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Pascal is an imperative and procedural
programming language A programming language is a system of notation for writing computer program, computer programs. Most programming languages are text-based formal languages, but they may also be visual programming language, graphical. They are a kind of computer ...
, designed by Niklaus Wirth as a small, efficient language intended to encourage good programming practices using structured programming and data structuring. It is named in honour of the French mathematician, philosopher and physicist
Blaise Pascal Blaise Pascal ( , , ; ; 19 June 1623 – 19 August 1662) was a French mathematician, physicist, inventor, philosopher, and Catholic Church, Catholic writer. He was a child prodigy who was educated by his father, a tax collector in Rouen. Pa ...
. Pascal was developed on the pattern of the ALGOL 60 language. Wirth was involved in the process to improve the language as part of the ALGOL X efforts and proposed a version named ALGOL W. This was not accepted, and the ALGOL X process bogged down. In 1968, Wirth decided to abandon the ALGOL X process and further improve ALGOL W, releasing this as Pascal in 1970. On top of ALGOL's scalars and arrays, Pascal enables defining complex datatypes and building dynamic and recursive data structures such as lists,
tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, usually supporting branches and leaves. In some usages, the definition of a tree may be narrower, including only woody plants with secondar ...
s and graphs. Pascal has strong typing on all objects, which means that one type of data cannot be converted to or interpreted as another without explicit conversions. Unlike C (and most languages in the C-family), Pascal allows nested procedure definitions to any level of depth, and also allows most kinds of definitions and declarations inside subroutines (procedures and functions). A program is thus syntactically similar to a single procedure or function. This is similar to the block structure of ALGOL 60, but restricted from arbitrary block statements to just procedures and functions. Pascal became very successful in the 1970s, notably on the burgeoning
minicomputer A minicomputer, or colloquially mini, is a class of smaller general purpose computers that developed in the mid-1960s and sold at a much lower price than Mainframe computer, mainframe and mid-size computers from IBM and BUNCH, its direct competi ...
market.
Compiler In computing, a compiler is a computer program that Translator (computing), translates computer code written in one programming language (the ''source'' language) into another language (the ''target'' language). The name "compiler" is primarily ...
s were also available for many
microcomputer A microcomputer is a small, relatively inexpensive computer having a central processing unit (CPU) made out of a microprocessor. The computer also includes Computer memory, memory and input/output (I/O) circuitry together mounted on a printed ...
s as the field emerged in the late 1970s. It was widely used as a teaching language in
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-level programming courses in the 1980s, and also used in production settings for writing commercial software during the same period. It was displaced by the C programming language during the late 1980s and early 1990s as
UNIX Unix (; trademarked as UNIX) is a family of Computer multitasking, multitasking, multiuser computer operating systems that derive from the original AT&T Corporation, AT&T Unix, whose development started in 1969 at the Bell Labs research center ...
-based systems became popular, and especially with the release of C++. A derivative named
Object Pascal Object Pascal is an extension to the programming language Pascal (programming language), Pascal that provides object-oriented programming (OOP) features such as Class (computer programming), classes and Method (computer programming), methods. ...
designed for
object-oriented programming Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm based on the concept of " objects", which can contain data In the pursuit of knowledge, data (; ) is a collection of discrete values that convey information, describing qua ...
was developed in 1985. This was used by Apple Computer (for the Lisa and MacIntosh machines) and Borland in the late 1980s and later developed into
Delphi Delphi (; ), in legend previously called Pytho (Πυθώ), in ancient times was a sacred precinct that served as the seat of Pythia, the major oracle who was consulted about important decisions throughout the ancient classical world. The oracle ...
on the
Microsoft Windows Windows is a group of several proprietary graphical operating system families developed and marketed by Microsoft Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational corporation, multinational technology company, technology corporatio ...
platform. Extensions to the Pascal concepts led to the languages Modula-2 and Oberon.


History


Earlier efforts

Much of the history of computer language design during the 1960s can be traced to the ALGOL 60 language. ALGOL was developed during the 1950s with the explicit goal of being able to clearly describe algorithms. It included a number of features for structured programming that remain common in languages to this day. Shortly after its introduction, in 1962 Wirth began working on his dissertation with Helmut Weber on the Euler programming language. Euler was based on ALGOL's syntax and many concepts but was not a derivative. Its primary goal was to add dynamic lists and types, allowing it to be used in roles similar to Lisp. The language was published in 1965. By this time, a number of problems in ALGOL had been identified, notably the lack of a standardized string system. The group tasked with maintaining the language had begun the ALGOL X process to identify improvements, calling for submissions. Wirth and Tony Hoare submitted a conservative set of modifications to add strings and clean up some of the syntax. These were considered too minor to be worth using as the new standard ALGOL, so Wirth wrote a compiler for the language, which became named ALGOL W. The ALGOL X efforts would go on to choose a much more complex language, ALGOL 68. The complexity of this language led to considerable difficulty producing high-performance compilers, and it was not widely used in the industry. This left an opening for newer languages.


