministers of Economic Affairs of the Netherlands, Minister of Economic Affairs and Deputy Prime Minister of the Netherlands * Linda M. Coulter, company secretary and general counsel


Name and logo

The name Shell is linked to The "Shell" Transport and Trading Company. In 1833, the founder's father, Marcus Samuel Sr., founded an import business to sell seashells to London collectors. When collecting seashell Biological specimen, specimens in the Caspian Sea area in 1892, the younger Samuel realised there was potential in exporting oil lamp, lamp oil from the region and commissioned the world's first purpose-built oil tanker, the SS Murex (1892), ''Murex'' (Latin for a type of Murex, snail shell), to enter this market; by 1907 the company had a fleet. Although for several decades the company had a refinery at Shell Haven on the Thames, there is no evidence of this having provided the name. The Shell logo is one of the most familiar commercial symbols in the world. This logo is known as the "pecten (bivalve), pecten" after the sea shell ''
Pecten maximus ''Pecten maximus'', common names Common may refer to: Places * Common, a townland in County Tyrone County Tyrone (; ) is one of the thirty-two counties of Ireland Ireland (; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an i ...
'' (the giant scallop), on which its design is based. The yellow and red colours used are thought''Business Superbrands'', Editor: Marcel Knobil, Author James Curtis (2000), Superbrands Ltd. , p. 93. to relate to the colours of the flag of Spain, as Shell built early service stations in California, previously a Spanish Empire, Spanish colony. The current revision of the logo was designed by
Raymond Loewy Raymond Loewy ( , ; November 5, 1893 – July 14, 1986) was a French-born American industrial designer who achieved fame for the magnitude of his design efforts across a variety of industries. He was recognized for this by '' Time'' magaz ...
in 1971. The slash was removed from the name "Royal Dutch/Shell" in 2005, concurrent with moves to merge the two legally separate companies (Royal Dutch and Shell) to the single legal entity which exists today. On 15 November 2021, Royal Dutch Shell plc announced plans to change its name to Shell plc.


Logo evolution

File:Shell logo 1900.png, 1900–04 File:Shell logo 1904.png, 1904–09 File:Shell logo 1909.png, 1909–30 File:Shell logo 1930.png, 1930–48 File:Shell logo 1948.png, 1948–55


Operations


Business groupings

Shell is organised into four major business groupings: * Upstream – manages the upstream business. It searches for and recovers Petroleum, crude oil and natural gas and operates the upstream and midstream infrastructure necessary to deliver oil and gas to the market. Its activities are organised primarily within geographic units, although there are some activities that are managed across the business or provided through support units. * Integrated Gas and New Energies – manages to Liquefied natural gas, liquefy natural gas, converting gas to liquids and low-carbon opportunities. * Downstream – manages Shell's manufacturing, distribution, and marketing activities for oil products and chemicals. Manufacturing and supply include refinery, supply, and shipping of crude oil. * Projects and technology – manages the delivery of Shell's major projects, provides technical services and technology capability covering both upstream and downstream activities. It is also responsible for providing functional leadership across Shell in the areas of health, safety and environment, and contracting and procurement.


Oil and gas activities

Shell's primary business is the management of a
vertically integrated In microeconomics Microeconomics (from Greek prefix ''mikro-'' meaning "small" + ''economics'') is a branch of economics that studies the behavior of individuals and Theory of the firm, firms in making decisions regarding the allocation o ...
oil company. The development of technical and commercial expertise in all stages of this vertical integration, from the initial search for oil (exploration) through its harvesting (production), transportation, Oil refinery, refining and finally trading and marketing established the core competencies on which the company was founded. Similar competencies were required for natural gas, which has become one of the most important businesses in which Shell is involved, and which contributes a significant proportion of the company's profits. While the vertically integrated business model provided significant economies of scale and barriers to entry, each business now seeks to be a self-supporting unit without subsidies from other parts of the company. Traditionally, Shell was a heavily decentralised business worldwide (especially in the downstream) with companies in over 100 countries, each of which operated with a high degree of independence. The upstream tended to be far more centralised with much of the technical and financial direction coming from the central offices in
The Hague The Hague ( ; nl, Den Haag or ) is a List of cities in the Netherlands by province, city and Municipalities of the Netherlands, municipality on the western coast of the Netherlands on the North Sea. It is the administrative and royal capital o ...

The Hague
. The upstream oil sector is also commonly known as the "exploration and production" sector. Downstream operations, which now also includes the chemicals business, generate the majority of Shell's profits worldwide and is known for its global network of more than 40,000 petrol stations and its various Oil refinery, oil refineries. The downstream business, which in some countries also included oil refining, generally included a retail petrol station network, lubricants manufacture and marketing, industrial fuel and lubricants sales, and a host of other product/market sectors such as Liquefied petroleum gas, LPG and bitumen. The practice in Shell was that these businesses were essentially local and that they were best managed by local "operating companies" – often with middle and senior management reinforced by expatriates.


