Punjab (, ) is a state
in northern India
. Forming part of the larger Punjab region
of the Indian subcontinent
, the state is bordered by the Indian union territories
of Jammu and Kashmir
to the north, Chandigarh
to the east, the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh
to the north and northeast, Haryana
to the south and southeast, and Rajasthan
to the southwest. It is bordered by Punjab
, a province
to the west.
The state covers an area of 50,362 square kilometres (19,445 square miles), 1.53% of India's total geographical area.
It is the 20th-largest Indian state
by area. With over 27 million inhabitants, Punjab is the 16th-largest state by population
, comprising 22 districts
, written in the Gurmukhi
script, is the most widely spoken and official language of the state. The main ethnic group are the Punjabis
, with Sikhs
as the dominant religious groups.
The state capital is Chandigarh
, a Union Territory
and also the capital of the neighbouring state of Haryana
. The five tributary rivers of the Indus River
from which the region took its name are the Sutlej
rivers; the Sutlej, Ravi and Beas rivers flow through the Indian Punjab.
The history of Punjab
has witnessed the migration and settlement of different tribes of people with different cultures and ideas, forming a melting pot of Punjabi civilisation. The Indus Valley Civilization
flourished in antiquity before recorded history
until their decline around 1900 BCE. Punjab was enriched during the height of the Vedic period
, but declined in predominance with the rise of the Mahajanapadas
. The region formed the frontier of initial empires during antiquity including the Alexander's
empires. It was subsequently conquered by the Kushan Empire
, Gupta Empire
, and then Harsha's Empire
. Punjab continued to be settled by nomadic people; including the Huna
and the Mongols
. Circa 1000, the Punjab came under the rule of Muslims
and was part of the Delhi Sultanate
, Mughal Empire
, and Durrani Empire
was founded in the 1500s and 1600s
by the Sikh Gurus
in the Punjab and resulted in the formation of the Sikh Confederacy
after the fall of the Mughal Empire and ensuing conflict with the Durrani Empire. This confederacy was united into the Sikh Empire
in 1801 by Maharaja Ranjit Singh
The greater Punjab region was annexed by the British East India Company
from the Sikh Empire
. Following widespead religious violence
, the Punjab Province
of British India
along religious lines
into West Punjab
and East Punjab
. The West Punjab became part of a Muslim-majority Pakistan
, while the East Punjab became part of a Hindu-majority India
. After the Punjabi Suba movement
, the Indian Punjab
were divided into three parts on the basis of language in 1966
speaking areas (including various dialects
) were carved out as Haryana, while the hilly regions and Pahari
-speaking areas formed Himachal Pradesh, alongside the current state of Punjab. An insurgency
occurred in Punjab during the 1980s.
At present, the economy of Punjab
is the 15th-largest state economy
in India with in gross domestic product
and a per capita GDP of , ranking 16th amongst Indian states
Since independence Punjab is predominantly an agrarian society
. It is the ninth-highest ranking
among Indian states in human development index
Punjab has bustling tourism
, and film
The region was originally called Sapta Sindhu
[D. R. Bhandarkar, 1989]
Some Aspects of Ancient Indian Culture: Sir William Meyers Lectures, 1938-39
Asia Educational Services, p.2.
land of the seven rivers flowing into the sea.
"River Sarasvati was a Himalayn-born river"
, vol 104, no.01, .
name for the region, as mentioned in the Ramayana
for example, was ''Panchanada'' which means "Land of the Five Rivers", and was translated to Persian as ''Punjab'' after the Muslim conquests. The word ''Punjab'' is a compound of the Persian
words ''panj'' (five) and ''āb'' (waters). Thus ''Panjāb'' roughly means "the land of five rivers". The five rivers are the Sutlej
(also spelled Jhelum). Traditionally, in English, there used to be a definite article before the name, that is, "The Punjab". The name is also sometimes spelled as "Panjab".
called Punjab a ''pentapotamia'', an inland delta of five converging rivers;
the name ''Punjab'' was given to the region by the Central Asian Turkic
conquerors of India
, and popularised by the Turco-Mongol Mughals
Hinduism in Punjab
Hinduism has existed in the Punjab region since the period of ancient India
. During the period when the epic ''Mahabharata
'' was composed, around 800–400 BCE, Punjab was known as Trigarta
and ruled by Katoch
kings. The Indus Valley Civilization
spanned much of the Punjab region with cities such as Ropar
. The Vedic Civilization
spread along the length of the Sarasvati River
to cover most of northern India
including Punjab, and this gave way for the formation and synthesization of Hinduism.
Hinduism in Punjab, as in many other parts of India, has adapted over time and has become a synthesis of culture and history. Hindus believe in using Dharma
to purify the soul (Atman
) and to connect with a greater "eternal energy" (Paramātmā
). In Punjab, like in many other regions of Northern India, Hindus revere ancient texts that narrate stories of deities (Devas
s) that had reached their highest Paramātmā. Deities in Hinduism are honoured for their roles in ancient Indian history, as they were the upholders of the principles of Dharma in the past. Hindus believe that Ishvara Bhagavan
manifests itself through these Devas and Devis. Major deities worshiped include Rama
from the ''Ramayana
from the ''Mahabharata
'', the Trimurti
, and Brahma
, along with other prominent deities such as Durga
, and Hanuman
As Hindus believe that Dharma is universal and evolves with time, many Hindus also value other spiritual paths and religious traditions. They believe that any traditions that are equally able to nurture one's ''Atman'' should be accepted and taught. Hinduism itself encourages any being to reach their own self-realization either through Bhagavan or through other means of devotion and meditation.
