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The Pechenegs or Patzinaks were a
semi-nomadic A nomad ( frm, nomade "people without fixed habitation") is a member of a community without fixed habitation which regularly moves to and from the same areas. Such groups include hunter-gatherers, pastoral nomads (owning livestock Livestock ...

semi-nomadic
Turkic ethnic people from
Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia which stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China and Mongolia in the east, and from Afghanistan and Iran in the south to Russia in the north, including the former Soviet Union, Soviet republics of the Sov ...

Central Asia
speaking the
Pecheneg language Pecheneg is an extinct Turkic languages, Turkic language spoken by the Pechenegs in Eastern Europe (parts of Southern Ukraine, Southern Russia, Moldova, Romania and Hungary) in the 7th–12th centuries. Byzantine Empire, Byzantine princess Anna ...
which belonged to the
Oghuz
Oghuz
branch of the
Turkic language family The Turkic languages are a language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages have a writing system c ...
.


Ethnonym

The Pechenegs were mentioned as ''Bjnak'', ''Bjanak'' or ''Bajanak'' in medieval
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...

Arabic
and
Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated with the Iranian peoples ** Persian language, an Iranian ...
texts, as ''Be-ča-nag'' in
Classical Tibetan Classical Tibetan refers to the language of any text written in Tibetic The Tibetan languages are a cluster of Tibeto-Burman languages descended from Old Tibetan, spoken across the Himalayan Massif, including the Tibetan Plateau and the Himalaya ...
documents, and as ''Pačanak-i'' in works written in
Georgian Georgian may refer to: Common meanings * Anything related to, or originating from Georgia (country) **Georgians, an indigenous Caucasian ethnic group **Georgian language, a Kartvelian language spoken by Georgians **Georgian scripts, three scripts ...
.
Anna Komnene Anna Komnene ( gr, Ἄννα Κομνηνή, Ánna Komnēnḗ; 1 December 1083 – 1150s), commonly Latinization of names, Latinized as Anna Comnena, was a Byzantine princess and author of the Alexiad, an account of the reign of her father, the B ...
and other Byzantine authors referred to them as ''Patzinakoi'' or ''Patzinakitai''. In
medieval Latin Medieval Latin was the form of Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share ...
texts, the Pechenegs were referred to as ''Pizenaci'', ''Bisseni'' or ''Bessi''.
East Slavic peoples East is one of the four cardinal direction The four cardinal directions, or cardinal points, are the directions north North is one of the four compass points or cardinal directions. It is the opposite of south and is perpendicular to eas ...
use the terms ''Pečenegi'' or ''Pečenezi'' (plural of ''Pečeneg''), while the
Poles The Poles,, ; singular masculine: ''Polak'', singular feminine: ''Polka'' or Polish people, are a nation A nation is a community A community is a social unitThe term "level of analysis" is used in the social sciences to point to the loc ...

Poles
mention them as ''Pieczyngowie'' or ''Piecinigi''. The Hungarian word for Pecheneg is ''besenyő''; the Romanian term is ''Pecenegi''. According to
Max Vasmer Max Julius Friedrich Vasmer (; russian: Максимилиан Романович Фа́смер, translit=Maksimilian Romanovič Fásmer; 28 February 1886 – 30 November 1962) was a Russo-German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or r ...

Max Vasmer
and some other researchers the
ethnonym An ethnonym (from the el, ἔθνος 'nation' and 'name') is a name A name is a term used for identification by an external observer. They can identify a class or category of things, or a single thing, either uniquely, or within a given ...
may have derived from the
Old Turkic Old Turkic (also East Old Turkic, Orkhon Turkic language Orkhon Turkic (also Gokturk) is the language used in the oldest known written Turkic texts. It is the first stage of Old Turkic Old Turkic (also East Old Turkic, Orkhon Turkic, ...
word for "brother-in-law, relative” (''baja'', ''baja-naq'' or ''bajinaq; Kyrgyz
baja
'' tk, baja and tr, bacanak), implying that it initially referred to an "in-law related clan or tribe". In
Mahmud Kashgari Mahmud ibn Husayn ibn Muhammed al-Kashgari, ''Maḥmūd ibnu 'l-Ḥusayn ibn Muḥammad al-Kāšġarī'', , tr, Kaşgarlı Mahmûd, ug, مەھمۇد قەشقىرى, ''Mehmud Qeshqiri'' / Мәһмуд Қәшқири uz, Mahmud Qashg'ariy / М ...
's 11th-century work
Dīwān Lughāt al-Turk The ' ( ar, ديوان لغات الترك , i.e., "Compendium of the languages of the Turks") is the first comprehensive dictionary of Turkic languages The Turkic languages are a language family of at least 35 documented languages, spoken ...
, Pechenegs were described as "a Turkic nation living around the country of
the Rum
the Rum
", where ''Rum'' was the Turkic word for the
Eastern Roman Empire The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn ...