Sponsorships

Shell has a long history of motorsport sponsorship, most notably Scuderia Ferrari (1951–1964, 1966–1973 and 1996-present), BRM (1962–1966 and 1968–1972), Scuderia Toro Rosso (2007–2013 and 2016), McLaren (1967–1968 and 1984–1994), Team Lotus, Lotus (1968–1971), Ducati Corse (since 1999), Team Penske (2011–present), Hyundai Motorsport (since 2005), AF Corse, Risi Competizione, BMW Motorsport (2015–2019 with also Pennzoil) and Dick Johnson Racing (1987 Australian Touring Car Championship, 1987-2004 V8 Supercar Championship Series, 2004 and 2017 International V8 Supercars Championship, 2017–present).


Africa

Shell began drilling for oil in Africa during the 1950s. Shell operates in the Upstream (petroleum industry), upstream oil sector in Algeria, Cameroon, Egypt, Gabon (where the Rabi-Kounga oil field is found), Ghana, Libya, Morocco, Nigeria, South Africa and Tunisia; and in the Downstream (petroleum industry), downstream sector in 16 other countries. In April 2010, Shell announced its intention to divestment, divest from downstream business of all African countries except South Africa and Egypt to Vitol and "Helios". In several countries such as Tunisia, protests and strikes broke out. Shell denied rumours of the sellout.


Nigeria

Shell began production in Shell Nigeria, Nigeria in 1958. In Nigeria, Shell told US diplomats that it had placed staff in all the main ministries of the Federal government of Nigeria, government. Shell continues however upstream activities/extracting crude oil in the oil-rich
Niger Delta Image:NigerDeltaStates.png, 375px, Map of Nigeria numerically showing states typically considered part of the Niger Delta region: 1. Abia State, Abia, 2. Akwa Ibom State, Akwa Ibom, 3. Bayelsa State, Bayelsa, 4. Cross River State, Cross River, 5. D ...
as well as downstream/commercial activities in South Africa. In June 2013, the company announced a strategic review of its operations in Nigeria, hinting that assets could be divested. In August 2014, the company disclosed it was in the process of finalizing the sale of its interests in four Petroleum industry in Nigeria, Nigerian oil fields. On 29 January 2021 a Dutch court ruled that Shell was responsible for multiple oil leaks in Nigeria.


Asia


China

The company has upstream operations in unconventional Petroleum industry in China, oil and Natural gas in China, gas in China. Shell has a joint venture with PetroChina at the Changbei tight gas field in Shaanxi, which has produced natural gas since 2008. The company has also invested in exploring for shale oil in Sichuan. The other unconventional resource which Shell invested in in China was shale. The company was an early entrant in shale oil exploration in China but scaled down operations in 2014 due to difficulties with geology and population density. It has a joint venture to explore for oil shale in Jilin through a joint venture with Jilin Guangzheng Mineral Development Company Limited.


Hong Kong

Shell has been active in Hong Kong for a century, providing Retail, LPG, Commercial Fuel, Lubricants, Bitumen, Aviation, Marine and Chemicals services, and products. Shell also sponsored the first Hong Kong-built aircraft, ''Inspiration'', for its around-the-world trip.


Malaysia

Shell discovered the first oil well in Malaysia in 1910, in Miri, Malaysia, Miri, Sarawak. Today the oil well is a state monument known as the Grand Old Lady. In 1914, following this discovery, Shell built Malaysia's first oil refinery and laid a submarine pipeline in Miri.


Brunei

Brunei Shell Petroleum is a joint venture between the Government of Brunei and Shell. The British Malayan Petroleum Company, owned by Royal Dutch Shell, first found commercial amounts of oil in 1929. It currently produces 350,000 barrels of oil and gas equivalent per day. BSP is the largest oil and gas company in Brunei, a sector which contributes 90% of government revenue.


Philippines

Royal Dutch Shell operates in the Philippines under its subsidiary, Pilipinas Shell Petroleum Corporation. Its headquarters is in Makati and it has facilities in the Pandacan, Manila#From industrial to commercial, Pandacan oil depot and other key locations. In January 2010, the Bureau of Customs claimed 7.34 billion pesos worth of unpaid excise taxes against ''Pilipinas Shell'' for importing Catalytic cracked gasoline (CCG) and light catalytic cracked gasoline (LCCG) stating that those imports are bound for tariff charges. In August 2016, Pilipinas Shell filed an application to sell US$629 million worth of primary and secondary shares to the investing public (registration statement) with the SEC. This was a prelude to filing its IPO listing application with the Philippine Stock Exchange. On 3 November 2016 the Pilipinas Shell Petroleum Corporation was officially listed on the Philippine Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol SHLPH after they held its initial public offering on 19 to 25 October of the same year.


