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The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the
Islamic Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection ''Oh, God!'' franchise * ''Oh, ...
community, which is also known as the
Ummah ' ( ar, أمة ) is an Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental cou ...
. This consists of all those who adhere to the religions beliefs and laws of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced. In a modern
geopolitical Geopolitics (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approxi ...
sense, these terms refer to
countries where Islam is widespread
countries where Islam is widespread
, although there are no agreed criteria for inclusion. The term Muslim-majority countries is an alternative often used for the latter sense. The history of the Muslim world spans about 1,400 years and includes a variety of socio-political developments, as well as advances in the arts, science, philosophy, and technology, particularly during the
Islamic Golden Age The Islamic Golden Age was a period of cultural, economic, and scientific flourishing in the history of Islam The history of Islam concerns the political, social, economic, and cultural developments of Muslim world, Islamic civilization. M ...
. All
Muslims Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", ...
look for guidance to the
Quran The Quran (, ; ar, القرآن , "the recitation"), also romanized Qur'an or Koran, is the central religious text Religious texts, also known as scripture, scriptures, holy writ, or holy books, are the texts which various religious t ...

Quran
and believe in the prophetic mission of
Muhammad Muhammad ibn AbdullahHe is referred to by many appellations, including Messenger of Allah, The Prophet Muhammad, Allah's Apostle, Last Prophet of Islam, and others; there are also many variant spellings of Muhammad, such as Mohamet, Mohammed, ...

Muhammad
, but disagreements on other matters have led to the appearance of different religious
schools of thought A school of thought, or intellectual tradition, is the perspective of a group of people who share common characteristics of opinion or outlook of a philosophy, List of academic disciplines, discipline, belief, social movement, Schools of economic ...
and
sects A sect is a subgroup of a religious Religion is a - of designated and practices, , s, s, , , , , or , that relates humanity to , , and elements; however, there is no scholarly consensus over what precisely constitutes a religion. Diff ...
within Islam. In the modern era, most of the Muslim world came under European . The nation states that emerged in the post-colonial era have adopted a variety of political and economic models, and they have been affected by secular and as well as religious trends. , the combined
GDP (nominal) Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all the final goods and services produced in a specific time period. List of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita, GDP (nominal) per capita does not, however, reflect di ...
of 49 Muslim majority countries was US$5.7 trillion, , they contributed 8% of the world's total. As of 2015, 1.8 billion or about 24.1% of the world population are Muslims. By the percentage of the total population in a region considering themselves Muslim, 91% in the
Middle East The Middle East ( ar, الشرق الأوسط, ISO 233 The international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technical task whi ...
-
North Africa North Africa or Northern Africa is a region encompassing the northern portion of the African continent. There is no singularly accepted scope for the region, and it is sometimes defined as stretching from the Atlantic shores of Mauritania in th ...
(
MENA MENA is an English-language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading language of intern ...

MENA
), 89% in
Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia Asia () is 's largest and most populous , located primarily in the and . It shares the continental of with the continent of and the continental landmass of with both Europe and . Asia covers an area ...
, 40% in
Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern Asia, southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions ...
, 31% in
South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia Asia () is 's largest and most populous , located primarily in the and . It shares the continental of with the continent of and the continental landmass of with both Europe and . Asia cov ...
, 30% in
Sub-Saharan Africa Sub-Saharan Africa (commonly called Black Africa) is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara. According to the United Nations, it consists of all list of sovereign states and dependent territories i ...
, 25% in
Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and Northern Hemisphere, Northern Hemisphere of the Earth, Hemispheres. It shares the continental landmass of Eurasia with the cont ...
Oceania Oceania (, , ) is a geographic region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Eart ...
, around 6% in
Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of scienc ...

Europe
, and 1% in
the Americas The Americas (also collectively called America) is a landmass comprising the totality of North North is one of the four compass points or cardinal directions. It is the opposite of south and is perpendicular to East and West. ''North'' ...
. Most Muslims are of one of two
denominations Denomination may refer to: * Religious denomination, such as a: ** Christian denomination ** Jewish denomination ** Islamic denomination ** Hindu denominations ** Schools of Buddhism, Buddhist denomination * Denomination (currency) * Denomination ( ...
:
Sunni Islam Sunni Islam () is by far the largest branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, ...
(85-90%) *
Sunni Islam: Oxford Bibliographies Online Research Guide
"Sunni Islam is the dominant division of the global Muslim community, and throughout history it has made up a substantial majority (85 to 90 percent) of that community." * *
and
Shia Shia Islam or Shi'ism is the second largest Islamic schools and branches, branch of Islam. It holds that the Prophets and messengers in Islam, Islamic prophet Muhammad in Islam, Muhammad designated Ali, Ali ibn Abi Talib as his Succession to Mu ...
(10-15%),See * * * * However, other denominations exist in pockets, such as
Ibadi The Ibadi movement (also called Ibāḍiyya ( ar, الإباضية, al-Ibāḍiyyah) and Ibadism), is a Islamic schools and branches, school of Islam. It exists in Oman, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and East Africa. Ibadi Islam traces the origins of ...
(primarily in
Oman Oman ( ; ar, عُمَان ' ), officially the Sultanate of Oman ( ar, سلْطنةُ عُمان ), is a country on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia. Formerly a maritime empire, Oman is the oldest continuously in ...

