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Pahang (; ms, ڤهڠ, label=
JawiJawi may refer to: People and languages *Australia: **Jawi dialect, a nearly extinct Australian aboriginal language **Jawi people, an Australian Aboriginal people of the Kimberley coast of Western Australia, who speak or spoke the Jawi dialect *Asi ...

Jawi
, script=arab, italic=unset), officially Pahang Darul Makmur with the Arabic honorific ''Darul Makmur'' (Jawi: , "The Abode of Tranquility") is a
sultanate This article includes a list of successive Muslim state An Islamic state is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state. In the case of its broad associati ...
and a
federal state A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central federal government (federalism Federalism is a mixed or compou ...
of
Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions ...

Malaysia
. It is the third largest Malaysian state by area and ninth largest by population. The state occupies the basin of the
Pahang River The Pahang River ( ms, Sungai Pahang) is a river that flows through the state of Pahang, Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia. The federation, federal constitutional monarchy consists of States and federal territories of Ma ...

Pahang River
, and a stretch of the east coast as far south as
Endau Endau is a small town in Mersing District, Johor, Malaysia. It lies on the northern tip of east Johor, on the border with Pahang. Name The town was named ''Endau'' after a peranakan Indian who resided in the area. In the 19th century it was known t ...
. Geographically located in the East Coast region of the
Peninsular Malaysia Peninsular Malaysia (Malay language, Malay: ''Semenanjung Malaysia''), also known as West Malaysia or the Malaysian Peninsula, formerly known as Malaya (disambiguation), Malaya, is the part of Malaysia which occupies the southern half of the Ma ...
, the state shares borders with the Malaysian states of
Kelantan Kelantan (; JawiJawi may refer to: People and languages *Australia: **Jawi dialect, a nearly extinct Australian aboriginal language **Jawi people, an Australian Aboriginal people of the Kimberley coast of Western Australia, who speak or spok ...

Kelantan
and
Terengganu Terengganu (; Terengganu Malay Terengganu language ( ms, Bahasa Melayu Terengganu, Terengganu Malay: ''Base Tranung/Ganu'') is a Malayan language spoken in the Malaysian state of Terengganu all the way southward to coastal Pahang and northe ...

Terengganu
to the north,
Perak Perak () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Co ...

Perak
,
Selangor Selangor (; ), also known by its Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transc ...

Selangor
and
Negeri Sembilan Negeri Sembilan () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspa ...
to the west,
Johor Johor (; ), also spelled as Johore, is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper ...
to the south, while
South China Sea The South China Sea is a marginal sea This is a list of seas of the World Ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of Saline water, salt water that covers approximately 70.8% of the surface of Earth and contains 97 ...

South China Sea
is to the east. The
Titiwangsa Titiwangsa is one of the main areas located in the outskirts of Kuala Lumpur , anthem = ''Maju dan Sejahtera'' , image_map = , map_caption = , pushpin_map = Malaysia#Southea ...
mountain range that forms a natural divider between the Peninsula's east and west coasts is spread along the north and south of the state, peaking at
Mount Tahan Mount Tahan ( ms, Gunung Tahan), at 2,187 m, is the highest point in Peninsular Malaysia. It is located within the Taman Negara national forest, in the state of Pahang. The mountain is part of the Tahan Range in the Tenasserim Hills and is p ...
, which is 2,187m high. Although two thirds of the state is covered by dense rain forest, its central plains are intersected by numerous rivers, and along the coast there is a 32-kilometre wide expanse of alluvial soil that includes the deltas and estuarine plains of the
Kuantan Kuantan (JawiJawi may refer to: People and languages *Australia: **Jawi dialect, a nearly extinct Australian aboriginal language **Jawi people, an Australian Aboriginal people of the Kimberley coast of Western Australia, who speak or spoke the ...
,
Pahang Pahang (; ms, ڤهڠ, label=JawiJawi may refer to: People and languages *Australia: **Jawi dialect, a nearly extinct Australian aboriginal language **Jawi people, an Australian Aboriginal people of the Kimberley coast of Western Australia, w ...

Pahang
,
Rompin The Rompin District is a district located in the southeastern corner of Pahang, Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia. The federation, federal constitutional monarchy consists of States and federal territories of Malaysia, ...
,
Endau Endau is a small town in Mersing District, Johor, Malaysia. It lies on the northern tip of east Johor, on the border with Pahang. Name The town was named ''Endau'' after a peranakan Indian who resided in the area. In the 19th century it was known t ...
, and
Mersing Mersing ( Terengganu Malay: Ngesing) is a town, mukim and the capital of Mersing District, Johor Johor (), also spelled as Johore, is a States and federal territories of Malaysia, state of Malaysia in the south of the Malay Peninsula. Johor ...
rivers. The state is divided into 11 administrative divisions called ''daerah'' (districts) - Pekan, Rompin, Maran, Temerloh, Jerantut, Bentong, Raub, Lipis, Cameron Highlands and Bera. The largest district is Jerantut, which is the main gateway to the
Taman Negara Taman Negara is a national park in Peninsular Malaysia. It was established in 1938/1939 as the George V, King George V National Park after Theodore Hubback lobbied the sultans of Pahang, Terengganu and Kelantan to set aside a piece of land that c ...

Taman Negara
national park. Pahang's capital and largest city,
Kuantan Kuantan (JawiJawi may refer to: People and languages *Australia: **Jawi dialect, a nearly extinct Australian aboriginal language **Jawi people, an Australian Aboriginal people of the Kimberley coast of Western Australia, who speak or spoke th ...

Kuantan
, is the eighth largest urban agglomerations by population in Malaysia. The royal capital and the official seat of the
Sultan of Pahang Sultan of Pahang is the title of the hereditary constitutional head of Pahang Pahang (; ms, ڤهڠ, label=JawiJawi may refer to: People and languages *Australia: **Jawi dialect, a nearly extinct Australian aboriginal language **Jawi peop ...
is located at
Pekan Pekan Town is a town in Pekan District The Pekan District is a district in Pahang Pahang (; ms, ڤهڠ, label=JawiJawi may refer to: People and languages *Australia: **Jawi dialect, a nearly extinct Australian aboriginal language * ...
. Pekan was also the old state capital which its name translates literally into 'the town', it was known historically as '
Inderapura Inderapura was the capital city of the medieval kingdom of Pahang Pahang (; ms, ڤهڠ, label= Jawi, script=arab, italic=unset), officially Pahang Darul Makmur with the Arabic honorific ''Darul Makmur'' (Jawi: , "The Abode of Tranquility") is ...
'. Other major towns include
Temerloh Temerloh is a municipality in Central Pahang, Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia. The federation, federal constitutional monarchy consists of States and federal territories of Malaysia, thirteen states and three federal ...
,
Bentong Bentong (Jawi: ﺑﻨﺘﻮڠ) is a municipality located in western Pahang, Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia. The federation, federal constitutional monarchy consists of States and federal territories of Malaysia, thir ...
and its hills
resort A resort (North American English North American English (NAmE, NAE) is the most generalized variety (linguistics), variety of the English language as spoken in the United States and Canada. Because of their related histories and cultures, ...

resort
s of
Genting Highlands Genting Highlands is a hill station A hill station is a town located at a higher elevation The elevation of a geographic Geography (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of scienc ...

Genting Highlands
and Bukit Tinggi. The head of state is the
Sultan of Pahang Sultan of Pahang is the title of the hereditary constitutional head of Pahang Pahang (; ms, ڤهڠ, label=JawiJawi may refer to: People and languages *Australia: **Jawi dialect, a nearly extinct Australian aboriginal language **Jawi peop ...
, while the head of government is the ''
Menteri Besar In Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia. The federation, federal constitutional monarchy consists of States and federal territories of Malaysia, thirteen states and three federal territories, separated by the South China Se ...
''. The government system is closely modeled on the Westminster parliamentary system. The
state religion A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whethe ...
of Pahang is
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or ex ...
, but grants freedom to manifest other religions in its territory. Pahang is categorised as medium ethnically diverse state with 0.36 of ethnic diversity index in 2010. It is ranked 5th least diverse among Malaysian states and territories, after Terengganu, Kelantan, Melaka and Perlis. Archaeological evidences revealed the existence of human habitation in the area that is today Pahang from as early as the
paleolithic The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic or Palæolithic (), also called the Old Stone Age (from Greek palaios - old, lithos - stone), is a period in prehistory Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history ...
age. The early settlements gradually developed into an ancient maritime trading state by the 3rd century. In the 5th century, the Old Pahang sent envoys to the
Liu Song The Liu Song dynasty (420–479 CE; ), also known as Former Song (前宋) or Southern Song (南朝宋), was the first of the four Southern Dynasties The Northern and Southern dynasties () was a period in the history of China that laste ...
court. During the time of
Langkasuka Langkasuka was an ancient Malay Hindu-Buddhist kingdom located in the Malay Peninsula The Malay Peninsula (Malay Malay may refer to: Languages * Malay language or Bahasa Melayu, a major Austronesian language spoken in Indonesia, Malays ...
,
Srivijaya Srivijaya (, ; , ) was a Malay Malay may refer to: Languages * Malay language or Bahasa Melayu, a major Austronesian language spoken in Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei and Singapore ** History of the Malay language#Old Malay, the Malay langu ...
and
Ligor Nakhon Si Thammarat Municipality ( th, เทศบาลนครนครศรีธรรมราช, ; from Pali ''Nagara Sri Dhammaraja'') is a municipality (''thesaban nakhon Thesaban ( th, เทศบาล, , ) are the municipaliti ...
, Pahang was one of the outlying dependencies. In the 15th century, the
Pahang Sultanate The Pahang Sultanate ( Malay: ''Kesultanan Pahang'', Jawi: كسلطانن ڤهڠ ) also referred as the Old Pahang Sultanate, as opposed to the Modern Pahang Sultanate, was a Malay Muslim state established in the eastern Malay peninsular i ...
became an autonomous kingdom within the
Melaka Sultanate #REDIRECT Malacca Sultanate #REDIRECT Malacca Sultanate The Malacca Sultanate ( ms, Kesultanan Melayu Melaka; Jawi script: کسلطانن ملايو ملاک) was a Malay sultanate centred in the modern-day state of Malacca, Malaysia. Convention ...
. Pahang entered into a
dynastic union A dynastic union is a type of federation with only two different states that are governed under the same dynasty, with their boundaries, their laws, and their interests remaining distinct from each other. It differs from a personal union in that ...
with
Johor Empire The Johor Sultanate ( ms, Kesultanan Johor or ; also called the Sultanate of Johor, Johor-Riau, Johor-Riau-Lingga, or the Johor Empire) was founded by Malaccan Sultan Mahmud Shah's son, Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah II in 1528. Johor was part ...
in the early 17th century and later emerged as an autonomous
kingdom Kingdom may refer to: Monarchy * A type of monarchy * A realm ruled by: **A king, during the reign of a male monarch **A queen regnant, during the reign of a female monarch Taxonomy * Kingdom (biology), a category in biological taxonomy Arts an ...
in the late 18th century. Following the bloody
Pahang Civil War The Pahang Civil War (Malay Malay may refer to: Languages * Malay language or Bahasa Melayu, a major Austronesian language spoken in Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei and Singapore ** History of the Malay language#Old Malay, the Malay language from t ...
that was concluded in 1863, the state under Tun Ahmad of the
Bendahara dynasty The Bendahara dynasty is a Malay dynasty, the line of the Bendahara, or grand viziers of Melaka Malacca ( ms, Melaka; ta, மலாக்கா; ; dubbed "The Historic State"; ms, "Bandar Raya Bersejarah") is a Federated state, state in ...
, was eventually restored as a Sultanate in 1881. In 1895, Pahang became a British protectorate along with the states of
Perak Perak () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Co ...

Perak
,
Selangor Selangor (; ), also known by its Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transc ...

Selangor
and
Negeri Sembilan Negeri Sembilan () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspa ...
. During the
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, Pahang and other states of Malaya were occupied by the
Empire of Japan The was a historical nation-state A nation state is a political unit where the state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of Sta ...

Empire of Japan
from 1941 to 1945. After the war, Pahang became part of the temporary
Malayan Union The Malayan Union was a union of the Malay states The monarchies of Malaysia refer to the constitutional monarchy A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the monarch exercises authority in accordance with a writte ...
before being absorbed into the
Federation of Malaya The Federation of Malaya ( ms, Persekutuan Tanah Melayu; JawiJawi may refer to: People and languages *Australia: **Jawi dialect, a nearly extinct Australian aboriginal language **Jawi people, an Australian Aboriginal people of the Kimberley ...
s and gained full independence through the federation. On 16 September 1963, the federation was enlarged with the inclusion of new states of
North Borneo North Borneo (usually known as British North Borneo, also known as the State of North Borneo) was a British Protectorate, British protectorate located in the northern part of the island of Borneo. The territory of North Borneo was originally estab ...
,
Sarawak Sarawak (; ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...
and
Singapore Singapore (), officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign state, sovereign island city-state in maritime Southeast Asia. It lies about one degree of latitude () north of the equator, off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, bor ...
(expelled in 1965). The federation was opposed by neighbouring
Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is t ...

Indonesia
, which led to the
Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation The Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation or Borneo confrontation (also known by its Indonesian Indonesian is anything of, from, or related to Indonesia, an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. It may refer to: * Indonesians, citizens of Ind ...
over three years along with the continuous war against local
Communist Communism (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Repu ...

Communist
insurgents. Modern Pahang is an economically important state with main activities in services, manufacturing and agricultural sectors. As part of ECER, it is a key region for the manufacturing sector, with the local logistics support network serving as a hub for the entire east coast region of
Peninsular Malaysia Peninsular Malaysia (Malay language, Malay: ''Semenanjung Malaysia''), also known as West Malaysia or the Malaysian Peninsula, formerly known as Malaya (disambiguation), Malaya, is the part of Malaysia which occupies the southern half of the Ma ...
. Over the years, the state has attracted much investment, both local and foreign, in the mineral sector. Important mineral exports include
iron ore Iron ores are rocks In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rock (geology), rocks of which it i ...
,
gold Gold is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemical compounds, chemical elemen ...

gold
,
tin Tin is a with the Sn (from la, ) and  50. Tin is a silvery-colored metal that characteristically has a faint yellow hue. Tin is soft enough to be cut with little force and a bar of tin can be bent by hand with little effort. When bent ...

tin
and
bauxite Bauxite is a sedimentary rock Sedimentary rocks are types of rock (geology), rock that are formed by the accumulation or deposition of mineral or organic matter, organic particles at Earth#Surface, Earth's surface, followed by cementation ( ...

bauxite
. Malaysia's substantial oil and natural gas fields lie offshore in the South China Sea. At one time,
timber Lumber, also known as timber, is wood Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, sup ...

timber
resources also brought much wealth to the state. Large-scale development projects have resulted in the clearing of hundreds of square miles of land for
oil palm ''Elaeis'' () is a genus of Arecaceae, palms containing two species, called oil palms. They are used in commercial agriculture in the production of palm oil. The African oil palm ''Elaeis guineensis'' (the species name ''guineensis'' referring ...
and
rubber Rubber, also called India rubber, latex, Amazonian rubber, ''caucho'', or ''caoutchouc'', as initially produced, consists of polymer A polymer (; Greek ''poly- Poly, from the Greek :wikt:πολύς, πολύς meaning "many" or "much" ...

rubber
plantations and the resettling of several hundred thousand people in new villages under the federal agencies and institutions like
FELDA The Federal Land Development Authority (Felda; ms, Lembaga Kemajuan Tanah Persekutuan. LKTP) is a Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also ...
, FELCRA and RISDA.