Sikhs in Punjab
Sikhism originated in the Punjab region during the 15th century. Approximately 75% of the total Sikh population of the world lives in Punjab. Sikhism began at the time of the conquest of northern India by Babur
. His grandson, Akbar
, supported religious freedom and after visiting the langar
of Guru Amar Das
had a favourable impression of Sikhism. As a result of his visit he donated land to the langar and had a positive relationship with the Sikh Gurus
until his death in 1605. His successor, Jahangir
, saw the Sikhs as a political threat. He arrested Guru Arjun Dev
because of Sikh support for Khusrau Mirza
and ordered him put to death by torture. Guru Arjan Dev's martyrdom
led to the sixth Guru, Guru Hargobind
, declaring Sikh sovereignty
in the creation of the Akal Takht
and the establishment of a fort to defend Amritsar
Jahangir attempted to assert authority over the Sikhs by imprisoning Guru Hargobind at Gwalior
. He felt compelled to release him when he began to suffer premonitions of an early and gruesome death. The Guru refused to be released unless the dozens of Hindu princes imprisoned with him were also granted freedom, to which Jahangir agreed. Sikhism did not have any further issues with the Mughal Empire
until Jahangir's death in 1627. His successor, Shah Jahan
, "took offense" at Guru Hargobind's sovereignty and after a series of assaults on Amritsar forced the Sikhs to retreat to the Sivalik Hills
Guru Hargobind's successor, Guru Har Rai
, maintained the guruship in the Sivalik Hills by defeating local attempts to seize Sikh land and taking a neutral role in the power struggle between Aurangzeb
and Dara Shikoh
for control of the Timurid dynasty
The ninth Guru, Guru Tegh Bahadur
, moved the Sikh community to Anandpur
and travelled extensively to visit and preach in Sikh communities in defiance of Mughal rule. He aided Kashmiri Hindus
in avoiding conversion to Islam
and was arrested and confronted by Aurangzeb. When offered a choice between conversion or death
, he chose to die and was executed.
Guru Gobind Singh
assumed the guruship in 1675 and to avoid battles with Sivalik Hill Rajas moved the guruship to Paunta
. He built a large fort to protect the city and garrisoned an army to protect it. The Sikh community's growing power alarmed Sivalik Hill Rajas, who attempted to attack the city, but the Guru's forces routed them at the Battle of Bhangani
. He moved on to Anandpur and established the Khalsa
, a collective army of baptised Sikhs, on 13 April 1699. The establishment of the Khalsa united the Sikh community against various Mughal-backed claimants to the guruship.
In 1701, a combined army composed of the Sivalik Hill Rajas and the Mughal
army under Wazir Khan attacked Anandpur and, following a retreat by the Khalsa, was defeated by the Khalsa at the Battle of Muktsar. Banda Singh Bahadur
was an ascetic
who converted to Sikhism after meeting Guru Gobind Singh at Nanded
. Shortly before his death, Guru Gobind Singh ordered him to uproot Mughal rule in Punjab and gave him a letter that commanded all Sikhs to join him. After two years of gaining supporters, Banda Singh Bahadur initiated an agrarian uprising by breaking up the large estates of Zamindar families
and distributing the land to the poor Sikh and Hindu peasants who farmed the land.
Banda Singh Bahadur started his rebellion with the defeat of Mughal armies at Samana
and it culminated in the defeat of Sirhind. During the rebellion, Banda Singh Bahadur made a point of destroying the cities in which Mughals had been cruel to Sikhs, and executed Wazir Khan in revenge for the deaths of Guru Gobind Singh's sons, Baba Zorawar Singh and Baba Fateh Singh, after the Sikh victory at Sirhind. He ruled the territory between the Sutlej River
and the Yamuna River
, established a capital in the Himalayas
, and struck coinage in the names of Guru Nanak
and Guru Gobind Singh.
In 1762, there were persistent conflicts with the Sikhs. Vadda Ghalughara
took place under the Muslim provincial government based at Lahore
to wipe out the Sikh
s, with 30,000 Sikhs being killed, an offensive that had begun with the Mughals, with the Chhota Ghallughara
, and lasted several decades under its Muslim successor states. The rebuilt Harminder Sahib was destroyed, and the pool was filled with cow entrails, again.
The Cis-Sutlej states
were a group of states in modern Punjab and Haryana
states lying between the Sutlej River on the north, the Himalayas on the east, the Yamuna River and Delhi
District on the south, and Sirsa District
on the west. These states were ruled by the Scindhia dynasty
of the Maratha Empire
. Various Sikh sardars and other Rajas of the Cis-Sutlej states paid tributes to the Marathas until the Second Anglo-Maratha War
of 1803–1805, after which the Marathas lost this territory to the British.