Oman
). About 13% of Muslims live in
Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is t ...
, the largest Muslim-majority country; % of Muslims live in
South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia Asia () is 's largest and most populous , located primarily in the and . It shares the continental of with the continent of and the continental landmass of with both Europe and . Asia cov ...
, the largest population of Muslims in the world; % in the , where it is the dominant religion; and 15% in
Sub-Saharan Africa Sub-Saharan Africa (commonly called Black Africa) is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara. According to the United Nations, it consists of all list of sovereign states and dependent territories i ...

Sub-Saharan Africa
and West Africa. Muslims are the overwhelming majority in
Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia Asia () is 's largest and most populous , located primarily in the and . It shares the continental of with the continent of and the continental landmass of with both Europe and . Asia covers an area ...
, the majority in the
Caucasus The Caucasus (), or Caucasia (), is a region spanning Europe and Asia. It is situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and mainly occupied by Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia (country), Georgia, and parts of Southern Russia. It is home to ...

Caucasus
and widespread in
Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern Asia, southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions ...
.
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
is the country with the largest Muslim population outside Muslim-majority countries. Sizeable are also found in the
Americas The Americas (also collectively called America) is a landmass comprising the totality of North America, North and South America. The Americas make up most of the land in Earth's Western Hemisphere and comprise the New World. Along with th ...
,
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...

China
, and
Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of scienc ...

Europe
. Islam is the fastest-growing major religion in the world.


Terminology

In a modern
geopolitical Geopolitics (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approxi ...
sense, the terms 'Muslim world' and 'Islamic world' refer to , although there are no agreed criteria for inclusion. Some scholars and commentators have criticised the term 'Muslim/Islamic world' and its derivative terms 'Muslim/Islamic country' as "simplistic" and "binary", since no state has a religiously homogeneous population (e.g.
Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identi ...

Egypt
's citizens are c. 10% Christians), and in absolute numbers, there are sometimes fewer Muslims living in countries where they make up the majority than in countries where they form a minority. Hence, the term 'Muslim-majority countries' is often preferred in literature.


History

The history of the Islamic faith as a religion and social institution begins with its inception around 610 CE, when the
Islamic prophet Prophets in Islam ( ar, الأنبياء في الإسلام, translit=al-ʾAnbiyāʾ fī al-ʾIslām) are individuals in Islam who are believed to spread God In monotheism, monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the supreme being, c ...
Muhammad Muhammad ibn AbdullahHe is referred to by many appellations, including Messenger of Allah, The Prophet Muhammad, Allah's Apostle, Last Prophet of Islam, and others; there are also many variant spellings of Muhammad, such as Mohamet, Mohammed, ...

Muhammad
, a native of
Mecca Mecca, officially Makkah al-Mukarramah ( ) and commonly shortened to Makkah ( ),Quran 48:22 ' () is a city and administrative center of the Mecca Province of Saudi Arabia, and the Holiest sites in Islam, holiest city in Islam. It is inland ...

Mecca
, is believed by Muslims to have received the first revelation of the Quran, and began to preach his message. In 622 CE, facing opposition in Mecca, he and his followers migrated to Yathrib (now
Medina Medina,, ', "the radiant city"; or , ', (), "the city" officially Al Madinah Al Munawwarah (, ), commonly simplified as Madīnah or Madinah (, ), is the second in and the of the of . The 2020 estimated population of the city is 1,488,782, ma ...

