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Oracle Corporation is an American
multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, a sovereign state that comprises two or more nat ...
computer technology corporation headquartered in
Austin, Texas Austin (, ) is the capital city of the U.S. state of Texas, as well as the county seat, seat and largest city of Travis County, Texas, Travis County, with portions extending into Hays County, Texas, Hays and Williamson County, Texas, Willia ...

Austin, Texas
. The company was headquartered in
Redwood Shores, California Redwood Shores is a waterfront community in Redwood City, California Redwood City is a city on the San Francisco Peninsula in Northern California's San Francisco Bay Area, Bay Area, approximately south of San Francisco, and northwest of San Jos ...

Redwood Shores, California
, until December 2020.) In 2020, Oracle was the second-largest software company in the world by revenue and market capitalization. The company sells
database software and technology
database software and technology
(particularly its own brands),
cloud engineered systems
cloud engineered systems
, and
enterprise softwareEnterprise software, also known as enterprise application software (EAS), is computer software Software is a collection of Instruction (computer science), instructions and data (computing), data that tell a computer how to work. This is in contr ...
products, such as
enterprise resource planning Enterprise resource planning (ERP) is the integrated management of main business processes, often in real time and mediated by software and technology. ERP is usually referred to as a category of business management software—typically a sui ...
(ERP) software,
human capital management Human resource management (HRM or HR) is the strategic approach to the effective and efficient management of people in a company or organization such that they help their business gain a competitive advantage. It is designed to maximize employee per ...
(HCM) software,
customer relationship management Customer relationship management (CRM) is a process in which a business or other organization administers its interactions with customers, typically using data analysis to study large amounts of information. CRM systems compile data from a range ...
(CRM) software (also known as
customer experience Customer experience (CX) is a totality of cognitive Cognition () refers to "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses". It encompasses many aspects of intellectual functio ...

customer experience
),
enterprise performance management Enterprise performance management (EPM) is a field of business performance management which considers the visibility of operations in a closed-loop model across all facets of the enterprise. Specific to financial activities in the office of the chi ...
(EPM) software, and
supply chain management File:Supply and demand-stacked4.png , 400px, In an efficient supply chain agreements are aligned In commerce, supply chain management (SCM), the management of the flow of good (economics), goods and Service (economics), services, between busi ...
(SCM) software.


History

Larry Ellison Lawrence Joseph Ellison (born August 17, 1944) is an American business magnate, investor who is a co-founder, the executive chairman and chief technology officer (CTO) of Oracle Corporation Oracle Corporation is an American Multinational ...
co-founded Oracle Corporation in 1977 with
Bob Miner Robert Nimrod Miner (December 23, 1941 – November 11, 1994) was an American businessman. He was the co-founder of Oracle Corporation Oracle Corporation is an American Multinational corporation, multinational computer Technology company, tec ...
and
Ed Oates Edward A. Oates (born 1946) is an American businessman. He co-founded Software Development Labs in August 1977 with Larry Ellison, and Bob Miner. Software Development Labs later became Oracle Corporation Oracle Corporation is an American M ...
under the name Software Development Laboratories (SDL). Ellison took inspiration from the 1970 paper written by
Edgar F. Codd Edgar Frank "Ted" Codd (19 August 1923 – 18 April 2003) was an English computer scientist who, while working for IBM, invented the relational model for database A database is an organized collection of data Data are units of informat ...
on relational database management systems (
RDBMS A relational database is a digital database In , a database is an organized collection of stored and accessed electronically from a . Where databases are more complex they are often developed using formal techniques. The (DBMS) is the tha ...
) named "A Relational Model of Data for Large Shared Data Banks." He heard about the IBM System R database from an article in the ''IBM Research Journal'' provided by Oates. Ellison wanted to make Oracle's product compatible with System R, but failed to do so as IBM kept the error codes for their DBMS a secret. SDL changed its name to Relational Software, Inc (RSI) in 1979, then again to Oracle Systems Corporation in 1983, to align itself more closely with its flagship product
Oracle Database Oracle Database (commonly referred to as Oracle DBMS or simply as Oracle) is a multi-model database management system produced and marketed by Oracle Corporation Oracle Corporation is an American Multinational corporation, multinational co ...
. The name also drew from the 1977 CIA project codename, which was also Oracle's first customer. At this stage Bob Miner served as the company's senior programmer. On March 12, 1986, the company had its
initial public offering An initial public offering (IPO) or stock launch is a in which shares of a company are sold to s and usually also retail (individual) investors. An IPO is typically by one or more , who also arrange for the shares to be listed on one or more s ...
. In 1995, Oracle Systems Corporation changed its name to Oracle Corporation, officially named Oracle, but is sometimes referred to as Oracle Corporation, the name of the holding company. Part of Oracle Corporation's early success arose from using the
C programming language C (, as in the letter ''c'') is a general-purpose, procedural computer programming language A programming language is a formal language comprising a Instruction set architecture, set of instructions that produce various kinds of Input/outp ...
to implement its products. This eased porting to different
operating systems An operating system (OS) is system software System software is software designed to provide a platform for other software. Examples of system software include operating systems like macOS macOS (; previously Mac OS X and later ...
most of which support C. In 2005 Oracle acquired PeopleSoft, an ERP company, and in 2006 Siebel, a CRM company. In 2008 Oracle acquired BEA Systems an enterprise infrastructure software company and in 2010 Sun Microsystems, an Information Technology company. In December, 2021 Oracle announced the acquisition of
Cerner Cerner Corporation is an American supplier of health information technology Health information technology (HIT) is health technology, particularly information technology, applied to health and health care. It supports health information managem ...
, a
health information technology Health information technology (HIT) is health technology, particularly information technology, applied to health and health care. It supports health information management across computerized systems and the health information exchange, secure exc ...
company. The next day, on December 21st, Oracle made public the acquisition o
Federos
an AI and automation tools company for network performance.


Finances

Oracle ranked No. 82 in the 2018
Fortune 500 The ''Fortune'' 500 is an annual list compiled and published by ''Fortune Fortune may refer to: General * Fortuna or Fortune, the Roman goddess of luck * Luck, a chance happening, or that which happens beyond a person's controls * Wealth, an ab ...
list of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. According to Bloomberg, Oracle's CEO-to-employee pay ratio is 1,205:1. The CEO's compensation in 2017 was $108,295,023. Oracle is one of the approved employers of ACCA and the median employee compensation rate was $89,887.


Carbon footprint

Oracle reported total
carbon dioxide equivalent Global warming potential (GWP) is the heat absorbed by any greenhouse gas A greenhouse gas (sometimes abbreviated GHG) is a gas that Absorption (electromagnetic radiation), absorbs and Emission (electromagnetic radiation), emits radiant energ ...
(CO2e) emissions (direct + indirect) for the twelve months ending December 31, 2020 at 428 kilotonnes (+63/+17% year over year) and plans to reduce emissions 26% by 2025 from a 2015 base year.


Products and services

Oracle designs, manufactures, and sells both software and hardware products and offers services that complement them (such as financing, training, consulting, and hosting services). Many of the products have been added to Oracle's portfolio through
acquisitions In corporate finance, mergers and acquisitions (M&A) are transactions in which the ownership of Company, companies, other business organizations, or their operating units are transferred or Consolidation (business), consolidated with other entit ...
.


Software

Oracle's E-delivery service (Oracle Software Delivery Cloud) provides generic downloadable Oracle software and documentation.


