Rajendra Prasad (3 December 1884 – 28 February 1963) was an Indian independence
activist, lawyer, scholar and subsequently, the first President of India
, in office from 1950 to 1962. He was an Indian political leader and lawyer by training. Prasad joined the Indian National Congress
during the Indian Independence Movement
and became a major leader from the region of Bihar
. A supporter of Mahatma Gandhi
, Prasad was imprisoned by British authorities during the Salt Satyagraha
of 1931 and the Quit India movement
of 1942. After the constituent assembly 1946 elections
, Prasad served as Minister of Food and Agriculture in the central government. Upon independence in 1947, Prasad was elected as President of the Constituent Assembly of India
, which prepared the Constitution of India
and served as its provisional parliament.
When India became a republic in 1950, Prasad was elected its first president by the Constituent Assembly. As president, Prasad established a tradition of non-partisanship and independence for the office-bearer, and retired from Congress party politics. Although a ceremonial head of state, Prasad encouraged the development of education in India and advised the Nehru government on several occasions. In 1957, Prasad was re-elected to the presidency, becoming the only president to serve two full terms. Prasad stayed in office for the longest term of around 12 years. Post the completion of his tenure, he quit the Congress and set up new guidelines for parliamentarians which are still followed. Prasad played a major role in forming the Bihari Students Conference in 1906 and served as the president of the Constituent Assembly that drafted the Constitution of India.
Rajendra Prasad was born in a Kayastha
family in Ziradei, in the Siwan district
of Bihar. His father, Mahadev Sahai Srivastava, was a scholar of both Sanskrit
and Persian languages
. His mother, Kamleshwari Devi, was a devout woman who would tell stories from the Ramayana
to her son. He was the youngest child and had one elder brother and three elder sisters. His mother died when he was a child and his elder sister then took care of him.
When Prasad was five years old, his parents placed him under the tutelage of a Maulavi
, an accomplished Muslim scholar, to learn the Persian language
. After the completion of traditional elementary education, he was sent to the Chapra District School. Meanwhile, in June 1896, at an early age of 12, he was married to Rajavanshi Devi. He, along with his elder brother, Mahendra Prasad, then went to study at T.K. Ghosh's Academy in Patna
for a period of two years. He secured first in the entrance examination to the University of Calcutta
and was awarded Rs. 30 per month as a scholarship.
Prasad joined the Presidency College, Calcutta
in 1902, initially as a science student. He passed the F. A. under the University of Calcutta
in March 1904 and then graduated with a first division from there in March 1905. Impressed by his intellect, an examiner once commented on his answer sheet that the "''examinee is better than examiner''".
Later he decided to focus on the study of arts and did his M.A. in Economics with a first division from the University of Calcutta in December 1907. There he lived with his brother in the Eden Hindu Hostel
. A devoted student as well as a public activist, he was an active member of The Dawn Society
. It was due to his sense of duty towards his family and education that he refused to join Servants of India Society
, as it was during that time when his mother had died as well as his sister became a widow at the age of nineteen and had to return to her parents' home. Prasad was instrumental in the formation of the Bihari Students Conference in 1906 in the hall of the Patna College. It was the first organisation of its kind in India and produced important leaders from Bihar
like Anugrah Narayan Sinha
and Krishna Singh
who played a prominent role in the Champaran Movement and Non-cooperation Movement
. The organisation provided political leadership to bihar in the upcoming years.
As a teacher
during Mahatma Gandhi
's 1917 Champaran Satyagraha
Rajendra Prasad served in various educational institutions as a teacher. After completing his M.A in economics, he became a professor of English at the Langat Singh College
and went on to become the principal. However, later on he left the college to undertake legal studies and entered the Ripon College, Calcutta
(now the Surendranath Law College
). In 1909, while pursuing his law studies in Kolkata
he also worked as Professor of Economics at Calcutta City College
. In 1915, Prasad appeared in the examination of Masters in Law from the Department of Law, University of Calcutta
, passed the examination and won a gold medal. He completed his Doctorate in Law from Allahabad University
As a lawyer
In 1916, he joined the High Court of Bihar and Odisha. In 1917, he was appointed as one of the first members of the Senate and Syndicate of the Patna University. He also practised law at Bhagalpur
, the famous silk town in Bihar.
Role in the Independence Movement
Prasad had a major role in the independence movement.
Prasad's first association with Indian National Congress
was during 1906 annual session organised in Calcutta, where he participated as a volunteer, while studying in Calcutta. Formally, he joined the Indian National Congress
in the year 1911, when the annual session was again held in Calcutta.
During the Lucknow Session of Indian National Congress held in 1916, he met Mahatma Gandhi
. During one of the fact-finding missions at Champaran
, Mahatma Gandhi
asked him to come with his volunteers.
He was so greatly moved by the dedication, courage and conviction of Mahatma Gandhi that as soon as the motion of Non-Cooperation
was passed by Indian National Congress
in 1920, he retired from his lucrative career of lawyer as well as his duties in the university to aid the movement.