Medina
), where he was invited to establish a new constitution for the city under his leadership. This migration, called the Hijra, marks the first year of the
Islamic calendar The Hijri calendar ( ar, ٱلتَّقْوِيم ٱلْهِجْرِيّ '), also known as the Lunar Hijri calendar and (in English) as the Islamic, Muslim or Arabic calendar, is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 lunar months in a year of 354 o ...
. By the time of his death, Muhammad had become the political and spiritual leader of Medina, Mecca, the surrounding region, and numerous other tribes in the
Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula (; ar, شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, , "Arabian Peninsula" or , , "Island of the Arabs") is a peninsula of Western Asia, situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian Plate. At , the ...
. After Muhammad died in 632, his successors (the
Caliphs A caliphate ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an Islamic state An Islamic state is a form of government based on Islamic law. As a term, it has been used to describe various historical Polity, polities and theories of governance in the Islami ...
) continued to lead the Muslim community based on his teachings and guidelines of the Quran. The majority of Muslims consider the first four successors to be 'rightly guided' or
Rashidun , image = تخطيط كلمة الخلفاء الراشدون.png , caption = Calligraphic Calligraphy (from Greek language, Greek: καλλιγραφία) is a Visual arts, visual art related to writing. It is the design and execut ...
. The conquests of the
Rashidun Caliphate The Rashidun Caliphate ( ar, اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلرَّاشِدَةُ, al-Khilāfah ar-Rāšidah) was the first of the four major caliphate A caliphate ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an Islamic state under the leadership of an ...
helped to spread Islam beyond the Arabian Peninsula, stretching from northwest India, across Central Asia, the
Near East The Near East ( ar, الشرق الأدنى, al-Sharq al-'Adnā, he, המזרח הקרוב, arc, ܕܢܚܐ ܩܪܒ, fa, خاور نزدیک, Xāvar-e nazdik, tr, Yakın Doğu) is a geographical term which roughly encompasses a transcontinental ...
, North Africa, southern Italy, and the
Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese language, Aragonese and Occitan language, Occitan: ''Peninsula Iberica'' ** ** * french: Péninsule Ibérique * mwl, Península Eibérica * eu, Iberiar penintsula also known as Iberia, is a peni ...

Iberian Peninsula
, to the
Pyrenees The Pyrenees (; es, Pirineos ; french: Pyrénées ; ca, Pirineus ; eu, Pirinioak ; oc, Pirenèus ; an, Pirineus) is a mountain range straddling the border of France and Spain. It extends nearly from its union with the Cantabrian Mountains to ...

Pyrenees
. The Arab Muslims were unable to conquer the entire Christian
Byzantine Empire The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn ...

Byzantine Empire
in
Asia Minor Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from 'almost' and 'island') is a landform A landform is a natural or artificial feature of ...

Asia Minor
during the
Arab–Byzantine wars The Arab–Byzantine wars were a series of wars between the mostly Arab Muslims Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam, a Monotheism, monotheistic Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic religion. The derivation of "Muslim" is from an A ...
, however. The succeeding
Umayyad Caliphate The Umayyad Caliphate (661–750 CE; , ; ar, ٱلْخِلَافَة ٱلْأُمَوِيَّة, al-Khilāfah al-ʾUmawīyah) was the second of the four major caliphate A caliphate ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an Islamic state under ...
attempted two failed sieges of
Constantinople la, Constantinopolis ota, قسطنطينيه , alternate_name = Byzantion (earlier Greek name), Nova Roma ("New Rome"), Miklagard/Miklagarth (Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian is a stage of development of North Germa ...

Constantinople
in 674–678 and . Meanwhile, the Muslim community tore itself apart into the rivalling
Sunni Sunni Islam () is by far the largest branch Image:Tree Leaves.JPG, The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany as a ramus) is a woody structural member connected to but not part o ...
and Shia sects since the killing of caliph Uthman in 656, resulting in a
succession crisisA succession crisis is a crisis that arises when an order of succession fails, for example when a king dies without an indisputable heir. It may result in a war of succession. Examples include: *Multiple periods during the history of the Roman Empir ...
that has never been resolved. The following
First First or 1st is the ordinal form of the number one (#1). First or 1st may also refer to: *World record A world record is usually the best global and most important performance that is ever recorded and officially verified in a specific skill ...
,
Second The second (symbol: s, also abbreviated: sec) is the base unit of time Time is the continued sequence of existence and event (philosophy), events that occurs in an apparently irreversible process, irreversible succession from the past, th ...
and
Third Fitna The Third Fitna ( ar, الفتنة الثاﻟﺜـة, al-Fitna al-thālitha), was a series of civil wars and uprisings against the Umayyad Caliphate The Umayyad Caliphate (661–750 CE; , ; ar, ٱلْخِلَافَة ٱلْأُمَوِيَ ...
s and finally the
Abbasid Revolution The Abbasid Revolution, also called the Movement of the Men of the Black Raiment, was the overthrow of the Umayyad Caliphate (661–750 CE), the second of the four major Caliphates in early History of Islam, Islamic history, by the third, the A ...
(746–750) also definitively destroyed the political unity of the Muslims, who have been inhabiting multiple states ever since.
Ghaznavids The Ghaznavid dynasty ( fa, غزنویان ''Ġaznaviyān'') was a Persianate A Persianate society is a society that is based on or strongly influenced by the Persian language Persian (), also known by its endonym Farsi (, ', ), is a ...
' rule was succeeded by the
Ghurid Empire The Ghurids or Ghorids ( fa, سلسله غوریان; self-designation: , ''Shansabānī'') were a dynasty of Iranian origin from the Ghor region of present-day central Afghanistan Afghanistan (; Pashto/Dari language, Dari: , Pashto: , D ...
of
Muhammad of Ghor Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad ( fa, معز الدین محمد غوری), born Shihab ad-Din (1149 – March 15, 1206), also known as Muhammad of Ghor, was the Sultan of the Ghurid Empire along with his brother Ghiyath ad-Din Muhammad from 1173 to ...
and
Ghiyath al-Din Muhammad Ghiyath al-Din Muhammad ( fa, غیاث‌ الدین محمد بن سام), also known as Ghiyath al-Din Ghori, was the ''sultan Sultan (; ar, سلطان ', ) is a position with several historical meanings. Originally, it was an Arabic abstra ...