The Cis-Sutlej states included Kaithal
, Maler Kotla
, and Faridkot
The Sikh Empire (1801–1849) was forged by Maharajah Ranjit Singh
on the foundations of the Khalsa from a collection of autonomous Sikh misls, creating a unified political state. The empire extended from the Khyber Pass
in the west, to Kashmir
in the north, to Sindh
in the south, and Tibet
in the east. The main geographical footprint of the empire was the Punjab region. The religious demography
of the Sikh Empire was Muslim
After Ranjit Singh's death in 1839, the empire was severely weakened by internal divisions and political mismanagement.
This opportunity was used by the British Empire
to launch the Anglo-Sikh Wars
. A series of betrayals of the Sikhs by some prominent leaders in the army led to its downfall. Maharaja Gulab Singh
and Raja Dhian Singh were the top generals of the army.
Punjab Province (British India)
The Cis-Sutlej states, including Kaithal
, Maler Kotla
, and Faridkot
, were under the suzerainty of Maharaj Visesa Sarang Khokhar under Khokhar dynasty of the Maratha Empire, following the Second Anglo-Maratha War
of 1803–1805, when Marathas lost this territory to the British. During the war, some of the states in the region gave their allegiance to British General Gerard Lake
. At the conclusion of the Second Anglo-Maratha War, an 1809 agreement with Ranjit Singh, ruler of the Sikh Empire west of the Sutlej, brought these states under formal British protection.
Ranjit Singh's death in the summer of 1839 brought political chaos, and the subsequent battles of succession and the bloody infighting between the factions at court weakened the state. By 1845 the British had moved 32,000 troops to the Sutlej frontier to secure their northernmost possessions against the succession struggles in the Punjab. In late 1845, British and Sikh troops engaged near Firozpur
, beginning the First Anglo-Sikh War
In March 1940, the All-India Muslim League passed the Lahore Resolution
, demanding the creation of a separate state from Muslim majority areas in British India. This triggered bitter protests by the Sikhs in Punjab, who could not countenance living in a Muslim state.
In 1946, massive communal tensions and violence erupted between Punjab's Muslim majority and the Hindu and Sikh minorities. The Muslim League attacked the government of Unionist Punjabi Muslims, Sikh Akalis and the Congress and led to its downfall. Unwilling to be cowed, Sikhs and Hindus counterattacked, and the resulting bloodshed left the province in great disorder. Congress and League leaders agreed to partition Punjab along religious lines, a precursor to the wider partition of the country.
Independence and its aftermath
The undivided Punjab, of which Pakistani Punjab
forms a major region today, was home to a large minority population of Punjabi Hindus and Sikhs until 1947, apart from the Muslim majority. In 1947 the Punjab Province of British India
along religious lines into West Punjab
going to Pakistan and East Punjab
going to India. Huge numbers of people were displaced, and there was much intercommunal violence.
Immediately following independence in 1947, and due to the ensuing communal violence and fear, most Sikhs and Punjabi Hindus who found themselves in Pakistan migrated to India. Following independence, several small Punjabi princely states, including Patiala, acceded
to the Union of India and were united into the PEPSU
. In 1956 this was integrated with the state of East Punjab to create a new, enlarged Indian state called simply "Punjab". ''Punjab Day'' is celebrated across the state on 1 November every year marking the formation of a Punjabi language speaking state under the Punjab Reorganisation Act (1966). From 1981 to 1995 the state suffered a 14-year long insurgency
which culminated with Operation Blue Star
, and the assassination of India's Prime Minister
Punjab is in northwestern India and has a total area of . Punjab is bounded by Pakistan on the west, Jammu and Kashmir (union territory)
on the north, Himachal Pradesh
on the northeast and Haryana
on the south.
Most of the Punjab lies in a fertile, alluvial plain with many rivers and an extensive irrigation canal system.
A belt of undulating hills extends along the northeastern part of the state at the foot of the Himalayas. Its average elevation is above sea level, with a range from in the southwest to more than around the northeast border. The southwest of the state is semiarid, eventually merging into the Thar Desert
. The Shiwalik Hills
extend along the northeastern part of the state at the foot of the Himalayas.
The soil characteristics are influenced to a limited extent by the topography, vegetation and parent rock. The variation in soil profile characteristics are much more pronounced because of the regional climatic differences.
Punjab is divided into three distinct regions on the basis of soil types: southwestern, central, and eastern. Punjab falls under seismic zones
II, III, and IV. Zone II is considered a low-damage risk zone; zone III is considered a moderate-damage risk zone; and zone IV is considered a high-damage risk zone.
The geography and subtropic
al latitudinal location of Punjab lead to large variations in temperature from month to month. Even though only limited regions experience temperatures below , ground frost is commonly found in the majority of Punjab during the winter season. The temperature rises gradually with high humidity
and overcast skies. However, the rise in temperature is steep when the sky is clear and humidity is low.
The maximum temperatures usually occur in mid-May and June. The temperature remains above in the entire region during this period. Ludhiana recorded the highest maximum temperature at with Patiala and Amritsar recording . The maximum temperature during the summer in Ludhiana remains above for a duration of one and a half months. These areas experience the lowest temperatures in January. The sun rays are oblique during these months and the cold winds control the temperature at daytime.
Punjab experiences its minimum temperature from December to February. The lowest temperature was recorded at Amritsar () and Ludhiana stood second with . The minimum temperature of the region remains below for almost two months during the winter season. The highest minimum temperature of these regions in June is more than the daytime maximum temperatures experienced in January and February. Ludhiana experiences minimum temperatures above for more than two months. The annual average temperature in the entire state is approximately . Further, the mean monthly temperature range varies between in July to approximately in November.