Eastern Roman Empire
or
Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia and the westernmost protrusion of the Asian continent. It makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region ...
, and "a branch of
Oghuz Turks The Oguz or Ghuzz Turks (: ٱغُز, ''Oγuz'', ota, اوغوز, Oġuz) were a western that spoke the of the . In the 8th century, they formed a conventionally named the in Central Asia. The name ''Oghuz'' is a word for "tribe". source ...
"; he subsequently described the Oghuz as being formed of 22 branches, of which the Pecheneg were the 19th. Pechenegs are mentioned as one of 24 ancient tribes of Oghuzes by 14th-century statesman and historian of
Ilkhanate The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate ( fa, ایل خانان, ''Ilxānān''), known to the Mongols as ''Hülegü Ulus'' ( mn, Хүлэгийн улс, , ''Qulug-un Ulus'') was a khanate A khaganate or khanate was a political entity rul ...

Ilkhanate
-ruled Iran
Rashid-al-Din Hamadani Rashīd al-Dīn Ṭabīb ( fa, رشیدالدین طبیب;‎ 1247–1318; also known as Rashīd al-Dīn Faḍlullāh Hamadānī, Persian: ) was a statesman, historian and physician in Ilkhanate-ruled Iran.
in his work Jāmiʿ al-Tawārīkh ("Compendium of Chronicles") with the meaning of the ethnonym as "the one who shows eagerness". The 17th-century Khan of the
Khanate of Khiva The Khanate of Khiva ( chg, ''Khivâ Khânligi'', fa, ''Khânât-e Khiveh'', uz, Xiva xonligi, tk, Hywa hanlygy) was a Central Asian polity that existed in the historical region of Khwarezm in Central Asia from 1511 to 1920, except for a ...
and historian
Abu al-Ghazi Bahadur Abu al-Ghazi Bahadur ( uz, Abulgʻozi Bahodirxon, Abulgazi, Ebulgazi, Abu-l-Ghazi, August 24, 1603 – 1663) was Khan of Khiva from 1643 to 1663. He spent ten years in Persia Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and officially the ...
mentions the Pechenegs as ''bechene'' among 24 ancient tribes of
Turkmens Turkmens ( tk, , , , ; historically the Turkmen), also known as Turkmen Turks ( tk, , ), are a Turkic ethnic group native to Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia Asia () is 's largest and most populous , located primari ...
(or Oghuzes) in his book ''
Shajara-i Tarākima ''Shajara-i Tarākima'' () is a Chagatai-language historical work completed in 1659 by Khan of Khiva and historian Abu al-Ghazi Bahadur Abu al-Ghazi Bahadur ( uz, Abulgʻozi Bahodirxon, Abulgazi, Ebulgazi, Abu-l-Ghazi, August 24, 1603 – 1663) ...
'' (“Genealogy of the Turkmen") and provides for its meaning as "the one who makes". Three of the eight Pecheneg "provinces" or clans were collectively known as Kangars. According to
Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus Traditionally, born in the purple (sometimes "born to the purple") was a category of members of royal family, royal families born during the reign of their parent. This notion was later loosely expanded to include ...

Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus
, the Kangars received this denomination because "they are more valiant and noble than the rest" of the people "and that is what the title Kangar signifies". Because no Turkic word with a similar meaning is known, Ármin Vámbéry connected the ethnonym to the Kirghiz words ''kangir'' ("agile"), ''kangirmak'' ("to go out riding") and ''kani-kara'' ("black-blooded"), while Carlile Aylmer Macartney associated it with the Chagatai word ''gang'' ("chariot").
Omeljan Pritsak Omeljan Yósypovych Pritsak ( uk, Омеля́н Йо́сипович Пріца́к; 7 April 1919, Luka, Sambir County, West Ukrainian People's Republic The West Ukrainian People's Republic (WUPR) or West Ukrainian National Republic (WUNR), f ...
proposed that the name had initially been a composite term ''(Kängär As)'' deriving from the
Tocharian
Tocharian
word for stone ''(kank)'' and the
Iranian Iranian may refer to: * Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subreg ...
ethnonym ''As''. If the latter assumption is valid, the Kangars' ethnonym suggests that Iranian elements contributed to the formation of the Pecheneg people.


Language

Mahmud al-Kashgari Mahmud ibn Hussayn ibn Muhammed al-Kashgari, ''Maḥmūd ibnu 'l-Ḥussayn ibn Muḥammad al-Kāšġarī'', tr, Kaşgarlı Mahmûd, ug, مەھمۇد قەشقىرى, ''Mehmud Qeshqiri'' / Мәһмуд Қәшқири uz, Mahmud Qashg'ariy / М ...
, an 11th-century man of letters who specialized in Turkic dialects argued that the language spoken by the Pechenegs was a variant of the
Cuman The Cumans (or Kumans), also known as Polovtsians or Polovtsy (plural only, from the Russian Exonym and endonym, exonym ), were a Turkic people, Turkic nomadic people comprising the western branch of the Cuman–Kipchak confederation. After the ...
and
Oghuz
Oghuz
idioms. He suggested that foreign influences on the Pechenegs gave rise to phonetical differences between their tongue and the idiom spoken by other Turkic peoples. Anna Komnene likewise stated that the Pechenegs and the Cumans shared a common language. Although the Pecheneg language itself died out centuries ago, the names of the Pecheneg "provinces" recorded by Constantine Porphyrogenitus prove that the Pechenegs spoke a Turkic language. The Pechenegs are thought to have belonged to the
Oghuz
Oghuz
branch of the
Turkic family
Turkic family
, but their language is poorly documented and therefore difficult to further classify.