Ghiyath al-Din Muhammad
, whose reigns under the leadership of
Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khalji Ikhtiyār al-Dīn Muḥammad Bakhtiyār Khaljī, also known as Bakhtiyar Khalji, was a Turko-Afghan Afghan ( Pashto/Persian language, Persian: ) refers to someone or something from Afghanistan, in particular a citizen of that country. The pre- ...
extended until the
Bengal Bengal (; bn, বাংলা/বঙ্গ, translit=Bānglā/Bôngô, ) is a geopolitical, cultural and historical region located in South Asia, specifically in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal, p ...

Bengal
, where Indian Islamic missionaries achieved their greatest success in terms of
dawah ' ( ar, دعوة, , "invitation", also spelt ''daawa'', ''dawah'', ''daawah'' or ''dakwah'') is the act of inviting or calling people to embrace Islam. The plural is ''da‘wāt'' (دَعْوات) or ''da‘awāt'' (دَعَوات). For certai ...
and number of converts to
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or ex ...
.
Qutb-ud-din Aybak Qutb al-Din Aibak (1150-1210) was a general of the Ghurid Empire, Ghurid king Muhammad of Ghor, Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad Ghori. He was in-charge of the Ghurid territories in northern India, and after Mu'izz ad-Din's death, he became the ruler of an ...
conquered Delhi in 1206 and began the reign of the
Delhi Sultanate The Delhi Sultanate was an Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see int ...
, a successive series of dynasties that synthesized Indian civilization with the wider commercial and cultural networks of Africa and Eurasia, greatly increased demographic and economic growth in India and deterred Mongol incursion into the prosperous
Indo-Gangetic Plain #REDIRECT Indo-Gangetic Plain#REDIRECT Indo-Gangetic Plain Image:India-Pakistan Borderlands at Night.JPG, 250px, Clusters of yellow lights on the Indo-Gangetic Plain reveal numerous cities large and small in this astronaut photograph of norther ...

Indo-Gangetic Plain
and enthroned one of the few female Muslim rulers,
Razia Sultana Sultan Raziyyat-Ud-Dunya Wa Ud-Din (died 15 October 1240, ), popularly known as Razia Sultana, was a ruler of the Delhi Sultanate The Delhi Sultanate was an Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "subm ...
. Notable major empires dominated by Muslims, such as those of the
Abbasids The Abbasid Caliphate ( or ar, اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّةُ, ') was the third caliphate A caliphate or khilāfah ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an institution or public office governing a territory under I ...

Abbasids
,
Fatimids The Fatimid Caliphate ( ar, ٱلْخِلَافَة ٱلْفَاطِمِيَّة , al-Ḫilāfa al-Fāṭimiyya) was an Isma'ilism, Ismaili Shia caliphate of the 10th to the 12th centuries AD. Spanning a large area of North Africa, it range ...

Fatimids
,
Almoravids The Almoravid dynasty ( ar, المرابطون, translit=Al-Murābiṭūn, lit=those from the ribats) was an imperial Berbers, Berber Muslim dynasty centered in Morocco. It established an empire in the 11th century that stretched over the west ...
,
Seljukids The Seljuk dynasty, or Seljuks ( ; fa, آل سلجوق ''Al-e Saljuq''), was an Oghuz Turkic Sunni Muslim dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n.''" Oxford Un ...
, Ajuran,
Adal Adal may refer to: *A short form for Germanic names in ''aþala-'' (Old High German ''adal-''), "nobility, pedigree"; see Othalan ** Adál Maldonado (born 1948), Puerto Rican artist **Adal Ramones (born 1969), Mexican television show host **Ad ...

Adal
and Warsangali in
Somalia Somalia,, Osmanya script: 𐒈𐒝𐒑𐒛𐒐𐒘𐒕𐒖; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe ''Federal Republic of Somalia'' is the country's name per Article 1 of thProvisional Constitutio ...