Punjab experiences three main seasons. They are:
*Summer (mid-April to the end of June)
*Monsoon (early July to the end of September)
*Winter (early December to the end of February).
Apart from these three, the state experiences transitional seasons like:
*Pre-summer season (March to mid-April): This is the period of transition between winter and summer.
season (September to end of November): This is the period of transition between monsoon and winter seasons.
Punjab starts experiencing mildly hot temperatures in February. The actual summer season commences in mid-April and the heat continues till the end of August. High temperatures between May and August hover between 40-47 °C. The area experiences atmospheric pressure variations during the summer months. The atmospheric pressure of the region remains around 987 millibar during February and it reaches 970 millibar in June.
Punjab's rainy season begins in the first week of July as monsoon currents generated in the Bay of Bengal
bring rain to the region.The monsoon lasts up to mid-September.
Temperature variation is minimal in January. The mean night and day temperatures fall to and , respectively.
Post-Monsoon transitional season
The monsoon begins to reduce by the second week of September. This brings a gradual change in climate and temperature. The time between October and November is the transitional period between monsoon and winter seasons. Weather during this period is generally temperate and dry.
Post-Winter transitional season
The effects of winter diminish by the first week of March. The hot summer season commences in mid-April. This period is marked by occasional showers with hail storms and squalls
that cause extensive damage to crops. The winds remain dry and warm during the last week of March, commencing the harvest period.
Monsoon season provides most of the rainfall for the region. Punjab receives rainfall from the monsoon current of the Bay of Bengal. This monsoon current enters the state from the southeast in the first week of July.
The winter season remains very cool with temperatures falling below freezing at some places. Winter also brings in some western disturbances.
Rainfall in the winter provides relief to the farmers as some of the winter crops in the region of Shivalik Hills are entirely dependent on this rainfall. As per meteorological statistics, the sub-Shivalik area receives more than of rainfall in the winter months.
Flora and fauna
The fauna of the area is rich, with 396 types of birds, 214 kinds of Lepidoptera
, 55 varieties of fish, 20 types of reptiles, and 19 kinds of mammals. The state of Punjab has large wetland areas, bird sanctuaries that house numerous species of birds, and many zoological parks. Wetlands include the national wetland Hari-Ke-Pattan
, the wetland of Kanjli
, and the wetlands of Kapurthala Sutlej. Wildlife sanctuaries include the Harike in the district of Tarn Taran Sahib, the Zoological Park in Rupnagar, Chhatbir Bansar Garden in Sangrur, Aam Khas Bagh
in Sirhind, Amritsar's famous Ram Bagh Palace
, Shalimar Garden in Kapurthala, and the famous Baradari Garden in the city of Patiala.
Animals and birds
A few of the rivers in Punjab have crocodiles. The extraction of silk from silkworms is another industry that flourishes in the state. Production of bee honey is done in some parts of Punjab. The southern plains are desert land; hence, camels can be seen. Buffalo
es graze around the banks of rivers. The northeastern part is home to animals like horses. Wildlife sanctuaries have many more species of wild animals like the otter, wild boar, wildcat, fruit bat, hog deer, flying fox, squirrel, and mongoose. Naturally formed forests can be seen in the Shivalik ranges in the districts of Ropar, Gurdaspur and Hoshiarpur. Patiala is home to the Bir forest while the wetlands area in Punjab is home to the Mand forest.
Botanical gardens exist throughout Punjab. There is a zoological park and a tiger safari park, as well as three parks dedicated to deer.
The state bird is the northern goshawk (baz)
(''Accipiter gentilis''), the state animal is the blackbuck
(''Antilope cervicapra''), and the state tree is the shisham (''Dalbergia sissoo
Government and politics
Punjab is governed through a parliamentary system of representative democracy. Each of the states of India possesses a parliamentary system of government, with a ceremonial state Governor
, appointed by the President of India
on the advice of the central government. The head of government is an indirectly elected Chief Minister
who is vested with most of the executive powers. The term length of the government is five years. The state legislature, the Vidhan Sabha
, is the unicameral Punjab Legislative Assembly
, with 117 members elected from single-seat constituencies. The current government was elected in the 2017 Assembly elections
as Congress won 77 out of 117 Assembly seats and Amarinder Singh
is the current Chief Minister. The state of Punjab is divided into five administrative divisions and twenty-two districts.
The capital of Punjab is Chandigarh
, which also serves as the capital of Haryana
and is thus administered separately as a Union Territory
of India. The judicial branch of the state government is provided by the Punjab and Haryana High Court
The two major political parties in the state are the Shiromani Akali Dal
, a right-wing
with the Bharatiya Janata Party
at the national level, and the Indian National Congress
, a centrist
party. The present government is headed by Amarinder Singh
. President's rule
has been imposed in Punjab eight times so far, since 1950, for different reasons. In terms of the absolute number of days, Punjab was under the President's rule for 3,510 days, which is approximately 10 years. Much of this was in the 80s during the height of militancy in Punjab. Punjab was under the President's rule for five continuous years from 1987 to 1992.