He also responded to the call by Gandhi
to boycott Western educational establishments by asking his son, Mrityunjaya Prasad, to drop out of his studies and enrol himself in Bihar Vidyapeeth, an institution he along with his colleagues founded on the traditional Indian model.
left|Jawaharlal Nehru, Bhulabhai Desai, and Rajendra Prasad (centre) at the AICC Session, March 1939
During the course of the independence movement, he interacted with Rahul Sankrityayan
, a writer, and polymath. Rahul Sankrityayan was greatly influenced by Prasad's intellectual powers, finding him to be a guide and guru. In many of his articles he mentioned about his meeting with Sankrityayan and narrated about his meetings with Sankrityayan. He wrote articles for the revolutionary publications ''Searchlight'' and the ''Desh'' and collected funds for these papers. He toured widely, explaining, lecturing, and exhorting the principles of the independence movement.
He took an active role in helping people affected by the 1914 floods that struck Bihar and Bengal
. When an earthquake affected Bihar on 15 January 1934, Prasad was in jail. During that period, he passed on the relief work to his close colleague Anugrah Narayan Sinha
He was released two days later and set up Bihar Central Relief Committee on 17 January 1934, and took on the task of raising funds to help the affected people. After the 31 May 1935 Quetta earthquake
, when he was forbidden to leave the country due to government's order, he set up the Quetta Central Relief Committee in Sindh
under his own presidency.
He was elected as the President of the Indian National Congress
during the Bombay session in October 1934.
He again became the president when Subhash Chandra Bose
resigned in 1939.
On 8 August 1942, Congress passed the Quit India Resolution in Bombay which led to the arrest of many Indian leaders.
Prasad was arrested in Sadaqat Ashram
, Patna and sent to Bankipur Central Jail
. After remaining incarcerated for nearly three years, he was released on 15 June 1945.
After the formation of Interim Government
of 12 nominated ministers under the leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru
on 2 September 1946, he was allocated the Food and Agriculture department. He was elected as the President of Constituent Assembly
on 11 December 1946. On 17 November 1947 he became Congress President for a third time after J. B. Kripalani
submitted his resignation.
First President of Indian Republic
Two and a half years after independence, on 26 January 1950, the Constitution of independent India was ratified and Prasad was elected the nation's first president. Unfortunately, on the night of 25 January 1950, a day before the Republic Day of India, his sister Bhagwati Devi died. He arranged her cremation but only after his return from the parade ground.
As President of India, he duly acted as required by the Constitution, independent of any political party. He travelled the world extensively as an ambassador of India, building diplomatic rapport with foreign nations. He was re-elected for two consecutive terms in 1952
, and is the only President of India to achieve this feat. The Mughal Gardens
at the Rashtrapati Bhavan
were open to public for about a month for the first time during his tenure, and since then it has been a big attraction for people in Delhi and other parts of the country.
Prasad acted independently of politics, following the expected role of the president as required the constitution. Following the tussle over the enactment of the Hindu Code Bill
, he took a more active role in state affairs. In 1962, after serving twelve years as the president, he announced his decision to retire. After relinquishing the office of the President of India
on May 1962, he returned to Patna
on 14 May 1962 and preferred to stay in the campus of Bihar Vidyapeeth. His wife died on 9 September 1962. A month before Indo-China War. He was subsequently awarded the Bharat Ratna
, the nation's highest civilian award.
He died on 28 February 1963, aged 78. Rajendra Smriti Sangrahalaya
is dedicated to him.
[. Indian Politicians Biography]
His wife had predeceased him by a few months.
* Satyagraha at Champaran (1922)
* Division of India (1946, online)
* Atmakatha (1946), his ''autobiography'' written during his 3-year prison term in Bankipur Jail
* Mahatma Gandhi and Bihar, Some Reminiscences(1949)
* Bapu Ke Kadmon Mein (1954)
* Since Independence (published in 1960)
*At the feet of Mahatma Gandhi
* Shri Krishna Singh (politician)
* Anugrah Narayan Sinha
* Jawaharlal Nehru
* Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
* ''Rajendra Prasad, first President of India'', by Kewalram Lalchand Panjabi. Published by Macmillan, 1960.
* ''Rajendra Prasad: twelve years of triumph and despair'', by Rajendra Lal Handa. Published by Sterling Publishers,1979.
* ''Dr Rajendra Prasad, Correspondence and Select Documents'', by Rajendra Prasad, Valmiki Choudhary. Published by Allied Publishers, 1984. Excerpts
(Vol. 1-Vol. 10)
* ''Dr Rajendra Prasad'' by India Parliament. Lok Sabha
. Published by Lok Sabha Secretariat, 1990.
* ''Rajendra Prasad and the Indian freedom struggle, 1917–1947'', by Nirmal Kumar. Published by Patriot Publishers, 1991. .
* ''Dr Rajendra Prasad: Political Thinkers Of Modern India'', by V. Grover. Published by Deep & Deep Publications, 1993.
* ''First Citizens of India, Dr Rajendra Prasad to Dr Shanker Dayal Sharma: Profile and Bibliography'', by A. B. Kohli. Published by Reliance Pub. House, 1995. .
Category:Presidency University, Kolkata alumni
Category:Surendranath College alumni
Category:Indian independence activists from Bihar
Category:20th-century Indian lawyers
Category:Members of the Constituent Assembly of India
Category:People from Siwan district
Category:Recipients of the Bharat Ratna
Category:Presidents of India
Category:Presidents of the Indian National Congress
Category:University of Calcutta alumni
Category:Surendranath Law College alumni
Category:University of Calcutta faculty
Category:City College, Kolkata faculty
Category:State funerals in India