Pascal

Pascal was influenced by the ALGOL W efforts, with the explicit goals of teaching programming in a structured fashion and for the development of system software. A generation of students used Pascal as an introductory language in undergraduate courses. One of the early successes for the language was the introduction of UCSD Pascal, a version that ran on a custom
operating system An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware, software resources, and provides common daemon (computing), services for computer programs. Time-sharing operating systems scheduler (computing), schedule tasks for ef ...
that could be ported to different platforms. A key platform was the
Apple II The Apple II (stylized as ) is an 8-bit computing, 8-bit home computer and one of the world's first highly successful mass-produced microcomputer products. It was designed primarily by Steve Wozniak; Jerry Manock developed the design of Appl ...
, where it saw widespread use as Apple Pascal. This led to Pascal becoming the primary high-level language used for development in the
Apple Lisa Lisa is a desktop computer developed by Apple, released on January 19, 1983. It is one of the first personal computers to present a graphical user interface (GUI) in a machine aimed at individual business users. Its development began in 19 ...
, and later, the
Macintosh The Mac (known as Macintosh until 1999) is a family of personal computers designed and marketed by Apple Inc., Apple Inc. Macs are known for their ease of use and minimalist designs, and are popular among students, creative professionals, and ...
. Parts of the original Macintosh operating system were hand-translated into
Motorola 68000 The Motorola 68000 (sometimes shortened to Motorola 68k or m68k and usually pronounced "sixty-eight-thousand") is a 16/32-bit complex instruction set computer (CISC) microprocessor, introduced in 1979 by Motorola Semiconductor Products Sector ...
assembly language In computer programming, assembly language (or assembler language, or symbolic machine code), often referred to simply as Assembly and commonly abbreviated as ASM or asm, is any low-level programming language with a very strong correspondence be ...
from the Pascal
source code In computing, source code, or simply code, is any collection of code, with or without comment (computer programming), comments, written using a human-readable programming language, usually as plain text. The source code of a Computer program, p ...
. The
typesetting Typesetting is the composition of Written language, text by means of arranging metal type, physical ''type'' (or ''sort'') in mechanical systems or ''glyphs'' in digital systems representing ''character (symbol), characters'' (letters and ot ...
system TeX by Donald E. Knuth was written in WEB, the original literate programming system, based on DEC PDP-10 Pascal. Successful commercial applications like Adobe Photoshop were written in Macintosh Programmer's Workshop Pascal, while applications like Total Commander,
Skype Skype () is a proprietary telecommunications application operated by Skype Technologies, a division of Microsoft Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational corporation, multinational technology company, technology corporation ...
and Macromedia Captivate were written in Delphi (
Object Pascal Object Pascal is an extension to the programming language Pascal (programming language), Pascal that provides object-oriented programming (OOP) features such as Class (computer programming), classes and Method (computer programming), methods. ...
).
Apollo Computer Apollo Computer Inc., founded in 1980 in Chelmsford, Massachusetts, by William Poduska (a founder of Prime Computer) and others, developed and produced Apollo/Domain workstations in the 1980s. Along with Symbolics and Sun Microsystems, Apollo was ...
used Pascal as the systems programming language for its operating systems beginning in 1980. Variants of Pascal have also been used for everything from research projects to
PC game A personal computer game, also known as a PC game or computer game, is a type of video game played on a personal computer (PC) rather than a video game console or arcade machine. Its defining characteristics include: more diverse and user-d ...
s and
embedded system An embedded system is a computer system—a combination of a computer processor, computer memory, and input/output peripheral devices—that has a dedicated function within a larger mechanical or Electronics, electronic system. It is '' ...
s. Newer Pascal compilers exist which are widely used.


Object Pascal

During work on the Lisa, Larry Tesler began corresponding with Wirth on the idea of adding object-oriented extensions to the language. This led initially to Clascal, introduced in 1983. As the Lisa program faded and was replaced by the Macintosh, a further version was created and named
Object Pascal Object Pascal is an extension to the programming language Pascal (programming language), Pascal that provides object-oriented programming (OOP) features such as Class (computer programming), classes and Method (computer programming), methods. ...
. This was introduced on the Mac in 1985 as part of the MacApp application framework, and became Apple's main development language into the early 1990s. The Object Pascal extensions were added to Turbo Pascal with the release of version 5.5 in 1989. Over the years, Object Pascal became the basis of the
Delphi Delphi (; ), in legend previously called Pytho (Πυθώ), in ancient times was a sacred precinct that served as the seat of Pythia, the major oracle who was consulted about important decisions throughout the ancient classical world. The oracle ...
system for
Microsoft Windows Windows is a group of several proprietary graphical operating system families developed and marketed by Microsoft Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational corporation, multinational technology company, technology corporatio ...
, which is still used for developing Windows applications, and can cross-compile code to other systems. Free Pascal is an open source, cross-platform alternative with its own graphical IDE called Lazarus.


Implementations


Early Pascal compilers

The first Pascal
compiler In computing, a compiler is a computer program that Translator (computing), translates computer code written in one programming language (the ''source'' language) into another language (the ''target'' language). The name "compiler" is primarily ...
was designed in
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for the CDC 6000 series
mainframe computer A mainframe computer, informally called a mainframe or big iron, is a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations (computation) automatically. Modern digital ele ...
family. Niklaus Wirth reports that a first attempt to implement it in FORTRAN 66 in 1969 was unsuccessful due to FORTRAN 66's inadequacy to express complex data structures. The second attempt was implemented in a C-like language (Scallop by Max Engeli) and then translated by hand (by R. Schild) to Pascal itself for boot-strapping. It was operational by mid-1970. Many Pascal compilers since have been similarly self-hosting, that is, the compiler is itself written in Pascal, and the compiler is usually capable of recompiling itself when new features are added to the language, or when the compiler is to be ported to a new environment. The GNU Pascal compiler is one notable exception, being written in C. The first successful port of the CDC Pascal compiler to another mainframe was completed by Welsh and Quinn at the Queen's University of Belfast (QUB) in 1972. The target was the International Computers Limited (ICL) 1900 series. This compiler, in turn, was the parent of the Pascal compiler for the Information Computer Systems (ICS) Multum minicomputer. The Multum port was developed – with a view to using Pascal as a systems programming language – by Findlay, Cupples, Cavouras and Davis, working at the Department of Computing Science in Glasgow University. It is thought that Multum Pascal, which was completed in the summer of 1973, may have been the first 16-bit implementation. A completely new compiler was completed by Welsh et al. at QUB in 1977. It offered a source-language diagnostic feature (incorporating profiling, tracing and type-aware formatted postmortem dumps) that was implemented by Findlay and Watt at Glasgow University. This implementation was ported in 1980 to the ICL 2900 series by a team based at Southampton University and Glasgow University. The Standard Pascal Model Implementation was also based on this compiler, having been adapted, by Welsh and Hay at Manchester University in 1984, to check rigorously for conformity to the BSI 6192/ISO 7185 Standard and to generate code for a portable abstract machine. The first Pascal
compiler In computing, a compiler is a computer program that Translator (computing), translates computer code written in one programming language (the ''source'' language) into another language (the ''target'' language). The name "compiler" is primarily ...
written in North America was constructed at the
University of Illinois The University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign (U of I, Illinois, University of Illinois, or UIUC) is a public university, public land-grant university, land-grant research university in Illinois in the twin cities of Champaign, Illinois, Champai ...
under Donald B. Gillies for the PDP-11 and generated native machine code.