Composition

Byzantine emperor
Constantine VII Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus Traditionally, born in the purple (sometimes "born to the purple") was a category of members of royal family, royal families born during the reign of their parent. This notion was later loosely expanded to include ...
Porphyrogennetos Traditionally, born in the purple (sometimes "born to the purple") was a category of members of royal families A royal family is the immediate family of kings/queens Queens is a borough of New York City, coextensive with Queens County, i ...
lists eight Pecheneg tribal groupings, four on each side of the
Dnieper river } The Dnieper or Dnipro () is one of the major list of rivers of Europe, rivers of Europe, rising in the Valdai Hills near Smolensk, Russia, before flowing through Belarus and Ukraine to the Black Sea. It is the longest river of Ukraine and ...
, reflecting the bipartite left-right Turkic organization. These eight tribes were in turn divided into 40 sub-tribes, probably clans. Constantine VI also records the names of eight former tribal leaders who'd been leading the Pechenegs when they were expelled by the
Khazars The Khazars; he, כוזרים, Kuzarim; la, Gazari, or ; zh, 突厥曷薩 ; 突厥可薩部 ''Tūjué Kěsà bù'' () were a semi-nomad A nomad ( frm, nomade "people without fixed habitation") is a member of a community without fi ...

Khazars
and Oghuzes.
Golden Golden means made of, or relating to gold. Golden may also refer to: Places United Kingdom *Golden, in the parish of Probus, Cornwall *Golden Cap, Dorset *Golden Square, Soho, London *Golden Valley, a valley on the River Frome, Stroud#Golden Val ...

Golden
, following Németh and Ligeti, proposes that each tribal name consists of two parts: the first part being an
equine coat color Horses exhibit a diverse array of coat colors and distinctive horse markings, markings. A specialized vocabulary has evolved to describe them. While most horses remain the same color throughout life, a few, over the course of several years, will ...
, the other the tribal ruler's title. The Erdim, Čur, and Yula tribes formed the Qangar/Kenger (
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...

Greek
: Καγγαρ) and were deemed "more valiant and noble than the rest".


Notes


History


Origins and area

According to
Omeljan Pritsak Omeljan Yósypovych Pritsak ( uk, Омеля́н Йо́сипович Пріца́к; 7 April 1919, Luka, Sambir County, West Ukrainian People's Republic The West Ukrainian People's Republic (WUPR) or West Ukrainian National Republic (WUNR), f ...
, the Pechenegs are descendants from the ancient Kangars who originate from
Tashkent russian: Ташкент , other_name = , settlement_type = Capital city, Capital , image_skyline = , image_caption = Clockwise from top: Skyline of Tashkent, Hilton ...
. The
Orkhon inscriptions The Orkhon inscriptions, also known as the Orhon inscriptions, Orhun inscriptions, Khöshöö Tsaidam monuments (also spelled ''Khoshoo Tsaidam'', ''Koshu-Tsaidam'' or ''Höshöö Caidam''), or Kul Tigin steles ( zh, t=闕特勤碑, s=阙特勤 ...
listed the Kangars among the subject peoples of the
Eastern Turkic Khaganate The Eastern Turkic Khaganate () was a Turkic peoples, Turkic khaganate formed as a result of the internecine wars in the beginning of the 7th century (AD 581–603) after the First Turkic Khaganate, Göktürk Khaganate (founded in the 6th ...
. Pritsak says that the Pechenegs' homeland was located between the
Aral Sea The Aral Sea (Aral ; kk, Aral teńizi, Арал теңізі, uz, Orol dengizi, Орол денгизи, kaa, Aral ten'izi, Арал теңизи, russian: Аральское море) was an endorheic lake lying between Kazakhstan Kaza ...

Aral Sea
and the middle course of the Syr Darya, along the important trade routes connecting Central Asia with Eastern Europe, and associates them with Kangars. According to
Constantine Porphyrogenitus Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus Traditionally, born in the purple (sometimes "born to the purple") was a category of members of royal family, royal families born during the reign of their parent. This notion was later loosely expanded to include ...
, writing in c. 950, Patzinakia, the Pecheneg realm, stretched west as far as the
Siret River The Siret or Sireth ( uk, Сірет or Серет, ro, Siret , hu, Szeret, russian: Сирет) is a river that rises from the Carpathian Mountains, Carpathians in the Northern Bukovina region of Ukraine, and flows southward into Romania befor ...
(or even the Eastern
Carpathian Mountains The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians () are a range of mountains forming an arc throughout Central and Eastern Europe Central and Eastern Europe is a term encompassing the countries in Central Europe Central Europe is the central region ...