Databases

*
Oracle Database Oracle Database (commonly referred to as Oracle DBMS or simply as Oracle) is a multi-model database management system produced and marketed by Oracle Corporation Oracle Corporation is an American Multinational corporation, multinational co ...
** Release 10: In 2004, Oracle Corporation shipped release 10''g'' (''g'' standing for "grid") as the then latest version of
Oracle Database Oracle Database (commonly referred to as Oracle DBMS or simply as Oracle) is a multi-model database management system produced and marketed by Oracle Corporation Oracle Corporation is an American Multinational corporation, multinational co ...
. (
Oracle Application Server The Oracle Application Server 10g (the "g" stands for '' grid'') (short Oracle AS), consists of an integrated, standards-based software platform A computing platform or digital platform is the environment in which a piece of software Software ...
10''g'' using
Java EE Jakarta EE, formerly Java Platform, Enterprise Edition (Java EE) and Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition (J2EE), is a set of specifications, extending Java SE Java Platform, Standard Edition (Java SE) is a computing platform A computing platfo ...
integrated with the server part of that version of the database, making it possible to deploy
web Web most often refers to: * Spider web A spider web, spiderweb, spider's web, or cobweb (from the archaic word '' coppe'', meaning "spider") is a structure created by a spider Spiders ( order Araneae) are air-breathing arthropod An ar ...
-technology applications. The application server was the first middle-tier software designed for
grid computing Grid computing is the use of widely distributed computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to Execution (computing), carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic s ...
. The interrelationship between
Oracle An oracle is a person or agency Agency may refer to: * a governmental or other institution Institutions, according to Samuel P. Huntington, are "stable, valued, recurring patterns of behavior". Institutions can refer to mechanisms which go ...
10''g'' and
Java Java ( id, Jawa, ; jv, ꦗꦮ; su, ) is one of the Greater Sunda Islands in Indonesia. It is bordered by the Indian Ocean to the south and the Java Sea to the north. With a population of 147.7 million people, Java is the world's List of ...
allowed developers to set up
stored procedure A stored procedure (also termed proc, storp, sproc, StoPro, StoredProc, StoreProc, sp, or SP) is a subroutine available to applications that access a relational database management system (RDBMS). Such procedures are stored in the database data d ...
s written in the Java language, as well as, those written in the traditional Oracle database programming language,
PL/SQL PL/SQL (Procedural Language for SQL) is Oracle Corporation Oracle Corporation is an American Multinational corporation, multinational computer Technology company, technology corporation headquartered in Austin, Texas. The company was formerly ...
.) ** Release 11: Release 11g became available in 2007. Oracle Corporation released Oracle Database 11g Release 2 in September 2009. This version was available in four commercial editions—Enterprise Edition, Standard Edition, Standard Edition One, and Personal Edition—and in one free edition—the Express Edition. The licensing of these editions shows various restrictions and obligations that were called complex by licensing expert Freirich Florea. The Enterprise Edition (DB EE), the most expensive of the Database Editions, has the fewest restrictions—but nevertheless has complex licensing. Oracle Corporation constrains the Standard Edition (DB SE) and Standard Edition One (SE1) with more licensing restrictions, in accordance with their lower price. ** Release 12: Release 12''c'' (''c'' standing for "cloud") became available on July 1, 2013. Oracle Corporation has acquired and developed the following additional database technologies: *
Berkeley DB Berkeley DB (BDB) is a software Software is a collection of instructions that tell a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers c ...
, which offers
embedded database An embedded database system is a database management system In computing, a database is an organized collection of Data (computing), data stored and accessed electronically from a computer system. Where databases are more complex they are oft ...
processing *
Oracle Rdb Oracle Rdb is a relational database management system A relational database is a digital database based on the relational model of data, as proposed by E. F. Codd in 1970. A system used to maintain relational databases is a relational database ma ...
, a relational database system running on
OpenVMS OpenVMS, often referred to as just VMS, is a multi-user Multi-user software is software, computer software that allows access by multiple User (computing), users of a computer. Time-sharing systems are multi-user systems. Most batch processing s ...
platforms. Oracle acquired Rdb in 1994 from
Digital Equipment Corporation Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC ), using the trademark A trademark (also written trade mark or trade-mark) is a type of intellectual property Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property Property is a system of rights ...
. Oracle has since made many enhancements to this product and development continues . * TimesTen, which features in-memory database operations * Oracle Essbase, which continues the Hyperion Essbase tradition of multi-dimensional database management *
MySQL MySQL () is an open-source Open source is source code that is made freely available for possible modification and redistribution. Products include permission to use the source code, design documents, or content of the product. The open-source m ...
, a relational database management system licensed under the
GNU General Public License The GNU General Public License (GNU GPL or simply GPL) is a series of widely used free software license A free-software license is a notice that grants the recipient of a piece of software extensive rights to modify and software distribu ...
, initially developed by
MySQL AB MySQL AB was a Swedish software company founded in 1995. It was acquired by Sun Microsystems Sun Microsystems, Inc. (Sun for short) is a defunct American company that sold computers, computer components, software, and information technology ...
* Oracle NoSQL Database, a scalable, distributed key-value
NoSQL A NoSQL (originally referring to "non-SQL SQL ( ''S-Q-L'', "sequel"; Structured Query Language) is a domain-specific language used in programming and designed for managing data held in a relational database management system (RDBMS), or fo ...
database


Middleware

Oracle Fusion Middleware is a family of
middleware Middleware is a type of computer software Software is a collection of instructions that tell a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern com ...

middleware
software products, including (for instance)
application server An application server is a server that hosts applications. Application server frameworks are software framework In computer programming, a software framework is an abstraction (computer science), abstraction in which software providing generic fu ...
,
system integration System integration is defined in engineering Engineering is the use of scientific method, scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The disc ...
,
business process management Business process management (BPM) is the discipline in which people use various methods to discover, model In general, a model is an informative representation of an object, person or system. The term originally denoted the plans of a building ...
(BPM), user interaction,
content management Content management (CM) is a set of processes and technologies that supports the collection, managing, and publishing of information in any form or medium. When stored and accessed via computers, this information may be more specifically referred to ...
,
identity management Identity management (IdM), also known as identity and access management (IAM or IdAM), is a framework of policies and technologies to ensure that the right users (in an enterprise) have the appropriate access to technology resources. IdM systems f ...
and
business intelligence Business intelligence (BI) comprises the strategies and technologies used by enterprises for the data analysis Data analysis is a process of inspecting, cleansing, transforming, and modelling In general, a model is an informative representat ...
(BI) products.


=Oracle Secure Enterprise Search

= Oracle Secure Enterprise Search (SES), Oracle's enterprise-search offering, gives users the ability to search for content across multiple locations, including websites,
XML Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language #REDIRECT Markup language In computer text processing, a markup language is a system for annotation, annotating a document in a way that is Syntax (logic), syntactically distinguishable fro ...

XML
files, file servers,
content management systems A content management system (CMS)''Managing Enterprise Content: A Unified Content Strategy''. Ann Rockley, Pamela Kostur, Steve Manning. New Riders, 2003. is a computer software used to manage the creation and modification of digital content. CMSs ...
, enterprise resource planning systems,
customer relationship management Customer relationship management (CRM) is a process in which a business or other organization administers its interactions with customers, typically using data analysis to study large amounts of information. CRM systems compile data from a range ...
systems,
business intelligence Business intelligence (BI) comprises the strategies and technologies used by enterprises for the data analysis Data analysis is a process of inspecting, cleansing, transforming, and modelling In general, a model is an informative representat ...
systems, and databases.