The Pascal-P system

To propagate the language rapidly, a compiler ''porting kit'' was created in Zürich that included a compiler that generated so called p-code for a ''virtual'' stack machine, i.e., code that lends itself to reasonably efficient interpretation, along with an interpreter for that code – the ''Pascal-P'' system. The P-system compilers were named Pascal-P1, Pascal-P2, Pascal-P3, and Pascal-P4. Pascal-P1 was the first version, and Pascal-P4 was the last to come from Zürich. The version termed Pascal-P1 was coined after the fact for the many different sources for Pascal-P that existed. The compiler was redesigned to enhance portability, and issued as Pascal-P2. This code was later enhanced to become Pascal-P3, with an intermediate code backward compatible with Pascal-P2, and Pascal-P4, which was not backward compatible. The Pascal-P4 compiler–interpreter can still be run and compiled on systems compatible with original Pascal. However, it only accepts a subset of the Pascal language. Pascal-P5, created outside the Zürich group, accepts the full Pascal language and includes ISO 7185 compatibility. UCSD Pascal branched off Pascal-P2, where Kenneth Bowles used it to create the interpretive UCSD p-System. It was one of three operating systems available at the launch of the original
IBM Personal Computer The IBM Personal Computer (model 5150, commonly known as the IBM PC) is the first microcomputer released in the IBM PC model line and the basis for the IBM PC compatible de facto standard. Released on August 12, 1981, it was created by a team ...
. UCSD Pascal used an intermediate code based on byte values, and thus was one of the earliest ''
bytecode Bytecode (also called portable code or p-code) is a form of instruction set designed for efficient execution by a software Interpreter (computing), interpreter. Unlike Human-readable code, human-readable source code, bytecodes are compact nume ...
compilers''. Apple Pascal was released in 1979 for the Apple 2 and Apple 3 computer systems. It was an implementation of, or largely based on, UCSD Pascal. Pascal-P1 through Pascal-P4 was not, but rather based on the CDC 6600 60-bit word length. A compiler based on the Pascal-P5 compiler, which created native binary object files, was released for the
IBM System/370 The IBM System/370 (S/370) is a model range of IBM mainframe computers announced on June 30, 1970, as the successors to the IBM System/360, System/360 family. The series mostly maintains backward compatibility with the S/360, allowing an easy ...
mainframe computer A mainframe computer, informally called a mainframe or big iron, is a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations (computation) automatically. Modern digital ele ...
by the Australian Atomic Energy Commission; it was named the ''AAEC Pascal 8000 Compiler'' after the abbreviation of the name of the commission.


Object Pascal and Turbo Pascal

Apple Computer created its own Lisa Pascal for the Lisa Workshop in 1982, and ported the compiler to the Apple Macintosh and MPW in 1985. In 1985 Larry Tesler, in consultation with Niklaus Wirth, defined Object Pascal and these extensions were incorporated in both the Lisa Pascal and Mac Pascal compilers. In the 1980s, Anders Hejlsberg wrote the Blue Label Pascal compiler for the Nascom-2. A reimplementation of this compiler for the
IBM PC The IBM Personal Computer (model 5150, commonly known as the IBM PC) is the first microcomputer released in the IBM PC model line and the basis for the IBM PC compatible de facto standard. Released on August 12, 1981, it was created by a team ...
was marketed under the names Compas Pascal and PolyPascal before it was acquired by Borland and renamed ''Turbo Pascal''. Turbo Pascal became hugely popular, thanks to an aggressive pricing strategy, having one of the first full-screen IDEs, and very fast turnaround time (just seconds to compile, link, and run). It was written and highly optimized entirely in
assembly language In computer programming, assembly language (or assembler language, or symbolic machine code), often referred to simply as Assembly and commonly abbreviated as ASM or asm, is any low-level programming language with a very strong correspondence be ...
, making it smaller and faster than much of the competition. In 1986, Anders ported Turbo Pascal to the Macintosh and incorporated Apple's Object Pascal extensions into Turbo Pascal. These extensions were then added back into the PC version of Turbo Pascal for version 5.5. At the same time
Microsoft Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational corporation, multinational technology company, technology corporation producing Software, computer software, consumer electronics, personal computers, and related services headquartered at th ...
also implemented the Object Pascal compiler. Turbo Pascal 5.5 had a large influence on the Pascal community, which began concentrating mainly on the IBM PC in the late 1980s. Many PC hobbyists in search of a structured replacement for BASIC used this product. It also began to be adopted by professional developers. Around the same time a number of concepts were imported from C to let Pascal programmers use the C-based
application programming interface An application programming interface (API) is a way for two or more computer programs to communicate with each other. It is a type of software Interface (computing), interface, offering a service to other pieces of software. A document or standa ...
(API) of
Microsoft Windows Windows is a group of several proprietary graphical operating system families developed and marketed by Microsoft Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational corporation, multinational technology company, technology corporatio ...
directly. These extensions included null-terminated strings, pointer arithmetic, function pointers, an address-of operator, and unsafe typecasts. Turbo Pascal and other derivatives with ''unit'' or ''module'' structures are
modular programming Modular programming is a software design technique that emphasizes separating the functionality of a Computer program, program into independent, interchangeable modules, such that each contains everything necessary to execute only one aspect of th ...
languages. However, it does not provide a nested module concept or qualified import and export of specific symbols.


Other variants

Super Pascal is a variant that added non-numeric labels, a return statement and expressions as names of types. TMT Pascal was the first Borland-compatible compiler for 32-bit DOS
protected mode In computing, protected mode, also called protected virtual address mode, is an operational mode of x86-compatible central processing unit A central processing unit (CPU), also called a central processor, main processor or just Processor (com ...
, OS/2, and Win32 operating systems. The TMT Pascal language was the first one to allow function and operator overloading. The universities of Wisconsin-Madison,
Zürich Zürich () is the list of cities in Switzerland, largest city in Switzerland and the capital of the canton of Zürich. It is located in north-central Switzerland, at the northwestern tip of Lake Zürich. As of January 2020, the municipality has 43 ...
,
Karlsruhe Karlsruhe ( , , ; South Franconian German, South Franconian: ''Kallsruh'') is the List of cities in Baden-Württemberg by population, third-largest city of the German States of Germany, state (''Land'') of Baden-Württemberg after its capital o ...
, and
Wuppertal Wuppertal (; "''Wupper dale (landform), Dale''") is, with a population of approximately 355,000, the seventh-largest city in North Rhine-Westphalia as well as the List of cities in Germany by population, 17th-largest city of Germany. I ...
developed the ''Pascal-SC'' and ''Pascal-XSC'' ('' Extensions for Scientific Computation'') compilers, aimed at programming numerical computations. Development for Pascal-SC started in 1978 supporting ISO 7185 Pascal level 0, but level 2 support was added at a later stage. Pascal-SC originally targeted the Z80 processor, but was later rewritten for DOS ( x86) and 68000. Pascal-XSC has at various times been ported to Unix (Linux, SunOS, HP-UX, AIX) and Microsoft/IBM (DOS with EMX, OS/2, Windows) operating systems. It operates by generating intermediate C source code which is then compiled to a native executable. Some of the Pascal-SC language extensions have been adopted by GNU Pascal. Pascal Sol was designed around 1983 by a French team to implement a
Unix-like A Unix-like (sometimes referred to as UN*X or *nix) operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, although not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification. A Unix- ...
system named Sol. It was standard Pascal level-1 (with parameterized array bounds) but the definition allowed alternative keywords and predefined identifiers in French and the language included a few extensions to ease system programming (e.g. an equivalent to lseek). The Sol team later on moved to the ChorusOS project to design a distributed operating system. IP Pascal was an implementation of the Pascal programming language using Micropolis DOS, but was moved rapidly to CP/M-80 running on the Z80. It was moved to the 80386 machine types in 1994, and exists today as Windows/XP and Linux implementations. In 2008, the system was brought up to a new level and the resulting language termed "Pascaline" (after Pascal's calculator). It includes objects, namespace controls, dynamic arrays, and many other extensions, and generally features the same functionality and type protection as C#. It is the only such implementation that is also compatible with the original Pascal implementation, which is standardized as ISO 7185.