Carpathian Mountains
), and was four days distant from "Tourkias" (i.e.
Hungary Hungary ( hu, Magyarország ) is a in . Spanning of the , it is bordered by to the north, to the northeast, to the east and southeast, to the south, and to the southwest and to the west. Hungary has a population of 10 million, mostl ...

Hungary
).
Paul Pelliot Paul Eugène Pelliot (28 May 187826 October 1945) was a French Sinologist and Oriental studies, Orientalist best known for his explorations of Central Asia and his discovery of many important Chinese texts among the Dunhuang manuscripts. Early ...
originated the proposal that the ''
Book of Sui The ''Book of Sui'' (''Suí Shū'') is the official history of the Sui dynasty The Sui dynasty (, ) was a short-lived Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China of pivotal significance. The Sui unified the Northern and Souther ...
''a 7th-century Chinese workpreserved the earliest record on the Pechenegs. The book mentioned a people named ''Bĕirù'' (北褥; LMC: *''puǝ̌k-rjwk'' < EMC: *''pǝk-ŋuawk''), who had settled near the ''Ēnqū'' (恩屈; LMC: *''ʔən-kʰyt'' < EMC: *''ʔən-kʰut'' < *''On ur'') and *''Alan'' (阿蘭; MC: *''ʔa-lan'') peoples (identified as
Onogurs The Onoğurs or Oğurs (Ὀνόγουροι, Οὔρωγοι, Οὔγωροι; Onογurs, Ογurs; "ten tribes", "tribes"), were Turkic Turkic may refer to: * anything related to the country of Turkey * Turkic languages, a language family of at le ...
and
Alans The Alans or Alāns (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power o ...

Alans
, respectively), to the east of ''Fulin'' (拂菻) (or the
Eastern Roman Empire The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn ...

Eastern Roman Empire
).
Victor Spinei Victor Spinei (born 26 October 1943 in Lozova, Strășeni, Lozova, Lăpușna County (Romania), Lăpușna County, Romania) is Emeritus Professor of history and archaeology at the Alexandru Ioan Cuza University, member and vice president of the Roman ...
emphasizes that the Pechenegs' association with the ''Bĕirù'' is "uncertain". He proposes that an 8th-century Uighur envoy's report, which survives in Tibetan translation, contains the first certain reference to the Pechenegs. The report recorded an armed conflict between the ''Be-ča-nag'' and the ''Hor'' (
Uyghurs The Uyghurs ( or ; ; ; zh, s=, t=, p=Wéiwú'ěr, IPA: ), alternatively spelled Uighurs, Uyghers, Uygurs or Uigurs, are a Turkic peoples, Turkic ethnic group originating from and culturally affiliated with the general region of Central Asi ...

Uyghurs
or
Oghuz Turks The Oguz or Ghuzz Turks (: ٱغُز, ''Oγuz'', ota, اوغوز, Oġuz) were a western that spoke the of the . In the 8th century, they formed a conventionally named the in Central Asia. The name ''Oghuz'' is a word for "tribe". source ...
) peoples in the region of the river
Syr Darya uz, Sirdaryo, Сирдарё tg, Сирдарё , name_native_lang = , name_other = Jaxartes, Seyhun , name_etymology = unknown , image = Syr Darya.jpg , image_size = 290px , image_caption = Syr Dary ...

Syr Darya
.
Ibn Khordadbeh Abu'l-Qasim Ubaydallah ibn Abdallah ibn Khordadbeh ( ar, ابوالقاسم عبیدالله ابن خرداذبه; 820/825 – 913), commonly known as Ibn Khordadbeh (also spelled Ibn Khurradadhbih; ) was a high-ranking Persian Persian may re ...
(c. 820 – 912 CE),
Mahmud al-Kashgari Mahmud ibn Hussayn ibn Muhammed al-Kashgari, ''Maḥmūd ibnu 'l-Ḥussayn ibn Muḥammad al-Kāšġarī'', tr, Kaşgarlı Mahmûd, ug, مەھمۇد قەشقىرى, ''Mehmud Qeshqiri'' / Мәһмуд Қәшқири uz, Mahmud Qashg'ariy / М ...
(11th century),
Muhammad al-Idrisi Abu Abdullah Muhammad al-Idrisi al-Qurtubi al-Hasani as-Sabti, or simply al-Idrisi ( ar, أبو عبد الله محمد الإدريسي القرطبي الحسني السبتي; la, Dreses; 1100 – 1165), was an Arab The Arabs (singular ...
(1100–1165), and many other
Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", ...