Etymology

The naming of Pahang relates to the ancient practice in Malayic culture of defining territorial definitions and apportioning lands by water-sheds. The term 'Pahang' in referring to the kingdom thus, is thought to originate from the name of
Pahang River The Pahang River ( ms, Sungai Pahang) is a river that flows through the state of Pahang, Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia. The federation, federal constitutional monarchy consists of States and federal territories of Ma ...

Pahang River
. There have been many theories on the origin of the name. According to Malay legend, across the river at ''Kampung Kembahang'' where the present stream of the Pahang parts company with the Pahang Tua, in ancient time stretched a huge ''mahang'' tree (''
macaranga ''Macaranga'' is a large genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. The term may also ref ...
'') from which the river and kingdom derived their name. This legend agrees with oral tradition among
Proto-Malay The term Proto-Malay, which translates to ''Melayu Asli'' (aboriginal Malay) or ''Melayu Purba'' (ancient Malay) or ''Melayu Tua'' (old Malay), refers to Austronesian Austronesian may refer to: *The Austronesian languages *The historical Austro ...
Jakun people Jakun people or Orang Ulu / Orang Hulu (meaning, "people of the upstream") are an ethnic group recognised as Orang Asli Orang Asli (''lit''. "first people", "native people", "original people", "aborigines people" or "aboriginal people" in M ...
s that say their forefathers called the country ''Mahang''. Other notable theory was espoused by William Linehan, that relates the early foundation of the kingdom to the settlers from ancient Khmer civilisation, and claims its naming origin to the word ''saamnbahang'' (: សំណប៉ាហាំង) meaning 'tin', based on the discovery of prehistoric tin mines in the state. There were many variations of the name Pahang in history. The ''
Book of Song The ''Book of Song'' (''Sòng Shū'') is a historical text of the Liu Song Dynasty of the Southern Dynasties of history of China, China. It covers history from 420 to 479, and is one of the Twenty-Four Histories, a traditional collection of histo ...
'' referred to the kingdom as ''Pohuang'' or ''Panhuang''. The Chinese chronicler
Zhao RuguaZhao Rukuo (; 1170–1231), also read as Zhao Rugua, or misread as Zhao Rushi, was a Chinese historian and politician during the Song dynasty The Song dynasty (; ; 960–1279) was an imperial dynasty of China that began in 960 and lasted until 1 ...
knew it as ''Pong-fong''. According to the continuation of
Ma Duanlin ''Mă Duānlín'' () (1245–1322) was a Chinese historical writer and encyclopaedist. In 1317, during the Yuan Dynasty, he published the comprehensive Chinese encyclopedia '' Wenxian Tongkao'' in 348 volumes. He was born to the family of Souther ...
's ''
Wenxian Tongkao The ''Wenxian Tongkao'' () or ''Tongkao'' was one of the model works of the ''Tongdian The ''Tongdian'' () is a Chinese institutional history and encyclopedia text. It covers a panoply of topics from high antiquity through the year 756, whereas a ...
'', Pahang was called ''Siam-lao thasi''. By Arabs and Europeans, the kingdom was variously styled ''Pam, Pan, Paam, Paon, Phaan, Phang, Paham, Pahan, Pahaun, Phaung, Phahangh''.


History


Prehistory

Archaeological evidences revealed the existence of human habitation in the area that is today Pahang from as early as the
paleolithic The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic or Palæolithic (), also called the Old Stone Age (from Greek palaios - old, lithos - stone), is a period in prehistory Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history ...
age. At Gunung Senyum have been found relics of Mesolithic civilisation using paleolithic implements. At
Sungai Lembing Sungai Lembing is a small town in Kuantan District The Kuantan District is a district in Pahang Pahang (; ms, ڤهڠ, label= Jawi, script=arab, italic=unset), officially Pahang Darul Makmur with the Arabic honorific ''Darul Makmur'' (Jawi: ...
,
Kuantan Kuantan (JawiJawi may refer to: People and languages *Australia: **Jawi dialect, a nearly extinct Australian aboriginal language **Jawi people, an Australian Aboriginal people of the Kimberley coast of Western Australia, who speak or spoke th ...

Kuantan
, have been discovered paleolithic artefacts chipped and without trace of polishing, the remains of a 6,000 years old civilisation. Traces of
Hoabinhian The term Hòa Bình culture ( vi, Văn hóa Hòa Bình, in French ''culture de Hoà Bình'') was first used by French archaeologists working in Northern Vietnam to describe Holocene The Holocene ( ) is the current geological epoch. It began ...
culture is represented by a number of limestone cave sites. Late
neolithic The Neolithic period is the final division of the Stone Age The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, also known as world history, is t ...
relics are abundant, including polished tools, quoit discs, stone ear pendants, stone bracelets and cross-hatched bark pounders. By around 400 BC, the development of bronze casting led to the flourishing of the
Đông Sơn culture The Dong Son culture or the Lạc Việt culture (named for Đông Sơn, a village in Thanh Hóa, Vietnam , image_map = , map_caption = , capital = Hanoi , coordinates = , ...
, notably for its elaborate bronze war drums. The early iron civilisation in Pahang that began around the beginning of
Common Era Common Era (CE) is one of the year notations used for the Gregorian calendar (and its predecessor, the Julian calendar), the world's most widely used calendar era. Before the Common Era (BCE) is the era before CE. BCE and CE are alternatives ...
is associated by prehistorians with the late neolithic culture. Relics from this era, found along the rivers are particularly numerous in Tembeling Valley, which served as the old main northern highway of communication. Ancient gold workings in Pahang are thought to date back to this early Iron Age as well.


Old kingdom

The
Kra Isthmus The Kra Isthmus ( th, คอคอดกระ, ) in Thailand ) , royal_anthem = '' Sansoen Phra Barami''( en, "Glorify His prestige") , image_map = , map_caption = , capital = Bangkok , coordinates = , large ...
region of the
Malay peninsula The Malay Peninsula (Malay Malay may refer to: Languages * Malay language or Bahasa Melayu, a major Austronesian language spoken in Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei and Singapore ** History of the Malay language#Old Malay, the Malay language f ...
and its peripheries are recognised by historians as the cradle of Malayic civilisations. Primordial Malayic kingdoms are described as tributaries to
Funan Funan (; km, ហ៊្វូណន, ; vi, Phù Nam, Chu Han During ancient times, the ancestors of the Vietnamese people, Vietnamese were considered to have been Proto-Austroasiatic (also called ''Proto-Mon–Khmer'') speaking people, po ...
by the 2nd century Chinese sources. Ancient settlements in Pahang can be traced from Tembeling to as far south as Merchong. Their tracks can also be found in the deep hinterland of Jelai, along the Chini Lake, and up to the head-waters of the
Rompin The Rompin District is a district located in the southeastern corner of Pahang Pahang (; ms, ڤهڠ, label=JawiJawi may refer to: People and languages *Australia: **Jawi dialect, a nearly extinct Australian aboriginal language **Jawi peo ...
. One such settlement was identified as ''Koli'' in ''
Geographia The ''Geography'' ( grc-gre, Γεωγραφικὴ Ὑφήγησις, ''Geōgraphikḕ Hyphḗgēsis'',  "Geographical Guidance"), also known by its Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Ital ...
'' or ''Kiu-Li'', centred on the estuary of
Pahang River The Pahang River ( ms, Sungai Pahang) is a river that flows through the state of Pahang, Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia. The federation, federal constitutional monarchy consists of States and federal territories of Ma ...

Pahang River
south of
Langkasuka Langkasuka was an ancient Malay Hindu-Buddhist kingdom located in the Malay Peninsula The Malay Peninsula (Malay Malay may refer to: Languages * Malay language or Bahasa Melayu, a major Austronesian language spoken in Indonesia, Malays ...
, that flourished in the 3rd century CE. It possessed an important international port, where many foreign ships stopped to barter and resupply. In common with most of the states in the Malay Peninsula during that time, Kiu-Li was in contact with
Funan Funan (; km, ហ៊្វូណន, ; vi, Phù Nam, Chu Han During ancient times, the ancestors of the Vietnamese people, Vietnamese were considered to have been Proto-Austroasiatic (also called ''Proto-Mon–Khmer'') speaking people, po ...
. The Chinese records mention that an embassy sent to Funan by the Indian King Murunda sailed from Kiu-Li's port (between 240–245 CE). Murunda presented to the Funanese King Fan Chang four horses from the
Yuezhi The Yuezhi (, ) were an ancient people first described in Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and depe ...
(
Kushan The Kushan Empire ( grc, Βασιλεία Κοσσανῶν; xbc, Κυϸανο, kus, khasano, ; Brahmi script, Late Brahmi Sanskrit: , ', '; Devanagari sa, कुषाण राजवंश, ; Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit, BHS: ; xpr, 𐭊 ...

Kushan
) stud farms. By the middle of the 5th century, a polity suggestive as ancient Pahang, was described in the ''
Book of Song The ''Book of Song'' (''Sòng Shū'') is a historical text of the Liu Song Dynasty of the Southern Dynasties of history of China, China. It covers history from 420 to 479, and is one of the Twenty-Four Histories, a traditional collection of histo ...
'' as ''Pohuang'' or ''Panhuang'' (婆皇). The king of Pohuang, ''She-li Po-luo-ba-mo'' ('Sri Bhadravarman'), was recorded to have sent an envoy to the
Liu Song The Liu Song dynasty (420–479 CE; ), also known as Former Song (前宋) or Southern Song (南朝宋), was the first of the four Southern Dynasties The Northern and Southern dynasties () was a period in the history of China that laste ...
court in 449–450. In 456–457, another envoy of the same country arrived at the Chinese capital,
Jiankang Jiankang (), or Jianye (), as it was originally called, was capital city of the Eastern Wu (229–265 and 266–280 CE), the Jin dynasty (265–420), Jin dynasty (317–420 CE) and the Southern Dynasties (420–552), including the Chen dynasty (5 ...
. This ancient Pahang is believed to had been established later as a
mueang Mueang ( th, เมือง ''mɯ̄ang'', ), Muang ( lo, ເມືອງ ''mɯ́ang'', ; Tai Nuea Tai Nuea or Tai Nüa (Tai Nüa: ; also called Tai Le, Dehong Dai or Chinese Shan; own name: ''Tai2 Lə6'', which means "Upper Tai" or "Northern Ta ...
to the
mandala A mandala ( sa, मण्डल, maṇḍala, circle, ) is a geometric configuration of symbols. In various spiritual traditions, mandalas may be employed for focusing attention of practitioners and adepts, as a spiritual guidance tool, for e ...
of
Langkasuka Langkasuka was an ancient Malay Hindu-Buddhist kingdom located in the Malay Peninsula The Malay Peninsula (Malay Malay may refer to: Languages * Malay language or Bahasa Melayu, a major Austronesian language spoken in Indonesia, Malays ...
-
Kedah Kedah (; JawiJawi may refer to: People and languages *Australia: **Jawi dialect, a nearly extinct Australian aboriginal language **Jawi people, an Australian Aboriginal people of the Kimberley coast of Western Australia, who speak or spoke th ...
centred in modern-day
Patani Patani Darussalam (Malay language, Bahasa Malayu Arabic : , also sometimes Patani Raya or Patani Besar, "Greater Patani"; th, ปาตานี) is a historical region in the northern part of the Malay peninsula. It includes the southern Tha ...
region that rose to prominence with the regression of Funan from the 6th century. By the beginning of the 8th century, Langkasuka-Kedah was in turn came under the military and political hegemony of
Srivijaya Srivijaya (, ; , ) was a Malay Malay may refer to: Languages * Malay language or Bahasa Melayu, a major Austronesian language spoken in Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei and Singapore ** History of the Malay language#Old Malay, the Malay langu ...
. In the 11th century, the power vacuum left by the collapse of Srivijaya was filled by the rise of
Nakhon Si Thammarat Kingdom Nakhon Si Thammarat Kingdom ( th, อาณาจักรนครศรีธรรมราช ), Nagara Sri Dharmarashtra or Kingdom of Ligor, was one of the major constituent city states (''mueang Mueang ( th, เมือง ''mɯ̄ang'', ...
, commonly known in Malay tradition as 'Ligor'. During this period, Pahang, designated as ''Muaeng Pahang'' was established as one of the twelve naksat city states of Ligor. In the 14th century, Pahang began consolidating its influence in the southern part of the Malay peninsula. The kingdom, described by Portuguese historian, Manuel Godinho de Erédia as ''Pam'', was one of the two kingdoms of '' Malayos'' in the peninsula, in succession to
Pattani Pattani ( th, ปัตตานี, ; Pattani Malay: , , ) is one of the southern provinces of Thailand. Neighboring provinces are (from southeast clockwise) Narathiwat Province, Narathiwat, Yala Province, Yala, and Songkhla Province, Songkhla. ...
, that flourished before the establishment of
Melaka Malacca, officially the State of Malacca, is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (ne ...
. The Pahang ruler then, titled Maharaja, was also the overlord of countries of ''Ujong Tanah'' ('land's end'), the southerly part of the peninsula including
Temasek Temasek (also spelt Temasik) is an early recorded name of a settlement on the site of modern Singapore. The name appears in early Malaysian literature, Malay and Javanese literature, and it is also recorded in Yuan dynasty, Yuan and Ming dynasty, ...
. The Majapahit chronicle, ''
Nagarakretagama The ''Nagarakretagama'' or ''Nagarakṛtāgama'', also known as ''Desawarnana'' or ''Deśavarṇana'', is an Old Javanese Kawi or Old Javanese is the oldest attested phase of the Javanese language. It was spoken in the eastern part of what is ...
'' even used the name Pahang to designate the
Malay peninsula The Malay Peninsula (Malay Malay may refer to: Languages * Malay language or Bahasa Melayu, a major Austronesian language spoken in Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei and Singapore ** History of the Malay language#Old Malay, the Malay language f ...
, an indication of the importance of this kingdom. The ''
History of Ming The ''History of Ming'' or the ''Ming History'' (''Míng Shǐ'') is one of the official Chinese historical works known as the ''Twenty-Four Histories The ''Twenty-Four Histories'' (), also known as the ''Orthodox Histories'' (), are the Chines ...
'' records several envoy missions from Pahang to the Ming court in the 14th and 15th centuries. In the year 1378, Maharaja Tajau sent envoys with a letter on a gold leaf and bringing as tribute six foreign slaves and products of the country. In the year 1411, during the reign of Maharaja ''Pa-la-mi-so-la-ta-lo-si-ni'' (transliterated by historian as 'Parameswara Teluk Chini'), he also sent envoys carrying tributes.