Punjab state law and order is maintained by Punjab Police
. Punjab police is headed by its DGP, Dinkar Gupta, and has 70,000 employees. It manages state affairs through 22 district heads known as SSP.
Punjab has 22 districts which are geographically classified into Majha
regions. They are officially divided among 5 divisions: Patiala, Rupnagar, Jalandhar, Faridkot and Firozepur.
**Shaheed Bhagat Singh Nagar
**Sri Muktsar Sahib
**SAS Nagar (Mohali)
Each district under the administrative control of a District Collector. The districts are subdivided into 79 tehsil
s, which have fiscal and administrative powers over settlements within their borders, including maintenance of local land records comes under the administrative control of a Tehsildar
. Each Tehsil consists of blocks which are total 143 in number. The blocks consist of revenue villages. There are total number of revenue villages in the state is 12,278. There are 22 Zila Parishads, 136 Municipal Committees and 22 Improvement Trusts looking after 143 towns and 14 cities of Punjab. Majitha is newly created tehsil, which was formed in September 2016. Zirakpur is the latest sub-tehsil, in the district of Mohali.
The capital city of the state is Chandigarh
and largest city of the state is Ludhiana
. Out of total population of Punjab, 37.48% people live in urban regions. The absolute urban population living in urban areas is 10,399,146 of which 5,545,989 are males and while remaining 4,853,157 are females. The urban population in the last 10 years has increased by 37.48%. The major cities are Ludhiana
Punjab is one of the most fertile regions in India. The region is ideal for wheat-growing. Rice
, sugar cane, fruits
are also grown. Indian Punjab is called the "Granary of India" or "India's bread-basket".
[Welcome to Official Web site of Punjab, India](_blank)
It produces 10.26% of India's cotton, 19.5% of India's wheat, and 11% of India's rice. The Firozpur
Districts are the largest producers of wheat and rice in the state. In worldwide terms, Indian Punjab produces 2% of the world's cotton, 2% of its wheat and 1% of its rice.
Punjab ranked first in GDP per capita amongst Indian states in 1981 and fourth in 2001, but has experienced slower growth than the rest of India, having the second-slowest GDP per capita
growth rate of all Indian states and UTs between 2000 and 2010, behind only Manipur
Punjab's economy has been primarily agriculture-based since the Green Revolution
due to the presence of abundant water sources and fertile soils; most of the state lies in a fertile alluvial plain with many rivers and an extensive irrigation canal system.
The largest cultivated crop is wheat
. Other important crops are rice
, pearl millet
. Rice and wheat are doublecropped in Punjab with rice stalks being burned off over millions of acres prior to the planting of wheat. This widespread practice is polluting and wasteful.
Despite covering only 1.53%
of its geographical area, Punjab makes up for about 15-20%
of India's wheat production, around 12% of its rice production, and around 5%
of its milk production, being known as India's breadbasket
[Taylor, S., Singh, M., Booth, D. (2007) Migration, development and inequality: Eastern Punjabi transnationalism. School of Social Sciences and Law, University of Teesside, Middlesbrough, UK; Department of Sociology, Punjab University, Chandigarh, India.]
-95% of Punjab's agricultural land is owned by its Jat Sikh
community despite it only forming 21%
of the state's population. About 10% of Punjab's population is made up of migrants from poorer states to the southeast such as Uttar Pradesh
who work as farm labourers.
[Simmering discontent: Sikhs in Punjab are fighting many wars](_blank)
8 March 2008, 0000 hrs IST,Praveen S Thampi, Times of India.
Other major industries include financial services
, the manufacturing of scientific instruments
, agricultural goods, electrical goods, machine tools
, sewing machines
, sports goods
, and the processing of pine oil
Minerals and energy resources also contribute to Punjab's economy to a much lesser extent. Punjab has the largest number of steel rolling
mill plants in India, which are in "Steel Town"—Mandi Gobindgarh
in the Fatehgarh Sahib district
. Punjab also has a large diaspora
that is mostly settled in the United Kingdom
, the United States
, and Canada
, numbers about 3 million, and sends back billions of USD in remittances
to the state, playing a major role in its economy.
In Punjab the consumption of fertiliser per hectare is 223.46 kg as compared to 90 kg nationally. The state has been awarded the National Productivity Award for agriculture extension services for ten years, from 1991 to 1992 to 1998–99 and from 2001 to 2003–04. In recent years a drop in productivity has been observed, mainly due to falling fertility of the soil. This is believed to be due to excessive use of fertilisers and pesticides over the years. Another worry is the rapidly falling water table on which almost 90% of the agriculture depends; alarming drops have been witnessed in recent years. By some estimates, groundwater is falling by a meter or more per year.
According to the India State Hunger Index, Punjab has the lowest level of hunger in India.
Sri Guru Ram Dass Jee International Airport
, is the Primary Hub Airport and Gateway to Punjab, as the airport serves direct connectivity to key cities around the world, including London
Punjab has six civil airports including two international airports: Amritsar International Airport
and Chandigarh International Airport
; and four domestic airports: Bathinda Airport
, Pathankot Airport
, Adampur Airport
) and Sahnewal Airport
). Apart from these 6 airports, there are 2 airfields at Beas (Amritsar
) and Patiala
which do not serve any commercial flight operations, as of now.