Singapore

Shell has a strong presence in Singapore, indeed Singapore is the main centre for Shell's petrochemical operations in the Asia-Pacific, Asia Pacific region. Shell Eastern Petroleum limited (SEPL) have their refinery located in Singapore's Pulau Bukom island. They also operate as Shell Chemicals Seraya in Jurong Island. In November 2020, Shell announced that, as part of efforts to curtail pollution emissions, it will cut its oil-processing capacity in Singapore.


India

Shell India has inaugurated its new lubricants laboratory at its Technology Centre in Bangalore.


Europe


Ireland

Shell first started trading in Ireland in 1902. Shell E&P Ireland (SEPIL) (previously Enterprise Energy Ireland) is an Irish exploration and production subsidiary of Royal Dutch Shell. Its headquarters are on Leeson Street in Dublin. It was acquired in May 2002. Its main project is the Corrib gas project, a large gas field off the northwest coast, for which Shell has encountered Corrib gas controversy, controversy and protests in relation to the onshore pipeline and licence terms. In 2005 Shell disposed of its entire retail and commercial fuels business in Ireland to Topaz Energy Group. This included depots, company-owned petrol stations and supply agreements stations throughout the island of Ireland. The retail outlets were re-branded as Topaz in 2008/9. The Topaz fuel network was subsequently acquired in 2015 by Alimentation Couche-Tard, Couchetard and these stations began re-branding to Circle K in 2018.


Nordic countries

On 27 August 2007, Shell and Reitan Group, the owner of the 7-Eleven brand in Scandinavia, announced an agreement to re-brand some 269 service stations across Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark, subject to obtaining regulatory approvals under the different Competition law, competition laws in each country. In April 2010 Shell announced that the corporation is in process of trying to find a potential buyer for all of its operations in Finland and is doing similar market research concerning Swedish operations. In October 2010 Shell's gas stations and the heavy vehicle fuel supply networks in Finland and Sweden, along with a refinery located in Gothenburg, Sweden were sold to St1, a Finnish energy company, more precisely to its major shareholding parent company Keele Oy.


United Kingdom

In the UK sector of the
North Sea The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Great Britain (specifically England and Scotland), Norway, Jutland (in Denmark), Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium and Hauts-de-France (in France). An epeiric sea, epeiric (or "shelf") sea on ...

North Sea
Shell employs around 4,500 staff in Scotland as well as an additional 1,000 service contractors: however in August 2014 it announced it was laying off 250 of them, mainly in Aberdeen.


North America

Through most of Shell's early history, the
Shell Oil Company Shell Oil Company is the United States-based wholly owned subsidiary of Royal Dutch Shell, a transnational corporation "oil major" of Anglo-Dutch origins, which is amongst the largest oil company, oil companies in the world. Approximately 80,00 ...
business in the United States was substantially independent. Its stock was traded on the
NYSE The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE, nicknamed "The Big Board") is an American stock exchange A stock exchange, securities exchange, or bourse is an Exchange (organized market), exchange where stockbrokers and stock trader, traders can buy and ...

NYSE
, and the group's central office had little direct involvement in running the operation. However, in 1984, Shell made a bid to purchase those shares of Shell Oil Company it did not own (around 30%) and, despite opposition from some minority shareholders which led to a court case, Shell completed the buyout for a sum of $5.7 billion.