Old sultanate

The Old Pahang Sultanate centred in modern-day
Pekan Pekan Town is a town in Pekan District The Pekan District is a district in Pahang Pahang (; ms, ڤهڠ, label=JawiJawi may refer to: People and languages *Australia: **Jawi dialect, a nearly extinct Australian aboriginal language * ...
was established in the 15th century. At the height of its influence, the Sultanate was an important power in Southeast Asian history and controlled the entire Pahang basin, bordering to the north, the Pattani Sultanate, and adjoins to that of
Johor Sultanate The Johor Sultanate ( ms, Kesultanan Johor or ; also called the Sultanate of Johor, Johor-Riau, Johor-Riau-Lingga-Pahang, or the Johor Empire) was founded by Sultanate of Malacca, Malaccan Sultan Mahmud Shah's son, Sultan Alauddin Riayat Sh ...
to the south. To the west, it also extends jurisdiction over part of modern-day
Selangor Selangor (; ), also known by its Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transc ...

Selangor
and
Negeri Sembilan Negeri Sembilan () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspa ...
. The sultanate has its origin as a vassal to
Melaka Malacca, officially the State of Malacca, is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (ne ...
, with its first Sultan was a Melakan prince,
Muhammad Shah Nasir-ud-Din Muḥammad Shah ( fa, ) (born Roshan Akhtar ( fa, )) (7 August 1702 – 26 April 1748) was the thirteenth Mughal emperor The Mughal (or Moghul) emperors built and ruled the Mughal Empire on the Indian subcontinent, mainly ...
, himself the grandson of
Dewa Sura Dewa Sura was a ruler of the medieval kingdom of Old Pahang Kingdom, Pahang who reigned in the middle of the 15th century CE. His name was described in the ''Malay Annals'' as the last Maharaja of Pahang, whose kingdom was conquered by Melaka Sultan ...
, the last pre-Melakan ruler of
Pahang Pahang (; ms, ڤهڠ, label=JawiJawi may refer to: People and languages *Australia: **Jawi dialect, a nearly extinct Australian aboriginal language **Jawi people, an Australian Aboriginal people of the Kimberley coast of Western Australia, ...
. Over the years, Pahang grew independent from Melakan control and at one point even established itself as a rival state to Melaka until the latter's demise in 1511. In 1528, the last Sultan of Melaka, Mahmud Shah died. Pahang joined forces with his successor,
Alauddin Riayat Shah II Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah II ibni Almarhum Sultan Mahmud Shah (died 1564) was the first sultan of Johor. He ruled Johor from 1528 to 1564. He founded the Johor Sultanate following the fall of Malacca Sultanate, Malacca to the Portugal, Portuguese ...
who established himself in Johor to expel the Portuguese from the Malay Peninsula. Two attempts were made in 1547 at Muar and in 1551 at
Portuguese Malacca Portuguese control of Malacca, a city on the Malay Peninsula The Malay Peninsula (Malay Malay may refer to: Languages * Malay language or Bahasa Melayu, a major Austronesian language spoken in Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei and Singa ...
. However, in the face of superior Portuguese arms and vessels, the Pahang and Johor forces were forced to retreat on both occasions. During the reign of Sultan Abdul Kadir, Pahang enjoyed a brief period of cordial relations with the Portuguese. However, this relationship was discontinued by his successor, Sultan Ahmad II. The next ruler, Sultan Abdul Ghafur attacked the Portuguese and simultaneously challenged the Dutch presence in the
Strait of Malacca id, Selat Malaka th, ta, hi, zh, , native_name_lang = , other_name = , image = Strait of malacca.jpg , alt = , caption = The Strait of Malacca connects the Pacific Ocean to ...
. Nevertheless, in 1607, Pahang not only tolerated the
Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle * Dutch Castle Places * ...
, but, following a visit by Admiral Matelief de Jonge, even cooperated with them in an attempt to get rid of the Portuguese. The Sultan tried to reforge the Johor-Pahang alliance to assist the Dutch. However, a quarrel which erupted between Sultan Abdul Ghafur and
Alauddin Riayat Shah III of Johor Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah III was the Sultan of Johor The Sultan of Johor is a hereditary seat and the sovereign ruler of the Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia ...
, resulted in Johor declaring war on Pahang in 1612. With the aid of Sultan
Abdul Jalilul Akbar Abdul Jalilul Akbar was the tenth Sultan of Brunei The sultan of Brunei is the monarchial head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, ...
of
Brunei Brunei ( ; ), officially the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace ( ms, Negara Brunei Darussalam, Jawi alphabet, Jawi: ), is a sovereign state, country located on the north coast of the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia. Apart from its coa ...
, Pahang eventually defeated Johor in 1613. Sultan Abdul Ghafur's son, Alauddin Riyat Shah succeeded the throne in 1614. In 1615, the under
Iskandar Muda Iskandar Muda (1583? – 27 December 1636Yusra Habib Abdul Gani, accessed on 4 January 2007) was the twelfth Sulṭān of Acèh Darussalam, under whom the sultanate achieved its greatest territorial extent, and was the strongest power and w ...
invaded Pahang, forcing Alauddin Riayat Shah to retreat into the interiors. He nevertheless continued to exercise some ruling powers. His reign in exile is considered officially ended after the installation of a distant relative, Raja Bujang to the Pahang throne in 1615, with the support of the Portuguese following a pact between the Portuguese and Sultan of Johor. Raja Bujang who reigned as Abdul Jalil Shah was eventually deposed in the Acehnese invasion in 1617, but restored to the Pahang throne and also installed as the new
Sultan of Johor The Sultan of Johor is a hereditary seat and the sovereign ruler of the Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia ...
following the death of his uncle,
Abdullah Ma'ayat ShahSultan Abdullah Ma'ayat Shah was Sultan of Johor from 1615 to 1623. History Before he became sultan of Johor, Abdullah Ma'ayat Shah was also known as Raja Bongsu, Raja Seberang or Raja di Ilir. According to the testimony of Dutch Admiral Cornelis ...
in 1623. This event led to the union of the crown of Pahang and Johor, and the formal establishment of
Johor Empire The Johor Sultanate ( ms, Kesultanan Johor or ; also called the Sultanate of Johor, Johor-Riau, Johor-Riau-Lingga, or the Johor Empire) was founded by Malaccan Sultan Mahmud Shah's son, Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah II in 1528. Johor was part ...
.


Modern history

The modern Pahang kingdom came into existence with the consolidation of power by the Bendahara family in Pahang, following the gradual dismemberment of
Johor Empire The Johor Sultanate ( ms, Kesultanan Johor or ; also called the Sultanate of Johor, Johor-Riau, Johor-Riau-Lingga, or the Johor Empire) was founded by Malaccan Sultan Mahmud Shah's son, Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah II in 1528. Johor was part ...
. A self-rule was established in Pahang in the late 18th century, with Tun Abdul Majid declared as the first Raja Bendahara. The area around Pahang formed a part of the hereditary domains attached to this title and administered directly by the
Raja BendaharaRaja Bendahara ( Jawi: راج بنداهارا) is a Malay title of monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 707. Life tenure, for life or until abdication, and therefore the ...
. The weakening of the Johor sultanate and the disputed succession to the throne was matched by an increasing independence of the great territorial magnates; the
Bendahara Bendahara (JawiJawi may refer to: People and languages *Australia: **Jawi dialect, a nearly extinct Australian aboriginal language **Jawi people, an Australian Aboriginal people of the Kimberley coast of Western Australia, who speak or spoke t ...
in Pahang, the
Temenggong Temenggong ( Jawi: تمڠݢوڠ; ''Tumenggung'') is an old Malay and Javanese title of nobility, usually given to the chief of public security, or to a local ruler of a frontier area, equivalent to the title Marquess in English-speaking world. T ...
in Johor and Singapore, and the Yamtuan Muda in Riau. In 1853, the fourth Raja Bendahara Tun Ali, renounced his allegiance to the Sultan of Johor and became independent ruler of Pahang. He was able to maintain peace and stability during his reign, but his death in 1857 precipitated civil war between his sons. The younger son Wan Ahmad challenged the succession of his half-brother Tun Mutahir, in a dispute that escalated into a
civil war A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine publis ...
. Supported by the neighbouring
Terengganu Sultanate Sultan of Terengganu is the title of the constitutional head of Terengganu Terengganu (; Jawi:ترڠݢانو, Terengganu Malay: Tranung), formerly spelled Trengganu or Tringganu, is a sultan Sultan (; ar, سلطان ', ) is a positio ...

Terengganu Sultanate
and the Siamese, Wan Ahmad emerged victorious, establishing controls over important towns and expelled his brother in 1863. He served as the last Raja Bendahara, and was proclaimed
Sultan of Pahang Sultan of Pahang is the title of the hereditary constitutional head of Pahang Pahang (; ms, ڤهڠ, label=JawiJawi may refer to: People and languages *Australia: **Jawi dialect, a nearly extinct Australian aboriginal language **Jawi peop ...
by his chiefs in 1881. Due to internal strife within Pahang, the British pressured Sultan Ahmad to acquiesce to the presence of a British adviser. Aided by Sultan
Abu Bakar of Johor Sultan Sir Abu Bakar ibni Almarhum Temenggong Seri Maharaja Tun Daeng Ibrahim (Jawi alphabet, Jawi: ; 3 February 1833 – 4 June 1895) was the Temenggong of Johor. He was the 1st Sultan of Modern Johor, the 21st Sultan of Johor and the first Ma ...
and William Fraser of the Pahang Mining Company, they succeeded in convincing Sultan Ahmad to accept a British agent,
Hugh Clifford Sir Hugh Charles Clifford, (5 March 1866 – 18 December 1941) was a British colonial administrator. Early life Clifford was born in Roehampton Roehampton is a suburban district in southwest London London is the capital city, capita ...
, in December 1887. In October 1888, Sultan Ahmad reluctantly accepted
John Pickersgill Rodger Sir John Pickersgill Rodger (12 February 1851 – 19 September 1910) was a British colonial administrator. Early life Rodger was born in 1851 at Marylebone in London, the second son of Sir Robert Rodger and his wife Sophia (née Pickersgill). ...
as Pahang's first Resident. Following the intervention, Sultan Ahmad became a Ruler-in-Council and acted in accordance with the advice of the British Resident and the State Council, except in matters pertaining Islam and Malay customs. Taxes were to be collected in the name of the Sultan by the Resident, with the assistance of European officers. Between 1890 and 1895, Dato' Bahaman, the Orang Kaya Setia Perkasa Pahlawan of Semantan, and Imam Perang Rasu, the Orang Kaya Imam Perang Indera Gajah of Pulau Tawar, led a revolt against the British encroachment. Sultan Ahmad appeared to be co-operating with the British, but his sympathies were known for the dissidents. By 1895 the revolt was suppressed by the British and many of the dissidents surrendered. In July 1895, Sultan Ahmad signed the Federation Agreement, which made Pahang, alongside with
Perak Perak () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Co ...

Perak
,
Selangor Selangor (; ), also known by its Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transc ...

Selangor
and
Negeri Sembilan Negeri Sembilan () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspa ...
, one of the
Federated Malay States )Under God's Protection , capital = Kuala Lumpur , anthem = ' , image_map = , map_caption = , pushpin_map = Malaysia#Southeast Asia#Asia , pushpin_map_caption ...
, the protectorate state of the
British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other Dependent territory, territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. ...

British Empire
. This had effectively reduced the Sultan's powers and authority, as did the creation of Federal Council in 1909. The executive and legislative functions of the State Council became increasingly nominal. Like other
Malay States The monarchies of Malaysia refer to the constitutional monarchy A constitutional monarchy, parliamentary monarchy, or democratic monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the monarch exercises his authority in accordance with a constitution ...
, Pahang suffered during the
Japanese occupation of Malaya The then British colony of Malaya was gradually occupied by the Japanese between 8 December 1941 and the Allied surrender at Singapore Singapore (), officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign state, sovereign island city-s ...
until the year 1945. During the Japanese Occupation, the reigning Sultan Abu Bakar opened a large potato plantation behind the Terentang Palace to help ease the food shortage and he personally approved proposals to form the '' Askar Wataniah'', an underground Malay resistance force. The Sultan spent the final days of the Occupation in a jungle hideout with members of
Force 136 Force 136 was the general cover name, from March 1944, for a Far East The Far East is a term to refer to the geographical regions that includes East and Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and ...
, resistance fighters and refugees. In late 1945, to mark the decommissioning of the Askar Wataniah, the troops paraded through
Pekan Pekan Town is a town in Pekan District The Pekan District is a district in Pahang Pahang (; ms, ڤهڠ, label=JawiJawi may refer to: People and languages *Australia: **Jawi dialect, a nearly extinct Australian aboriginal language * ...
and submitted to a royal inspection, after which they were feted at the Sa'adah Palace with what has been called 'the first '' ronggeng'' of the liberation'. During his reign, Sultan Abu Bakar revived the office of State Mufti and established the Pahang Islamic and Malay Customs Council. The state's administrative capital, which was established in
Kuala Lipis Kuala Lipis ( ms, كوالا ليڤيس, label=Jawi alphabet, Jawi, script=arab, italic=unset) is a mukim and capital of Lipis District, Pahang, Malaysia with a population of 20,000. History Kuala Lipis was a gold-mining centre before the British ...
during British intervention, was moved to
Kuantan Kuantan (JawiJawi may refer to: People and languages *Australia: **Jawi dialect, a nearly extinct Australian aboriginal language **Jawi people, an Australian Aboriginal people of the Kimberley coast of Western Australia, who speak or spoke th ...

Kuantan
. After
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, Pahang formed the
Federation of Malaya The Federation of Malaya ( ms, Persekutuan Tanah Melayu; JawiJawi may refer to: People and languages *Australia: **Jawi dialect, a nearly extinct Australian aboriginal language **Jawi people, an Australian Aboriginal people of the Kimberley ...
with other eight
Malay States The monarchies of Malaysia refer to the constitutional monarchy A constitutional monarchy, parliamentary monarchy, or democratic monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the monarch exercises his authority in accordance with a constitution ...
and two Malacca and Penang in 1948. The semi-independent Malaya gained was granted independence in 1957, and was then reconstituted as
Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions ...

Malaysia
with the inclusion the states of
Singapore Singapore (), officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign state, sovereign island city-state in maritime Southeast Asia. It lies about one degree of latitude () north of the equator, off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, bor ...

Singapore
(left the federation in 1965),
Sabah Sabah () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Co ...

Sabah
and
Sarawak Sarawak (; ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...

Sarawak
in 1963.


Environment


Geography

Pahang covers an area of , and is the third largest state in Malaysia after
Sabah Sabah () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Co ...

Sabah
and
Sarawak Sarawak (; ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...

Sarawak
, and the largest in the
Peninsular Malaysia Peninsular Malaysia (Malay language, Malay: ''Semenanjung Malaysia''), also known as West Malaysia or the Malaysian Peninsula, formerly known as Malaya (disambiguation), Malaya, is the part of Malaysia which occupies the southern half of the Ma ...
. Geographically diverse, Pahang occupies the vast
Pahang River The Pahang River ( ms, Sungai Pahang) is a river that flows through the state of Pahang, Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia. The federation, federal constitutional monarchy consists of States and federal territories of Ma ...