Somalia
,
Mughals The Mughal, Mogul, or Moghul Empire was an early modern The early modern period of modern history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of 's past. It is understood through , , , and , and since the , from and s. ...
in the Indian subcontinent (India,
Bangladesh Bangladesh (, bn, বাংলাদেশ, ), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-c ...

Bangladesh
,
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, fifth-most populous country, with a popul ...

Pakistan
e.t.c),
Safavid Safavid Iran or Safavid Persia (), also referred to as the Safavid Empire, '. was one of the greatest Iranian peoples, Iranian empires after the 7th-century Muslim conquest of Persia, ruled from 1501 to 1736 by the Safavid dynasty. It is often ...

Safavid
s in
Persia Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Tu ...

Persia
and
Ottomans The Ottoman Turks or Osmanlı Turks ( tr, Osmanlı Türkleri), were the Turkic people The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethnic groups of Central Asia, Central, East Asia, East, North Asia, North and West Asia as well as parts of Europe and ...
in
Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia and the westernmost protrusion of the Asian continent. It makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region ...
, were among the influential and distinguished powers in the world. 19th-century colonialism and 20th-century decolonisation have resulted in several independent Muslim-majority states around the world, with vastly differing attitudes towards and political influences granted to, or restricted for, Islam from country to country. These have revolved around the question of Islam's compatibility with other ideological concepts such as
secularism Secularism is the principle of seeking to conduct human affairs based on secular Secularity, also the secular or secularness (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languag ...
,
nationalism Nationalism is an idea and movement that holds that the nation A nation is a community A community is a social unitThe term "level of analysis" is used in the social sciences to point to the location, size, or scale of a research target ...
(especially Arab nationalism and
Pan-Arabism Pan-Arabism ( ar, الوحدة العربية or ) is an ideology that espouses the unification of the countries of North Africa North Africa or Northern Africa is a region encompassing the northern portion of the African continent. There is ...
, as opposed to
Pan-Islamism Pan-Islamism ( ar, الوحدة الإسلامية) is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political) ...
),
socialism Socialism is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations between individuals, ...
(see also
Arab socialism Arab socialism ( ar, الإشتِراكيّة العربية, Al-Ishtirākīya Al-‘Arabīya) is a political ideology based on the combination of pan-Arabism and socialism Socialism is a Political philosophy, political, Social philosophy, ...
and socialism in Iran), democracy (see
Islamic democracy There exist a number of perspectives on the relationship of Islam and democracy among Islamic political theorists, the general Muslim public, and Western authors. In 2021, a number of Muslim majority countries The terms Muslim world and ...
),
republicanism Republicanism is a political ideology An ideology () is a set of belief A belief is an Attitude (psychology), attitude that something is the case, or that some proposition about the world is truth, true. In epistemology, philosophers use ...
(see also
Islamic republic An Islamic republic can be considered a sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of Institution ...
), liberalism and progressivism,
feminism Feminism is a range of social movement A social movement is a loosely organized effort by a large group of people to achieve a particular goal, typically a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting popu ...
,
capitalism Capitalism is an economic system An economic system, or economic order, is a system A system is a group of interacting Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another. The idea o ...
and more.


Classical culture

File:1541-Battle in the war between Shah Isma'il and the King of Shirvan-Shahnama-i-Isma'il.jpg,
Battle A battle is an occurrence of combat in warfare between opposing military units of any number or size. A war usually consists of multiple battles. In general, a battle is a military engagement that is well defined in duration, area, and force ...
between
Ismail Ishmael ''Ismaḗl''; Classical/Qur'anic Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of t ...

Ismail
of the
Safaviyya The Safavid order, also called the Safaviyya ( fa, صفویه), was a tariqa (Sufism, Sufi order) founded by the Kurds, KurdishShirvan Shirvan (from fa, شروان, translit=Shirvān; az, Şirvan; Tat: ''Şirvan''), also spelled as Sharvān, Shirwan, Shervan, Sherwan and Šervān, is a historical Iranian region in the eastern Caucasus The Caucasus (), or Caucasia (), i ...

Shirvan
,
Farrukh Yassar Farrukh Yasar ( fa, فرخ یسار) was the last independent Shirvanshah of Shirvan (1465–1500). In 1500, the first Safavid ruler, Ismail I, decisively defeated and killed Farrukh Yasar during his conquest of the area. Descendants of Farrukh ...
File:Shah Abbas I and Vali Muhammad Khan.jpg,
Shah Shah (; fa, شاه, Šâh or Šāh, , ) was a title given to the emperors and kings of Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa, جمهوری اسلامی ایران ), is ...