=Oracle Beehive

= Released in 2008, the
Oracle Beehive Oracle Beehive is collaboration platform software developed by Oracle Corporation that combines email, team collaboration, instant messaging, and conferencing in a single solution. It can be deployed on-premises as licensed software or subscribed to ...
collaboration software Collaborative software or groupware is application software designed to help people working on a common task to attain their goals. One of the earliest definitions of groupware is "intentional group processes plus software to support them". As reg ...
provides
team A team is a group of individuals (human or non-human) working together to achieve their goal A goal is an idea In common usage and in philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as ...

team
workspaces (including
wiki A wiki ( ) is a hypertext Hypertext is text displayed on a or other with references () to other text that the reader can immediately access. Hypertext documents are interconnected by hyperlinks, which are typically activated b ...

wiki
s, team calendaring and file sharing), email, calendar, instant messaging, and conferencing on a single platform. Customers can use Beehive as licensed software or as
software as a service Software as a service (SaaS ) is a software licensing A software license is a legal instrument (usually by way of contract law A contract is a legally binding agreement that defines and governs the rights and duties between or among its P ...
("SaaS").


Applications

Following a number of acquisitions beginning in 2003, especially in the area of applications, Oracle Corporation maintains a number of product lines: *
Oracle E-Business SuiteOracle Applications comprise the applications software or business software of the Oracle Corporation. The term refers to the non-database and non-middleware parts. Oracle sells many functional modules which use the Oracle Relational Database Manage ...
* PeopleSoft Enterprise *
Siebel Siebel was a German aircraft manufacturer An aircraft is a vehicle that is able to fly by gaining support from the air. It counters the force of gravity by using either static lift or by using the dynamic lift of an airfoil, or in a fe ...
*
JD Edwards J.D. Edwards World Solution Company or JD Edwards, abbreviated JDE, was an enterprise resource planning Enterprise resource planning (ERP) is the integrated management of main business processes, often in real time and mediated by software ...
** JD Edwards EnterpriseOne ** JD Edwards World * Merchandise Operations Management (Formerly Retek) * Planning & Optimisation * Store Operations (Formerly 360Commerce) Development of applications commonly takes place in Java (using Oracle JDeveloper) or through PL/SQL (using, for example,
Oracle Forms Oracle Forms is a software product for creating screens that interact with an Oracle database. It has an Integrated development environment, IDE including an object navigator, property sheet and code editor that uses PL/SQL. It was originally deve ...
and Oracle Reports/BIPublisher). Oracle Corporation has started a drive toward "wizard"-driven environments with a view to enabling non-programmers to produce simple data-driven applications.


=Third-party applications

= Oracle Corporation works with "Oracle Certified Partners" to enhance its overall product marketing. The variety of applications from third-party vendors includes
database In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hardware , hardware and sof ...

database
applications for archiving, splitting and control, ERP and CRM systems, as well as more niche and focused products providing a range of commercial functions in areas like
human resources Human resources is the set of people who make up the workforce of an organization An organization, or organisation (English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth English; American and British English spelling differences#-ise, - ...

human resources
, financial control and
governance, risk management, and compliance Governance, risk management and compliance (GRC) is the term covering an organization's approach across these three practices: governance Governance is all the processes of interactions be they through the laws Law is a system of rules ...
(GRC). Vendors include
Hewlett-Packard The Hewlett-Packard Company, commonly shortened to Hewlett-Packard ( ) or HP, was an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Palo Alto, California Palo Alto (; Spanish language, Spanish for "tall stick" ...

Hewlett-Packard
, Creoal Consulting, UC4 Software, Motus, and Knoa Software.


Enterprise management

Oracle Enterprise Manager (OEM) provides web-based monitoring and management tools for Oracle products (and for some third-party software), including database management, middleware management, application management, hardware and virtualization management and cloud management. The Primavera products of Oracle's Construction & Engineering Global Business Unit (CEGBU) consist of project-management software.


Development software

Oracle Corporation's tools for developing applications include (among others): * Oracle Designer – a
CASE Case or CASE may refer to: Containers * Case (goods), a package of related merchandise * Case, the metallic enclosure component in modern firearm cartridge (firearms), cartridges * Bookcase, a piece of furniture used to store books * Briefcase or ...
tool which integrates with Oracle Developer Suite * Oracle Developer – which consists of
Oracle Forms Oracle Forms is a software product for creating screens that interact with an Oracle database. It has an Integrated development environment, IDE including an object navigator, property sheet and code editor that uses PL/SQL. It was originally deve ...
, Oracle Discoverer and Oracle Reports * Oracle JDeveloper, a
freeware Freeware is software Software is a collection of Instruction (computer science), instructions that tell a computer how to work. This is in contrast to Computer hardware, hardware, from which the system is built and actually performs the work ...

freeware
IDE #REDIRECT IDE IDE, iDE, or Ide may refer to: Organisations * ''Institut für Dokumentologie und Editorik'', a German think tank for the application of digital methods on historical documents * Institute of Developing Economies, a semi-governmental ...
*
NetBeans NetBeans is an integrated development environment#REDIRECT Integrated development environment {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ... (IDE) for Java Java ( id, Jawa, ; jv, ꦗꦮ; su, ) is one of the Greater Sunda ...
, a Java-based software-development platform *
Oracle Application Express Oracle Application Express (abbreviated ''APEX'', previously named ''Oracle HTML DB'') is a web-based software Software is a collection of Instruction (computer science), instructions and data (computing), data that tell a computer how to wor ...
– also known as APEX; for web-oriented development * Oracle SQL Developer, an
integrated development environment An integrated development environment (IDE) is a software application Application software (app for short) is computing software designed to carry out a specific task other than one relating to the operation of the computer itself, typically ...
for working with SQL-based databases * Oracle SQL*Plus Worksheet, a component of Oracle Enterprise Manager (OEM) *
OEPE OEPE is the acronym for Oracle Enterprise Pack for Eclipse, a set of Eclipse (software), Eclipse plugins to facilitate development of Java Platform, Standard Edition, Java SE, Java Platform, Enterprise Edition, Java EE, Web service, ORM, and Spring ...
, Oracle Enterprise Pack for
Eclipse ECLiPSe is a software system for the development and deployment of Constraint Programming Constraint programming (CP) is a paradigm for solving combinatorial problems that draws on a wide range of techniques from artificial intelligence ...

Eclipse
* Open Java Development Kit * Oracle Developer Studio – a software generation system for the development of C, C++, Fortran, and Java software Many external and third-party tools make the Oracle
database administrator Database administrators (DBAs) use specialized software to store and organize data. The role may include capacity planning, installation, configuration, database design, migration, performance monitoring, security Security is freedom from, o ...
's tasks easier.


File systems

*
ZFS ZFS (previously: Zettabyte The byte is a unit of digital information that most commonly consists of eight bit The bit is a basic unit of information in computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or ...
combines file-system and
logical volume management In computer storage File:Maxell DVD-RW 4.7GB crop 20051120.jpg, A spindle of DVD-RWs Computer data storage is a technology consisting of computer components and Data storage device, recording media that are used to retain digital data (compu ...
functionality. *
BtrFS Btrfs (pronounced as "butter fuss", "better F S", "butter F S", "b-tree F S", or simply by spelling it out) is a computer storage format that combines a file system In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiti ...
"B-tree File-System" is meant to be an improvement over the existing
Linux Linux ( or ) is a family of open-source Open source is source code that is made freely available for possible modification and redistribution. Products include permission to use the source code, design documents, or content of the product ...

Linux
ext4 The ext4 journaling file system or fourth extended filesystem is a journaling file system Journaling may refer to: * Electronic message journalingElectronic message journaling is the process of retaining information relating to electronic mess ...
filesystem, and offer features approaching those of
ZFS ZFS (previously: Zettabyte The byte is a unit of digital information that most commonly consists of eight bit The bit is a basic unit of information in computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or ...
.


Operating systems

Oracle Corporation develops and supports two operating systems: Oracle Solaris and
Oracle Linux Oracle Linux (abbreviated OL, formerly known as Oracle Enterprise Linux or OEL) is a Linux distribution A Linux distribution (often abbreviated as distro) is an operating system An operating system (OS) is system software System software i ...
.