Pahang River
basin, which is enclosed by the
Titiwangsa Titiwangsa is one of the main areas located in the outskirts of Kuala Lumpur , anthem = ''Maju dan Sejahtera'' , image_map = , map_caption = , pushpin_map = Malaysia#Southea ...
Range to the west and the eastern highlands to the north. Although about 2/3 of the state is dense jungle, its central plains are intersected by numerous rivers, joining to form the Pahang River which dominates the drainage system. Pahang is divided into three
ecoregion An ecoregion (ecological region) or ecozone (ecological zone) is an ecologically Ecology (from el, οἶκος, "house" and el, -λογία, label=none, "study of") is the study of the relationships between living organisms, including h ...
s, the freshwater systems, the lowlands and highlands rainforests and the coastline. The
Pahang River The Pahang River ( ms, Sungai Pahang) is a river that flows through the state of Pahang, Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia. The federation, federal constitutional monarchy consists of States and federal territories of Ma ...

Pahang River
basin connects with Malaysia's two largest natural freshwater lakes,
Bera Bera may refer to: Acronyms * Bioelectric recognition assay, a method in electrophysiology * Botswana Energy Regulatory Authority, an energy regulatory body in Botswana * Brainstem evoked response audiometry, a screening test to monitor for hearin ...
and Chini. Described as wetland of international importance, Bera Lake was accepted as Malaysia's first site in 1994. The highest peak,
Mount Tahan Mount Tahan ( ms, Gunung Tahan), at 2,187 m, is the highest point in Peninsular Malaysia. It is located within the Taman Negara national forest, in the state of Pahang. The mountain is part of the Tahan Range in the Tenasserim Hills and is p ...
, reaches in elevation, which is also the highest point in the Peninsular Malaysia. The climate is temperate enough to have distinct temperature variations year round, and much of the highlands are covered with tropical
rainforest Rainforests are characterized by a closed and continuous tree canopy Canopy may refer to: Plants * Canopy (biology), aboveground portion of plant community or crop (including forests) * Canopy (grape), aboveground portion of grapevine Religi ...

rainforest
. Pahang is home to Malaysia's two important
national park#REDIRECT National park A national park is a park in use for Conservation (ethic), conservation purposes, created and protected by national governments. Often it is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state dec ...

national park
s,
Taman Negara Taman Negara is a national park in Peninsular Malaysia. It was established in 1938/1939 as the George V, King George V National Park after Theodore Hubback lobbied the sultans of Pahang, Terengganu and Kelantan to set aside a piece of land that c ...

Taman Negara
and Endau-Rompin, both located in the north and south of the state respectively. These large Rainforest, primary rainforests are extensive, and are home to many rare or endangered animals, such as the tapir, kancil, tigers, elephants and leopards. Ferns are also extremely common, mainly due to the high humidity and fog that permeates the area. Popular hill resorts located along these main highland areas are Cameron Highlands,
Genting Highlands Genting Highlands is a hill station A hill station is a town located at a higher elevation The elevation of a geographic Geography (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of scienc ...

Genting Highlands
, Fraser's Hill and Bukit Tinggi. The Cameron Highlands is home to extensive tea plantations and also a major supplier of legumes and vegetables to both
Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions ...

Malaysia
and
Singapore Singapore (), officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign state, sovereign island city-state in maritime Southeast Asia. It lies about one degree of latitude () north of the equator, off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, bor ...

Singapore
. The largest
FELDA The Federal Land Development Authority (Felda; ms, Lembaga Kemajuan Tanah Persekutuan. LKTP) is a Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also ...
's palm oil plantations in Malaysia are located in Jengka Triangle centred around the Bandar Tun Razak, Jengka, Bandar Tun Razak in Maran district. Pahang's long, scenic coastline is a paradise of swaying palms and sandy beaches like Cherating, Teluk Cempedak, Beserah, Batu Hitam and Tanjung Sepat, Pahang, Tanjung Sepat. Also located along the coastal plain, is a wide expanse of alluvial soil that includes the deltas and estuarine plains of the Kuantan, Pahang, Rompin, Endau, and Mersing rivers. Important economic centres can be found along the coastline, where both capital and royal capital of the state,
Kuantan Kuantan (JawiJawi may refer to: People and languages *Australia: **Jawi dialect, a nearly extinct Australian aboriginal language **Jawi people, an Australian Aboriginal people of the Kimberley coast of Western Australia, who speak or spoke th ...

Kuantan
and
Pekan Pekan Town is a town in Pekan District The Pekan District is a district in Pahang Pahang (; ms, ڤهڠ, label=JawiJawi may refer to: People and languages *Australia: **Jawi dialect, a nearly extinct Australian aboriginal language * ...
, are located. About 58 km off the coast of Pahang lies Tioman Island, an alluring holiday paradise in the South China Sea, acclaimed as one of the best island getaways in the world. Pahang has a tropical geography with an tropical rainforest climate, equatorial climate and a year-round of humidity of no less than 75%. It is warm and humid throughout the year with temperatures ranging from 21 °C to 33 °C. The rainfall here averages 200 mm monthly, a large proportion of which occurs during the northeast monsoon. Precipitation is the lowest in March, with an average of 22.25 mm. In October and November, the precipitation reaches its peak, with an average of 393 mm. The hottest month in Pahang is May when the average maximum temperature is 33°, average temperature is 28° and average minimum temperature is 24°. At highland areas, the temperature can vary from during daytime to during night time. Pahang experiences two monsoon seasons: a northeast monsoon and a southwest monsoon. The tropical storms of the northeast monsoon wash ashore from the end of October till the beginning of March ever year, bringing heavy rainfall, powerful currents and unpredictable tempest of the monsoon season coming in from the South China Sea. The southwest monsoon, which occurs beginning March every year, brings somewhat less rainfall, with sunny and tropical weather up until the end of October. File:Gunung Tahan. Snapped from Gunung Tangga Lima Belas.jpg,
Mount Tahan Mount Tahan ( ms, Gunung Tahan), at 2,187 m, is the highest point in Peninsular Malaysia. It is located within the Taman Negara national forest, in the state of Pahang. The mountain is part of the Tahan Range in the Tenasserim Hills and is p ...
, the highest mountain of
Peninsular Malaysia Peninsular Malaysia (Malay language, Malay: ''Semenanjung Malaysia''), also known as West Malaysia or the Malaysian Peninsula, formerly known as Malaya (disambiguation), Malaya, is the part of Malaysia which occupies the southern half of the Ma ...
. File:Temerloh bridge3.JPG,
Pahang River The Pahang River ( ms, Sungai Pahang) is a river that flows through the state of Pahang, Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia. The federation, federal constitutional monarchy consists of States and federal territories of Ma ...

Pahang River
. File:Taman-Negara.jpg, View of
Taman Negara Taman Negara is a national park in Peninsular Malaysia. It was established in 1938/1939 as the George V, King George V National Park after Theodore Hubback lobbied the sultans of Pahang, Terengganu and Kelantan to set aside a piece of land that c ...

Taman Negara
. File:Salang, Tioman - panoramio (4).jpg,
South China Sea The South China Sea is a marginal sea This is a list of seas of the World Ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of Saline water, salt water that covers approximately 70.8% of the surface of Earth and contains 97 ...

South China Sea
view from Tioman Island.


Biodiversity

In spite off increasing land conversion, rapid industrialisation and a rising population, Pahang has a very extensive system of protected and managed areas of natural resources. There include some 74 forest reserves, including 10 virgin jungle reserves and 13 amenity forests, wildlife reserves, parks and several marine parks. Of these, the Pahang segment of
Taman Negara Taman Negara is a national park in Peninsular Malaysia. It was established in 1938/1939 as the George V, King George V National Park after Theodore Hubback lobbied the sultans of Pahang, Terengganu and Kelantan to set aside a piece of land that c ...

Taman Negara
is the most outstanding, and there are many other examples of nationally and internationally important areas such as Krau Wildlife Reserve, Bera Lake, Bera Lake Ramsar Site, Tioman Island, Tioman Island Marine Park and Cameron Highlands, Cameron Highlands Wildlife Sanctuary. Total forest in Pahang is about 2,367,000 ha (66% of the land are), of which 89% is a dryland forest, 10% peat swamp forest, and 1% mangroves. About 56% of the total forest is within the Permanent Forest Estate. This includes almost the full range of forest types found in Malaysia, although some of the unusual types, heath forest or forest on ultrabasic rocks, exist only in tiny areas of Pahang. The totally protected forest within
Taman Negara Taman Negara is a national park in Peninsular Malaysia. It was established in 1938/1939 as the George V, King George V National Park after Theodore Hubback lobbied the sultans of Pahang, Terengganu and Kelantan to set aside a piece of land that c ...

Taman Negara
and Krau Wildlife Reserve includes small areas of extreme lowland alluvial plains. Elsewhere, most of the dryland forest in Pahang is on steep slopes and therefore has both catchment protection and slope protection functions. Virtually every species of bird and mammal known from Peninsula Malaysia has been recorded in Pahang, other than a few confined to the north of the country or the west coast. The representation of montane species of plants and animals is particularly numerous. Peaks within Taman Negara, Mount Benom, and peaks along the Titiwangsa Mountains, Titiwangsa Range, with different endemic species in each of these montane regions are located in Pahang. The large forest blocks of the west and northeast support nationally important populations of big mammals and other fauna, and act as a unit with Taman Negara. Pahang River is the longest river in the Peninsula, and from its headwaters to the estuary it includes virtually all of the natural river types. These range from montane streams, saraca streams and neram rivers to rasau and nipah tidal reaches. Drainage basin, Water catchments have been defined as covering 81% of the state and more than half of this is forested. The huge network of rivers in Pahang is home to freshwater aquatic biodiversity, important to the economy of the state. Connecting to this riverine systems are a number of natural freshwater lakes, most notably
Bera Bera may refer to: Acronyms * Bioelectric recognition assay, a method in electrophysiology * Botswana Energy Regulatory Authority, an energy regulatory body in Botswana * Brainstem evoked response audiometry, a screening test to monitor for hearin ...
and Chini lakes. Surrounded by a patchwork of dry lowland dipterocarp forests, the lake environment stretches its tentacles into islands of peat swamp forests. Rich in wildlife and vegetation, the lakes provide an ecosystem which supports not only a diversity of animal and plant life, but sustains the livelihood of the Orang Asal, the aboriginal people inhabiting the wetlands. Most of the coastline is sandy, with rocky headlands at intervals. Mangroves and Nypa fruticans, nipah swamps are confined to estuaries and do not occur along the exposed coast. These estuaries can be seasonally important to fishermen when rough weather prevents fishing at sea. There are limited areas of hard and soft coral offshore, which have been mapped together with coastal features. There are many islands off the east coast, the largest being Tioman Island, Tioman and Seri Buat islands. Besides the island populations of fauna and flora, which sometimes differ genetically from mainland forms of the same species, these islands are of value for the reefs and other bottom features which support marine biological diversity. The reefs in particular are sensitive to sedimentation from activities on land. These features are related to the maintenance of marine fisheries, an important sector of the coastal economy. Tioman, Chebeh, Tulai, Sembilang and Seri Buat islands constitute the Tioman group of islands within the Marine Parks system of Peninsular Malaysia.


Politics and government

The modern constitution of Pahang, the ''Undang-Undang Tubuh Kerajaan Pahang'', was first drafted on 1 February 1948. It was formally adopted on 25 February 1959. The constitution proclaims that Pahang is a constitutional monarchy. The constitutional head is the Sultan of Pahang, Sultan, who is described as "the fountain head of justice and of all authority of government" in the state. He who is vested with the power as a monarch of the state, is also the Head of Islam and the source of all titles and dignities, honours and awards. The current Sultan belong to the male line of the
Bendahara dynasty The Bendahara dynasty is a Malay dynasty, the line of the Bendahara, or grand viziers of Melaka Malacca ( ms, Melaka; ta, மலாக்கா; ; dubbed "The Historic State"; ms, "Bandar Raya Bersejarah") is a Federated state, state in ...
who have been ruling the state since the 17th century. Since 2019, the reigning monarch has been Abdullah of Pahang, Abdullah. He was proclaimed as Sultan on 15 January 2019, succeeding his father, Ahmad Shah of Pahang, Ahmad Shah, whose abdication was decided at a Royal Council meeting on 11 January. On 24 January 2019, days after his accession to the throne of Pahang, he was elected as the 16th Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia, succeeding Muhammad V of Kelantan, Muhammad V who abdicated from the throne on 6 January. Succession order to the throne of Pahang is generally determined roughly by agnatic primogeniture. No female may become ruler, and female line descendants are generally excluded from succession. In Pahang traditional political structure, the offices of ''Orang Besar Berempat'' ('four major chiefs') are the most important positions after the Sultan himself. The four hereditary territorial magnates are; Orang Kaya Indera Pahlawan, Orang Kaya Indera Perba Jelai, Orang Kaya Indera Segara and Orang Kaya Indera Shahbandar. Next in the hierarchy were the ''Orang Besar Berlapan'' ('eight chiefs') and ''Orang Besar Enam Belas'' ('sixteen chiefs') who were subordinated to the principal nobles. The Sultan headed two institutions, the Pahang State Legislative Assembly, State Legislative Assembly and Pahang State Executive Council, State Executive Council. The legislative branch of the state is the unicameral ''Dewan Undangan Negeri'' ('State Legislative Assembly') whose 42 members are elected from single-member constituencies. The assembly has the power to enact the state laws. State government is led by a
Menteri Besar In Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia. The federation, federal constitutional monarchy consists of States and federal territories of Malaysia, thirteen states and three federal territories, separated by the South China Se ...
, who is a member of the State Legislative Assembly from the majority party. According to the constitution of Pahang, the Menteri Besar is required to be a Malay and a Muslim, appointed by the ruler from the party that commands the majority of the State Legislative Assembly. By convention, state elections are held concurrently with the federal election, held at least once every five years, the most recent of which took place in Malaysian general election, 2018, May 2018. Registered voters of age 21 and above may vote for the members for the state legislative chamber. Executive power is vested in the Pahang State Executive Council, State Executive Council as per 1959 constitution. It consists of the Mentri Besar, who is its chairman, and 13 other members. The Sultan of Pahang appoints the Mentri Besar and the rest of the council from the members of the State Assembly. The Mentri Besar is both the head of the Executive Council and the head of the State Government. The incumbent, Malay titles, Dato' Seri Wan Rosdy Wan Ismail from the United Malays National Organisation, a major component party of the Barisan Nasional (BN) coalition, appointed in 2018, is the 15th Mentri Besar. As a federal state, Pahang is subjected to Law of Malaysia, Malaysia's legal system which is based on English Common Law. The highest court in the judicial system is the Federal Court of Malaysia, Federal Court, followed by the Court of Appeal of Malaysia, Court of Appeal and the High Court of Malaya. Malaysia also has a special court to hear cases brought by or against royalty. The death penalty is in use for serious crimes such as murder, terrorism, drug trafficking, and kidnapping. Separate from and running parallel to the civil courts, are the Syariah Court, which apply Sharia law to Muslims in the areas of family law and religious observances. As provided in Article 3 of the Constitution of Malaysia, Federal Constitution, Syariah or Islamic law is a matter of state law, passed in the State Legislative Assembly. Matters related to the enforcement of the Syariah law falls under the jurisdiction of the ''Jabatan Agama Islam Pahang'' ('Pahang Islamic Religious Department'). Pahang's constitution empowers the Sultan as the head of Islam and Malay customs in the state. State council known as ''Majlis Ugama Islam dan Adat Resam Melayu Pahang'' ('Council of Islam and Malay Customs of Pahang') is responsible in advising the ruler as well as regulating both Islamic affairs and adat.