Shah
of
Safavid Empire Safavid Iran or Safavid Persia (), also referred to as the Safavid Empire, '. was one of the greatest Iranian peoples, Iranian empires after the 7th-century Muslim conquest of Persia, ruled from 1501 to 1736 by the Safavid dynasty. It is often ...
meet with Vali Muhammad Khan File:Mir Sayyid Ali - Portrait of a Young Indian Scholar.jpg, Mir Sayyid Ali, a scholar writing a commentary on the
Quran The Quran (, ; ar, القرآن , "the recitation"), also romanized Qur'an or Koran, is the central religious text Religious texts, also known as scripture, scriptures, holy writ, or holy books, are the texts which various religious t ...

Quran
, during the reign of the
Mughal Emperor The Mughal (or Moghul) emperors built and ruled the Mughal Empire The Mughal, Mogul, or Moghul Empire was an early modern The early modern period of modern history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, ...
Shah Jahan Shahab-ud-din Muhammad Khurram ( fa, ; 5 January 1592  – 30 January 1666), better known by his regnal name, Shah Jahan ( fa, ), was the fifth Mughal emperor of India, and reigned from 1628 to 1658. Under his reign, the Mughal Empire ...

Shah Jahan
File:Ottoman Dynasty, Portrait of a Painter, Reign of Mehmet II (1444-1481).jpg, Portrait of a painter during the reign of
Ottoman Ottoman is the Turkish spelling of the Arabic masculine given name Uthman (name), Uthman (Arabic: عُثْمان ''‘uthmān''). It may refer to: Governments and dynasties * Ottoman Caliphate, an Islamic caliphate from 1517 to 1924 * Ottoman Empi ...
Sultan Sultan (; ar, سلطان ', ) is a position with several historical meanings. Originally, it was an Arabic abstract noun A noun () is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phone ...

Sultan
Mehmet II Mehmed II ( ota, محمد ثانى, translit=Meḥmed-i s̱ānī; tr, II. Mehmed, ; 30 March 14323 May 1481), commonly known as Mehmed the Conqueror ( ota, ابو الفتح, Ebū'l-Fetḥ, lit=the Father of Conquest, links=no; tr, Fatih Su ...
File:6 Dust Muhammad. Portrait of Shah Abu'l Ma‘ali. ca. 1556 Aga Khan Collection.jpg, A
Persia Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Tu ...

Persia
n miniature of Shah Abu'l Ma‘ali, a scholar File:DiezAlbumsStudyingTheKoran.jpg,
Ilkhanate The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate ( fa, ایل خانان, ''Ilxānān''), known to the Mongols as ''Hülegü Ulus'' ( mn, Хүлэгийн улс, , ''Qulug-un Ulus'') was a khanate A khaganate or khanate was a political entity rul ...

Ilkhanate
Empire ruler,
Ghazan Mahmud Ghazan (5 November 1271 – 11 May 1304) (, Ghazan Khan, sometimes archaically spelled as Casanus by the Westerners) was the seventh ruler of the Mongol Empire's Ilkhanate division in modern-day Iran from 1295 to 1304. He was the son of A ...
, studying the
Quran The Quran (, ; ar, القرآن , "the recitation"), also romanized Qur'an or Koran, is the central religious text Religious texts, also known as scripture, scriptures, holy writ, or holy books, are the texts which various religious t ...

Quran
File:Laila and Majnun in School, New-York.jpg,
Layla and Majnun ''Layla & Majnun'' ( fa, لیلی و مجنون ar, مجنون ليلى , 'Layla's Mad Lover';) is an old story of Arabic origin, about the 7th-century Najdi Arabic, Najdi Bedouin poet Qays ibn al-Mulawwah and his ladylove Layla bint Mahd ...

Layla and Majnun
studying together, from a
Persian miniature A Persian miniature (Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated with the Iranian people ...
painting
The term "
Islamic Golden Age The Islamic Golden Age was a period of cultural, economic, and scientific flourishing in the history of Islam The history of Islam concerns the political, social, economic, and cultural developments of Muslim world, Islamic civilization. M ...
" has been attributed to a period in history wherein
science Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is something that is truth, true. The usual test for a statement of ...
, economic development and cultural works in most of the Muslim-dominated world flourished.
George SalibaGeorge Saliba (Arabic: جورج صليبا) is a Lebanese-American Professor Professor (commonly abbreviated as Prof.) is an Academy, academic rank at university, universities and other post-secondary education and research institutions in mos ...
(1994), ''A History of Arabic Astronomy: Planetary Theories During the Golden Age of Islam'', pp. 245, 250, 256–7.
New York University Press New York University Press (or NYU Press) is a university press that is part of New York University. History NYU Press was founded in 1916 by the then chancellor of NYU, Elmer Ellsworth Brown. Directors * Arthur Huntington Nason, 1916–1932 * ...
, .
The age is traditionally understood to have begun during the reign of the
Abbasid The Abbasid Caliphate ( or ar, اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّةُ, ') was the third caliphate A caliphate ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an Islamic state under the leadership of an Islam Islam (;There ar ...