Muslim
scholars agree that the Pechenegs belonged to the Turkic peoples. The ''
Russian Primary Chronicle The ''Tale of Bygone Years'' ( orv, Повѣсть времѧньныхъ лѣтъ, ''Pověstĭ vremęnĭnyxŭ lětŭ''), known in English-language historiography as the ''Primary Chronicle'' or ''Old Russian Primary letopis'' or, after the auth ...
'' stated that the " Torkmens, Pechenegs,
Torks Torks (Cyrillic , bg, кирилица , mk, кирилица , russian: кириллица , sr, ћирилица, uk, кирилиця , fam1 = Egyptian hieroglyphs Egyptian hieroglyphs () were the formal writing system A w ...
, and Polovcians" descended from "the godless sons of
Ishmael Ishmael ''Ismaḗl''; Classical/Qur'anic Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of ...
, who had been sent as a chastisement to the Christians".


Westward migration

The
Turkic Khaganate The Göktürks The Göktürks, Celestial Turks or Blue Turks ( otk, 𐱅𐰇𐰼𐰰:𐰉𐰆𐰑𐰣, Türük Bodun; zh, 突厥 ''Tūjué''; Wade-Giles: ''T'u-chüeh'') were a nomadic confederation of Turkic peoples in medieval Inner Asia. The ...
collapsed in 744 which gave rise to a series of intertribal confrontations in the
Eurasian steppes The Eurasian Steppe, also simply called the Great Steppe or the steppes, is the vast steppe ecoregion of Eurasia in the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome. It stretches through Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, Moldova, Ukraine, Europe ...
. The
Karluks The Karluks (also Qarluqs, Qarluks, Karluqs, otk, 𐰴𐰺𐰞𐰸, Qarluq, fa, خَلُّخ, ''Khallokh'', ar, قارلوق, ''Qarluq'') were a prominent nomadic A nomad ( frm, nomade "people without fixed habitation") is a member of a ...
attacked the
Oghuz Turks The Oguz or Ghuzz Turks (: ٱغُز, ''Oγuz'', ota, اوغوز, Oġuz) were a western that spoke the of the . In the 8th century, they formed a conventionally named the in Central Asia. The name ''Oghuz'' is a word for "tribe". source ...
, forcing them to launch a westward migration towards the Pechenegs' lands. The Uighur envoy's report testifies that the Oghuz and Pecheneg waged war against each other already in the 8th century, most probably for the control of the trade routes. The Oghuz made an alliance with the Karluks and Kimaks and defeated the Pechenegs and their allies in a battle near the Lake Aral before 850, according to the 10th-century scholar,
Al-Masudi Al-Mas'udi ( ar, أَبُو ٱلْحَسَن عَلِيّ ٱبْن ٱلْحُسَيْن ٱبْن عَلِيّ ٱلْمَسْعُودِيّ, '; –956) was an Historiography of early Islam, Arab historian, geographer and Explorer, traveler. He is ...
. Most Pechenegs launched a new migration towards the
Volga River The Volga (; russian: Во́лга, a=Ru-Волга.ogg, p=ˈvoɫɡə) is the longest river in Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention ra ...
, but some groups were forced to join the Oghuz. The latter formed the 19th tribe of the Oghuz tribal federation in the 11th century. The Pechenegs who left their homeland settled between the
Ural Ural may refer to: *Ural (region) Ural (russian: Ура́л) is a geographical region located around the Ural Mountains, between the East European Plain, East European and West Siberian Plain, West Siberian plains. It is considered a part of E ...
and Volga rivers. According to
GardiziAbū Saʿīd ʿAbd-al-Ḥayy ibn Żaḥḥāk b. Maḥmūd Gardīzī ( fa, ابوسعید عبدالحی بن ضحاک بن محمود گردیزی), better known as Gardizi (), was an 11th-century Persian historian and official, who is notable for ...
and other Muslim scholars who based their works on 9th-century sources, the Pechenegs' new territory was quite large, with a 30-day-walk extension, and were bordered by the
Cumans The Cumans (or Kumans), also known as Polovtsians or Polovtsy (plural only, from the Russian exonym An endonym (from Greek: , 'inner' + , 'name'; also known as autonym) is a common, internal name A name is a term used for identification by ...
,
Khazars The Khazars; he, כוזרים, Kuzarim; la, Gazari, or ; zh, 突厥曷薩 ; 突厥可薩部 ''Tūjué Kěsà bù'' () were a semi-nomad A nomad ( frm, nomade "people without fixed habitation") is a member of a community without fi ...