The Indian Railways
' Northern Railway
line runs through the state connecting most of the major towns and cities. The Shatabdi Express
, India's fastest series of train connects Amritsar
to New Delhi
covering total distance of 449 km. Amritsar Junction Railway Station
is the busiest junction of the state. Bathinda Junction
holds the record of maximum railway lines from a railway junction in Asia
. Punjab's major railway stations are
(ASR), Ludhiana Junction
(LDH), Jalandhar Cantonment
(JRC), Firozpur Cantonment
(FZR), Jalandhar City Junction
(JUC), Pathankot Junction
(PTK) and Patiala railway station
(PTA). The railway stations of Amritsar
is included in the Indian Railways list of 50 world-class railway stations.
Government has signed a Memorendum of Understand(MoU) with Virgin Hyperloop One
to explore the feasibility of running a hyperloop between Amritsar
which could decrease the distance between 2 cities from five hours by road to less than 30 minutes. It will have stops in Ludhiana
All the cities and towns of Punjab are connected by four-lane national highways
. The Grand Trunk Road
, also known as "NH1", connects Kolkata
, passing through Amritsar
National highways passing through the state are ranked the best in the country with widespread road networks that serve isolated towns as well as the border region. Amritsar and Ludhiana are among several Indian cities that have the highest accident rates in India.
The following expressways will pass through Punjab:
* Delhi-Amritsar-Katra Expressway
(National Expressway 5)
* Amritsar-Jamnagar Expressway
* Pathankot-Ajmer Expressway
The following national highways connect major towns, cities and villages:
* National Highway 1
* National Highway 10
* National Highway 15
* National Highway 1A
* National Highway 54
* National Highway 20
* National Highway 21
* National Highway 22
* National Highway 64
* National Highway 70
* National Highway 71
* National Highway 95
Urban Rapid Transit System
There are also a bus rapid transit
system Amritsar BRTS
in the holy city of Amritsar, popularly known as 'Amritsar MetroBus'
Punjab is home to 2.30% of India's population; with a density of 551 persons per km2
. According to the provisional results of the 2011 national census
, Punjab has a population of 27,743,338, making it the 16th
most populated state in India. Of which male and female are 14,639,465 and 13,103,873 respectively.
32% of Punjab's population consists of Dalits
In the state, the rate of population growth is 13.89% (2011), lower than national average. Out of total population, 37.48% people live in urban regions. The total figure of population living in urban areas is 10,399,146 of which 5,545,989 are males and while remaining 4,853,157 are females. The urban population in the last 10 years has increased by 37.48%. Punjabi
is the sole official language of Punjab and is spoken by the majority of the population numbering around 24,919,067 constituting (89.82%) of the population as of 2011 census report. Hindi
is second largest language, spoken by 2,177,853 constituting 7.85% of the population and rest 646,418 spoke's other Indian languages comprising 2.83% in other category.
The 2011 Census of India
found Scheduled Castes
to account for 31.9% of the state's population. The Other Backward Class
es have 31.3% population in Punjab. The exact population of Forward caste
s is not known as their data from Socio Economic and Caste Census 2011
is not made public as of 2019.
There has been a constant decline in the sex ratio of the state. The sex ratio in Punjab was 895 females per 1000 males, which was below the national average of 940. The literacy rate rose to 75.84% as per 2011 population census. Of that, male literacy stands at 80.44% while female literacy is at 70.73%. In actual numbers, total literates in Punjab stands at 18,707,137 of which males were 10,436,056 and females were 8,271,081.
Punjab has the largest population of Sikhs
in India and is the only state where Sikhs form a majority, numbering around 16 million forming 57.69% of the state population.
is the second largest religion in the Indian state of Punjab numbering around 10.68 million and forming 38.49% of the state's population and a majority in Doaba
is followed by 535,489 accounting 1.93% of the population and are mainly concentrated in Malerkotla
. Other smaller segments of religions existing in Punjab are Christianity
practised by 1.26%, Jainism
practised by 0.16%, Buddhism
practised by 0.12% and others 0.36%. Sikhs form a majority in 17 districts out of the total 22 districts while Hindus form the majority in five districts namely, Pathankot
and Shaheed Bhagat Singh Nagar
shrine, Golden Temple
), is in the city of Amritsar, which houses the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee
, the topmost Sikh religious body. The Sri Akal Takht Sahib
, which is within the Golden Temple complex, is the highest temporal seat of Sikhs. Of the five Takhts (Temporal Seats of religious authority) of Sikhism
, three are in Punjab. These are Sri Akal Takht Sahib, Damdama Sahib
and Anandpur Sahib
. At least one Sikh Gurdwara
can be found in almost every village in the state, as well as in the towns and cities (in various architectural styles and sizes). Before the advent of Islam
, and later birth of Sikhism
was the main religion practised by the Punjabi people
. Due to the non-exclusive nature of their religion, a segment of Punjabis who are categorised as Punjabi Hindus
continue heterogeneous religious practices in spiritual kinship with Sikhism. This not only includes veneration of the Sikh Gurus in private practice but also visits to Sikh Gurdwaras in addition to Hindu temples.