Abbasid
caliph
Harun al-Rashid Harun al-Rashid (; ar, هَارُون الرَشِيد ''Hārūn Ar-Rašīd'', "Aaron the Just" or "Aaron the Rightly-Guided"; 17 March 763 or February 766 – 24 March 809 Common Era, CE / 148–193 Hijri year, AH) was the fifth Abbasid C ...
(786–809) with the inauguration of the
House of Wisdom The House of Wisdom ( ar, بيت الحكمة, Bayt al-Ḥikmah), also known as the Grand Library of Baghdad, refers to either a major Abbasid Caliphate, Abbasid public academy and intellectual center in Baghdad or to a large private library be ...
in
Baghdad Baghdad (; ar, بَغْدَاد ) is the capital of Iraq Iraq ( ar, الْعِرَاق, translit=al-ʿIrāq; ku, عێراق, translit=Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku, ...

Baghdad
, where scholars from various parts of the world sought to translate and gather all the known world's knowledge into Arabic, and to have ended with the collapse of the Abbasid caliphate due to
Mongol invasions The Mongol invasions and conquests took place during the 13th and 14th centuries, creating history's largest contiguous empire - The Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire of the 13th and 14th centuries was the List of largest empires, largest conti ...
and the Siege of Baghdad in 1258. The Abbasids were influenced by the Quranic injunctions and hadiths, such as "the ink of a scholar is more holy than the blood of a martyr," that stressed the value of knowledge. The major Islamic capital cities of Baghdad,
Cairo Cairo ( ; ar, القاهرة, al-Qāhirah, , Coptic Coptic may refer to: Afro-Asia * Copts, an ethnoreligious group mainly in the area of modern Egypt but also in Sudan and Libya * Coptic language, a Northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in E ...

Cairo
, and Córdoba became the main intellectual centers for science, philosophy, medicine, and education. During this period, the Muslim world was a collection of cultures; they drew together and advanced the knowledge gained from the ancient Ancient Greece, Greek, Ancient Rome, Roman, Persian Empire, Persian, History of China, Chinese, History of India, Indian, Ancient Egypt, Egyptian, and Phoenician civilizations.Vartan Gregorian, "Islam: A Mosaic, Not a Monolith", Brookings Institution Press, 2003, pp. 26–38


Ceramics

Between the 8th and 18th centuries, the use of ceramic glaze was prevalent in Islamic art, usually assuming the form of elaborate pottery. Tin-glazing, Tin-opacified glazing was one of the earliest new technologies developed by the Islamic potters. The first Islamic opaque glazes can be found as blue-painted ware in Basra, dating to around the 8th century. Another contribution was the development of fritware, originating from 9th-century Iraq. Other centers for innovative ceramic pottery in the Old world included Fustat (from 975 to 1075), Damascus (from 1100 to around 1600) and Tabriz (from 1470 to 1550).


Literature

File:Brooklyn Museum - Manuscript of the Hadiqat al-Su`ada (Garden of the Blessed) of Fuzuli - Muhammad bin Sulayman known as Fuzuli2.jpg, ''Hadiqatus-suada'' by Oghuz Turks, Oghuz Turkic poet Fuzûlî File:Princess Parizade Bringing Home the Singing Tree.jpg, The story of ''Princess Parizade'' and the ''Magic Tree''. File:Cassim (cropped).jpg, ''Cassim in the Cave'' by Maxfield Parrish. File:Vasnetsov samolet.jpg, The Magic carpet. The best known work of fiction from the Islamic world is ''One Thousand and One Nights'' (In Persian: ''hezār-o-yek šab'' > Arabic: ''ʔalf-layl-at-wa-l’-layla''= One thousand Night and (one) Night) or *''Arabian Nights'', a name invented by early Western translators, which is a compilation of Folklore, folk tales from Sanskrit, Persian, and later Arabian fables. The original concept is derived from a pre-Islamic Persian prototype ''Hezār Afsān'' (Thousand Fables) that relied on particular Sanskrit literature, Indian elements. It reached its final form by the 14th century; the number and type of tales have varied from one manuscript to another.Grant & Clute, p. 51 All Arabian fantasy tales tend to be called ''Arabian Nights'' stories when translated into English, regardless of whether they appear in ''The Book of One Thousand and One Nights'' or not. This work has been very influential in the West since it was translated in the 18th century, first by Antoine Galland. Imitations were written, especially in France.Grant & Clute, p 52 Various characters from this epic have themselves become cultural icons in Western culture, such as Aladdin, Sinbad the Sailor and Ali Baba. A famous example of Arabic poetry and Persian literature, Persian poetry on romance (love) is ''
Layla and Majnun ''Layla & Majnun'' ( fa, لیلی و مجنون ar, مجنون ليلى , 'Layla's Mad Lover';) is an old story of Arabic origin, about the 7th-century Najdi Arabic, Najdi Bedouin poet Qays ibn al-Mulawwah and his ladylove Layla bint Mahd ...