Language constructs

Pascal, in its original form, is a purely procedural language and includes the traditional array of
ALGOL Algol , designated Beta Persei (β Persei, abbreviated Beta Per, β Per), known colloquially as the Demon Star, is a bright multiple star in the constellation of Perseus (constellation), Perseus and one of the fir ...
-like control structures with reserved words such as if, then, else, while, for, and case, ranging on a single statement or a begin-end statements block. Pascal also has data structuring constructs not included in the original ALGOL 60 types, like records, variants, pointers, enumerations, and sets and procedure pointers. Such constructs were in part inherited or inspired from Simula 67, ALGOL 68, Niklaus Wirth's own ALGOL W and suggestions by C. A. R. Hoare. Pascal programs start with the program keyword with a list of external file descriptors as parametersPascal ISO 7185:1990
6.10
(not required in Turbo Pascal etc.); then follows the main block bracketed by the begin and end keywords. Semicolons separate statements, and the
full stop The full stop ( Commonwealth English), period ( North American English), or full point , is a punctuation mark. It is used for several purposes, most often to mark the end of a declarative sentence (as distinguished from a question A quest ...
(i.e., a period) ends the whole program (or ''unit'').
Letter case Letter case is the distinction between the Letter (alphabet), letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowercase (or more formally ''minuscule'') in the written representation of certain lang ...
is ignored in Pascal source. Here is an example of the source code in use for a very simple
"Hello, World!" program A "Hello, World!" program is generally a computer program that ignores any input and outputs or displays a message similar to "Hello, World!". A small piece of code in most general-purpose programming languages, this program is used to illustra ...
: : program HelloWorld(output); begin Write('Hello, World!') end.


Data types

A Type Declaration in Pascal is used to define a range of values which a variable of that type is capable of storing. It also defines a set of operations that are permissible to be performed on variables of that type. The predefined types are: The range of values allowed for the basic types (except boolean) is implementation defined. Functions are provided for some data conversions. For conversion of real to integer, the following functions are available: round (which rounds to integer using banker's rounding) and trunc (rounds towards zero). The programmer has the freedom to define other commonly used data types (e.g. byte, string, etc.) in terms of the predefined types using Pascal's type declaration facility, for example : type byte = 0..255; signed_byte = -128..127; string = packed array ..255of char; Often-used types like byte and string are already defined in many implementations. Normally the system will use a
word A word is a basic element of language Language is a structured system of communication. The structure of a language is its grammar and the free components are its vocabulary. Languages are the primary means by which humans communicate, ...
to store the data. For instance, the type may be stored in a machine integer - 32 bits perhaps - rather than an 8-bit value. Pascal does not contain language elements that allow the basic storage types to be defined more granularly. This capability was included in a number of Pascal extensions and follow-on languages, while others, like Modula-2, expanded the built-in set to cover most machine data types like 16-bit integers. The keyword tells the compiler to use the most efficient method of storage for the structured data types: sets, arrays and records, rather than using one
word A word is a basic element of language Language is a structured system of communication. The structure of a language is its grammar and the free components are its vocabulary. Languages are the primary means by which humans communicate, ...
for each element. Packing may slow access on machines that do not offer easy access to parts of a word.


Subrange types

Subranges of any ordinal data type (any simple type except real) can also be made: : var x : 1..10; y : 'a'..'z';


Set types

In contrast with other programming languages from its time, Pascal supports a set type: : var Set1 : set of 1..10; Set2 : set of 'a'..'z'; A set is a fundamental concept for modern mathematics, and they may be used in many algorithms. Such a feature is useful and may be faster than an equivalent construct in a language that does not support sets. For example, for many Pascal compilers: : if i in ..10then ... executes faster than: : if (i > 4) and (i < 11) then ... Sets of non-contiguous values can be particularly useful, in terms of both performance and readability: : if i in ..3, 7, 9, 12..15then ... For these examples, which involve sets over small domains, the improved performance is usually achieved by the compiler representing set variables as bit vectors. The set operators can then be implemented efficiently as bitwise machine code operations.


Union types


Type declarations

Types can be defined from other types using type declarations: : type x = integer; y = x; ... Further, complex types can be constructed from simple types: : type a = array ..10of integer; b = record x : integer; y : char end; c = file of a;


File type

As shown in the example above, Pascal files are sequences of components. Every file has a buffer variable which is denoted by ''f^''. The procedures ''get'' (for reading) and ''put'' (for writing) move the buffer variable to the next element. Read is introduced such that ''read(f, x)'' is the same as ''x := f^; get(f);''. Write is introduced such that ''write(f, x)'' is the same as ''f^ := x; put(f);'' The type is predefined as file of char. While the buffer variable could be used for inspecting the next character to be used (check for a digit before reading an integer), this leads to serious problems with interactive programs in early implementations, but was solved later with the "lazy I/O" concept. In Jensen & Wirth Pascal, strings are represented as packed arrays of chars; they therefore have fixed length and are usually space-padded.