Khazars
, Oghuz Turks and
Slavs Slavs are an ethno-linguistic group of people who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic language, Balto-Slavic linguistic group of the Indo-European languages. They are native to Eurasia, stretching from Central Europe, ...
. The same sources also narrate that the Pechenegs made regular raids against their neighbors, in particular against the Khazars and the latter's vassals, the
Burtas Burtas (russian: Буртасы, ''Burtasy''; cv, Пăртассем, ''Părtassem''; tt, Бортаслар, Bortas, بُرطاس) were a tribe of uncertain ethnolinguistic affiliation inhabiting the steppe File:Steppe of western Kazakhs ...
, and sold their captives. The Khazars made an alliance with the Ouzes against the Pechenegs and attacked them from two directions. Outnumbered by the enemy, the Pechenegs were forced into a new westward migration. They marched across the Khazar Khaganate, invaded the dwelling places of the
Hungarians Hungarians, also known as Magyars ( ; hu, magyarok ), are a nation and ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has ...
, and expelled them from the lands along the
Kuban River The Kuban ( rus, Куба́нь, p=kʊˈbanʲ; CircassianCircassian may refer to: * Pertaining to Circassia, a formerly independent country located in present-day European Russia ** Circassian coast, on the Black Sea * Circassians, also known as ...

Kuban River
and the upper course of the river
Donets The Seversky Donets (), Siverskyi Donets (), usually simply called the Donets, is a river on the south of the East European Plain. It originates in the Central Russian Upland, north of Belgorod, flows south-east through Ukraine (Kharkiv Oblast, ...
. There is no consensual date for this second migration of the Pechenegs: Pritsak argues that it took place around 830, but Kristó suggests that it could hardly occur before the 850s. The Pechenegs settled along the rivers
Donets The Seversky Donets (), Siverskyi Donets (), usually simply called the Donets, is a river on the south of the East European Plain. It originates in the Central Russian Upland, north of Belgorod, flows south-east through Ukraine (Kharkiv Oblast, ...
and
Kuban Kuban (Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (россияне), ...

Kuban
. It is plausible that the distinction between the "Turkic Pechenegs" and "Khazar Pechenegs" mentioned in the 10th-century ''
Hudud al-'alam The ''Ḥudūd al-ʿĀlam'' ( ar, حدود العالم, "Boundaries of the World" or "Limits of the World") is a 10th-century geography book written in Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' ...
'' had its origin in this period. The ''
Hudud al-'Alam The ''Ḥudūd al-ʿĀlam'' ( ar, حدود العالم, "Boundaries of the World" or "Limits of the World") is a 10th-century geography book written in Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' ...
''a late 10th-century Persian geographydistinguished two Pecheneg groups, referring to those who lived along the Donets as "Turkic Pechenegs", and to those along the Kuban as "Khazarian Pechenegs". Spinei proposes that the latter denomination most probably refers to Pecheneg groups accepting Khazar suzerainty, implies that some Pecheneg tribes had been forced to acknowledge the Khazars supremacy. In addition to these two branches, a third group of Pechenegs existed in this period: Constantine Porphyrogenitus and
Ibn Fadlan Aḥmad ibn Faḍlān ibn al-ʿAbbās ibn Rāšid ibn Ḥammād ( ar, أحمد بن فضلان بن العباس بن راشد بن حماد, 921–22), commonly known as Ahmad ibn Fadlan, was a 10th-century Arab The Arabs (singular Arab ; s ...
mention that those who decided not to leave their homeland were incorporated into the Oghuz federation of Turkic tribes. However, it is uncertain whether this group's formation is connected to the Pechenegs' first or second migration (as it is proposed by Pritsak and Golden, respectively). According to Mahmud al-Kashgari, one of the Üçok clans of the Oghuz Turks was still formed by Pechenegs in the 1060s.


Alliance with Byzantium

In the 9th century, the
Byzantines
Byzantines
became allied with the Pechenegs, using them to fend off other, more dangerous tribes such as
Kievan Rus' Kievan Rus' ( orv, , Rusĭ, or , , "Rus' land") or Kyivan Rus', was a loose federation A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a ...
and the
Magyars Hungarians, also known as Magyars ( ; hu, magyarok ), are a nation and ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has ...

Magyars
(Hungarians). The Uzes, another
Turkic Turkic may refer to: * anything related to the country of Turkey * Turkic languages, a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages ** Turkic alphabets (disambiguation) ** Turkish language, the most widely spoken Turkic language * T ...
steppe people, eventually expelled the Pechenegs from their homeland; in the process, they also seized most of their livestock and other goods. An alliance of Oghuz, Kimeks, and
Karluks The Karluks (also Qarluqs, Qarluks, Karluqs, otk, 𐰴𐰺𐰞𐰸, Qarluq, fa, خَلُّخ, ''Khallokh'', ar, قارلوق, ''Qarluq'') were a prominent nomadic A nomad ( frm, nomade "people without fixed habitation") is a member of a ...
was also pressing the Pechenegs, but another group, the
Samanid The Samanid Empire ( fa, سامانیان, Sāmāniyān) also known as the Samanian Empire, Samanid dynasty, Samanid amirate, or simply Samanids) was a Sunni Islam, Sunni Iranian peoples, Iranian empire, from 819 to 999. The empire was centred in G ...