_Block_at_[[Guru_Nanak_Dev_University_.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Guru Nanak Dev University">Ranjit Singh Block at [[Guru Nanak Dev University ">Guru Nanak Dev University">Ranjit Singh Block at [[Guru Nanak Dev University
Primary and Secondary education is mainly affiliated to [[Punjab School Education Board. Punjab is served by several institutions of [[higher education, including 23 universities that provide undergraduate and postgraduate courses in all the major arts, humanities, science, engineering, law, medicine, veterinary science, and business. Reading and writing Punjabi language
is compulsory till matriculation
for every student failing which the schools attract fine or cancellation of licence.
Punjab Agricultural University
is a leading institution globally for the study of agriculture and played a significant role in Punjab's Green Revolution
in the 1960s–70s. Alumni of the Panjab University, Chandigarh
include Manmohan Singh
, the former Prime Minister of India
, and Dr. Har Gobind Khorana
, a biochemistry nobel laureate
. One of the oldest institutions of medical education is the Christian Medical College, Ludhiana
, which has existed since 1894. There is an existing gap in education between men and women, particularly in rural areas of Punjab. Of a total of 1 million 300 thousand students enrolled in grades five to eight, only 44% are women.
Punjab has 23 universities, of which ten are private, 9 are state, one is central and three are deemed universities
. Punjab has 104,000 (104,000) engineering seats.
Punjab also putting step in education of Yoga and Naturopathy. It's slowly becoming popular and student adopting these as their career . Board of Naturopathy and yoga science (B.N.Y.S.) Regional College Dinanagar is the very first college opened in Dinanagar Town.
'' and ''Punjabi Tribune
'' are the largest-selling Punjabi newspapers while ''The Tribune
'' is most selling English newspaper. A vast number of weekly, biweekly and monthly magazines are under publication in Punjabi. Other main newspapers are ''Daily Punjab Times
, Rozana Spokesman
, Nawan Zamana
is the broadcaster of the Government of India
and its channel ''DD Punjabi
'' is dedicated to Punjabi. Prominent private Punjabi channels
include news channels like ''BBC Punjabi
'', ''ABP Sanjha
'', ''Global Punjab TV
''News18 Punjab-Haryana-Himachal'', ''Zee Punjab Haryana Himachal
'', ''PTC News
'' and entertainment channels like ''Zee Punjabi
'', ''GET Punjabi
'', ''ETC Punjabi
'', ''Chardikla Time TV'', ''PTC Punjabi
'', ''Colours Punjabi
'', ''JUS Punjabi
'' and ''9x Tashan
Punjab has witnessed a growth in FM radio channels, mainly in the cities of Jalandhar, Patiala and Amritsar, which has become hugely popular. There are government radio channels like ''All India Radio, Jalandhar
'', ''All India Radio
'' and ''FM Gold Ludhiana
''. Private radio channels include ''Radio Mirchi
'', ''BIG FM 92.7
'', ''94.3 My FM'', ''Radio Mantra
'' and many more.
The culture of Punjab has many elements including music
such as bhangra
, an extensive religious and non-religious dance tradition
, a long history of poetry
in the Punjabi language, a significant Punjabi film industry
that dates back to before Partition, a vast range of cuisine
, which has become widely popular abroad, and a number of seasonal and harvest festivals such as Lohri
, all of which are celebrated in addition to the religious festivals of India.
is a Punjabi language oral story-telling tradition that has a mixture of origins ranging from the Arabian peninsula to Iran and Afghanistan.
Punjabi wedding traditions
and ceremonies are a strong reflection of Punjabi culture. Marriage ceremonies are known for their rich rituals, songs, dances, food and dresses, which have evolved over many centuries.
( pa|ਭੰਗੜਾ (Gurmukhi)
; pronounced ) and Giddha
are forms of dance and music that originated in the Punjab region
''Bhangra'' dance began as a folk dance conducted by Punjabi
farmers to celebrate the coming of the harvest season. The specific moves of ''Bhangra'' reflect the manner in which villagers farmed their land. This hybrid dance became ''Bhangra''. The folk dance
has been popularised in the western world by Punjabis
in England, Canada and the USA where competitions are held. It is seen in the West as an expression of South Asian
culture as a whole.
Today, ''Bhangra'' dance survives in different forms and styles all over the globe – including pop music, film soundtrack
s, collegiate competitions and cultural shows.
The folk heritage of the Punjab reflects its thousands of years of history. While Majhi
is considered to be the standard dialect of Punjabi language
, there are a number of Punjabi dialects
through which the people communicate. These include Malwai
. The songs, ballads, epics and romances are generally written and sung in these dialects.
There are a number of folk tales that are popular in Punjab. These are the folk tales of Mirza Sahiban
, Heer Ranjha
, Sohni Mahiwal
, Sassi Punnun
, Jagga Jatt
, Dulla Bhatti
, Puran Bhagat
, Jeona Maud etc.
The mystic folk songs and religious songs include the ''Shalooks'' of Sikh gurus
, Baba Farid
The most famous of the romantic love songs are ''Mayhiah'', ''Dhola'' and ''Boliyan''. Punjabi romantic dances include Dhamaal
, and Sammi
and some other local folk dances.
Most early Punjabi literary works are in verse form, with prose not becoming more common until later periods. Throughout its history, Punjabi literature
has sought to inform and inspire, educate and entertain. The Punjabi language is written in several different scripts, of which the Shahmukhi
, the Gurmukhī
scripts are the most commonly used.
Punjabi Folk Music
is the traditional music on the traditional musical instruments of Punjab region.