Pointer types

Pascal supports the use of pointers: : type pNode = ^Node; Node = record a : integer; b : char; c : pNode end; var NodePtr : pNode; IntPtr : ^integer; Here the variable ''NodePtr'' is a pointer to the data type ''Node'', a record. Pointers can be used before they are declared. This is a forward declaration, an exception to the rule that things must be declared before they are used. To create a new record and assign the value ''10'' and character ''A'' to the fields ''a'' and ''b'' in the record, and to initialise the pointer ''c'' to the null pointer ("NIL" in Pascal), the statements would be: : New(NodePtr); ... NodePtr^.a := 10; NodePtr^.b := 'A'; NodePtr^.c := NIL; ... This could also be done using the with statement, as follows: : New(NodePtr); ... with NodePtr^ do begin a := 10; b := 'A'; c := NIL end; ... Inside of the scope of the ''with'' statement, a and b refer to the subfields of the record pointer ''NodePtr'' and not to the record Node or the pointer type pNode.
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s, stacks and queues can be created by including a pointer type field (c) in the record. Unlike many languages that feature pointers, Pascal only allows pointers to reference dynamically created variables that are anonymous, and does not allow them to reference standard static or local variables. Pointers also must have an associated type, and a pointer to one type is not compatible with a pointer to another type (e.g. a pointer to a char is not compatible with a pointer to an integer). This helps eliminate the type security issues inherent with other pointer implementations, particularly those used for PL/I or C. It also removes some risks caused by dangling pointers, but the ability to dynamically deallocate referenced space by using the ''dispose'' function (which has the same effect as the ''free'' library function found in C) means that the risk of dangling pointers has not been eliminatedJ. Welsh, W. J. Sneeringer, and C. A. R. Hoare, "Ambiguities and Insecurities in Pascal", ''Software: Practice and Experience 7'', pp. 685–696 (1977) as it has in languages such as Java and C#, which provide automatic garbage collection (but which do not eliminate the related problem of memory leaks). Some of these restrictions can be lifted in newer dialects.


Control structures

Pascal is a structured programming language, meaning that the flow of control is structured into standard statements, usually without ' goto' commands. : while a <> b do WriteLn('Waiting'); if a > b then WriteLn('Condition met') else WriteLn('Condition not met'); for i := 1 to 10 do WriteLn('Iteration: ', i); repeat a := a + 1 until a = 10; case i of 0 : Write('zero'); 1 : Write('one'); 2 : Write('two'); 3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10: Write('?') end;


Procedures and functions

Pascal structures programs into procedures and functions. Generally, a procedure is used for its side effects, whereas a function is used for its return value. : program Printing; var i : integer; procedure PrintAnInteger(j : integer); begin ... end; function triple(const x: integer): integer; begin triple := x * 3 end; begin ... PrintAnInteger(i); PrintAnInteger(triple(i)) end. Procedures and functions can be nested to any depth, and the 'program' construct is the logical outermost block. By default, parameters are passed by value. If 'var' precedes a parameter's name, it is passed by reference. Each procedure or function can have its own declarations of goto labels, constants, types, variables, and other procedures and functions, which must all be in that order. This ordering requirement was originally intended to allow efficient single-pass compilation. However, in some dialects (such as
Delphi Delphi (; ), in legend previously called Pytho (Πυθώ), in ancient times was a sacred precinct that served as the seat of Pythia, the major oracle who was consulted about important decisions throughout the ancient classical world. The oracle ...
) the strict ordering requirement of declaration sections has been relaxed.


Semicolons as statement separators

Pascal adopted many language syntax features from the
ALGOL Algol , designated Beta Persei (β Persei, abbreviated Beta Per, β Per), known colloquially as the Demon Star, is a bright multiple star in the constellation of Perseus (constellation), Perseus and one of the fir ...
language, including the use of a semicolon as a statement separator. This is in contrast to other languages, such as PL/I and C, which use the semicolon as a statement terminator. No semicolon is needed before the end keyword of a record type declaration, a block, or a ''case'' statement; before the until keyword of a repeat statement; and before the else keyword of an ''if'' statement. The presence of an extra semicolon was not permitted in early versions of Pascal. However, the addition of
ALGOL Algol , designated Beta Persei (β Persei, abbreviated Beta Per, β Per), known colloquially as the Demon Star, is a bright multiple star in the constellation of Perseus (constellation), Perseus and one of the fir ...
-like empty statements in the 1973 ''Revised Report'' and later changes to the language in ISO 7185:1983 now allow for optional semicolons in most of these cases. A semicolon is still not permitted immediately before the else keyword in an ''if'' statement, because the else follows a single statement, not a statement sequence. In the case of nested ifs, a semicolon cannot be used to avoid the dangling else problem (where the inner if does not have an else, but the outer if does) by putatively terminating the nested if with a semicolon – this instead terminates both if clauses. Instead, an explicit begin...end block must be used.


