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''Pseudomonas'' is a
genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), circumscribing) and classifying gr ...
of
Gram-negative Gram-negative bacteria are bacteria Bacteria (; common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) are a type of Cell (biology), biological cell. They constitute a large domain (biology), domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. Typically a few microm ...
,
Gammaproteobacteria The class Gammaproteobacteria belongs to the Proteobacteria phylum and contains about 250 genera, which makes it the most genera-rich taxon of the Prokaryotes. Several medically, ecologically, and scientifically important groups of bacteria belon ...
, belonging to the family
Pseudomonadaceae The Pseudomonadaceae are a Family (biology), family of bacterium, bacteria which includes the genera ''Azomonas'', ''Azorhizophilus'', ''Azotobacter'', ''Mesophilobacter'', ''Pseudomonas'' (the type genus), and ''Rugamonas''. The family Azotobac ...
and containing 191 validly described species. The members of the genus demonstrate a great deal of
metabolic Metabolism (, from el, μεταβολή ''metabolē'', "change") is the set of life Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that have biological processes, such as Cell signaling, signaling and self-sustaining ...

metabolic
diversity and consequently are able to colonize a wide range of niches. Their ease of culture ''
in vitro ''In vitro'' (meaning in glass, or ''in the glass'') studies Study or studies may refer to: General * Education **Higher education * Clinical trial * Experiment * Observational study * Research * Study skills, abilities and approaches applied ...

in vitro
'' and availability of an increasing number of ''Pseudomonas'' strain
genome In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is all genetic information of an organism. It consists of nucleotide sequences of DNA (or RNA in RNA viruses). The genome includes both the genes (the coding regions) and the noncodin ...

genome
sequences has made the genus an excellent focus for scientific research; the best studied species include ''
P. aeruginosa ''Pseudomonas aeruginosa'' is a common Bacterial capsule, encapsulated, Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-negative, bacillus (shape), rod-shaped bacteria, bacterium that can cause disease in plants and animals, including humans. A species of considera ...
'' in its role as an opportunistic
human pathogenA human pathogen is a pathogen In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiol ...
, the plant pathogen '' P. syringae'', the soil bacterium '' P. putida'', and the plant growth-promoting ''
P. fluorescens
P. fluorescens
, P. lini, P. migulae'', and ''P. graminis''. Because of their widespread occurrence in water and plant seeds such as dicots, the
pseudomonads The Pseudomonadaceae are a family In human society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same spatial or social territory, ...
were observed early in the history of
microbiology Microbiology (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appro ...

microbiology
. The generic name ''Pseudomonas'' created for these organisms was defined in rather vague terms by
Walter Migula Emil Friedrich August Walter (or Walther) Migula (born 1863 in Żyrowa, Poland Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 Voivodeships of Poland, administrative provinces, c ...
in 1894 and 1900 as a genus of Gram-negative, rod-shaped, and polar-
flagella A flagellum (; ) is a hairlike appendage that protrudes from a wide range of microorganism A microorganism, or microbe,, ''mikros'', "small") and ''organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and ...

flagella
ted bacteria with some sporulating species.Migula, W. (1894) Über ein neues System der Bakterien. Arb Bakteriol Inst Karlsruhe 1: 235–238.Migula, W. (1900) System der Bakterien, Vol. 2. Jena, Germany: Gustav Fischer. The latter statement was later proved incorrect and was due to refractive granules of reserve materials. Despite the vague description, the type species, ''Pseudomonas pyocyanea'' (basonym of ''
Pseudomonas aeruginosa ''Pseudomonas aeruginosa'' is a common encapsulated, Gram-negative Gram-negative bacteria are bacteria that do not retain the crystal violet stain used in the Gram stain, gram-staining method of bacterial differentiation. They are characterized ...
''), proved the best descriptor.


Classification history

Like most bacterial genera, the pseudomonad
last common ancestor In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanis ...
lived hundreds of millions of years ago. They were initially classified at the end of the 19th century when first identified by
Walter Migula Emil Friedrich August Walter (or Walther) Migula (born 1863 in Żyrowa, Poland Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 Voivodeships of Poland, administrative provinces, c ...
. The etymology of the name was not specified at the time and first appeared in the seventh edition of ''
Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology ''Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology'' is the main resource for determining the identity of prokaryotic organisms, emphasizing bacterial species, using every characterizing aspect. The manual was published subsequent to the ''Bergey's Manua ...
'' (the main authority in bacterial nomenclature) as
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
''pseudes ''(ψευδής) "false" and '' -monas'' (μονάς/μονάδος) "a single unit", which can mean false unit; however, Migula possibly intended it as false ''
Monas The National Monument ( id, Monumen Nasional, abbreviated ''Monas'') is a 132 m (433 ft) obelisk in the centre of Merdeka Square, Jakarta, Merdeka Square, Central Jakarta, symbolizing the fight for Indonesia. It is the national monumen ...
'', a nanoflagellated protist (subsequently, the term "monad" was used in the early history of microbiology to denote unicellular organisms). Soon, other species matching Migula's somewhat vague original description were isolated from many natural niches and, at the time, many were assigned to the
genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), circumscribing) and classifying gr ...
. However, many strains have since been reclassified, based on more recent methodology and use of approaches involving studies of conservative macromolecules. Recently,
16S rRNA 16S rRNA may refer to: * 16S ribosomal RNA, the prokaryotic ribosomal subunit * Mitochondrially encoded 16S RNA, the eukaryotic ribosomal subunit {{Short pages monitor {{portal bar, Biology Pseudomonadales Bacteria genera Psychrophiles Gram-negative bacteria Pathogenic bacteria