Samanid
s, defeated that alliance. Driven further west by the
Khazars The Khazars; he, כוזרים, Kuzarim; la, Gazari, or ; zh, 突厥曷薩 ; 突厥可薩部 ''Tūjué Kěsà bù'' () were a semi-nomad A nomad ( frm, nomade "people without fixed habitation") is a member of a community without fi ...

Khazars
and
Cumans The Cumans (or Kumans), also known as Polovtsians or Polovtsy (plural only, from the Russian exonym An endonym (from Greek: , 'inner' + , 'name'; also known as autonym) is a common, internal name A name is a term used for identification by ...
by 889, the Pechenegs in turn drove the Magyars west of the
Dnieper } The Dnieper or Dnipro () is one of the major list of rivers of Europe, rivers of Europe, rising in the Valdai Hills near Smolensk, Russia, before flowing through Belarus and Ukraine to the Black Sea. It is the longest river of Ukraine and ...

Dnieper
River by 892.
Bulgarian Bulgarian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Bulgaria * Bulgarians, a South Slavic ethnic group * Bulgarian language, a Slavic language * Bulgarian alphabet * A citizen of Bulgaria, see Demographics of Bulgaria * Bulg ...
Tsar Simeon I employed the Pechenegs to help fend off the Magyars. The Pechenegs were so successful that they drove out the Magyars remaining in
Etelköz Hungarian prehistory ( hu, magyar őstörténet) spans the period of history of the Hungarian people, or Magyars Hungarians, also known as Magyars ( ; hu, magyarok ), are a nation and ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a gr ...
and the
Pontic steppes Pontic, from the Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 millio ...
, forcing them westward towards the
Pannonian plain The Pannonian Basin, or Carpathian Basin, is a large basin situated between Central Central is an adjective usually referring to being in the center (disambiguation), center of some place or (mathematical) object. Central may also refer to ...
, where they later founded the
Hungarian state The Hungarian State ( hu, Magyar Álladalom) was a short-lived state that existed for 4 months in the last phase of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, Hungarian Revolution of 1848–49. Constitutional tensions between the Hungarian parliament and ...

Hungarian state
.


Late history and decline

By the 9th and 10th centuries, Pechenegs controlled much of the steppes of southeast
Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of scienc ...

Europe
and the
Crimean Peninsula Crimea; crh, Къырым, translit=Kirim/Qırım; grc, Κιμμερία/Ταυρική, translit=Kimmería/Taurikḗ is a peninsula along the northern coast of the Black Sea in Eastern Europe. It has a population of 2.4 million, made up ...
. Although an important factor in the region at the time, like most nomadic tribes their concept of statecraft failed to go beyond random attacks on neighbours and spells as mercenaries for other powers. In the 9th century the Pechenegs began a period of wars against
Kievan Rus' Kievan Rus' ( orv, , Rusĭ, or , , "Rus' land") or Kyivan Rus', was a loose federation A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a ...
. For more than two centuries they had launched raids into the lands of Rus', which sometimes escalated into full-scale wars (like the 920 war on the Pechenegs by Igor of Kiev, reported in the ''Primary Chronicle''). The Pecheneg wars against Kievan Rus' caused the Slavs from Walachian territories to gradually migrate north of the Dniestr in the 10th and 11th centuries. Rus'/Pecheneg temporary military alliances also occurred however, as during the Byzantine campaign in 943 led by Igor. In 968 the Pechenegs Siege of Kiev (968), attacked and besieged Kiev; some joined the Prince of Kiev, Sviatoslav I, Prince of Kiev, Sviatoslav I, in his Byzantine campaign of 970–971, though eventually they ambushed and killed the Kievan prince in 972. According to the ''Primary Chronicle'', the Pecheneg Khan Kurya (khan), Kurya made a Chalice (cup), chalice from Sviatoslav's skull, in accordance with the custom of steppe nomads. The fortunes of the Rus'-Pecheneg confrontation swung during the reign of Vladimir I of Kiev (990–995), who founded the town of Pereyaslav upon the site of his victory over the Pechenegs, followed by the defeat of the Pechenegs during the reign of Yaroslav I the Wise in 1036. Shortly thereafter, other nomadic peoples replaced the weakened Pechenegs in the Pontic steppe: the
Cumans The Cumans (or Kumans), also known as Polovtsians or Polovtsy (plural only, from the Russian exonym An endonym (from Greek: , 'inner' + , 'name'; also known as autonym) is a common, internal name A name is a term used for identification by ...
and the
Torks Torks (Cyrillic , bg, кирилица , mk, кирилица , russian: кириллица , sr, ћирилица, uk, кирилиця , fam1 = Egyptian hieroglyphs Egyptian hieroglyphs () were the formal writing system A w ...
. According to Mykhailo Hrushevsky (''History of Ukraine-Ruthenia''), after its defeat near Kiev the Pecheneg Horde moved towards the Danube, crossed the river, and disappeared out of the
Pontic steppes Pontic, from the Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 millio ...
. Pecheneg mercenaries served under the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert. After centuries of fighting involving all their neighbours—the Byzantine Empire, Bulgaria, Kievan Rus', Khazaria, and the Magyars—the Pechenegs were annihilated as an independent force in 1091 at the Battle of Levounion by a combined Byzantine and Cuman army under Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos. Alexios I recruited the defeated Pechenegs, whom he settled in the district of Moglena (today in Macedonia (region), Macedonia) into a Tagma (military), tagma "of the Moglena Pechenegs". Attacked again in 1094 by the Cumans, many Pechenegs were slain or absorbed. The Byzantines defeated the Pechenegs again at the Battle of Beroia in 1122, on the territory of modern-day Bulgaria. For some time, significant communities of Pechenegs still remained in the Kingdom of Hungary. With time the Balkan Pechenegs lost their national identity and became fully assimilated, mostly with
Magyars Hungarians, also known as Magyars ( ; hu, magyarok ), are a nation and ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has ...