Australia

On 20 May 2011, Shell's final investment decision for the world's first floating liquefied natural gas (FLNG) facility was finalized following the discovery of the remote offshore Prelude field—located off Australia's northwestern coast and estimated to contain about 3 trillion cubic feet of natural gas equivalent reserves—in 2007. FLNG technology is based on liquefied natural gas (LNG) developments that were pioneered in the mid-20th century and facilitates the exploitation of untapped natural gas reserves located in remote areas, often too small to extract any other way. The Shell floating LNG plant, floating vessel to be used for the Prelude field, known as Prelude FLNG, ''Prelude'' FLNG, is promoted as the longest floating structure in the world and will take in the equivalent of 110,000 barrels of oil per day in natural gas—at a location 200 km (125 miles) off the coast of Western Australia—and cool it into liquefied natural gas for transport and sale in Asia. The Prelude is expected to start producing LNG in 2017—analysts estimated the total cost of construction at more than . Following the decision by the Shell fuel corporation to close its Geelong Oil Refinery in Australia in April 2013, a third consecutive annual loss was recorded for Shell's Australian refining and fuel marketing assets. Revealed in June 2013, the writedown is worth Australian dollar, A$203 million and was preceded by a A$638m writedown in 2012 and a A$407m writedown in 2011, after the closure of the Clyde Refinery in Sydney, Australia. In February 2014, Shell sold its Australian refinery and petrol stations for US$2.6 billion (A$2.9 billion) to Vitol, a Geneva-based company. Vitol stated that the Geelong refinery will remain open, as the company plans to expand further into the Australian market. At the time of the sale, Shell was expected to continue investment into the Australian market, with projects that involve Chevron Corp., Woodside Petroleum and Prelude. Shell sold 9.5% of its 23.1% stake in Woodside Petroleum in June 2014 and advised that it had reached an agreement for Woodside to buy back 9.5% of its shares at a later stage. Shell became a major shareholder in Woodside after a 2001 takeover attempt was blocked by then federal Treasurer Peter Costello and the corporation has been open about its intention to sell its stake in Woodside as part of its target to shed assets. At a general body meeting, held on 1 August 2014, 72 percent of shareholders voted to approve the buy-back, short of the 75 percent vote that was required for approval. A statement from Shell read: "Royal Dutch Shell acknowledges the outcome of Woodside Petroleum Limited's shareholders' negative vote on the selective buy-back proposal. Shell is reviewing its options in relation to its remaining 13.6 percent holding."


Alternative energy

In the early 2000s Shell moved into alternative energy and there is now an embryonic "Renewables" business that has made investments in solar power, wind power, hydrogen, and forestry. The forestry business went the way of nuclear, coal, metals and electricity generation, and was disposed of in 2003. In 2006 Shell paid SolarWorld to take over its entire solar business and in 2008, the company withdrew from the London Array which when built was the world's largest offshore wind farm. Shell also is involved in large-scale hydrogen projects. HydrogenForecast.com describes Shell's approach thus far as consisting of "baby steps", but with an underlying message of "extreme optimism". In 2015, the company announced plans to install hydrogen fuel pumps across Germany, planning on having 400 locations in operation by 2023. Shell holds 44% of Raízen, a joint venture with Brazilian sugarcane producer
Cosan Cosan is a public listed company, a Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 m ...

Cosan
which is the third-largest Brazil-based energy company by revenues and a major producer of
ethanol Ethanol (also called ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, drinking alcohol, or simply alcohol) is an organic Organic may refer to: * Organic, of or relating to an organism, a living entity * Organic, of or relating to an anatomical organ (anatomy), o ...
. In 2015, the company partnered with Brazilian start-up company Insolar to install solar panels in Rio de Janeiro to deliver electricity to the Santa Marta (Brasil), Santa Marta neighbourhood. Shell is the operator and major shareholder of The Shell Canada Quest Energy project, based within the Athabasca Oil Sands Project, located near Fort McMurray, Alberta. It holds a 60% share, alongside Chevron Corporation, Chevron Canada Limited, which holds 20%, and Marathon Canadian Oil Sands Holding Limited, which holds the final 20%. Commercial operations launched in November 2015. It was the world's first commercial-scale oil and sand Carbon capture and storage, carbon capture storage (CCS) project. It is expected to reduce CO2 emissions in Canada by 1.08 million tonnes per year. In December 2016, Shell won the auction for the 700 MW Borssele#Energy, Borssele III & IV offshore wind farms at a price of 5.45 Euro, c/kWh, beating 6 other Consortium, consortia. In June 2018, it was announced that the company and its co-investor Partners Group had secured $1.5bn for the project, which also involves Eneco, Van Oord, and Mitsubishi/DGE. In October 2017 it bought Europe's biggest vehicle charging network, "NewMotion." In November 2017, Shell's CEO Ben van Beurden announced Shell's plan to cut half of its carbon emissions by 2050, and 20 percent by 2035. In this regard, Shell promised to spend $2 billion annually on renewable energy sources. Shell began to develop its wind energy segment in 2001, the company now operates six wind farms in the United States and is part of a plan to build two offshore wind farms in the Netherlands. In December 2017, the company announced plans to buy UK household energy and broadband provider First Utility. In March 2019 it rebranded to Shell Energy and announced that all electricity would be supplied from renewable sources. In December 2018, the company announced that it had partnered with SkyNRG to begin supplying sustainable aviation fuel to airlines operating out of San Francisco International Airport, San Francisco Airport (SFO), including KLM, Scandinavian Airlines, SAS, and Finnair. In the same month, the company announced plans to double its renewable energy budget to investment in low-carbon energy to $4 billion US each year, with an aim to spend up to $2 billion US on renewable energy by 2021. In January 2018, the company acquired a 44% interest in Silicon Ranch, a solar energy company run by Matt Kisber, as part of its global New Energies project. The company took over from Partners Group, paying up to an estimated $217 million for the minority interest. In February 2019, the company acquired German solar battery company Sonnen GmbH, Sonnen. It first invested in the company in May 2018 as part of its New Energies project. As of late 2021, the company had 800 employees and has installed 70.000 home battery systems. On February 27, 2019, the company acquired British VPP operator Limejump for an undisclosed amount. In July 2019, Shell installed their first 150 kW electric car chargers at its London Filling station, petrol stations with payments handled via SMOOV. They also plan to provide 350 kW chargers in Europe by entering into an agreement with IONITY. On 26 January 2021, Shell said it would buy 100 per cent of Ubitricity, owner of the largest public charging network for Plug-in electric vehicles in the United Kingdom, electric vehicles in the United Kingdom, as the company expands its presence along the power supply chain. On 25 February 2021, Shell announced the acquisition of German Virtual Power Plant (VPP) company Next Kraftwerke for an undisclosed amount. Next Kraftwerke connects renewable electricity generation- and storage projects to optimize the usage of those assets. The company mostly operates in Europe. On 17 December 2021, Shell announced the acquisition of Savion, an American solar and energy storage developer for an undisclosed amount. Savion has 18 GW of solar power and battery storage under development.