Subdivisions

Pahang is divided into 11 administrative districts, which in turn divided into 66 mukims. For each district, the state government appoints a district officer who heads lands and district office. An administrative district can be distinguished from a local government area where the former deals with land administration and revenue while the latter deals with the planning and delivery of basic infrastructure to its inhabitants. Administrative district boundaries are usually coextensive with local government area boundaries but may sometimes differ especially in urbanised areas. Local governments in Pahang consist of 3 List of local governments in Malaysia, municipal councils and 8 district councils. The administrative divisions in Pahang are originated from the time of the old
Pahang Sultanate The Pahang Sultanate ( Malay: ''Kesultanan Pahang'', Jawi: كسلطانن ڤهڠ ) also referred as the Old Pahang Sultanate, as opposed to the Modern Pahang Sultanate, was a Malay Muslim state established in the eastern Malay peninsular i ...
, whereby magnate, territorial magnates appointed by the Sultan to administer the historical divisions of the state. The largest historical divisions were; Jelai (corresponds to modern day Lipis District),
Temerloh Temerloh is a municipality in Central Pahang, Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia. The federation, federal constitutional monarchy consists of States and federal territories of Malaysia, thirteen states and three federal ...
, Chenor (corresponds to modern day Maran District) and
Pekan Pekan Town is a town in Pekan District The Pekan District is a district in Pahang Pahang (; ms, ڤهڠ, label=JawiJawi may refer to: People and languages *Australia: **Jawi dialect, a nearly extinct Australian aboriginal language * ...
, each administered by the four major chiefs (''Orang Besar Berempat''). Next in the hierarchy were the ''Orang Besar Berlapan'' ('eight chiefs') and then ''Orang Besar Enam Belas'' ('sixteen chiefs') who were subordinated to their respective principal nobles. The lowest of this traditional hierarchy are the ''Tok Empat'' or village headmen who were subordinated to ''Tok Mukim'', who in turn subordinated to ''Penghulu, Tok Penghulu'', who in turn subordinated to one of the sixteen chiefs. In modern times, the ''Tok Empat'' became formally known as ''Ketua Kampung'' (literally 'village headman'), although continued to be referred as such informally. He is subordinated to a Penghulu, the head of the mukim, who in turn subordinated to the district officer.


Economy

As a federal state of Malaysia, Pahang is a relatively open state-oriented market economy. The Pahang State Government Development Corporation, established in 1965, carries the responsibility to drive the economic and social development, by attracting investments, promoting industrial, property and entrepreneurial development, and setting up new commercial hubs and townships. The federal government, through a series development initiatives and programs, the most recent is the East Coast Economic Region introduced in 2007, is also credited for the robust economic growth in recent years. With GDP growing an average 5.6 per cent annually from 1971 to 2000, Pahang is considered a developing state. In 2015, the state economy grew by 4.5%, the tenth highest among 15 states and federal territories of Malaysia, but later reduced to 2% in 2016. The GDP per capita is recorded at $7,629.39 in 2016, while the unemployment rate was maintained below 3% from 2010 to 2016. The economy of Pahang in terms of gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) in 2016 was $12.414 billion, the eight largest in Malaysia. The amount constitutes 4.5% contribution to the national GDP, and largely driven by three main economic activities; Services (49%), Agriculture (23%), and Manufacturing (22.1%). Historically, by the 19th century, Pahang's economy, like in ancient times, was still heavily dependent on the export of gold. Gold mines can be found from Bera District, Bera to Jelai River river basin. Systematic mining started in 1889 during British protectorate, when the Raub Australian Gold mine was established. Extensive underground mining took place in the area and this continued until 1985 during which time the mine at Raub, Pahang, Raub produced nearly 1 million ounces, 85% of the production of Peninsular Malaysia. Another important article of export was tin, which was also mined in a large scale. The tin ore production was primarily concentrated at
Sungai Lembing Sungai Lembing is a small town in Kuantan District The Kuantan District is a district in Pahang Pahang (; ms, ڤهڠ, label= Jawi, script=arab, italic=unset), officially Pahang Darul Makmur with the Arabic honorific ''Darul Makmur'' (Jawi: ...
, where during its heyday, the operations saw the excavation of deep shaft mines that were among the largest, longest and deepest in the world. The growth of the mining industry had a significant impact on Pahang's society and economy towards the end of the 19th century. Thousands of people were at work in the mines which places had, in consequence, become an important trading centres in the state. Once an important industry, the mining industry along with quarrying, now accounts only 1.6% of the total state GDP in 2016. Modern mining industry also include other minerals, in particular
iron ore Iron ores are rocks In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rock (geology), rocks of which it i ...
and
bauxite Bauxite is a sedimentary rock Sedimentary rocks are types of rock (geology), rock that are formed by the accumulation or deposition of mineral or organic matter, organic particles at Earth#Surface, Earth's surface, followed by cementation ( ...

bauxite
. Pahang accounts for more than 70% of the Malaysia's estimated 109.1 million tonnes of bauxite reserves. Mining of the ore, used to make aluminium, surged in 2015 after neighbouring Indonesia prohibited the raw material from being sold overseas. China, instead, bought almost 21 million tonnes from Malaysia, valued at US$955.3 million. Pahang
iron ore Iron ores are rocks In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rock (geology), rocks of which it i ...
production is concentrated at small-scale mines scattered across the state. The low grade iron ores were consumed by the pipe-coating industry that supplied the oil and gas sector and cement plants, while the high grades were exported. The services sector, which constitutes 49% of the total Pahang GDP, is predominantly stimulated by the Wholesale and Retail Trade, Food and Beverage and Accommodation, which amounts to $1.8 billion in 2016. This sub sector, on the other hand, is the main driving factor for the growth of the tourism industry. With its richness in biodiversity, Pahang is offering ecotourism to its hill resorts, beaches and national parks. In 2014, the state attracted 9.4 million visitors, and the figure grew to 12 million in 2016. The agricultural sector is another key economic sector of the state. Historically an agrarian economy, Pahang's agriculture was dominated by the production of vegetables, rice, yams and tubers in the past. With extensive support by the federal agencies and institutions like FELDA, FELCRA and RISDA, the agricultural sector was rapidly expanding, with the inclusion of products like rubber and palm oil as the main agricultural produce, The state is home to the largest FELDA settlement known as 'Jengka Triangle' centred in Bandar Tun Razak, Jengka, Bandar Tun Razak, Maran District. Pahang was historically a primary exporter of forestry products like sandalwood, damar gum, damar and rattans. In modern times, the forestry remains the main sub-sector with tropical
timber Lumber, also known as timber, is wood Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, sup ...

timber
is an important produce, as large swaths of forest supported massive production of wood products. Yet a decline in mature trees due to intensive harvesting lately has caused a slowdown and the practice of more sustainable forestry. Fishery and aquaculture products are also a main source of income especially for the communities on the long coastline and large network of rivers of the state. Today, agriculture is the second largest component of the state economy which constitutes 23% of the total state GDP. It contributes approximately 12.3% of the federal GDP, the fourth largest after Sarawak, Sabah and Johor. Under East Coast Economic Region (ECER) masterplan, introduced in 2007, the agro-businesses in the state is set to move up further the value chain, with the introduction of agricultural initiatives like Nucleus Cattle Breeding and Research Centre at Muadzam Shah, Rompin Integrated Pineapple Plantation, Kuantan-Maran Agrovalley for leafy vegetables and maize, as well as Pekan-Rompin-Mersing Agrovalley for watermelon, vegetables, roselle, and maize. The third largest component of Pahang economy is the manufacturing sector. It forms 22.1% of the state economy and its growth is mainly driven by the many resource-based industries, including the processing of rubber, wood, palm oil, petrochemicals and other halal products. Pahang automotive industry, which is rapidly developing, is centred in Peramu Jaya Industrial Park in
Pekan Pekan Town is a town in Pekan District The Pekan District is a district in Pahang Pahang (; ms, ڤهڠ, label=JawiJawi may refer to: People and languages *Australia: **Jawi dialect, a nearly extinct Australian aboriginal language * ...
. Home to well known automotive players including DRB-HICOM Defence Technologies, DefTech, Isuzu HICOM Malaysia, Mercedes-Benz and Suzuki, the industrial park is expected to expand into the 217ha Pekan Automotive Park, scheduled to complete in 2020. The expansion plan is expected to transform the area into a national and regional hub for car assembly, manufacturing of automotive parts and components, as well as automotive research and development activities. This would be part of the manufacturing initiatives under East Coast Economic Region (ECER) masterplan, that would also involve development of other manufacturing industrial parks including Gebeng Integrated Petrochemical Complex (GIPC), Malaysia-China Kuantan Industrial Park (MCKIP), Pahang Technology Park (PTP), Kuantan Integrated Bio Park (KIBP), and Gambang Halal Park (GHP). Most of these industrial parks are located within the ECER Special Economic Zone that stretches from district of Kerteh,
Terengganu Terengganu (; Terengganu Malay Terengganu language ( ms, Bahasa Melayu Terengganu, Terengganu Malay: ''Base Tranung/Ganu'') is a Malayan language spoken in the Malaysian state of Terengganu all the way southward to coastal Pahang and northe ...

Terengganu
in the north to the district of Pekan, Pahang in the south. Envisioned to be the key engine of economic growth in the ECER, the economic zone is expected to attract $23 billion of Foreign Direct Investment and create 120,000 new jobs by 2020.


Infrastructure

Infrastructure in Pahang, like the rest of the east coast region of Peninsular Malaysia, is still relatively underdeveloped compared to the west coast. To reduce the development gap, the federal government, have been investing heavily in high impact development as well as in upgrading the existing infrastructures. Development grant to the state government amounts to $24.82 million in 2017. In federal budget 2017, about $958 million allocation was announced for Malaysian states to improve the public infrastructures. About 46% of the state annual budget are also allocated for the improvement of the state infrastructure. Pahang also financed much of its infrastructure projects under the privatisation concept, through 13 state statutory authority, statutory bodies including Pahang Development Corporation, Pahang State Foundation, Development Authority of Pahang Tenggara, Tioman Development Authority and Fraser's Hill Development Corporation. Under the Tenth Malaysia Plan (2011-2015), $493 million has been allocated for 351 infrastructure projects in the state. While under the Eleventh Malaysia Plan (2016-2020), $547 million has been allocated to Pahang, with infrastructure in the rural areas was given attention with the increase of rural water, electricity supply and road coverage. Peninsular Malaysia as a whole including Pahang, has almost 100% electrification. Transmission and distribution of electricity in the state of Pahang lie under the responsibility of the national utility company, Tenaga Nasional. The main power plant in Pahang is located in Cameron Highlands with installed capacity 250 Megawatt, MW that generates about 643 Gigawatt, GWh of hydroelectricity. Transmission voltages are at 500 kV, 275 kV and 132 kV while distribution voltages are 33 kV, 22 kV, 11 kV and 415 V three-phase or 240 V single-phase. System frequency is 50 Hz 1%. Under its Total Energy Solution, Tenaga Nasional also offers electricity packaged with steam and chilled water for the benefit of certain industries that require multiple forms of energy for their activities. Access to improved water source in Malaysia is 100%. The water supply in Pahang is managed by the Pahang Water Management Berhad or ''Pengurusan Air Pahang Berhad'' (PAIP). The department is also responsible for the planning, development, management of water supply as well as billing and collection of payment. In Pahang, water supply comes mainly from rivers and streams and there are about 79 water treatment plants located in various districts. Pahang abundant water sources are also significant to the growing demand of water supply in Greater Kuala Lumpur and
Selangor Selangor (; ), also known by its Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transc ...

Selangor
, the industrial heartland of Malaysia. The federal government initiated Pahang-Selangor Raw Water Transfer Project that includes the construction of the Kelau dam on the Pahang river, as well as the transfer of water via a tunnel through the Titiwangsa Mountains.


Internet and telecommunication

In 2016, the household internet broadband penetration per 100 inhabitants in Pahang was relatively high among states of the east coast, but was lower than Malaysian national figure, 71.7 versus 99.8. Extensive efforts to increase internet access, have been undertaken by the government since 2007 to bridge the digital divide, focusing especially the rural areas. Since 2013, the programs have been expanded to include underserved urban communities as well. As of 2015, 89 internet centres have been established in Pahang, in addition to 11 Mini Community Broadband centres and 1 Community Broadband Library. Community WiFi (WK) initiative has also been implemented by the government since 2011 to provide free internet access through Wifi hotspots. In Pahang alone, a total number of 199 Community Wi-Fi have been set up. In terms of fixed line broadband, suburban broadband initiatives were outlined in the Eleventh Malaysia Plan to increase broadband accessibility in suburban and rural areas. By 2016, the number of ports in Pahang was growing up to 7,936 ports, the fourth highest in Malaysia after Selangor, Johor and Perak. The mobile telecommunication penetration, although increasingly popular, was lower compared to the national figure per 100 inhabitants, 130.9 against national figure 143.8. Cellular coverage expansion in Pahang is served by 207 communication towers, with 3G mobile broadband coverage has been expanded to 150 sites and LTE (telecommunication), LTE mobile broadband to 42 sites respectively. To accommodate the demand for high-speed mobile broadband, the core network capacity has been upgraded, with fibre-optic network has been expanded in 2015 to a total 45.6 km. In 2015, an initiative was announced by the federal government to connect the Peninsular and the East Malaysia states, Sabah and Sarawak with submarine cable, submarine fibre optic cable network bringing 4 terabits per second capacity with a total distance of approximately 3,800 kilometres. The planned submarine cable will connect the state of Pahang and Sabah through connecting points in Cherating and Kota Kinabalu respectively.


Transportation

Much like many former British protectorates, Pahang uses a dual carriageway with Right- and left-hand traffic, the left-hand traffic rule. As of 2013, Pahang had a total of of connected roadways, with being paved state routes, of dirt tracks, of gravel roads, and of paved federal road. The primary route in Pahang is the East Coast Expressway, which is the extension of Kuala Lumpur–Karak Expressway, that connects the east coast and the west coast of the Peninsular Malaysia. The expressway passes through 3 states of the peninsular; Pahang, Terengganu and Selangor, connects Kuantan Port to the National Grid (Malaysia), national grid and links many important town and cities of the east coast to the industrial heartland of Malaysia in the west. Another important route, the Central Spine Road which was laid out in the Eleventh Malaysian Plan, is an alternative road to the east coast, connecting Kuala Krai in
Kelantan Kelantan (; JawiJawi may refer to: People and languages *Australia: **Jawi dialect, a nearly extinct Australian aboriginal language **Jawi people, an Australian Aboriginal people of the Kimberley coast of Western Australia, who speak or spok ...