Hardware

* The Sun hardware range acquired by Oracle Corporation's purchase of
Sun Microsystems Sun Microsystems, Inc. (Sun for short) was an American technology company that sold computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to Execution (computing), carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. M ...
*
Oracle SPARC T-series serversThe SPARC T-series family of RISC processors and server computers, based on the SPARC V9 architecture, was originally developed by Sun Microsystems, and later by Oracle Corporation after its Oracle acquisition of Sun, acquisition of Sun. Its distingu ...
and M-series
mainframes A mainframe computer, informally called a mainframe or big iron, is a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic ...
developed and released after Sun acquisition * Engineered systems: pre-engineered and pre-assembled hardware/software bundles for enterprise use ** Exadata Database Machine – hardware/software integrated storage ** Exalogic Elastic Cloud – hardware/software integrated application server ** Exalytics In-Memory Machine – hardware/software integrated in-memory analytics server ** Oracle Database Appliance ** Big Data Appliance – integrated map-reduce/
big data Big data is a field that treats ways to analyze, systematically extract information from, or otherwise deal with data set A data set (or dataset) is a collection of data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or items of informati ...

big data
solution ** SPARC SuperCluster T4-4 – a general purpose engineered system


Services


Oracle Cloud

Oracle Cloud Oracle Cloud is a cloud computing Cloud computing is the on-demand availability of computer system resources, especially data storage (cloud storage) and computing power, without direct active management by the user. The term is generally us ...
is a
cloud computing Cloud computing is the on-demand availability of computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operatio ...

cloud computing
service offered by Oracle Corporation providing servers, storage, network, applications and services through a global network of Oracle Corporation managed
data center A data center (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American Eng ...
s. The company allows these services to be provisioned on demand over the
Internet The Internet (or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices. It is a ''internetworking, network of networks'' that consist ...

Internet
. Oracle Cloud provides Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS), Software as a Service (SaaS) and Data as a Service (DaaS). These services are used to build, deploy, integrate and extend applications in the cloud. This platform supports
open standard An open standard is a standard Standard may refer to: Flags * Colours, standards and guidons * Standard (flag), a type of flag used for personal identification Norm, convention or requirement * Standard (metrology), an object that bears a d ...
s (
SQL SQL ( ''S-Q-L'', "sequel"; Structured Query Language) is a domain-specific languageA domain-specific language (DSL) is a computer languageA computer language is a method of communication with a computer A computer is a machine that can b ...

SQL
,
HTML5 HTML5 is a markup language #REDIRECT Markup language In computer text processing, a markup language is a system for annotation, annotating a document in a way that is Syntax (logic), syntactically distinguishable from the text, meaning when ...

HTML5
,
REST Rest or REST may refer to: Human resting positions * Kneeling Kneeling is a basic human position where one or both knees touch the ground. Kneeling is defined as “to position the body so that one or both knees rest on the floor,” according t ...
, etc.) open-source solutions (
Kubernetes Kubernetes (, commonly stylized as K8s) is an open-source container box. File:Railroad car with container loads.jpg, A Flatcar#Spine car, spine car with a 20 ft tank container and an open-top 20 ft intermodal container, intermodal ship ...

Kubernetes
,
Hadoop Apache Hadoop () is a collection of open-source Open source is source code that is made freely available for possible modification and redistribution. Products include permission to use the source code, design documents, or content of the product ...
,
Kafka Franz Kafka (3 July 1883 – 3 June 1924) was a German-speaking Bohemian novelist and short-story writer, widely regarded as one of the major figures of 20th century in literature, 20th-century literature. His work fuses elements of literar ...
, etc.) and a variety of
programming language A programming language is a formal language In logic, mathematics, computer science, and linguistics, a formal language consists of string (computer science), words whose symbol (formal), letters are taken from an alphabet (computer science) ...

programming language
s,
database In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hardware , hardware and sof ...

database
s, tools and frameworks including Oracle-specific,
free Free may refer to: Concept * Freedom, having the ability to act or change without constraint * Emancipate, to procure political rights, as for a disenfranchised group * Free will, control exercised by rational agents over their actions and decis ...

free
and third-party software and systems. *
Software as a Service Software as a service (SaaS ) is a software licensing A software license is a legal instrument (usually by way of contract law A contract is a legally binding agreement that defines and governs the rights and duties between or among its P ...
(SaaS) ** Enterprise applications: SCM, EPM, HCM, ERP and CX SaaS offerings **Oracle sells a
SaaS Software as a service (SaaS ) is a software licensing A software license is a legal instrument (usually by way of contract law, with or without printed material) governing the use or redistribution of software. Under United States copyright l ...
suite of
Oracle Fusion Applications Oracle Fusion Applications (OFA) are enterprise resource planning software applications from Oracle Corporation. The applications are distributed across various product families including Corporate finance, financial management, Human resource mana ...
business application Business software (or a business application) is any software or set of computer programs used by business users to perform various business functions. These business applications are used to increase productivity, to measure productivity, and t ...
s. **
NetSuite#redirect NetSuite NetSuite Inc. was an American cloud computing company founded in 1998 with headquarters in San Mateo, California that provided software and services to manage business finances, operations, and customer relations. Its software a ...
, acquired by Oracle in 2016, provides cloud ERP, CRM, supply chain and e-commerce software to small and medium sized businesses. It is regarded as the first fully cloud company in the world and is an industry leader in its own right *
Platform as a Service Platform as a service (PaaS) or application platform as a service (aPaaS) or platform-based service is a category of cloud computing services that allows customers to provision, instantiate, run, and manage a modular bundle comprising a computing ...
(PaaS) ** Oracle has branded its Platform as a Service as Oracle Cloud Platform. Oracle Cloud Platform include Data Management, Application Development, Integration, Content and Experience, Business Analytics, Management and Security. ** Platform services on which to build and deploy applications or extend SaaS applications: database, Java application server, mobile, business analytics, integration, process, big data,
Internet of Things The Internet of things (IoT) describes the network of physical objects—"things" or objects—that are embedded with sensors, software, and other technologies for the purpose of connecting and exchanging data with other devices and systems over ...

Internet of Things
,
Node.js Node.js is an open-source, cross-platform In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of ...
etc. * Data as a Service (DaaS) ** Oracle Data Cloud is composed of several acquisitions including
AddThis AddThis is a social bookmarking service that can be integrated into a website with the use of a web widget. Once the widget is added, visitors to the website can bookmark or share an item using a variety of services, such as Facebook, MySpace, Goo ...
,
BlueKai BlueKai is a cloud-based big data Big data is a field that treats ways to analyze, systematically extract information from, or otherwise deal with data sets that are too large or complex to be dealt with by traditional data-processing appl ...
, Crosswise,
Datalogix Datalogix is a consumer data collection company based in Denver, Colorado, Denver, Colorado. Datalogix provides online, direct mail, and mobile services to their clients. The company's primary objective is to obtain and track offline and online d ...
, Grapeshot, and Moat. *
Infrastructure as a ServiceInfrastructure as a service (IaaS) are online services that provide high-level APIs used to indirection, dereference various low-level details of underlying network infrastructure like physical computing resources, location, data partitioning, scalin ...
(IaaS) ** Oracle has branded its Infrastructure as a Service as Oracle Cloud Infrastructure (OCI). Oracle Cloud Infrastructure offerings include the following services. *** Compute Service *** Storage Service *** Network Service On July 28, 2016, Oracle bought
NetSuite#redirect NetSuite NetSuite Inc. was an American cloud computing company founded in 1998 with headquarters in San Mateo, California that provided software and services to manage business finances, operations, and customer relations. Its software a ...
, the first cloud company, for $9.3 billion. On May 16, 2018, Oracle announced that it had acquired DataScience.com, a privately held cloud workspace platform for data science projects and workloads.