Projects


Arctic

Following the purchase of an offshore lease in 2005, Shell initiated its US$4.5 billion Arctic drilling program in 2006, after the corporation purchased the "Kulluk" oil rig and leased the Noble Discoverer drillship. At inception, the project was led by Pete Slaiby, a Shell executive who had previously worked in the
North Sea The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Great Britain (specifically England and Scotland), Norway, Jutland (in Denmark), Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium and Hauts-de-France (in France). An epeiric sea, epeiric (or "shelf") sea on ...

North Sea
. However, after the purchase of a second offshore lease in 2008, Shell only commenced drilling work in 2012, due to the refurbishment of rigs, permit delays from the relevant authorities and lawsuits. The plans to drill in the Arctic led to protests from environmental groups, particularly Greenpeace; furthermore, analysts in the energy field, as well as related industries, also expressed skepticism due to perceptions that drilling in the region is "too dangerous because of harsh conditions and remote locations". Further problems hampered the Arctic project after the commencement of drilling in 2012, as Shell dealt with a series of issues that involved air permits, United States Coast Guard, Coast Guard certification of a marine vessel, and severe damage to essential oil-spill equipment. Additionally, difficult weather conditions resulted in the delay of drilling during mid-2012 and the already dire situation was exacerbated by the "Kulluk" incident at the end of the year. Shell had invested nearly US$5 billion by this stage of the project. As the ''Kulluk'' oil rig was being towed to the American state of Washington (state), Washington to be serviced in preparation for the 2013 drilling season, a winter storm on 27 December 2012 caused the towing crews, as well as the rescue service, to lose control of the situation. As of 1 January 2013, the Kulluk was grounded off the coast Sitkalidak Island, near the eastern end of Kodiak Island. Following the accident, a ''Fortune'' magazine contacted Larry McKinney, the executive director at the Harte Research Institute for Gulf of Mexico Studies at Texas A&M University, Texas A&M, and he explained that "A two-month delay in the Arctic is not a two-month delay ... A two-month delay could wipe out the entire drilling season." It was unclear if Shell would recommence drilling in mid-2013, following the "Kulluk" incident, and, in February 2013, the corporation stated that it would "pause" its closely watched drilling project off the Alaska, Alaskan coast in 2013, and will instead prepare for future exploration. In January 2014, the corporation announced the extension of the suspension of its drilling program in the Arctic, with chief executive van Beurden explaining that the project is "under review" due to both market and internal issues. A June 2014 interview with Pickard indicated that, following a forensic analysis of the problems encountered in 2012, Shell will continue with the project and Pickard stated that she perceives the future of the corporation activity in the Arctic region as a long-term "marathon". Pickard stated that the forensic "look back" revealed "there was an on/off switch" and further explained:
In other words, don't spend the money unless you're sure you're going to have the legal environment to go forward. Don't spend the money unless you're sure you're going to have the permit. No, I can't tell you that I'm going to have that permit until June, but we need to plan like we're going to have that permit in June. And so probably the biggest lesson is to make sure we could smooth out the on/off switches wherever we could and take control of our own destiny.
Based upon the interview with Pickard, Shell is approaching the project as an investment that will reap energy resources with a lifespan of around 30 years.