Kelantan
and Bentong District in Pahang. The main railway line is the KTM East Coast Railway Line, nicknamed the 'Jungle Railway' for its route that passes through the sparsely populated and heavily forested interior. It is operated by Keretapi Tanah Melayu Berhad, a federal government-linked company. The 526 km long single track metre gauge that runs between Gemas in
Negeri Sembilan Negeri Sembilan () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspa ...
and Tumpat District, Tumpat in
Kelantan Kelantan (; JawiJawi may refer to: People and languages *Australia: **Jawi dialect, a nearly extinct Australian aboriginal language **Jawi people, an Australian Aboriginal people of the Kimberley coast of Western Australia, who speak or spok ...

Kelantan
, was historically used during British protectorate to transport Tin. A more advanced railway line, the Double-track railway, double-track and Electric locomotive, electrified MRL East Coast Rail Link (ECRL), was announced in 2016 as a project under ECER's master plan, to transport both passengers and cargo. The planned 688 km long new railway line is set to form the backbone of ECER's multimodal transport infrastructure, linking the existing transportation hub in ECER Special Economic Zone (SEZ) with the west coast region. The Special Economic Zone that centred at
Kuantan Kuantan (JawiJawi may refer to: People and languages *Australia: **Jawi dialect, a nearly extinct Australian aboriginal language **Jawi people, an Australian Aboriginal people of the Kimberley coast of Western Australia, who speak or spoke th ...

Kuantan
, is the main transportation hub for bus services, air routes and sea routes for the entire east coast region. Terminal Kuantan Sentral serves as the land transportation hub, offering intrastate services that connects all districts of Pahang, as well as interstate services that links the state to the rest of the Peninsular, including Singapore and Thailand. In 2012, the government announced that Prasarana, which runs Rapid KL, would take over all public bus services in Kuantan under a new entity, Rapid Kuantan. The only airport in Pahang is Sultan Ahmad Shah Airport, also known as Kuantan Airport. Located 15 km from Kuantan, it serves both domestic flight, domestic and international flights. Direct international flights connect the state with
Singapore Singapore (), officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign state, sovereign island city-state in maritime Southeast Asia. It lies about one degree of latitude () north of the equator, off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, bor ...

Singapore
. The airport serves the national carrier Malaysia Airlines and its low-cost carrier, low-cost subsidiary Firefly (airline), Firefly. It also houses the 6th Squadron and 19th Squadron of the Royal Malaysian Air Force. Kuantan is also home to Pahang's only seaport, the Kuantan Port. The multipurpose seaport, that handles both intermodal containers and bulk cargo, is an important gateway of the international sea trading routes for the entire east coast region of Peninsular Malaysia. Since 2013, the port embarked on massive expansion program with the development of New Deep Water Terminal consisting 2 km berth extension, to be fully integrated with the Malaysia-China Kuantan Industrial Park (MCKIP) and other neighbouring industrial parks within the Special Economic Zone. This expansion plan, along with other high impact development projects are in tandem with the escalating economic development of the Eastern Industrial Corridor.


Healthcare

Pahang population has benefited from a well- developed Healthcare in Malaysia, Malaysian health care system, good access to clean water and sanitation, and strong social and economic programmes. Health care services consist of tax-funded and federal government-run primary health care centres and hospitals, and fast-growing private services mainly located in physician clinics and hospitals in urban areas. Infant mortality rate per 1000 live births, a standard in determining the overall efficiency of healthcare, in 2010 was 7.6. As of national figure, infant mortality fell from 75 per 1000 live births in 1957 to 7 in 2013. Life expectancy at birth in 2016 was 70.8 years for male and 76.3 years for female. The public healthcare system in Pahang is provided by five specialist government hospitals; Tengku Ampuan Afzan Hospital, Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah Hospital, Bentong Hospital, Kuala Lipis Hospital and Pekan Hospital, as well as other district hospitals, public health clinics, 1Malaysia#1Malaysia clinics, 1Malaysia clinics, and rural clinics. There are several private hospitals in Pahang, including Kuantan Medical Centre, KPJ Pahang Specialist Hospital, Darul Makmur Medical Centre, PRKMUIP Specialist Hospital and KCDC Hospital. The IIUM Medical Centre located in Bandar Indera Mahkota, is a government-funded teaching hospital managed by Kulliyyah of Medicine, International Islamic University Malaysia. For outpatient treatment, general practitioners are available at private-owned clinics which are easily accessible in most housing estates. The availability of affordable advanced medical services had benefited the state directly from the booming Malaysian medical tourism. Public health system is financed mainly through general revenue and taxation collected by the federal government, while the private sector is funded principally through out-of-pocket payments from patients and some private health insurance. There is still, however, a significant shortage in the medical workforce, especially of highly trained specialists; thus, certain medical care and treatment are available only in large towns. Recent efforts to bring many facilities to other towns have been hampered by lack of expertise to run the available equipment. As a result, secondary care is offered in smaller public medical facilities in suburbs and rural areas, while more complex tertiary care is available in regional and national hospitals in urban areas like
Temerloh Temerloh is a municipality in Central Pahang, Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia. The federation, federal constitutional monarchy consists of States and federal territories of Malaysia, thirteen states and three federal ...
and
Kuantan Kuantan (JawiJawi may refer to: People and languages *Australia: **Jawi dialect, a nearly extinct Australian aboriginal language **Jawi people, an Australian Aboriginal people of the Kimberley coast of Western Australia, who speak or spoke th ...

Kuantan
.


Education

Education in Pahang is overseen by two federal ministries, the Ministry of Education (Malaysia), Ministry of Education responsible for primary education, primary and secondary education, and Ministry of Higher Education (Malaysia), Ministry of Higher Education that is responsible for universities, Institute of technology, polytechnic and community colleges. Although public education is the responsibility of the Federal Government, Pahang has an Education Department to co-ordinate educational matters in its territory. The main legislation governing education is the Education Act 1996 (Malaysia), Education Act 1996. The Education in Malaysia, education system features a non-compulsory kindergarten education followed by six years of compulsory primary education, and five years of optional secondary education. Schools in the primary education system are divided into two categories: national primary schools, which teach in Malay, and vernacular schools, which teach in Chinese or Tamil. Secondary education is conducted for five years. In the final year of secondary education, students sit for the Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia, Malaysian Certificate of Education examination. Since the introduction of the Malaysian Matriculation Programme, matriculation programme in 1999, students who completed the 12-month programme in matriculation colleges can enroll in local universities. By Law of Malaysia, Malaysian law, primary education is compulsory. Early childhood education is not directly controlled by the Ministry of Education as it does with primary and secondary education. However, the ministry does oversee the licensing of private kindergartens, the main form of early childhood education, in accordance with the National Pre-School Quality Standard, which was launched in 2013. Around the time of independence in 1957, overall adult literacy of Federation of Malaya, Malaya in general was quite low at 51%. By the year 2000, adult literacy had increased significantly in Pahang to 92.5% and further increased to 95% ten years later in 2010 census. From these figures, urban literacy was recorded at 95% in 2000 and increased to 97.5 in 2010, while rural literacy was recorded at 90% in 2000 and increased to about 93.5% in 2010. As of 2017, there are 736 schools in Pahang, which 540 are primary and 196 are secondary schools. Included in this figure are 8 technical/vocational schools and 18 state religious secondary schools managed by Pahang Islamic Religious Department. In addition to federal and state government-funded schools, there are a number of international school, international private schools in Pahang. Garden International School, International School of Kuantan, and International Islamic School Malaysia are the three main international schools serving primary and secondary levels. Another notable international school is Highlands International Boarding School located in
Genting Highlands Genting Highlands is a hill station A hill station is a town located at a higher elevation The elevation of a geographic Geography (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of scienc ...

Genting Highlands
that caters secondary education. Tertiary education in the state offers academic certificate, certificate, diploma, Undergraduate degree, first degree and Postgraduate education, higher degree qualifications. The higher learning institutions consist of two major groups, public and private institutions. Public institutions includes universities, polytechnics, community colleges and Normal school, teacher training institutes. While the private institutions includes private universities, university colleges, foreign branch campus universities and private colleges. Among notable public universities are Universiti Malaysia Pahang, International Islamic University Malaysia Kuantan Campus, one state campus of Universiti Teknologi MARA in Bandar Tun Razak, Jengka, Jengka, and two satellite campuses in
Kuantan Kuantan (JawiJawi may refer to: People and languages *Australia: **Jawi dialect, a nearly extinct Australian aboriginal language **Jawi people, an Australian Aboriginal people of the Kimberley coast of Western Australia, who speak or spoke th ...

Kuantan
and Raub, Pahang, Raub. Pahang is also home to private universities like DRB-Hicom University of Automotive Malaysia and Universiti Tenaga Nasional Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah Campus.


Demography

According to the latest national census in 2010, Pahang population stood at 1.5 million including non-Malaysian citizens, making it Malaysia's ninth most populous state. In 2017, with average annual population growth at 1.61%, the population number is projected to increase to 1.65 million. Pahang population is distributed over a large area resulting in the state having the second lowest population density in the country after
Sarawak Sarawak (; ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...

Sarawak
, with only 42people per km2. In terms of age group, overall population is relatively young, people within the 0-14 age group constitute to 29.4% of the total population; the 14-64 age group corresponds to 65.4%; while senior citizens aged 65 or older make up 5.2%. The ratio of males to female is the highest in Malaysia at 113, with male population was recorded at 0.809 million compared to female population figure at 0.615 million. As of 2010, the birth rate, crude birth rate in Pahang was 17.3 per 1000 individuals, the mortality rate, crude death rate was 5.1 per 1000 population, and the Infant mortality, infant mortality rate was 7.6 per 1000 live births. About 95% of the population are Malaysian citizens. Malaysian citizens are divided along ethnic lines, with 75% considered ''Bumiputera (Malaysia), bumiputera''. The largest group of ''bumiputera'' that make up 70% of Pahang population, are Malaysian Malay, Malays, who are defined in the constitution as Muslims who practice Malay customs and culture. They play a dominant role politically. ''Bumiputera'' status is also accorded to certain non-Malay indigenous peoples that make up 5% of the population, in particular the aboriginal groups known as Orang Asli. Other non-Malay indigenous peoples also include ethnic Thais, Khmers, Chams and the natives of Sabah and Sarawak. 15.3% of the population are of Malaysian Chinese, Chinese descent, while those of Malaysian Indian, Indian descent comprise 4% of the population. The presence of Chinese miner-merchants was recorded since the time of the old
Pahang Sultanate The Pahang Sultanate ( Malay: ''Kesultanan Pahang'', Jawi: كسلطانن ڤهڠ ) also referred as the Old Pahang Sultanate, as opposed to the Modern Pahang Sultanate, was a Malay Muslim state established in the eastern Malay peninsular i ...
, and the community have historically been dominant in the business and commerce community. Immigrants from India, the majority of them Tamil people, Tamils and began arriving in large numbers during British protectorate at the end of the 19th century. Every citizen is issued a biometric smart chip identity document, identity card known as ''MyKad'' at the age of 12, and must carry the card at all times. In 1957, a large majority of the population resided in rural areas with urbanisation rate stood at only 22.2%. The urbanisation had increased significantly but relatively at a lower rate compared to other states, owing to its large agricultural lands. The state had the second lowest urbanisation rate after
Kelantan Kelantan (; JawiJawi may refer to: People and languages *Australia: **Jawi dialect, a nearly extinct Australian aboriginal language **Jawi people, an Australian Aboriginal people of the Kimberley coast of Western Australia, who speak or spok ...

Kelantan
in 2010 census, with 50.5% of the population resided in urban areas and the remainder are rural dwellers. By 2020, it has been targeted that the urbanisation rate would reach 58.8%. Major urban centres are
Kuantan Kuantan (JawiJawi may refer to: People and languages *Australia: **Jawi dialect, a nearly extinct Australian aboriginal language **Jawi people, an Australian Aboriginal people of the Kimberley coast of Western Australia, who speak or spoke th ...

Kuantan
,
Temerloh Temerloh is a municipality in Central Pahang, Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia. The federation, federal constitutional monarchy consists of States and federal territories of Malaysia, thirteen states and three federal ...
,
Bentong Bentong (Jawi: ﺑﻨﺘﻮڠ) is a municipality located in western Pahang, Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia. The federation, federal constitutional monarchy consists of States and federal territories of Malaysia, thir ...
and
Pekan Pekan Town is a town in Pekan District The Pekan District is a district in Pahang Pahang (; ms, ڤهڠ, label=JawiJawi may refer to: People and languages *Australia: **Jawi dialect, a nearly extinct Australian aboriginal language * ...
, serving as Pahang main commercial and financial centres. Due to the rise in labour-intensive industries, the state has over 74 thousands migrant workers; about 5% of the population, mainly employed in agriculture and industrial sectors.


Ethnicity

As a multiracial country, Malaysia is home to many ethnic groups. In 2016, it is ranked 59th most ethnically diverse countries in the world with index at 0.596. However, ethnic diversity is not equally distributed among its states and territories. Pahang is categorised as medium ethnically diverse state with 0.36 of ethnic diversity index in 2010. It is ranked 5th least diverse among Malaysian states and territories, after Terengganu, Kelantan, Melaka and Perlis. The least ethnically diverse districts are
Pekan Pekan Town is a town in Pekan District The Pekan District is a district in Pahang Pahang (; ms, ڤهڠ, label=JawiJawi may refer to: People and languages *Australia: **Jawi dialect, a nearly extinct Australian aboriginal language * ...
,
Rompin The Rompin District is a district located in the southeastern corner of Pahang Pahang (; ms, ڤهڠ, label=JawiJawi may refer to: People and languages *Australia: **Jawi dialect, a nearly extinct Australian aboriginal language **Jawi peo ...
and
Temerloh Temerloh is a municipality in Central Pahang, Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia. The federation, federal constitutional monarchy consists of States and federal territories of Malaysia, thirteen states and three federal ...
(index between 0.1 and 0.39), and the most ethnically diverse districts are
Bentong Bentong (Jawi: ﺑﻨﺘﻮڠ) is a municipality located in western Pahang, Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia. The federation, federal constitutional monarchy consists of States and federal territories of Malaysia, thir ...
and Raub, Pahang, Raub (index between 0.49 and 0.59) where minorities form significant proportion of the population. Ethnic diversity in Pahang was historically high, at an index between 0.5 and 0.6 in the 1970s, but showing a downward trend decades later, largely caused by outward migration, high birth rate of the majority population and the opening up of new agricultural lands particularly the
FELDA The Federal Land Development Authority (Felda; ms, Lembaga Kemajuan Tanah Persekutuan. LKTP) is a Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also ...
settlements, that attract many immigrants from other Malaysian states. The most dominant ethnic group are Malaysian Malays, Malays that make up 70% of Pahang population, who are defined in the constitution as Muslims who practice Malay customs and culture. The Malays in turn, can be further divided into several sub-ethnic groups, of which the most dominant are the Pahang Malays. Historically, the community can be found in the vast riverine systems of Pahang and are prominently featured in the state's history. There are also small Pahang Malay communities in the valley of the Lebir River in
Kelantan Kelantan (; JawiJawi may refer to: People and languages *Australia: **Jawi dialect, a nearly extinct Australian aboriginal language **Jawi people, an Australian Aboriginal people of the Kimberley coast of Western Australia, who speak or spok ...