Resources


Compilers and interpreters

Several Pascal compilers and interpreters are available for general use: *
Delphi Delphi (; ), in legend previously called Pytho (Πυθώ), in ancient times was a sacred precinct that served as the seat of Pythia, the major oracle who was consulted about important decisions throughout the ancient classical world. The oracle ...
is Embarcadero's (formerly Borland/CodeGear) flagship rapid application development (RAD) product. It uses the Object Pascal language (termed 'Delphi' by Borland), descended from Pascal, to create applications for Windows,
macOS macOS (; previously OS X and originally Mac OS X) is a Unix operating system developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001. It is the primary operating system for Apple's Mac (computer), Mac computers. Within the market of ...
, iOS, and Android. The .NET support that existed from D8 through D2005, D2006, and D2007 has been terminated, and replaced by a new language (Prism, which is rebranded Oxygene, see below) that is not fully backward compatible. In recent years
Unicode Unicode, formally The Unicode Standard,The formal version reference is is an information technology standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems. The standard, ...
support and generics were added (D2009, D2010, Delphi XE). * Free Pascal is a
cross-platform In computing, cross-platform software (also called multi-platform software, platform-agnostic software, or platform-independent software) is computer software that is designed to work in several Computing platform, computing platforms. Some cross ...
compiler written in
Object Pascal Object Pascal is an extension to the programming language Pascal (programming language), Pascal that provides object-oriented programming (OOP) features such as Class (computer programming), classes and Method (computer programming), methods. ...
(and is self-hosting). It is aimed at providing a convenient and powerful compiler, both able to compile legacy applications and to be the means to develop new ones. It is distributed under the
GNU General Public License The GNU General Public License (GNU GPL or simply GPL) is a series of widely used free software licenses that guarantee end users the Four Freedoms (Free software), four freedoms to run, study, share, and modify the software. The license was th ...
(GNU GPL), while packages and runtime
library A library is a collection of materials, books or media that are accessible for use and not just for display purposes. A library provides physical (hard copies) or digital access (soft copies) materials, and may be a physical location or a vir ...
come under a modified GNU Lesser General Public License (GNU LGPL). In addition to compatibility modes for Turbo Pascal, Delphi, and Mac Pascal, it has its own procedural and object-oriented syntax modes with support for extended features such as operator overloading. It supports many platforms and operating systems. Current versions also feature an ISO mode. * Turbo51 is a free Pascal compiler for the Intel 8051 family of microcontrollers, with Turbo Pascal 7 syntax. * Oxygene (formerly named ''Chrome'') is an Object Pascal compiler for the .NET and Mono platforms. It was created and is sold by RemObjects Software, and sold for a while by Embarcadero as the backend compiler of Prism. * Kylix was a descendant of
Delphi Delphi (; ), in legend previously called Pytho (Πυθώ), in ancient times was a sacred precinct that served as the seat of Pythia, the major oracle who was consulted about important decisions throughout the ancient classical world. The oracle ...
, with support for the
Linux Linux ( or ) is a family of free and open-source software, open-source Unix-like operating systems based on the Linux kernel, an kernel (operating system), operating system kernel first released on September 17, 1991, by Linus Torvalds. Linu ...
operating system and an improved object library. It is no longer supported. Compiler and IDE are available now for non-commercial use. * GNU Pascal Compiler (GPC) is the Pascal compiler of the GNU Compiler Collection (GCC). The compiler is written in C, the runtime library mostly in Pascal. Distributed under the
GNU General Public License The GNU General Public License (GNU GPL or simply GPL) is a series of widely used free software licenses that guarantee end users the Four Freedoms (Free software), four freedoms to run, study, share, and modify the software. The license was th ...
, it runs on many platforms and operating systems. It supports the ANSI/ISO standard languages and has partial Turbo Pascal dialect support. One of the more painful omissions is the absence of a 100% Turbo Pascal-compatible (short)string type. Support for Borland Delphi and other language variants is quite limited. There is some support for Mac-pascal, however. * Virtual Pascal was created by Vitaly Miryanov in 1995 as a native OS/2 compiler compatible with Borland Pascal syntax. Then, it had been commercially developed by fPrint, adding Win32 support, and in 2000 it became freeware. Today it can compile for Win32, OS/2, and Linux, and is mostly compatible with Borland Pascal and Delphi. Development was canceled on April 4, 2005. * P4 compiler, the basis for many subsequent Pascal-implemented-in-Pascal compilers. It implements a subset of full Pascal. * P5 compiler is an ISO 7185 (full Pascal) adaption of P4. * Smart Mobile Studio is a Pascal to HTML5/Javascript compiler * Turbo Pascal was the dominant Pascal compiler for PCs during the 1980s and early 1990s, popular both because of its powerful extensions and extremely short compilation times. Turbo Pascal was compactly written and could compile, run, and debug all from memory without accessing disk. Slow floppy disk drives were common for programmers at the time, further magnifying Turbo Pascal's speed advantage. Currently, older versions of Turbo Pascal (up to 5.5) are available for free download from Borland's site. * IP Pascal implements the language "Pascaline" (named after Pascal's calculator), which is a highly extended Pascal compatible with original Pascal according to ISO 7185. It features modules with namespace control, including parallel tasking modules with semaphores, objects, dynamic arrays of any dimensions that are allocated at runtime, overloads, overrides, and many other extensions. IP Pascal has a built-in portability library that is custom tailored to the Pascal language. For example, a standard text output application from 1970's original Pascal can be recompiled to work in a window and even have graphical constructs added. * Pascal-XT was created by
Siemens Siemens AG ( ) is a German Multinational corporation, multinational Conglomerate (company), conglomerate corporation and the largest industrial manufacturing company in Europe headquartered in Munich with branch offices abroad. The principal ...
for their mainframe operating systems BS2000 and SINIX. * PocketStudio is a Pascal subset compiler and RAD tool for Palm OS and MC68xxx processors with some of its own extensions to assist interfacing with the Palm OS API. It resembles Delphi and Lazarus with a visual form designer, an object inspector and a source code editor. * MIDletPascal – A Pascal compiler and IDE that generates small and fast Java bytecode specifically designed to create software for mobiles. * Vector Pascal is a language for SIMD instruction sets such as the MMX and the AMD 3d Now, supporting all Intel and AMD processors, and Sony's PlayStation 2 Emotion Engine. * Morfik Pascal allows the development of Web applications entirely written in Object Pascal (both server and browser side). * WDSibyl – Visual Development Environment and Pascal compiler for Win32 and OS/2. * PP Compiler, a compiler for Palm OS that runs directly on the handheld computer. * CDC 6000 Pascal compiler is the source code for the first (CDC 6000) Pascal compiler. * Pascal-S * AmigaPascal is a free Pascal compiler for the Amiga computer. * VSI Pascal for OpenVMS (formerly HP Pascal for OpenVMS, Compaq Pascal, DEC Pascal, VAX Pascal and originally VAX-11 Pascal) is a Pascal compiler that runs on
OpenVMS OpenVMS, often referred to as just VMS, is a multi-user, multiprocessing and virtual memory-based operating system. It is designed to support time-sharing, batch processing, transaction processing and workstation applications. Customers using Ope ...
systems. It was also supported under Tru64. VSI Pascal for OpenVMS is compatible with ISO/IEC 7185:1990 Pascal as well some of ISO/IEC 10206:1990 Extended Pascal, and also includes its own extensions. The compiler frontend is implemented in
BLISS BLISS is a system programming language developed at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) by William Wulf, W. A. Wulf, D. B. Russell, and Nico Habermann, A. N. Habermann around 1970. It was perhaps the best known system language until C (programming la ...
. * Stony Brook Pascal+ was a 16-bit (later 32-bit) optimizing compiler for DOS and OS/2, marketed as a direct replacement for Turbo Pascal, but producing code that executed at least twice as fast.


IDEs

* Dev-Pascal is a Pascal IDE that was designed in Borland
Delphi Delphi (; ), in legend previously called Pytho (Πυθώ), in ancient times was a sacred precinct that served as the seat of Pythia, the major oracle who was consulted about important decisions throughout the ancient classical world. The oracle ...
and which supports Free Pascal and GNU Pascal as backends. * Lazarus is a free Delphi-like visual cross-platform IDE for rapid application development (RAD). Based on Free Pascal, Lazarus is available for numerous platforms including
Linux Linux ( or ) is a family of free and open-source software, open-source Unix-like operating systems based on the Linux kernel, an kernel (operating system), operating system kernel first released on September 17, 1991, by Linus Torvalds. Linu ...
,
FreeBSD FreeBSD is a free and open-source Unix-like operating system descended from the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD), which was based on Research Unix. The first version of FreeBSD was released in 1993. In 2005, FreeBSD was the most popular ope ...
,
macOS macOS (; previously OS X and originally Mac OS X) is a Unix operating system developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001. It is the primary operating system for Apple's Mac (computer), Mac computers. Within the market of ...
and
Microsoft Windows Windows is a group of several proprietary graphical operating system families developed and marketed by Microsoft Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational corporation, multinational technology company, technology corporatio ...
. * Fire (macOS) and Water (Windows) for the Oxygene and the Elements Compiler


Libraries

*WOL Library for creating GUI applications with the Free Pascal Compiler.