Controversies


Brent Spar platform

In the 1990s, protesters criticised the company's environmental record, particularly the possible pollution caused by the proposed disposal of the Brent Spar platform into the North Sea. Despite support from the UK government, Shell reversed the decision under public pressure but maintained that sinking the platform would have been environmentally better. Shell subsequently published an unequivocal commitment to sustainable development, supported by executive speeches reinforcing this commitment. Shell was subsequently criticised by the European Commission and five European Union members after deciding to leave part of its decommissioned oil rigs standing in the North Sea. Shell argued that removing them would be too costly and risky. Germany said that the estimated 11,000 tonnes of raw oil and toxins remaining in the rigs would eventually seep into the sea, and called it a 'ticking timebomb'.


2004 overstatement of oil reserves

In 2004 Shell overstated its oil reserves, resulting in loss of confidence in the group, a £17 million fine by the Financial Services Authority and the departure of the chairman Philip Watts. A lawsuit resulted in the payment of $450 million to non-American shareholders in 2007. As a result of the scandal, the corporate structure was simplified. Two classes of ordinary shares, A (code RDSA) and B (code RDSB), identical but for the tax treatment of dividends, were issued for the company.


Corporate communications

Shell's advertising regarding its
renewable energy Renewable energy is useful energy that is collected from renewable resource File:Global Vegetation.jpg, Global vegetation A renewable resource, also known as a flow resource, is a natural resource which will replenish to replace the portio ...
business has been described as a greenwash by some environmental lobbies, leading to criticism from the British Advertising Standards Authority (United Kingdom), Advertising Standards Authority which ruled that Shell had misled the public in an advertisement when it claimed that a $10 billion
oil sands , United States Oil sands, tar sands, crude bitumen, or bituminous sands, are a type of unconventional oil, unconventional petroleum deposit. Oil sands are either loose sands or partially consolidated sandstone containing a naturally occurri ...
project in Alberta, Canada was a "sustainable energy source".


Health and safety

A number of incidents over the years led to criticism of Shell's health and safety record, including repeated warnings by the Health and Safety Executive, UK Health and Safety Executive about the poor state of the company's North Sea platforms.


Human rights

In the beginning of 1996, several human rights groups Ken Saro-Wiwa#Family lawsuits against Royal Dutch Shell, brought cases to hold Shell accountable for alleged Human rights in Nigeria, human rights violations in Nigeria, including summary execution, crimes against humanity, torture, inhumane treatment and arbitrary arrest and detention. In particular, Shell stood accused of collaborating in the execution of Ken Saro-Wiwa and eight other leaders of the Ogoni people, Ogoni tribe of southern Nigeria, who were hanged in 1995 by Nigeria's then military rulers. The lawsuits were brought against Royal Dutch Shell and Brian Anderson, the head of its Nigerian operation. In 2009, Shell agreed to pay $15.5m in a legal settlement. Shell has not accepted any liability over the allegations against it. In 2009, Shell was the subject of an Amnesty International report into the deterioration of human rights as a consequence of Shell's activities in the
Niger Delta Image:NigerDeltaStates.png, 375px, Map of Nigeria numerically showing states typically considered part of the Niger Delta region: 1. Abia State, Abia, 2. Akwa Ibom State, Akwa Ibom, 3. Bayelsa State, Bayelsa, 4. Cross River State, Cross River, 5. D ...
. In particular, Amnesty criticised the continuation of gas flaring and Shell's slow response to oil spills. In 1998, on its first public report on community and environmental issues in Nigeria, Shell promised "to end the practice of gas flaring in ten years, while pledging to establish a youth training scheme in Ogoniland". In 2010, a leaked cable revealed that Shell claims to have inserted staff into all the main ministries of the Nigerian government and know "everything that was being done in those ministries", according to Shell's top executive in Nigeria. The same executive also boasted that the Nigerian government had forgotten about the extent of Shell's infiltration. Documents released in 2009 (but not used in the court case) reveal that Shell regularly made payments to the Nigerian military in order to prevent protests.


Arctic project

According to the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management report in 2015 the chances of a major spill in a deep-sea Arctic drilling is 75% before century's end.


Kodiak

In 2010 Greenpeace activists painted "No Arctic Drilling" with spilled BP oil on the side of a ship in the Gulf of Mexico that was en route to explore for Arctic oil for Shell. At the protest, Phil Radford of Greenpeace called for "Barack Obama, President Obama [to] ban all offshore oil drilling and call for an end to the use of oil in our cars by 2030." On 16 March 2012, 52 Greenpeace activists from five different countries boarded ''MSV Fennica, Fennica'' and ''MSV Nordica, Nordica'', multipurpose icebreakers chartered to support Shell's drilling rigs near Alaska. Around the same time period, a reporter for Fortune (magazine), ''Fortune'' magazine spoke with Edward Itta, an Iñupiat, Inupiat leader and the former mayor of the North Slope Borough, Alaska, North Slope Borough, who expressed that he was conflicted about Shell's plans in the Arctic, as he was concerned that an oil spill could destroy the Inupiat peoples hunting-and-fishing culture, but his borough also received major tax revenue from oil and gas production; additionally, further revenue from energy activity was considered crucial to the future of the living standard in Itta's community. In July 2012, Greenpeace activists shut down 53 Shell petrol stations in Edinburgh and
London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city stands on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its estuary leading to the Nor ...