Kelantan
and the upper portions of several rivers near the
Perak Perak () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Co ...

Perak
and
Selangor Selangor (; ), also known by its Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transc ...

Selangor
boundaries, descendants of fugitives from the
civil war A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine publis ...
that ravaged their homeland in the 19th century. The Terengganuan Malay people, Terengganuan Malays, another east coast sub-ethnicity, are native to narrow strip of sometimes discontiguous fishermen villages and towns along the coastline of Pahang. Other important Malay sub-ethnicities include the Kelantanese Malay people, Kelantanese and Kedahan Malay people, Kedahans, that migrated from
Kelantan Kelantan (; JawiJawi may refer to: People and languages *Australia: **Jawi dialect, a nearly extinct Australian aboriginal language **Jawi people, an Australian Aboriginal people of the Kimberley coast of Western Australia, who speak or spok ...

Kelantan
and Kedah respectively, and can be found in major urban centres and agricultural settlements. The Malays are collectively referred as ''Bumiputera (Malaysia), bumiputera'' along with other non-Malay indigenous people that constitutes about 5% of the state's population. The community of Orang Asli form the most dominant non-Malay indigenous group. According to 2010 census, Pahang has the largest Orang Asli population in Malaysia with 64,000 people, followed by Perak with 42,841 people. The Orang Asli in Pahang is grouped into 3 large groups; Negrito, Senoi and Proto Malay. Approximately 40% of them live close to or within forested areas, and engage in swiddening as well as hunting and gathering of forest products. Some also practise permanent agriculture and manage their own rubber, oil palm or cocoa farms. A very small number, especially among the Negrito groups, are still semi-nomadic and depend on the seasonal bounties of the forest. Due to sweeping modernisation, a fair number of them are to be found in urban areas surviving on their waged or salaried jobs. The three groups of Orang Asli can be divided further into several smaller tribes that traditionally domiciled in certain geographical part of Pahang. The Batek people, Bateq tribe of Negrito group can be found in northern part of Pahang. Two Senoi tribes, Semaq Beri people, Semaq Beri and Semai people, Semai are also domiciled in northern Pahang. Two other Senoi tribes, Chewong and Jah Hut people, Jah Hut communities can be found in central Pahang. Meanwhile, the southern part of the state is dominated by Proto Malay tribes of Jakun people, Jakun, Temoq people, Temoq, Semelai people, Semelai and Temuan. The minorities consist of Malaysian Chinese, Chinese and Malaysian Indian, Indians form collectively about 19.5% of the population. They are descendants of immigrants from China and India that came in large numbers during British protectorate to work in the mines, rubber plantations and various services sector. They are primarily concentrated in the western districts of Raub and Bentong and other urban areas.


Religion

The constitution of Pahang established
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or ex ...
as a
state religion A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whethe ...
, but grants freedom of religion, freedom to manifest other religions in its territory. In the areas of family law and religious observances, the Sharia law are applied to the Muslims and came under the jurisdiction of the Syariah Court, Sharia court. The jurisdiction of Syariah courts is limited to Muslims in matters such as marriage, inheritance, divorce, apostasy, religious conversion, and custody among others. No other criminal or civil offences are under the jurisdiction of the Shariah courts, which have a similar hierarchy to the Courts of Malaysia, Civil Courts. Despite being the supreme courts of the land, the Civil Courts do not hear matters related to Islamic practices. Matters related to the enforcement of the Syariah law falls under the jurisdiction of the ''Jabatan Agama Islam Pahang'' ('Pahang Islamic Religious Department'). Pahang's constitution empowers the Sultan as the head of Islam and Malay customs in the state. State council known as ''Majlis Ugama Islam dan Adat Resam Melayu Pahang'' ('Council of Islam and Malay Customs of Pahang') is responsible in advising the ruler as well as regulating both Islamic affairs and ''adat''. Sunni Islam of Shafi'i school of jurisprudence is the dominant branch of Islam in Malaysia, Islam, and became the basis of Sharia court rulings and Sharia law passed in the Pahang State Legislative Assembly. According to the Population and Housing Census 2010 figures, ethnicity and religious beliefs correlate highly. Approximately 74.9% of the population practice Islam in Malaysia, Islam, 14.4% practice Buddhism in Malaysia, Buddhism, 4% Hinduism in Malaysia, Hinduism, 2.7% irreligion, non-religious, 1.9% Christianity in Malaysia, Christianity. Article 160 of the Constitution of Malaysia, The Malaysian constitution defines what makes a "Malay", considering Malays those who are Muslim, speak Malay regularly, practise Malay customs, and lived in or have ancestors from Malaysia and
Singapore Singapore (), officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign state, sovereign island city-state in maritime Southeast Asia. It lies about one degree of latitude () north of the equator, off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, bor ...

Singapore
. All Malays are therefore necessarily Muslim. Statistics from the 2010 Census indicate that 89.4% of the Chinese population identify as Buddhists, with significant minorities of adherents identifying as Christians (6.7%), Chinese folk religions (2.8%) and Muslims (0.4%). The majority of the Indian population identify as Hindus (90.3%), with a significant minorities of numbers identifying as Muslims (3.6%), Christians (2.5%) and Buddhists (2.3%). The non-Malay ''Bumiputera (Malaysia), bumiputera'' community are predominantly Irreligion, Atheists (51.9%), with significant minorities identifying as Muslims (11.8%) and Christians (11.7%). File:Pahang state mosque 02.jpg, Sultan Ahmad Shah State Mosque File:Genting-Highlands Malaysia Chin-Swee-Caves-Temple-02.jpg, Chin Swee Caves Temple File:All Souls' Church01.jpg, All Souls' Church, Cameron Highlands, All Souls' Church


Languages

The official and state language of Pahang is Malaysian language, Malaysian, a standardised form of the Malay language. The terminology as per federal government policy is ''Bahasa Malaysia'' (literally "Malaysian language") but in the federal constitution continues to refer to the official language as ''Bahasa Melayu'' (literally "Malay language"). The National Language Act 1967 specifies the Malay alphabet, Latin (Rumi) script as the official writing system, script of the national language, but allow the use of the traditional Jawi alphabet, Jawi script. Jawi is still used in the official documents of state Islamic religious department and council, on road and building signs, and also taught in primary and religious schools. In 2018, the then Abdullah of Pahang, Regent of Pahang in a royal decree, expressed his wish for a wider use of Jawi on road signs, business premises, office signs, government agencies and all state education offices in the state. Among the earliest response to the royal decree was by Kuantan Municipal Council that announced enforcement by 2019. English remains an active second language, with its use allowed for some official purposes under the National Language Act of 1967. The Malay language spoken in Pahang can be further divided into several varieties of Malay dialects. Pahang Malay is the most dominant Malay dialect spoken along the vast riverine systems of Pahang, but it co-exists with other Malay dialects traditionally spoken in the state. Along the coastline of Pahang, Terengganu Malay is spoken in a narrow strip of sometimes discontiguous fishermen villages and towns. Another dialect spoken in Tioman Island is a distinct Malay variant and most closely related to Riau Archipelago Malay subdialect spoken in Natuna and Anambas islands in the South China Sea, together forming a dialect continuum between the Bornean Malay with the Mainland Peninsular/Sumatran Malay. Kelantan Malay, Kelantanese and Kedah Malay, Kedahan, along with other Malay dialects are also spoken by immigrants from other Malaysian states. Pahang is also home to majority of Orang Asli languages, mostly belong to Aslian languages, Aslian branch of Austroasiatic languages, Austroasiatic such as Semai language, Semai, Batek language, Batek, Semoq Beri language, Semoq Beri, Jah Hut language, Jah Hut, Temoq language, Temoq, Che' Wong language, Che Wong, Semelai language, Semelai (although recognised as "
Proto-Malay The term Proto-Malay, which translates to ''Melayu Asli'' (aboriginal Malay) or ''Melayu Purba'' (ancient Malay) or ''Melayu Tua'' (old Malay), refers to Austronesian Austronesian may refer to: *The Austronesian languages *The historical Austro ...
"), Temiar language, Temiar and Mendriq language, Mendriq. Besides Austroasiatic, Proto-Malay languages that is a branch of Austronesian languages, Austronesian are also spoken, mostly Temuan language, Temuan and Jakun language, Jakun. Malaysian Chinese predominantly speak Chinese dialects from the southern provinces of China. The more common varieties of Chinese, Chinese varieties in the country are Mandarin Chinese, Mandarin, Hokkien, Hakka Chinese, Hakka, Cantonese, Hainanese and Fuzhou dialect, Fuzhou. Tamil language, Tamil is used predominantly by Tamils, who form a majority of Malaysian Indians.


Culture

As a less ethnically diverse state, the traditional culture of Pahang is largely predominated by the Bumiputera (Malaysia), indigenous culture, of both Malays and Orang Asli. Both cultures trace their origin from the early settlers in the state that consist primarily from both various Malayic languages, Malayic speaking Austronesian peoples, Austronesians and Mon-Khmer speaking Austroasiatic languages, Austroasiatic tribes. Around the opening of the common era, Mahayana Buddhism was introduced to the region, where it flourished with the establishment of a Old Pahang Kingdom, Buddhist state from the 5th century. Malayic cultures flourished during
Srivijaya Srivijaya (, ; , ) was a Malay Malay may refer to: Languages * Malay language or Bahasa Melayu, a major Austronesian language spoken in Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei and Singapore ** History of the Malay language#Old Malay, the Malay langu ...
n era, and Malayisation intensified after Pahang was established as a Pahang Sultanate, Malay-Muslim Sultanate in 1470. The development of many Malay-dominated centres in the state, drew some of the natives to embrace Malayness by converting to Islam, emulating the Malay speech and their dress. Pahang Malays share similar cultural traits with other sub-groups of Malay people native to the Malay peninsula. They are in particular closely affiliated to peoples of the east coast of the peninsula like Thai Malays, Terengganuan Malay people, Terengganuan Malays and Kelantanese Malay people, Kelantanese Malays. Unlike the relatively homogenous Malay culture, the cultural features Orang Asli are represented by significantly diverse tribal identities. Prior to the 1960, the various indigenous groups did not consciously adopt a common ethnic marker to differentiate themselves from the Malays. The label 'Orang Asli' itself was historically came from the British. Each tribe has its own language and culture, and perceives itself as different from the others. This micro identity was largely derived spatially, from geographical area they traditionally settled. Their cultural distinctiveness was relative only to other Orang Asli communities, and these perceived differences were great enough for each group to regard itself as unique from the other. In 1971, the government created a "National Cultural Policy", defining Malaysian culture. It stated that Malaysian culture must be based on the culture of the indigenous peoples of Malaysia, that it may incorporate suitable elements from other cultures, and that Islam must play a part in it. It also promoted the Malay language above others. This government intervention into culture has caused resentment among immigrant communities who feel their cultural freedom was lessened. Both Chinese and Indian associations have submitted memorandums to the government, accusing it of formulating an undemocratic culture policy.


Arts

Traditional visual arts was mainly centred on the areas of carving, weaving, and silversmithing, and ranges from handwoven baskets from rural areas to the silverwork of the Malay courts. The Malays had traditionally adorned their monuments, boats, weapons, tombs, musical instrument, and utensils by motives of flora, calligraphy, geometry and cosmic feature. Common artworks included ornamental kris, beetle nut sets, and woven batik and songket fabrics. The Malay handloom industry traced its origin since the 13th century when the eastern trade route flourished under Song dynasty. By the 16th century, the silk weaving industry in Pahang had perfected a style called ''Tenun Pahang Diraja, Tenun Pahang'', a special clothing fabric used in the special traditional Malay costumes and attires of Pahang rulers and palace officials. In addition to silk weaving, Batik weaving has been part of the small cottage industry in the state. Although not as popular, Pahang batik has, nevertheless, thrived as a small industry in the periphery of the fame of the Terengganu and Kelantan batik. Over the centuries, a distinctive style of Baju Kurung was developed in Pahang, commonly known as Baju Kurung Pahang or Baju Riau-Pahang, or sometimes called ''Baju Turki''. This is a long gown styled dress, cut at the front with 7 or more buttons and worn with a sarong. Traditional Malay music is based around percussion instruments, the most important of which is the gendang (drum). There are at least 14 types of traditional drums. Drums and other traditional percussion instruments and are often made from natural materials. Pahang traditional music may be classified as a type of old oral literature in poetic forms, which exist in several different genres. The most notable one is a set of 36 songs in ''Indung'' dance. Another significant genre is a set of healing songs in ''Saba'' dance commonly performed using shamanistic charms There are other genres exist, among others are songs from traditional dances of ''Mayang, ''Limbung'' and ''Lukah'', songs from ''Dikir Rebana'', ''Berdah'', ''Main Puteri'' and ''Ugam'' performances, as well as ''Lagu dodoi'' (lullabies), ''Lagu bercerita'' (story telling songs) and ''Lagu Permainan'' (children game songs). Other popular Pahang folk songs included; ''Walinung Sari'', ''Burung Kenek-Kenek'', ''Pak Sang Bagok'', ''Lagu Zikir'', ''Lagu Orang Muda'', ''Pak Sendayung'', ''Anak Ayam Turun Sepuluh'', ''Cung-Cung Nai'', ''Awang Belanga'', ''Kek Nong'' or ''Dayang Kek Nong'', ''Camang Di Laut'', ''Datuk Kemenyan Tunggal'', ''Berlagu Ayam'', ''Walida Sari'', ''Raja Donan'', ''Raja Muda'', ''Syair Tua'', ''Anak Dagang'', ''Puteri Bongsu'', ''Raja Putera'', ''Puteri Mayang Mengurai'', ''Puteri Tujuh'', ''Pujuk Lebah'', ''Ketuk Kabung'' (''Buai Kangkong'') and ''Tebang Tebu''. Forms of ritual theatre amongst the Pahang Malays include the ''Main Puteri'', ''Saba'' and many forms of ''Ugam'' performances. There are ''Ugam Mayang'', ''Ugam Lukah'', ''Ugam Kukur'' and ''Ugam Serkap'', all of which involve trance and serve as agents of healing by a Bomoh. ''Ugam Mayang'' is also popularly known in Terengganu and the rest of Malaysia as ''Ulek Mayang''. One of the most popular dance theatre is Mak Yong, which is also performed in Kelantan and Terengganu. Popular dance forms also include ''Joget Pahang''( a local style of ''Joget''), ''Zapin Pekan'' and ''Zapin Raub'' (local styles of ''Zapin''), and ''Dikir Pahang'' or ''Dikir Rebana'' (a modified and secularised form of dhikr or religious chanting, also performed in Kelantan as Dikir barat). ''Dikir Rebana'' which is further divided into ''Dikir Maulud'' and ''Dikir Berdah'', has many songs played by a group of 5 to 7 people and was historically performed in the royal court. Pahang performing arts also include some native dance forms like ''Limbung'', ''Labi-labi (dance), Labi-Labi'', ''Pelanduk'' and ''Indung''. A distinct form of ''gamelan'' adopted from the Javanese culture during the time of
Johor Empire The Johor Sultanate ( ms, Kesultanan Johor or ; also called the Sultanate of Johor, Johor-Riau, Johor-Riau-Lingga, or the Johor Empire) was founded by Malaccan Sultan Mahmud Shah's son, Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah II in 1528. Johor was part ...
, known as Malay Gamelan or ''Gamelan Pahang'', forms the main musical ensemble heritage in the state and patronised by royal court of Pahang since the 19th century. Pahang has a strong oral tradition that has existed since before the arrival of writing, and continues today. Prominent Malay folklore of Pahang origin, includes such bardic tales as the legends of Walinong Sari, Putri Walinong Sari, Sang Kelembai, ''Seri Gumum Dragon, Seri Gumum'' of Chini Lake, and the white crocodile ''Seri Pahang'' of Pahang River. In addition to oral literature, the literary tradition in Pahang traced back to the time of the old
Pahang Sultanate The Pahang Sultanate ( Malay: ''Kesultanan Pahang'', Jawi: كسلطانن ڤهڠ ) also referred as the Old Pahang Sultanate, as opposed to the Modern Pahang Sultanate, was a Malay Muslim state established in the eastern Malay peninsular i ...
. Contribution into the rich Classical Malay literature is attested in the form of legal literature like ''Hukum Kanun Pahang'' and historical literature like ''Hikayat Pahang''.