Bhangra music of Punjab
is famous throughout the world.
Punjabi music has a diverse style of music
, ranging from folk and Sufi to classical, notably the Punjab gharana
and Patiala gharana
Punjab is home to the Punjabi film industry
, often colloquially referred to as 'Pollywood'. It is known for being the fastest growing film industry in India. It is based mainly around Mohali
city. According to MP Manish Tewari
, the government is planning to build a film city in Mohali.
The first Punjabi film was made in 1936. Since the 2000s Punjabi cinema has seen a revival with more releases every year with bigger budgets, homegrown stars, and Bollywood actors of Punjabi descent taking part.
The city of Amritsar
is home to the craft of brass and copper metalwork
done by the Thatheras of Jandiala Guru
, which is enlisted on the UNESCO
's List of Intangible Cultural Heritage
. Years of neglect had caused this craft to die out, and the listing prompted the Government of Punjab
to undertake a craft revival effort under Project Virasat.
One of the main features of Punjabi cuisine is its diverse range of dishes. Home cooked and restaurant cuisine sometimes vary in taste. Restaurant style uses large amounts of ghee
. Some food items are eaten on a daily basis while some delicacies are cooked only on special occasions.
There are many regional dishes that are famous in some regions only. Many dishes are exclusive to Punjab, including Sarson Da Saag
, Tandoori chicken
, Shami kebab
, makki di roti
Festivals and traditions
Punjabis celebrate a number of festivals, which have taken a semi-secular meaning and are regarded as cultural festivals by people of all religions. Some of the festivals are Bandi Chhor Divas (Diwali)
, Mela Maghi
, Hola Mohalla
, Guru Ravidass Jayanti
and Basant Kite Festival
Kabbadi (Circle Style)
, a team contact sport originated in rural Punjab is recognised as the state game. Field hockey
is also a popular sport in the state. Kila Raipur Sports Festival
, popularly known as the Rural Olympics, is held annually in Kila Raipur
). Competition is held for major Punjabi rural sports, include cart-race, rope pulling. Punjab government
organises World Kabaddi League
and annual Kabaddi World Cup
for Circle Style Kabbadi in which teams from countries like Argentina
, Sierra Leone
and United States
participated. A major C.B.S.E
event C.B.S.E Cluster Athlectics also held in Punjab at Sant Baba Bhag Singh University
The Punjab state basketball team won the National Basketball Championship
on many occasions, most recently in 2019 and 2020.
Tourism in Indian Punjab centres around the historic palaces, battle sites, and the great Sikh architecture
of the state and the surrounding region. Examples include various sites of the Indus Valley Civilization
, the ancient fort of Bathinda
, the architectural monuments of Kapurthala
, and Chandigarh
, the modern capital designed by Le Corbusier
The Golden Temple
is one of the major tourist destinations of Punjab and indeed India
, attracting more visitors than the Taj Mahal
. Lonely Planet
Bluelist 2008 has voted the Harmandir Sahib as one of the world's best spiritual sites. Moreover, there is a rapidly expanding array of international hotels in the holy city at Heritage Walk Amritsar that can be booked for overnight stays. Devi Talab Mandir
is a Hindu temple
located in Jalandhar
. This temple is devoted to Goddess Durga
and is believed to be at least 200 years old. Another main tourist destination is religious and historic city of Sri Anandpur Sahib
where large number of tourists come to see the Virasat-e-Khalsa
(Khalsa Heritage Memorial Complex) and also take part in Hola Mohalla
festival. Kila Raipur Sports Festival
is also popular tourist attraction in Kila Raipur
. Shahpur kandi fort, Ranjit Sagar
lake and Sikh Temple in Sri Muktsar Sahib
are also popular attractions in Punjab
. Punjab also has the world's first museum based on the Indian Partition of 1947, in Amritsar, called the Partition Museum
* Radhika Chopra. ''Militant and Migrant: The Politics and Social History of Punjab'' (2011)
* Harnik Deol. ''Religion and Nationalism in India: The Case of the Punjab'' (Routledge Studies in the Modern History of Asia) (2000)
* Harjinder Singh Dilgeer, ''Encyclopedia of Jalandhar'', Sikh University Press, Brussels, Belgium (2005)
* Harjinder Singh Dilgeer, ''SIKH HISTORY in 10 volumes'', Sikh University Press, Brussels, Belgium (2010–11)
* J. S. Grewal. ''The Sikhs of the Punjab'' (The New Cambridge History of India
* J. S. Grewal. ''Social and Cultural History of the Punjab: Prehistoric, Ancient and Early Medieval'' (2004)
* Nazer Singh. ''Delhi and Punjab: Essays in history and historiography'' (1995)
* Tai Yong Tan. ''The Garrison State: Military, Government and Society in Colonial Punjab, 1849–1947'' (Sage Series in Modern Indian History) (2005)
* J. C. Aggarwal and S. P. Agrawal, eds. ''Modern History of Punjab: Relevant Select Documents'' (1992)
* R. M. Chopra, ''The Legacy of The Punjab'', 1997, Punjabee Bradree, Calcutta.
Official Tourism Site of Punjab, India
; General information
Category:States and union territories of India
Category:States and territories established in 1956
Category:1956 establishments in India
Category:Punjabi-speaking countries and territories