London
in a protest against the company's plans to drill for oil in the Arctic. Greenpeace's "Save the Arctic" campaign aims to prevent oil drilling and fishing industry, industrial fishing in the Arctic by declaring the uninhabited area around the North Pole a global sanctuary. A review was announced after the ''Kulluk'' oil rig ran aground near Kodiak Island in December 2012. In response, Shell filed lawsuits to seek injunctions from possible protests, and Benjamin Jealous of the NAACP and Radford argued that the legal action was "trampling Americans' rights." According to Greenpeace, Shell lodged a request with Google to take down video footage of a Greenpeace protest action that occurred at the Shell-sponsored Formula One (F1) Belgian Grand Prix on 25 August 2013, in which "SaveTheArctic.org" banners appear at the winners' podium ceremony. In the video, the banners rise up automatically—activists controlled their appearance with the use of four radio car antennas—revealing the website URL, alongside an image that consists of half of a polar bear's head and half of the Shell logo. Shell then announced a "pause" in the timeline of the project in early 2013 and, in September 2015, the corporation announced the extension of the suspension of its drilling program in the Arctic.


Polar Pioneer

A June 2014 interview with the corporation's new executive vice president of the Arctic indicated that Shell will continue with its activity in the region. In Seattle Seattle Arctic drilling protests, protests began in May 2015 in response to the news that the Port of Seattle made an agreement with Shell to berth rigs at the Port's Terminal 5 during the off-season of oil exploration in Alaskan waters. The arrival of Shell's new Arctic drilling vessel, ''Polar Pioneer'' (), a semi-submersible offshore drilling rig, was greeted by large numbers of environmental protesters paddling kayaks in Elliott Bay. On 6 May 2015 it was reported that during a coast guard inspection of ''Polar Pioneer'', a piece of anti-pollution gear failed, resulting in fines and delay of the operation. Oil executives from Total and Eni interviewed by the ''The New York Times, New York Times'', expressed scepticism about Shell's new ambitions for offshore drilling in the Arctic, and cited economic and environmental hurdles. ConocoPhillips and Equinor, Equinor (formerly Statoil) suspended Arctic drilling earlier, after Shell's failed attempt in 2012.


Oil spills

* Shell was responsible for around 21,000 gallons of oil spilled near Tracy, California, in May 2016 due to a pipeline crack. * Shell was responsible for an 88,200-gallon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in May 2016. * Two ruptures in a Shell Oil Co. pipeline in Altamont, California – one in September 2015 and another in May 2016 – had some questioning whether the Office of the State Fire Marshal, charged with overseeing the pipeline, was doing an adequate job. *On 29 January 2021, a Dutch court ordered Royal Dutch Shell plc's Nigerian unit to compensate for oil spills in two villages over 13 years ago. Shell Nigeria is liable for damages from pipeline leaks in the villages of Oruma and Goi, the Hague Court of Appeals said in a ruling. Shell said that it should not be liable, as the spills were the result of sabotage.


Paradise Papers

On 5 November 2017, the Paradise Papers, a set of confidential electronic documents relating to offshore investment, revealed that Argentine Energy Minister Juan José Aranguren was revealed to have managed the offshore companies 'Shell Western Supply and Trading Limited' and 'Sol Antilles y Guianas Limited', both subsidiaries of Shell. One is the main bidder for the purchase of diesel oil by the government through the state owned Compañía Administradora del Mercado Mayorista Eléctrico Sociedad Anónima, CAMMESA (Compañía Administradora del Mercado Mayorista Eléctrico).


Nigeria corruption scandals

Shell and Italy's Eni will stand trial in Italy over allegations of corruption in the 2011 purchase of a Petroleum industry in Nigeria, big offshore oil field in Nigeria known as OPL 245. Shell and Eni reportedly paid $1.3 billion in bribes.Oil deal corruption trial in Italy is 'wake-up call for industry'
". ''The Guardian''. 4 March 2018.
According to Barnaby Pace of campaign group Global Witness, "This trial should be a wake-up call to the oil industry. Some of the most senior executives at two of the biggest companies in the world could face prison sentences for a deal that was struck under their watch." In March 2018, Shell has filed a criminal complaint against Peter Robinson, a former vice president for sub-Saharan Africa. Shell said the two cases were unrelated.