Cuisine

Traditional Pahang cuisine features a lot of seafood, similar to the traditional cuisine of other states. From its rivers and lakes come the fresh water fish such as the ''patin'' (silver catfish). Certain dishes are shared with other Malay groups, like ''Singgang'', ''Tembosa'', ''Sata (food), Satak'' and ''Lempeng Nyiur'' which also commonly found in Kelantan and Terengganu. While some other regional dishes are prepared in Pahang style like ''Ikan Bakar, Ikan Bakar Petai'' and ''Laksa, Laksa Pahang''. There are also popular foreign dishes prepared with the distinctly Pahang style like ''Murtabak, Murtabak Mengkasar'' and ''Puding Diraja'' ('Royal Pudding'), both can be found in Pahang's royal capital,
Pekan Pekan Town is a town in Pekan District The Pekan District is a district in Pahang Pahang (; ms, ڤهڠ, label=JawiJawi may refer to: People and languages *Australia: **Jawi dialect, a nearly extinct Australian aboriginal language * ...
. The staple food in a Pahang culinary tradition is rice, which is also common in any other Asian cultures. Rice is commonly served with ''gulai'' or ''singgang'', ''Ulam (salad), ulam'' and ''sambal'' condiments. Popular ''sambals'' are ''sambal hitam'', ''sambal tempoyak'' and ''sambal belacan''. One of the most famous ''gulai'' in Pahang that has been established as the signature dish of the state, is ''Gulai Tempoyak Patin''. The dish consists of juicy, tender patin fish cooked in curry made of ''tempoyak'' (fermented durian). Other notable Pahang ''gulai'' are ''Gulai Patin Asam Rebus'' (a dish similar to the ''Gulai Tempoyak Patin'' but the watery soup or gravy, tastes a little sour and spicy) and ''Gulai '':ms:Asam Rong, Asam Rong'' (a sour and slightly bitter taste gulai made of processed rubber tree fruits). Other popular Pahang dishes are ''Nasi Kebuli'', ''Opor Daging'' and ''Paceri Nenas''.


Holidays and festivals

Pahangites observe a number of holidays and festivities throughout the year. Some are federally gazetted public holidays and some are observed by exclusively within the state. Other festivals are observed by particular ethnic or religion groups, and the main holiday of each major group has been declared a public holiday. Hari Hol Pahang is a public holiday commemorating the death date of the former Sultan Abu Bakar. The holiday is observed every 7 May. The Sultan of Pahang's Birthday is celebrated as a public holiday on 24 October. Other most observed national holiday is ''Hari Merdeka'' (Independence Day) on 31 August, commemorating the independence of the
Federation of Malaya The Federation of Malaya ( ms, Persekutuan Tanah Melayu; JawiJawi may refer to: People and languages *Australia: **Jawi dialect, a nearly extinct Australian aboriginal language **Jawi people, an Australian Aboriginal people of the Kimberley ...
in 1957. Malaysia Day on 16 September commemorates federation in 1963. Other notable national holidays are Labour Day (1 May) and the King's birthday (first week of June). Muslim holidays are prominent as Islam is the state religion; ''Hari Raya Puasa'' (also called ''Hari Raya Aidilfitri'', Malay for Eid al-Fitr), ''Hari Raya Haji'' (also called ''Hari Raya Aidiladha'', Malay for Eid ul-Adha), ''Mawlid, Maulidur Rasul'' (birthday of the Prophet), and Nuzul Al-Quran. Malaysian Chinese, Chinese celebrate festivals such as Chinese New Year and others relating to traditional Chinese beliefs. Majority of the Chinese who are also Buddhist, celebrate Wesak, Wesak Day. Hindus in Pahang celebrate ''Deepavali'', the festival of lights, while ''Thaipusam'', although an important federal public holiday, is not gazetted as state public holiday. Pahang's Christian community celebrates most of the holidays observed by Christians elsewhere, most notably Christmas and Easter. Despite most festivals being identified with a particular ethnic or religious group, celebrations are universal. In a custom known as "open house" all Malaysians participate in the celebrations of others, often visiting the houses of those who identify with the festival.


Sports

Sports in Pahang is administered through the State Youth and Sports Committee, chaired by a member of Pahang State Executive Council, State Executive Council. The Youth and Sports Department of Pahang is a state branch of the National Department of Youth and Sports, a department under Ministry of Youth and Sports (Malaysia), Ministry of Youth and Sports. To produce more athletes and to improve and raise the standard of sports in the state, the Pahang State Sports Council was established in 1984. Polo is exclusively patronised by the state Bendahara dynasty, Royal Family in addition to association football. Founded in 1926, the Royal Pahang Polo Club is the country's one of the oldest Polo club. In the 1990s, the club started the Royal Pahang Classic, an annual high goal tournament that brought the best players in the world to play at Pekan, Pahang. The three most popular sports at national level are association football, badminton and field hockey. Sultan Ahmad Shah of Pahang, Ahmad Shah and his son Tengku Abdullah are the well-known figures of the Football Association of Malaysia, having headed the governing body of association football for more than three decades. Tengku Abdullah who was president of Malaysian Hockey Confederation from 2008 to 2015, is also a member of FIFA Council and president of Asian Hockey Federation. Within Malaysia, Pahang was the host of the sixth edition of SUKMA Games in 1996 and the fifteenth edition in 2011–2012 Sukma Games, 2012. The state also has its representatives in national camp that compete at various international sporting events. The state is served by 6 main sports complexes, managed by the Youth and Sports Department, two multi-purpose stadium and a Soccer-specific stadium, football stadium. Darul Makmur Stadium in Kuantan is the main stadium for Pahang FA that compete in Malaysia Super League, Kuantan FA that compete in Malaysia Premier League, and Shahzan Muda F.C. that compete in Malaysia FAM League. Tun Abdul Razak Stadium located in Maran District is the home stadium for Felda United F.C., another major team in Malaysia Super League. Temerloh Mini Stadium is the secondary home ground for Pahang FA and Shahzan Muda. Traditional sports include Silat Melayu, the most common style of martial arts also practised in other states of Malaysia, Brunei, and Singapore. Silat Melayu practised in Pahang are diverse, with vast differences in training tools, methods and philosophy across different schools and styles. The Silat Melayu of Pahang may generally be divided into two major groups. Styles like Lincah, Gayong and Cekak which are widely practised at national level in Malaysia, coexist with eclectic local Pahang styles like Silat Terlak, Silat Lian, Silat Tari Pulut, Silat Melayu Lok Keris 9, Silat Sendeng 2 Beradik, Silat Tongkat Panding Juan, Silat Laksamana, Silat Sutan Muaakad, Silat Pedang, Silat Setimbun Tulang, Silat Carik Kapor and Silat Sangkar Maut. Pahang long coastline and vast riverine systems are perfect for a wide range of water sports and activities. Rafting, Sailing (sport), sailing, jet skiing, scuba diving and surfing are among popular water sports. The surf season normally begins from October–November to February–March, during which the beaches on the East Coast becomes a no-entry danger zone during the monsoon season due to strong winds and ferocious waves. In Pahang, Cherating beach is by far one of the most popular places to surf in Malaysia.


Tourism

Tourism makes up one of the largest sectors of the Pahang state economy, contributing approximately 26% of the overall state economy. In 2016, the state hosted a total 12.8 million visitors with revenues worth more than RM7 billion. 2.9 million from this figure were foreign tourists mainly from Singapore, China, and Indonesia, with
Genting Highlands Genting Highlands is a hill station A hill station is a town located at a higher elevation The elevation of a geographic Geography (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of scienc ...

Genting Highlands
and
Kuantan Kuantan (JawiJawi may refer to: People and languages *Australia: **Jawi dialect, a nearly extinct Australian aboriginal language **Jawi people, an Australian Aboriginal people of the Kimberley coast of Western Australia, who speak or spoke th ...

Kuantan
, remain the top destinations. Domestic tourists make up the remaining 9.9 million. The top five most visited places by Malaysians in Pahang were Cameron Highlands, Genting Highlands, Teluk Cempedak, Gambang Water Park and Cherating. Of the hotels rated by the Ministry of Tourism and Culture, Pahang has the third highest proportion of luxury hotels after Kuala Lumpur and
Sabah Sabah () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Co ...

Sabah
. Pahang also recorded the highest occupancy rates at 81.1%, with Kuala Lumpur and Selangor recorded the second and third highest occupancy rates at 69.7% and 68.2%, respectively. First World Hotel located in Genting Highlands that houses 7,351 rooms, is currently the List of largest hotels, largest hotel in the world. Pahang implements national tourism development policies at state level, in addition to coastal zone development plan which includes consideration of tourism. Blessed with richness in biodiversity, Pahang offers ecotourism in all its forms. From highlands and rainforests to islands and beaches, it showcases the best of such attractions in the world. Conventional tourism along the coast occurs mainly on the coastline north of Kuantan, where there are famous beach towns like Cherating, Batu Hitam and Beserah. Tioman Island is Pahang's prime island resource. The waters round the entire island and Seri Buat Island groups, totalling nine islands, are gazetted marine parks. Peninsular Malaysia's highest peak,
Mount Tahan Mount Tahan ( ms, Gunung Tahan), at 2,187 m, is the highest point in Peninsular Malaysia. It is located within the Taman Negara national forest, in the state of Pahang. The mountain is part of the Tahan Range in the Tenasserim Hills and is p ...
, can be accessed via Pahang. Pahang also contains three of Peninsular Malaysia's major hill stations, at Cameron Highlands, Fraser's Hill and
Genting Highlands Genting Highlands is a hill station A hill station is a town located at a higher elevation The elevation of a geographic Geography (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of scienc ...

Genting Highlands
. Each has been developed on a different concept. Cameron Highlands is famous for its sprawling tea plantations, butterflies, strawberries and honey bee farms. Fraser's Hill is one of Malaysia's few pristine forests, with a high level of biodiversity. It is one of Malaysia's premier locations for bird-watching. While Genting Highlands is famous for its cool & breezy weather with indoor & outdoor theme park, state of the art entertainment centre, five-star hotels and home of the only casino in Malaysia.
Taman Negara Taman Negara is a national park in Peninsular Malaysia. It was established in 1938/1939 as the George V, King George V National Park after Theodore Hubback lobbied the sultans of Pahang, Terengganu and Kelantan to set aside a piece of land that c ...

Taman Negara
is the most frequented lowland forest reserve. It boasts as one of the oldest rainforests in the world, estimated at 130 million years old. Kenong Rimba Park near
Kuala Lipis Kuala Lipis ( ms, كوالا ليڤيس, label=Jawi alphabet, Jawi, script=arab, italic=unset) is a mukim and capital of Lipis District, Pahang, Malaysia with a population of 20,000. History Kuala Lipis was a gold-mining centre before the British ...
is another forest reserve retained as an alternative support to Taman Negara. Another notable forest reserve, the Endau-Rompin National Park is being aggressively promoted by Pahang State Government as the other important ecotourism site. Located within Pahang's large lowland forest is Krau Wildlife Reserve that contains Seladang breeding station at Jenderak as well as Elephant conservation centre at Kuala Gandah Elephant Conservation Centre, Kuala Gandah. The Pahang River is another tourism asset. The upper reaches of some of its tributaries is suitable for water sports like canoeing and whitewater rafting. Many waterfalls are accessible to the public especially in recreational forests. Famous waterfalls include Sungai Pandan Waterfall and Berkelah Falls. Bera Lake and Chini Lake are important and rare examples of natural lakes in Malaysia. File:Salang, Tioman - panoramio.jpg, Salang Bay, Tioman Island File:Colmar Tropicale Berjaya Hills.jpg, Colmar Tropicale, Bukit Tinggi File:Air Terjun Sungai Pandan.jpg, Sungai Pandan Waterfall File:Genting 01.jpg,
Genting Highlands Genting Highlands is a hill station A hill station is a town located at a higher elevation The elevation of a geographic Geography (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of scienc ...

Genting Highlands


References


Bibliography

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *


Further reading

* Borschberg, Peter
"The Singapore and Melaka Straits: Violence, Security and Diplomacy in the Seventeenth Century"
Singapore: NUS Press, 2010. . * Borschberg, Peter, ed.

Singapore: NUS Press, 2013. . * Borschberg, Peter, "The value of Matelieff's writings for the study of Southeast Asia, c.1600-1620," ''Journal of Southeast Asian Studies'' 48, 3 (2017): 414–435. * Erédia, M. Godinho de, "Malaca, l’Inde Méridionale e le Cathay: Manuscrit original autographe de Godinho de Eredia appartenant à la Bibliothèque Royale de Bruxelles", tr. M.L. Janssen (Bruxelles: Librairie Européenne C. Muquardt, 1882). * Erédia, M. Godinho de, "Informação da Aurea Quersoneso, ou Península, e das Ilhas Auríferas, Carbúculas e Aromáticas", ed. by R.M. Loureiro (Macau: Centro Científico e Cultural de Macau, 2008). * Linehan, W., "History of Pahang", Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 14.2 (1936): 1–256. (This title is available in various MBRAS reprints). * Milner, A.C., "The Invention of Politics in Colonial Malaya: Contesting Nationalism and the Expansion of Public Space", Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995. * Milner, A.C., "Kerajaan: Malay Political Culture on the Eve of Colonial Rule", Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1982. * Rouffaer, G.P., "Was Malaka Emporium vóór 1400 A.D. genaamd Malajoer? En waar lag Woerawari, Ma-Hasin, Langka, Batoesawar?", Bijdragen van het Koninklijke Instituut vor Taal-, Letter- en Volkenkunde, 77 (1921): 1-174 and 359–604. * Schlegel, G., "Geographical Notes VIII: Pa-hoang, Pang-k’ang, Pang-hang, Pahang or Panggang", T'Oung Pao, 10 (1899): 39–46.


External links

*
Pahang
at Pahang Tourism
Pahang
at Lonely Planet {{Authority control Pahang, States of Malaysia