Standards


ISO/IEC 7185:1990 Pascal

In 1983, the language was standardized in the international standard IEC/ISO 7185 and several local country-specific standards, including the American ANSI/IEEE770X3.97-1983, and ISO 7185:1983. These two standards differed only in that the ISO standard included a "level 1" extension for conformant arrays (an array where the boundaries of the array are not known until run time), where ANSI did not allow for this extension to the original (Wirth version) language. In 1989, ISO 7185 was revised (ISO 7185:1990) to correct various errors and ambiguities found in the original document. The ISO 7185 was stated to be a clarification of Wirth's 1974 language as detailed by the User Manual and Report ensen and Wirth but was also notable for adding "Conformant Array Parameters" as a level 1 to the standard, level 0 being Pascal without conformant arrays. This addition was made at the request of C. A. R. Hoare, and with the approval of Niklaus Wirth. The precipitating cause was that Hoare wanted to create a Pascal version of the (NAG) Numerical Algorithms Library, which had originally been written in FORTRAN, and found that it was not possible to do so without an extension that would allow array parameters of varying size. Similar considerations motivated the inclusion in ISO 7185 of the facility to specify the parameter types of procedural and functional parameters. Niklaus Wirth himself referred to the 1974 language as "the Standard", for example, to differentiate it from the machine specific features of the CDC 6000 compiler. This language was documented in ''The Pascal Report'', the second part of the "Pascal users manual and report". On the large machines (mainframes and minicomputers) Pascal originated on, the standards were generally followed. On the
IBM PC The IBM Personal Computer (model 5150, commonly known as the IBM PC) is the first microcomputer released in the IBM PC model line and the basis for the IBM PC compatible de facto standard. Released on August 12, 1981, it was created by a team ...
, they were not. On IBM PCs, the Borland standards Turbo Pascal and Delphi have the greatest number of users. Thus, it is typically important to understand whether a particular implementation corresponds to the original Pascal language, or a Borland dialect of it. The IBM PC versions of the language began to differ with the advent of UCSD Pascal, an interpreted implementation that featured several extensions to the language, along with several omissions and changes. Many UCSD language features survive today, including in Borland's dialect.


ISO/IEC 10206:1990 Extended Pascal

In 1990, an extended Pascal standard was created as ISO/IEC 10206, which is identical in technical content to IEEE/ANSI 770X3.160-1989 As of 2019, Support of Extended Pascal in FreePascal Compiler is planned.


Variations

Niklaus Wirth's Zürich version of Pascal was issued outside ETH in two basic forms: the CDC 6000 compiler source, and a porting kit called Pascal-P system. The Pascal-P compiler left out several features of the full language that were not required to bootstrap the compiler. For example, procedures and functions used as parameters, undiscriminated variant records, packing, dispose, interprocedural gotos and other features of the full compiler were omitted. UCSD Pascal, under Professor Kenneth Bowles, was based on the Pascal-P2 kit, and consequently shared several of the Pascal-P language restrictions. UCSD Pascal was later adopted as Apple Pascal, and continued through several versions there. Although UCSD Pascal actually expanded the subset Pascal in the Pascal-P kit by adding back standard Pascal constructs, it was still not a complete standard installation of Pascal. In the early 1990s, Alan Burns and Geoff Davies developed Pascal-FC, an extension to Pl/0 (from the Niklaus' book ''Algorithms + Data Structures = Programs''). Several constructs were added to use Pascal-FC as a teaching tool for Concurrent Programming (such as semaphores, monitors, channels, remote-invocation and resources). To be able to demonstrate concurrency, the compiler output (a kind of P-code) could then be executed on a virtual machine. This virtual machine not only simulated a normal – fair – environment, but could also simulate extreme conditions (unfair mode).


Borland-like Pascal compilers

Borland's Turbo Pascal, written by Anders Hejlsberg, was written in assembly language independent of UCSD and the Zürich compilers. However, it adopted much of the same subset and extensions as the UCSD compiler. This is probably because the UCSD system was the most common Pascal system suitable for developing applications on the resource-limited microprocessor systems available at that time. The shrink-wrapped Turbo Pascal version 3 and later incarnations, including Borland's
Object Pascal Object Pascal is an extension to the programming language Pascal (programming language), Pascal that provides object-oriented programming (OOP) features such as Class (computer programming), classes and Method (computer programming), methods. ...
and
Delphi Delphi (; ), in legend previously called Pytho (Πυθώ), in ancient times was a sacred precinct that served as the seat of Pythia, the major oracle who was consulted about important decisions throughout the ancient classical world. The oracle ...
and non-Borland near-compatibles became popular with programmers including shareware authors, and so the SWAG library of Pascal code features a large amount of code written with such versions as Delphi in mind. Software products (
compiler In computing, a compiler is a computer program that Translator (computing), translates computer code written in one programming language (the ''source'' language) into another language (the ''target'' language). The name "compiler" is primarily ...
s, and IDE/ Rapid Application Development (RAD)) in this category: * Turbo Pascal – "TURBO.EXE" up to version 7, and Turbo Pascal for Windows ("TPW") and Turbo Pascal for Macintosh. * Pure Pascal and HiSPeed Pascal 2 Pascal language Environment for the Atari ST range of computers. * Borland Pascal 7 – A professional version of Turbo Pascal line which targeted both DOS and Windows. *
Object Pascal Object Pascal is an extension to the programming language Pascal (programming language), Pascal that provides object-oriented programming (OOP) features such as Class (computer programming), classes and Method (computer programming), methods. ...
– an extension of the Pascal language that was developed at Apple Computer by a team led by Larry Tesler in consultation with Niklaus Wirth, the inventor of Pascal; its features were added to Borland's Turbo Pascal for Macintosh and in 1989 for Turbo Pascal 5.5 for DOS. *
Delphi Delphi (; ), in legend previously called Pytho (Πυθώ), in ancient times was a sacred precinct that served as the seat of Pythia, the major oracle who was consulted about important decisions throughout the ancient classical world. The oracle ...
– Object Pascal is essentially its underlying language. * Free Pascal compiler (FPC) – Free Pascal adopted the de facto standard dialect of Pascal programmers, Borland Pascal and, later, Delphi. Freepascal also supports both ISO standards. * PascalABC.NET – a new generation Pascal programming language including compiler and IDE. * Borland Kylix is a compiler and IDE formerly sold by Borland, but later discontinued. It is a
Linux Linux ( or ) is a family of free and open-source software, open-source Unix-like operating systems based on the Linux kernel, an kernel (operating system), operating system kernel first released on September 17, 1991, by Linus Torvalds. Linu ...
version of the Borland Delphi software development environment and C++Builder. * Lazarus – similar to Kylix in function, is a free cross-platform visual IDE for RAD using the Free Pascal compiler, which supports dialects of
Object Pascal Object Pascal is an extension to the programming language Pascal (programming language), Pascal that provides object-oriented programming (OOP) features such as Class (computer programming), classes and Method (computer programming), methods. ...
to varying degrees. * Virtual Pascal – VP2/1 is a fully Borland Pascal– and Borland Delphi–compatible 32-bit Pascal compiler for OS/2 and Windows 32 (with a Linux version "on the way"). * Sybil is an open source Delphi-like IDE and compiler; implementations include: ** WDSibyl for
Microsoft Windows Windows is a group of several proprietary graphical operating system families developed and marketed by Microsoft Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational corporation, multinational technology company, technology corporatio ...
and OS/2, a commercial Borland Pascal compatible environment released by a company named Speedsoft that was later developed into a Delphi-like rapid application development (RAD) environment named Sybil and then open sourced under the GPL when that company closed down; ** Open Sybil, which is an ongoing project, an
open source Open source is source code that is made freely available for possible modification and redistribution. Products include permission to use the source code, design documents, or content of the product. The open-source model is a decentralized sof ...
tool for OS/2 and eCS that was originally based on Speedsoft's WDsybl Sibyl Portable Component Classes (SPCC) and Sibyl Visual Development Tool (SVDE) sources, but now its core is IBM System Object Model (SOM), WPS and OpenDoc.