Oman 1954 War

In 1937, Iraq Petroleum Company (IPC), 23.75 percent owned by Royal Dutch Shell plc, signed an oil concession agreement with the Muscat and Oman, Sultan of Muscat. In 1952, IPC offered financial support to raise an armed force that would assist the Sultan in occupying the interior region of Oman, an area that geologists believed to be rich in oil. This led to the 1954 outbreak of Jebel Akhdar War in Oman that lasted for more than 5 years.


Climate case

On 5 April 2019, Milieudefensie (Dutch language, Dutch for "environmental defense"), together with six NGOs and more than 17,000 citizens, sued Shell, accusing the company of harming the climate despite knowing about global warming since 1986. In May 2021, the district court of
The Hague The Hague ( ; nl, Den Haag or ) is a List of cities in the Netherlands by province, city and Municipalities of the Netherlands, municipality on the western coast of the Netherlands on the North Sea. It is the administrative and royal capital o ...

The Hague
ruled that Shell must reduce Greenhouse gas emissions, carbon dioxide emissions by 45% by 2030 (compared to 2019 levels).


royaldutchshell.com

This domain name was first registered by a former marketing manager for Royal Dutch Shell plc, Alfred Donovan, and has been used as a "gripe site". It avoids being an illegal cybersquatter as long as it is non-commercial, active, and no attempt is made to sell the domain name, as determined by WIPO proceedings. In 2005, Donovan said he would relinquish the site to Shell after it "gets rid of all the management he deems responsible for its various recent woes." The site has been recognized by several media outlets for its role as an Internet leak. In 2008 the ''Financial Times'' published an article based on a letter published by royaldutchshellplc.com, which ''Reuters'' and ''The Times'' also covered shortly thereafter. On 18 October 2006, the site published an article stating that Shell had for some time been supplying information to the Russian government relating to Sakhalin II. The Russian energy company Gazprom subsequently obtained a 50% stake in the Sakhalin-II project. Other instances where the site has acted as an Internet leak include a 2007 information technology, IT outsourcing plan, as well as a 2008 internal memo where CEO Jeroen van der Veer expressed disappointment in the company's share-price performance. The gripe site has also been recognized as a source of information regarding Shell by several news sources. In the 2006 ''
Fortune Global 500 The ''Fortune'' Global 500, also known as Global 500, is an annual ranking of the top 500 corporation A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company—authorized by the state to act as a single entity (a legal enti ...
'' rankings, in which Royal Dutch Shell placed third, royaldutchshellplc.com was listed alongside shell.com as a source of information. In 2007 the site was described as "a hub for activists and disgruntled former employees." A 2009 article called royaldutchshellplc.com "the world's most effective adversarial Web site." The site has been described as "an open wound for Shell."


Seismic tests in humpback whale breeding grounds

In December 2021, Royal Dutch Shell decided to move ahead with seismic tests to explore for oil in humpback whale breeding grounds along South Africa's eastern coastline. On 3 December 2021, a South African high court struck down an urgent application brought by environmentalists to stop the project, which will involve a vessel regularly firing an air gun that produces a very powerful shock wave underwater to help map subsea geology. According to Greenpeace Africa and the South African Deep Sea Angling Association, this could cause "irreparable harm" to the marine environment, especially to migrating humpback whales in the area.


See also

* Bataafse Petroleum Maatschappij * Chaco War * Fossil fuels lobby * Lensbury * List of companies based in London * List of investors in Bernard L. Madoff Securities * Shell Guides, a series of guidebooks * Shell V-Power


References


Bibliography

* "A Century in Oil" by Stephen Howarth [1997] . A History of The "Shell" Transport and Trading Company. * "A History of Royal Dutch Shell" by Stephen Howarth and others [2007]. * "Seven Sisters" by Anthony Sampson (1981) * "Shell Shock: The secrets and spin of an Oil Giant" by Ian Cummins and John Beasant [2005]. *


External links

* * * * * * {{Authority control Royal Dutch Shell Multinational oil companies Oil companies of the Netherlands Oil and gas companies of the United Kingdom Automotive fuel retailers, Shell Chemical companies of the Netherlands Chemical companies of the United Kingdom Companies based in The Hague Dual-listed companies Organisations based in the Netherlands with royal patronage Multinational companies based in the City of London Retail companies established in 1907 Non-renewable resource companies established in 1907 1907 establishments in England Companies listed on the London Stock Exchange Companies listed on Euronext Amsterdam Companies listed on the New York Stock Exchange Energy companies established in 1907 British companies established in 1907 Dutch brands Dutch companies established in 1907