Other services

* Oracle Consulting – technical and business expert services * Oracle Financing * Oracle Marketing & Support ** Product support: Oracle Corporation identifies its customers and their support entitlements using CSI (Customer Support Identifier) codes. Registered customers can submit Service Requests (SRs)—usually via the web-accessible My Oracle Support (MOS), a re-incarnation of Oracle Metalink with web access administered by a site Customer User Administrator (CUA). ** Critical Patch Updates: since 2005 Oracle Corporation has grouped collections of
patch Patch may refer to: Places * Patch, St. Louis, a neighborhood in St. Louis, Missouri * Patch, Gwbert, South Ceredigion, Wales People * Patch Adams, a.k.a. Hunter Adams (born 1945), founder of the Gesundheit! Institute * Alexander Patch (18 ...
es and security fixes for its products each quarter into a "Critical Patch Update" (CPU), released each January, April, July and October. ** Oracle Configuration Manager (OCM, previously Customer Configuration repository or CCR) gathers and uploads details of the configuration of Oracle software. ** Oracle Auto Service Request (ASR) automatically creates Service Requests for specific hardware faults on qualified Oracle server, storage,
Oracle Exadata The Oracle Exadata Database Machine (Exadata) is a computing platform optimized for running Oracle Database Oracle Database (commonly referred to as Oracle DBMS or simply as Oracle) is a multi-model database management system In computin ...
, and Oracle Exalogic products. ** My Oracle Support Community (MOSC) * Oracle University (training in Oracle products) ** Oracle Certification Program * NetSuite Social Impact program assists nonprofits with moving operations to the cloud. In October 2018, Oracle announced the expansion of the program to include product donation, pro bono expansion and online community building. * As of September 13, 2020, Oracle acquired a trade deal with the
ByteDance ByteDance Ltd. () is a multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, a sover ...
owned social video platform
TikTok TikTok, known in China as Douyin (), is a Online video platform, video-focused social networking service owned by Chinese company ByteDance. It hosts a variety of short-form user videos, from genres like pranks, stunts, tricks, jokes, dance, a ...
. This was the result of an executive order issued by U.S. president
Donald Trump Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946) is an American politician A politician is a person active in party politics A political party is an organization that coordinates candidate A candidate, or nominee, is the prospective reci ...

Donald Trump
stating that TikTok must be sold to a U.S. company by September 15, 2020. The exact nature of the agreement is still unknown, but it implies that Oracle will become TikTok's technology partner and assume responsibility for the company's U.S. user data. The agreement is still pending approval from regulatory government bodies.


Marketing


Sales practices

In 1990, Oracle laid off 10% (about 400 people) of its work force because of accounting errors. This crisis came about because of Oracle's "up-front" marketing strategy, in which sales people urged potential customers to buy the largest possible amount of software all at once. The sales people then booked the value of future license sales in the current quarter, thereby increasing their bonuses. This became a problem when the future sales subsequently failed to materialize. Oracle eventually had to restate its earnings twice, and also settled (out of court)
class-action A class action, also known as a class-action lawsuit, class suit, or representative action, is a type of lawsuit A lawsuit is a proceeding by a party or parties against another in the civil court of law. The archaic term "suit in law" is f ...
lawsuits arising from its having overstated its earnings. Ellison stated in 1992 that Oracle had made "an incredible business mistake".Oracle cuts rewards for last-minute deals
Gilbert, Alorie (June 20, 2002). ''CNET News.com'' via zdnetasia.com


Competition

In 1994,
Informix IBM Informix is a product family within IBM's Information Management division that is centered on several relational database management system (RDBMS) offerings. The Informix products were originally developed by Informix Corporation, whose Inf ...
overtook
Sybase Sybase, Inc. was an enterprise software and services company that produced software to manage and analyze information in relational databases, with facilities located in California and Massachusetts. Sybase was acquired by SAP AG, SAP in 2010 ...
and became Oracle's most important rival. The intense war between Informix CEO Phil White and Ellison made front-page news in
Silicon Valley Silicon Valley is a region in Northern California Northern California (colloquially known as NorCal) is a geographic and cultural region that generally comprises the northern portion of the U.S. state of California California is a U.S ...

Silicon Valley
for three years. Informix claimed that Oracle had hired away Informix engineers to disclose important trade secrets about an upcoming product. Informix finally dropped its lawsuit against Oracle in 1997. In November 2005, a book detailing the war between Oracle and Informix was published, titled ''The Real Story of Informix Software and Phil White''. It gave a detailed chronology of the battle of Informix against Oracle, and how Informix Software's CEO Phil White landed in jail because of his obsession with overtaking Ellison. Once it had overcome Informix and Sybase, Oracle Corporation enjoyed years of dominance in the database market until use of
Microsoft SQL Server Microsoft SQL Server is a relational database management system A relational database is a digital database based on the relational model of data, as proposed by E. F. Codd in 1970. A software system used to maintain relational databases is a ...
became widespread in the late 1990s and IBM acquired Informix Software in 2001 (to complement its DB2 database). Oracle competes for new database licenses on UNIX, GNU, and Windows operating systems primarily against IBM's DB2 and Microsoft SQL Server. IBM's DB2 dominates the mainframe database market. In 2004, Oracle's sales grew at a rate of 14.5% to $6.2 billion, giving it 41.3% and the top share of the relational-database market (''InformationWeek'' – March 2005), with market share estimated at up to 44.6% in 2005 by some sources. Oracle Corporation's main competitors in the database arena remain
IBM DB2 Db2 is a family of data management products, including database servers, developed by IBM. They initially supported the relational model, but were extended to support object–relational features and non-relational structures like JSON and ...
and
Microsoft SQL Server Microsoft SQL Server is a relational database management system A relational database is a digital database based on the relational model of data, as proposed by E. F. Codd in 1970. A software system used to maintain relational databases is a ...
, and to a lesser extent
Sybase Sybase, Inc. was an enterprise software and services company that produced software to manage and analyze information in relational databases, with facilities located in California and Massachusetts. Sybase was acquired by SAP AG, SAP in 2010 ...
and
Teradata Teradata Corporation is an American software Software is a collection of instructions that tell a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern ...
, with
free Free may refer to: Concept * Freedom, having the ability to act or change without constraint * Emancipate, to procure political rights, as for a disenfranchised group * Free will, control exercised by rational agents over their actions and decis ...

free
databases such as
PostgreSQL PostgreSQL (, ), also known as Postgres, is a free and open-source Free and open-source software (FOSS) is software that is both free software and open-source software where anyone is free software license, freely licensed to use, copy, stu ...
and
MySQL MySQL () is an open-source Open source is source code that is made freely available for possible modification and redistribution. Products include permission to use the source code, design documents, or content of the product. The open-source m ...
also having a significant share of the market.
EnterpriseDB EnterpriseDB (EDB), a privately held company based in Massachusetts, provides software and services based on the open-source database PostgreSQL PostgreSQL (), also known as Postgres, is a free and open-source software, free and open-source ...
, based on PostgreSQL, has made inroads by proclaiming that its product delivers Oracle compatibility features at a much lower price-point. In the software-applications market, Oracle Corporation primarily competes against SAP AG, SAP. On March 22, 2007, Oracle sued SAP, accusing them of fraud and unfair competition. In the market for
business intelligence Business intelligence (BI) comprises the strategies and technologies used by enterprises for the data analysis Data analysis is a process of inspecting, cleansing, transforming, and modelling In general, a model is an informative representat ...
software, many other software companies—small and large—have successfully competed in quality with Oracle and SAP products. Business intelligence vendors can be categorized into the "big four" consolidated BI firms such as Oracle, who has entered BI market through a recent trend of acquisitions (including Hyperion Solutions), and the independent "pure play" vendors such as MicroStrategy, Actuate Corporation, Actuate, and SAS Institute Inc., SAS. Oracle Financials was ranked in the Top 20 Most Popular Accounting Software Infographic by Capterra in 2014, beating out SAP and a number of their other competitors.