Magyars
and Bulgarians. In the 12th century, according to Byzantine historian John Kinnamos, the Pechenegs fought as mercenaries for the List of Byzantine emperors, Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Komnenos in Catepanate of Italy, southern Italy against the Normans, Norman king of Sicily, William I of Sicily, William the Bad. A group of Pechenegs was present at the battle of Andria, Italy, Andria in 1155. The Pechenegs were last mentioned in 1168 as members of Turkic tribes known in the chronicles as the "Chorni Klobuky (Black Hats)". In 15th-century Hungary, some people adopted the surname ''Besenyö'' (Hungarian language, Hungarian for "Pecheneg"); they were most numerous in the county of Tolna. One of the earliest introductions of Islam into Eastern Europe came about through the work of an early 11th-century Muslim prisoner who was captured by the Byzantines. The Muslim prisoner was brought into the Besenyő territory of the Pechenegs, where he taught and converted individuals to Islam. In the late 12th century, Abu Hamid al Garnathi referred to Hungarian Pechenegs – probably Muslims – living disguised as Christians. In the southeast of Serbia, there is a village called Pečenjevce founded by Pechenegs. After war with Byzantium, the broken remnants of the tribes found refuge in the area, where they established their settlement.


Settlements bearing the name Pecheneg

* Biçənək, Azerbaijan * Peçenek, Kazan, Turkey * Pečenjevce, Serbia * Pecineaga, Romania * Pechenihy, Ukraine * Besenyőtelek,
Hungary Hungary ( hu, Magyarország ) is a in . Spanning of the , it is bordered by to the north, to the northeast, to the east and southeast, to the south, and to the southwest and to the west. Hungary has a population of 10 million, mostl ...

Hungary
* Besenyőd, Hungary * Pöttsching, Austria * Ládbesenyő, Hungary * Szirmabesenyő, Hungary * Besnyő, Hungary * Besenyszög, Hungary * Pečenice, Slovakia * Bešeňová, Slovakia * Pečeňady, Slovakia * Bešeňov, Slovakia * Bešenovo, Slovakia * Bešenovački Prnjavor, Serbia * Máriabesnyő, Gödöllő, Hungary * Pecinișca, Romania


Leaders

* Kurya (khan), Kurya c. 970sWhile his rule's exact end cannot be dated, Kurya was no longer khan by 988. * Metiga c. 980s * Kuchug c. 990s


See also

*Kangar union *Chorni Klobuky *Timeline of the Turkic peoples (500–1300) *Kankalis *Kipchaks *Petržalka *
Cumans The Cumans (or Kumans), also known as Polovtsians or Polovtsy (plural only, from the Russian exonym An endonym (from Greek: , 'inner' + , 'name'; also known as autonym) is a common, internal name A name is a term used for identification by ...
*
Khazars The Khazars; he, כוזרים, Kuzarim; la, Gazari, or ; zh, 突厥曷薩 ; 突厥可薩部 ''Tūjué Kěsà bù'' () were a semi-nomad A nomad ( frm, nomade "people without fixed habitation") is a member of a community without fi ...

Khazars
*PKP Pecheneg, A Russian made general-purpose machine gun named after the Turkic tribe


Footnotes


References


Primary sources

*''Anna Comnena: The Alexiad'' (Translated by E. R. A. Sewter) (1969). Penguin Books. . *Constantine Porphyrogenitus: ''De Administrando Imperio'' (Greek text edited by Gyula Moravcsik, English translation b Romillyi J. H. Jenkins) (1967). Dumbarton Oaks Center for Byzantine Studies. .


Secondary sources

* * * * * * * * * * *


Further reading

* * *


External links


www.patzinakia.roThe Primary Chronicle
{{Authority control Pechenegs, Turkic peoples of Europe 10th century in Kievan Rus' Medieval Kingdom of Hungary Ethnic groups in Hungary Islam in Hungary Pastoralists Nomadic groups in Eurasia Moldova in the Early Middle Ages Romania in the Early Middle Ages Late Byzantine-era tribes in the Balkans 11th century in Kievan Rus' History of the western steppe Extinct Turkic peoples