List of related standards

* ISO 8651-2:1988 ''Information processing systems – Computer graphics – Graphical Kernel System (GKS) language bindings – Part 2: Pascal''


Reception

Pascal generated a wide variety of responses in the computing community, both critical and complimentary.


Early criticism

While very popular in the 1980s and early 1990s, implementations of Pascal that closely followed Wirth's initial definition of the language were widely criticized as being unsuitable for use outside teaching.
Brian Kernighan Brian Wilson Kernighan (; born 1942) is a Canadian computer scientist. He worked at Bell Labs and contributed to the development of Unix alongside Unix creators Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie. Kernighan's name became widely known through co-aut ...
, who popularized the C language, outlined his most notable criticisms of Pascal as early as 1981 in his article "Why Pascal is Not My Favorite Programming Language". The most serious problem Kernighan described was that array sizes and string lengths were part of the type, so it was not possible to write a function that would accept variable-length arrays or even strings as parameters. This made it unfeasible to write, for example, a sorting library. Kernighan also criticized the unpredictable order of evaluation of boolean expressions, poor library support, and lack of static variables, and raised a number of smaller issues. Also, he stated that the language did not provide any simple constructs to "escape" (knowingly and forcibly ignore) restrictions and limitations. More general complaints from other sources noted that the scope of declarations was not clearly defined in the original language definition, which sometimes had serious consequences when using forward declarations to define pointer types, or when record declarations led to mutual recursion, or when an identifier may or may not have been used in an enumeration list. Another difficulty was that, like ALGOL 60, the language did not allow procedures or functions passed as parameters to predefine the expected type of their parameters. Despite initial criticisms, Pascal continued to evolve, and most of Kernighan's points do not apply to versions of the language which were enhanced to be suitable for commercial product development, such as Borland's Turbo Pascal. As Kernighan predicted in his article, most of the extensions to fix these issues were incompatible from compiler to compiler. Since the early 1990s, however, most of the varieties seem condensed into two categories: ISO and Borland-like. Extended Pascal addresses many of these early criticisms. It supports variable-length strings, variable initialization, separate compilation, short-circuit boolean operators, and default (otherwise) clauses for case statements.


See also

* Ada (programming language) * Concurrent Pascal * Comparison of Pascal and Delphi * Comparison of Pascal and C * Modula-2 * Oberon (programming language) *
Object Pascal Object Pascal is an extension to the programming language Pascal (programming language), Pascal that provides object-oriented programming (OOP) features such as Class (computer programming), classes and Method (computer programming), methods. ...
* PascalCase *
Standard ML Standard ML (SML) is a General-purpose programming language, general-purpose, Modular programming, modular, functional programming language with compile-time type checking and type inference. It is popular among compiler writers and programming l ...


References


Further reading

* Niklaus Wirth: ''The Programming Language Pascal''. 35–63, Acta Informatica, Volume 1, 1971. * C. A. R. Hoare: "Notes on data structuring". In O.-J. Dahl, E. W. Dijkstra and C. A. R. Hoare, editors, ''Structured Programming'', pages 83–174. Academic Press, 1972. * C. A. R. Hoare, Niklaus Wirth: ''An Axiomatic Definition of the Programming Language Pascal''. 335–355, Acta Informatica, Volume 2, 1973. * Kathleen Jensen and Niklaus Wirth:
Pascal – User Manual and Report
'. Springer-Verlag, 1974, 1985, 1991, and . * Niklaus Wirth: '' Algorithms + Data Structures = Programs''. Prentice-Hall, 1975, . * Niklaus Wirth: ''An assessment of the programming language Pascal''. 23–30 ACM SIGPLAN Notices Volume 10, Issue 6, June 1975. * N. Wirth, and A. I. Wasserman, ed: ''Programming Language Design''. IEEE Computer Society Press, 1980 * D. W. Barron (Ed.): ''Pascal – The Language and its Implementation''. John Wiley 1981, * Peter Grogono: ''Programming in Pascal'', Revised Edition, Addison-Wesley, 1980 * Richard S. Forsyth: ''Pascal in Work and Play'', Chapman and Hall, 1982 * N. Wirth, M. Broy, ed, and E. Denert, ed
''Pascal and its Successors''
in ''Software Pioneers: Contributions to Software Engineering.'' Springer-Verlag, 2002, * N. Wirth
''Recollections about the Development of Pascal''.
ACM SIGPLAN Notices, Volume 28, No 3, March 1993. {{Portal bar, Computer programming Academic programming languages Articles with example Pascal code Educational programming languages High-level programming languages Programming languages created in 1970 Programming languages with an ISO standard 1970 software