Oracle and SAP

From 1988, Oracle Corporation and the German company SAP AG had a decade-long history of cooperation, beginning with the integration of SAP's SAP R/3, R/3 enterprise application suite with Oracle's relational database products. Despite the SAP partnership with Microsoft, and the increasing integration of SAP applications with Microsoft products (such as
Microsoft SQL Server Microsoft SQL Server is a relational database management system A relational database is a digital database based on the relational model of data, as proposed by E. F. Codd in 1970. A software system used to maintain relational databases is a ...
, a competitor to Oracle Database), Oracle and SAP continue their cooperation. According to Oracle Corporation, the majority of SAP's customers use Oracle databases. In 2004, Oracle began to increase its interest in the enterprise-applications market (in 1989, Oracle had already released Oracle Financials). A series of acquisitions by Oracle Corporation began, most notably with those of PeopleSoft, Siebel Systems and Hyperion. SAP recognized that Oracle had started to become a competitor in a markets where SAP had the leadership, and saw an opportunity to lure in customers from those companies that Oracle Corporation had acquired. SAP would offer those customers special discounts on the licenses for its enterprise applications. Oracle Corporation would resort to a similar strategy, by advising SAP customers to get "OFF SAP" (a play on the words of the acronym for its middleware platform "Oracle Fusion for SAP"), and also by providing special discounts on licenses and services to SAP customers who chose Oracle Corporation products. Oracle and SAP (the latter through its recently acquired subsidiary TomorrowNow) compete in the third-party enterprise software maintenance and support market. On March 22, 2007, Oracle filed a lawsuit against SAP. In Oracle Corporation v. SAP AG Oracle alleged that TomorrowNow, which provides discount support for legacy Oracle product lines, used the accounts of former Oracle customers to systematically download patches and support documents from Oracle's website and to appropriate them for SAP's use. Some analysts have suggested the suit could form part of a strategy by Oracle Corporation to decrease competition with SAP in the market for third-party enterprise software maintenance and support. On July 3, 2007, SAP admitted that TomorrowNow employees had made "inappropriate downloads" from the Oracle support website. However, it claims that SAP personnel and SAP customers had no access to Oracle intellectual property via TomorrowNow. SAP's CEO Henning Kagermann stated that "Even a single inappropriate download is unacceptable from my perspective. We regret very much that this occurred." Additionally, SAP announced that it had "instituted changes" in TomorrowNow's operational oversight. On November 23, 2010, a United States District Court for the Northern District of California, U.S. district court jury in Oakland, California found that SAP AG must pay Oracle Corp $1.3 billion for copyright infringement, awarding damages that could be the largest-ever for copyright infringement. While admitting liability, SAP estimated the damages at no more than $40 million, while Oracle claimed that they are at least $1.65 billion. The awarded amount is one of the 10 or 20 largest jury verdicts in U.S. legal history. SAP said they were disappointed by the verdict and might appeal. On September 1, 2011, a federal judge overturned the judgment and offered a reduced amount or a new trial, calling Oracle's original award "grossly" excessive. Oracle chose a new trial. On August 3, 2012, SAP and Oracle agreed on a judgment for $306 million in damages, pending approval from the U.S. district court judge, “to save time and expense of [a] new trial". After the accord has been approved, Oracle can ask a federal appeals court to reinstate the earlier jury verdict. In addition to the damages payment, SAP has already paid Oracle $120 million for its legal fees.


Slogans

* "Information driven" * For the Oracle Database: "Can't break it, can't break in" and "Unbreakable" * Enabling the Information Age * Enabling the Information Age Through Network Computing" * : "The Information Company" * As of 2010: "Software. Hardware. Complete." * As of late 2010: "Hardware and Software, Engineered to Work Together" * As of mid 2015: "Integrated Cloud Applications and Platform Services"


Media

Oracle Corporation produces and distributes the "Oracle ClearView" series of videos as part of its marketing mix.


Controversies


Trashgate

In 2000, Oracle attracted attention from the computer industry and the press after hiring private investigators to dig through the trash of organizations involved in an United States v. Microsoft Corp. (2001), antitrust trial involving Microsoft. The Chairman of Oracle Corporation, Larry Ellison, staunchly defended his company's hiring of an East Coast detective agency to investigate groups that supported rival Microsoft Corporation during its antitrust trial, calling the snooping a "public service". The investigation reportedly included a $1,200 offer to janitors at the Association for Competitive Technology to look through Microsoft's trash. When asked how he would feel if others were looking into Oracle's business activities, Ellison said: "We will ship our garbage to Redmond, and they can go through it. We believe in full disclosure."


"Can't break it, can't break in"

In 2002, Oracle Corporation marketed many of its products using the slogan "Can't break it, can't break in", or "Unbreakable". This signified a demand on information security. Oracle Corporation also stressed the reliability of networked databases and network access to databases as major selling points. However, two weeks after its introduction, David Litchfield, Alexander Kornbrust, Cesar Cerrudo and others demonstrated a whole suite of successful attacks against Oracle products. Oracle Corporation's chief security officer Mary Ann Davidson said that, rather than representing a literal claim of Oracle's products' impregnability, she saw the campaign in the context of fourteen independent security evaluations that Oracle Corporation's database server had passed.


Relationship with John Ashcroft

In 2004, then-United States Attorney General John Ashcroft sued Oracle Corporation to prevent it from acquiring a multibillion-dollar intelligence contract. After Ashcroft's resignation from government, he founded a lobbying firm, The Ashcroft Group, which Oracle hired in 2005. With the group's help, Oracle went on to acquire the contract.


Expeditionary Combat Support System

Computer Sciences Corporation, as the prime contractor, reportedly spent a billion dollars developing the Expeditionary Combat Support System for the United States Air Force. It yielded no significant capability, because, according to an Air Force source, the prime contractor "was simply not up to the task of adapting" the Oracle software, on which the system was based, to meet the specialized performance criteria.


Cover Oregon Healthcare Exchange

Oracle Corporation was awarded a contract by the State of Oregon's Oregon Health Authority (OHA) to develop Cover Oregon, the state's healthcare exchange website, as part of the U.S. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. When the site tried to go live on October 1, 2013, it failed, and registrations had to be taken using paper applications until the site could be fixed. On April 25, 2014, the State of Oregon voted to discontinue Cover Oregon and instead use the federal exchange to enroll Oregon residents. The cost of switching to the federal portal was estimated at $5 million, whereas fixing Cover Oregon would have required another $78 million. Oracle president Safra Catz responded to Cover Oregon and the OHA in a letter claiming that the site's problems were due to OHA mismanagement, specifically that a third-party systems integrator was not hired to manage the complex project. In August 2014, Oracle Corporation sued Cover Oregon for breach of contract, and then later that month the state of Oregon sued Oracle Corporation, in a civil complaint for breach of contract, fraud, filing false claims and "racketeering". In September 2016, the two sides reached a settlement valued at over $100 million to the state, and a six-year agreement for Oracle to continue modernizing state software and IT.


Events


Acquisition of Sun Microsystems

In January 2010, Oracle completed its acquisition of
Sun Microsystems Sun Microsystems, Inc. (Sun for short) was an American technology company that sold computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to Execution (computing), carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. M ...
—valued at more than $7 billion—a move that transformed Oracle from solely a software company to a manufacturer of both software and hardware. The acquisition was delayed for several months by the European Commission because of concerns about
MySQL MySQL () is an open-source Open source is source code that is made freely available for possible modification and redistribution. Products include permission to use the source code, design documents, or content of the product. The open-source m ...
, but was unconditionally approved in the end. In September 2011, U.S. State Department Embassy cables were leaked to WikiLeaks. One cable revealed that the U.S. pressured the E.U. to allow Oracle to acquire Sun. The Sun acquisition was closely watched by free software users and some companies, due to the fear that Oracle might end Sun's traditional support of Free software, free projects. Since the acquisition, Oracle has discontinued OpenSolaris and StarOffice, and sued Google over the
Java Java ( id, Jawa, ; jv, ꦗꦮ; su, ) is one of the Greater Sunda Islands in Indonesia. It is bordered by the Indian Ocean to the south and the Java Sea to the north. With a population of 147.7 million people, Java is the world's List of ...
patents Oracle acquired from Sun.


Justice Department lawsuit

On July 29, 2010, the United States Department of Justice (DoJ) filed suit against Oracle Corporation alleging fraud. The lawsuit argues that the government received deals inferior to those Oracle gave to its commercial clients. The DoJ added its heft to an already existing whistleblower lawsuit filed by Paul Frascella, who was once senior director of contract services at Oracle. It was settled in 2011.


Lawsuit against Google


Background

Oracle, the plaintiff, acquired ownership of the Java computer programing language when it acquired
Sun Microsystems Sun Microsystems, Inc. (Sun for short) was an American technology company that sold computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to Execution (computing), carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. M ...
in January 2010. The Java software includes sets of pre-developed software code to allow programs and apps to accomplish common tasks in a consistent manner. The pre-developed code is organized into separate "Package manager, packages" which each contain a set of "Class (computer programming), classes". Each class contains numerous Method (computer programming), methods, which instruct a program or app to do a certain task. Software developers "became accustomed to using Java’s designations at the package, class, and method level". Oracle and Google (the defendant) tried to negotiate an agreement for Oracle to license Java to Google, which would have allowed Google to use Java in developing programs for mobile devices using the Android (operating system), Android operating system. However, the two companies never reached an agreement. After negotiations failed, Google created its own programming platform, which was based on Java, and contained 37 copied Java packages as well as new packages developed by Google.


First trial

In 2010, Oracle sued Google for copyright infringement for the use of the 37 Java packages. The case was handled in United States District Court for the Northern District of California, U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California and assigned to Judge William Alsup (who taught himself how to code computers). In the lawsuit, Oracle sought between $1.4 billion and $6.1 billion. In June 2011 the judge had to force Google through a judicial order to make public the details about Oracle's claim for damages. By the end of the first jury trial (the legal dispute would eventually go on to another trial) the arguments made by Oracle's attorneys focused on a Java function called "rangeCheck".
"The argument centered on a function called rangeCheck. Of all the lines of code that Oracle had tested—15 million in total—these were the only ones that were 'literally' copied. Every keystroke, a perfect duplicate." – ''The Verge'', 10/19/17
Although Google admitted to copying the packages, Judge Alsup found that none of the Java packages were covered under copyright protection, and therefore Google did not infringe.


First appeal

After the case was over, Oracle appealed to the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit (750 F.3d 1339 (2014)). On May 9, 2014, the appeals court partially reversed Judge Alsup's decision, finding that Java APIs are copyrightable. API stands for "application programming interface" and are how different computer programs or apps communicate with each other. However, the appeals court also left open the possibility that Google might have a "fair use" defense.


Supreme Court petition

On October 6, 2014, Google filed a petition to appeal to the Supreme Court of the United States, U.S. Supreme Court, but the Supreme Court denied the petition.


Second trial

The case was then returned to the U.S. District Court for another trial about Google's fair use defense. Oracle sought $9 billion in damages. In May 2016, the trial jury found that Google's use of Java's APIs was considered fair use.


Second appeal

In February 2017, Oracle filed another appeal to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit. This time it was asking for a new trial because the District Court "repeatedly undermined Oracle's case", which Oracle argued led the jury to make the wrong decision. According to ZDNet, "For example, it [Oracle] says the court wrongly bought Google's claim that Android was limited to smartphones while Java was for PCs, whereas Oracle contends that Java and Android both compete as platforms for smart TVs, cars, and wearables."


Discontinuation of OpenSolaris

On August 13, 2010, an internal Oracle memo leaked to the Internet cited plans for ending the OpenSolaris operating system project and community. With Oracle planning to develop Solaris (operating system), Solaris only in a closed source fashion, OpenSolaris developers moved to the Illumos and OpenIndiana project, among others.


Discontinuation of OpenSSO

As Oracle completed their acquisition of Sun Microsystems in February 2010, they announced that OpenSSO would no longer be their strategic product. Shortly after, OpenSSO was forked to OpenAM. and will continue to be developed and supported by ForgeRock.


Mark Hurd as president

On September 6, 2010, Oracle announced that former
Hewlett-Packard The Hewlett-Packard Company, commonly shortened to Hewlett-Packard ( ) or HP, was an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Palo Alto, California Palo Alto (; Spanish language, Spanish for "tall stick" ...

Hewlett-Packard
CEO Mark Hurd was to replace Charles Phillips (businessman), Charles Phillips, who resigned as Oracle co-president. In an official statement made by Larry Ellison, Phillips had previously expressed his desire to transition out of the company. Ellison had asked Phillips to stay on through the integration of Sun Microsystems, Sun Microsystems Inc. In a separate statement regarding the transition, Ellison said "Mark did a brilliant job at HP and I expect he'll do even better at Oracle. There is no executive in the IT world with more relevant experience than Mark." On September 7, 2010, HP announced a civil lawsuit against Mark Hurd "to protect HP's trade secrets", in response to Oracle hiring Hurd. On September 20, Oracle and HP published a joint press release announcing the resolution of the lawsuit on confidential terms and reaffirming commitment to long-term strategic partnership between the companies.


OpenOffice.org issue

A number of OpenOffice.org developers formed The Document Foundation and received backing by Google, Novell, Red Hat, and Canonical, as well as some others, but were unable to get Oracle to donate the brand OpenOffice.org, causing a fork in the development of OpenOffice.org with the foundation now developing and promoting LibreOffice. Oracle expressed no interest in sponsoring the new project and asked the OpenOffice.org developers that started the project to resign from the company due to "conflicts of interest". On November 1, 2010, 33 of the OpenOffice.org developers gave their letters of resignation. On June 1, 2011, Oracle donated OpenOffice.org to the Apache Software Foundation.


HP and Oracle lawsuit

On June 15, 2011, HP filed a lawsuit in California Superior Court in Santa Clara, claiming that Oracle had breached an agreement to support the Itanium microprocessor used in HP's high-end enterprise servers. Oracle called the lawsuit "an abuse of the judicial process" and said that had it known SAP AG, SAP's Léo Apotheker was about to be hired as HP's new CEO, any support for HP's Itanium servers would not have been implied. On August 1, 2012, a California judge said in a tentative ruling that Oracle must continue porting its software at no cost until HP discontinues its sales of Itanium-based servers. HP was awarded $3 billion in damages against Oracle in 2016. HP argued Oracle's canceling support damaged HP's Itanium server brand. Oracle has announced it will appeal both the decision and damages.


Foreign corrupt practices

On August 31, 2011, ''The Wall Street Journal'' reported that Oracle was being investigated by the Federal Bureau of Investigation for paying bribes to government officials in order to win business in Africa, in contravention of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA).


GSA business bidding ban

On April 20, 2012, the US General Services Administration banned Oracle from the most popular portal for bidding on GSA contracts for undisclosed reasons. Oracle has previously used this portal for around four hundred million dollars a year in revenue. Oracle previously settled a lawsuit filed under the False Claims Act, which accused the company of overbilling the US government between 1998 and 2006. The 2011 settlement forced Oracle to pay $199.5 million to the General Services Administration.


U.S. TikTok's Operations

On September 13, 2020, Bloomberg News reported that Oracle won a bidding war with other U.S.-based companies to take over social media company TikTok's operations in the United States following the company's pressure to forcibly be shut down by the Trump Administration. Oracle was described as a “trusted tech partner” by
TikTok TikTok, known in China as Douyin (), is a Online video platform, video-focused social networking service owned by Chinese company ByteDance. It hosts a variety of short-form user videos, from genres like pranks, stunts, tricks, jokes, dance, a ...
, suggesting the deal may not be as structured as an outright sale. On September 19, 2020, the Trump Administration approved of the sale of TikTok's US operations to Oracle "[delaying] — by one week — restrictions that were originally to take effect" on September 20 as indicated by the United States Department of Commerce. On February 10, 2021, The Wall Street Journal reported, citing a source familiar with the matter, the Biden Administration would be shelving the sale of TikTok indefinitely, as the administration began an extensive review of national security threats from Chinese technology companies as a whole.


People

*
Larry Ellison Lawrence Joseph Ellison (born August 17, 1944) is an American business magnate, investor who is a co-founder, the executive chairman and chief technology officer (CTO) of Oracle Corporation Oracle Corporation is an American Multinational ...
: executive chairman and CTO (since September 2014), co-founder of the company, previously CEO (1977–2014), previously chairman (1990–2004). He owns 36% of the company. * Safra Catz: CEO (since September 2014), previously co-president (since 2004) and CFO. In 2016, she was ranked 10th on ''Fortune Magazine, Fortune's'' Most Powerful Women list. * Jeff Henley: vice chairman (since September 2014), previously chairman (2004–2014) and CFO (1991–2004). * Mark Hurd: former CEO (2014–2019), previously co-president (2010–2014). In 2007, Mark Hurd was ranked on ''Fortune''s list of the 25 Most Powerful People in Business. He died in 2019. * Charles Phillips (businessman), Charles Phillips: former co-president and director (2003–2010); replaced by Mark Hurd. *
Bob Miner Robert Nimrod Miner (December 23, 1941 – November 11, 1994) was an American businessman. He was the co-founder of Oracle Corporation Oracle Corporation is an American Multinational corporation, multinational computer Technology company, tec ...
: co-founder of the company and co-architect of
Oracle Database Oracle Database (commonly referred to as Oracle DBMS or simply as Oracle) is a multi-model database management system produced and marketed by Oracle Corporation Oracle Corporation is an American Multinational corporation, multinational co ...
. Led product design and development for Oracle Database (1977–1992). Spun off a technology group within Oracle in 1992. Oracle board member until 1993. He died in 1994. *
Ed Oates Edward A. Oates (born 1946) is an American businessman. He co-founded Software Development Labs in August 1977 with Larry Ellison, and Bob Miner. Software Development Labs later became Oracle Corporation Oracle Corporation is an American M ...
: co-founder of the company. Retired from Oracle in 1996. * Umang Gupta: former vice president and general manager (1981–1984). Wrote the first business plan for the company. * Bruce Scott: The first hired employee (after the co-founders; employee number 4) at Oracle (then Software Development Laboratories). Scott served as the co-author and co-architect of the Oracle database up to Version 3. He left Oracle in 1982.


Offices

Oracle Corporation has its overall headquarters in Austin, Texas. Oracle has plans to build its largest office hub, with 8500 jobs, in Nashville, Tennessee, Nashville within the next few decades. Oracle has a large office complex located on the San Francisco Peninsula in the Redwood Shores, California, Redwood Shores area of Redwood City, California, Redwood City, adjacent to Belmont, California, Belmont and near San Carlos Airport (California), San Carlos Airport (IATA airport code: SQL). This complex is located on the former site of Marine World/Africa USA, which moved from Redwood Shores to Vallejo, California, Vallejo in 1986. Oracle Corporation originally leased two buildings on the Oracle Parkway site, moving its finance and administration departments from the corporation's former headquarters on Davis Drive, Belmont, California. Eventually, Oracle purchased the complex and constructed a further four main buildings. The distinctive Oracle Parkway buildings, nicknamed the Emerald City, served as sets for the futuristic headquarters of the fictional company "NorthAm Robotics" in the Robin Williams film ''Bicentennial Man (film), Bicentennial Man'' (1999). The campus also represented the headquarters of Cyberdyne Systems in the movie ''Terminator Genisys'' (2015). File:Oracle Redwood City May 2011 001.jpg, 300 Oracle Parkway in Redwood Shores. File:Oracle HQ3.jpg, Oracle Offices in Redwood Shores, with Oracle Plaza building in left foreground File:Oracle Conference Center, Oracle HQ.JPG, Oracle Conference Center in Redwood Shores File:Oracle Fountain (6532480).jpg, Fountain in the Oracle lake, Redwood Shores File:Oracle at Thames Valley Park.jpg, Oracle has a major business campus at Thames Valley Park in Reading, Berkshire, Reading in England File:Oracle Aoyama Center 01.JPG, Oracle Aoyama Center Building, with Lexus International Gallery Aoyama, Minato, Tokyo, Aoyama File:OracleMarkham.JPG, Oracle in Markham, Ontario


Corporate structures

Oracle Corporation operates in multiple markets and has acquired several companies which formerly functioned autonomously. In some cases these provided the starting points for global business units (GBUs) targeting particular vertical markets. Oracle Corporation GBUs include: * Communications * Construction and engineering - formerly the Primavera GBU * Financial services * Food and Beverages * Health sciences * Hospitality * Retail * Utilities


Sponsorships

On October 20, 2006, the Golden State Warriors and the Oracle Corporation announced a 10-year agreement in which the Oakland Arena would become known as the Oracle Arena. The agreement ended after the 2018-2019 NBA season when the Warriors relocated to the Chase Center in San Francisco. Larry Ellison's sailing team competes as Oracle Team USA. The team has won the America's Cup twice, in 2010 (as BMW Oracle Racing) and in 2013, despite being penalized for cheating. Sean D. Tucker, Sean Tucker's "Challenger II" stunt biplane is sponsored by Oracle and performs frequently at air shows around the US. In January 2019, the San Francisco Giants entered into a 20-year agreement to rename their stadium Oracle Park. For the 2021 Formula One World Championship, Red Bull Racing is sponsored by Oracle. In 1994 and 1995, Oracle sponsored Benetton Formula, Benetton.


See also

* List of acquisitions by Oracle * Oracle Applications * Oracle Certification Program * Oracle Clinical *
Oracle Database Oracle Database (commonly referred to as Oracle DBMS or simply as Oracle) is a multi-model database management system produced and marketed by Oracle Corporation Oracle Corporation is an American Multinational corporation, multinational co ...
* Oracle OpenWorld *
Oracle Linux Oracle Linux (abbreviated OL, formerly known as Oracle Enterprise Linux or OEL) is a Linux distribution A Linux distribution (often abbreviated as distro) is an operating system An operating system (OS) is system software System software i ...
* Oracle User Group * Cover Oregon website failure, Cover Oregon


References


Further reading

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External links

* * {{coord, 37.5294, -122.265966, region:US-CA_type:landmark_scale:10000, format=dms, display=t Oracle Corporation, 1977 establishments in California 1980s initial public offerings American companies established in 1977 Business software companies Cloud computing providers Companies based in Austin, Texas Companies formerly listed on the Nasdaq Companies listed on the New York Stock Exchange Computer companies established in 1977 Software companies established in 1977 Computer companies of the United States Computer storage companies CRM software companies Data companies Development software companies ERP software companies Linux companies Multinational companies headquartered in the United States Software companies based in Texas Supply chain software companies Software companies of the United States