Layla and Majnun
'', dating back to the Umayyad era in the 7th century. It is a Tragedy, tragic story of undying love. Ferdowsi's ''Shahnameh'', the national epic of Greater Iran, is a mythical and heroic retelling of History of Greater Iran, Persian history. ''Amir Arsalan'' was also a popular mythical Persian story, which has influenced some modern works of fantasy fiction, such as ''The Heroic Legend of Arslan''. Ibn Tufail (Abubacer) and Ibn al-Nafis were pioneers of the Philosophical fiction, philosophical novel. Ibn Tufail wrote the first Arabic novel ''Hayy ibn Yaqdhan'' (''Philosophus Autodidactus'') as a response to Al-Ghazali's ''The Incoherence of the Philosophers'', and then Ibn al-Nafis also wrote a novel ''Ibn al-Nafis#Theologus Autodidactus, Theologus Autodidactus'' as a response to Ibn Tufail's ''Philosophus Autodidactus''. Both of these narratives had protagonists (Hayy in ''Philosophus Autodidactus'' and Kamil in ''Theologus Autodidactus'') who were Autodidacticism, autodidactic feral children living in seclusion on a desert island, both being the earliest examples of a desert island story. However, while Hayy lives alone with animals on the desert island for the rest of the story in ''Philosophus Autodidactus'', the story of Kamil extends beyond the desert island setting in ''Theologus Autodidactus'', developing into the earliest known coming of age plot and eventually becoming the first example of a science fiction novel. ''Theologus Autodidactus'', written by the Arab people, Arabian polymath Ibn al-Nafis (1213–1288), is the first example of a science fiction novel. It deals with various science fiction elements such as Abiogenesis, spontaneous generation, futurology, the Eschatology, end of the world and doomsday, resurrection, and the afterlife. Rather than giving supernatural or mythological explanations for these events, Ibn al-Nafis attempted to explain these plot elements using the Science in the medieval Islamic world, scientific knowledge of Medicine in the medieval Islamic world, biology, Astronomy in medieval Islam, astronomy, Cosmology in medieval Islam, cosmology and Geography and cartography in medieval Islam, geology known in his time. Ibn al-Nafis' fiction explained Islamic religious teachings via science and Islamic philosophy.Dr. Abu Shadi Al-Roubi (1982), "Ibn Al-Nafis as a philosopher", ''Symposium on Ibn al Nafis'', Second International Conference on Islamic Medicine: Islamic Medical Organization, Kuwait (cf.]
Ibnul-Nafees As a Philosopher
, ''Encyclopedia of Islamic World'').
A Latin translation of Ibn Tufail's work, ''Philosophus Autodidactus'', first appeared in 1671, prepared by Edward Pococke the Younger, followed by an English translation by Simon Ockley in 1708, as well as German and Dutch translations. These translations might have later inspired Daniel Defoe to write ''Robinson Crusoe'', regarded as the first novel in English.Amber Haque (2004), "Psychology from Islamic Perspective: Contributions of Early Muslim Scholars and Challenges to Contemporary Muslim Psychologists", ''Journal of Religion and Health'' 43 (4): 357–77 [369].Martin Wainwright
Desert island scripts
, ''The Guardian'', 22 March 2003.
''Philosophus Autodidactus'', continuing the thoughts of philosophers such as Aristotle from earlier ages, inspired Robert Boyle to write his own philosophical novel set on an island, ''The Aspiring Naturalist''. Dante Alighieri's ''Divine Comedy'', derived features of and episodes about ''hell, Bolgia'' from Arabic works on Islamic eschatology: the ''Hadith'' and the ''Kitab al-Miraj'' (translated into Latin in 1264 or shortly beforeI. Heullant-Donat and M.-A. Polo de Beaulieu, "Histoire d'une traduction," in ''Le Livre de l'échelle de Mahomet'', Latin edition and French translation by Gisèle Besson and Michèle Brossard-Dandré, Collection ''Lettres Gothiques'', Le Livre de Poche, 1991, p. 22 with note 37. as ''Liber Scale Machometi'') concerning the Isra and Mi'raj, ascension to Heaven of Muhammad, and the spiritual writings of Ibn Arabi. The Moors also had a noticeable influence on the works of George Peele and William Shakespeare. Some of their works featured Moorish characters, such as Peele's ''The Battle of Alcazar'' and Shakespeare's ''The Merchant of Venice'', ''Titus Andronicus'' and ''Othello'', which featured a Moorish Othello (character), Othello as its title character. These works are said to have been inspired by several Moorish delegations from Morocco to Elizabethan era, Elizabethan England at the beginning of the 17th century.


Philosophy

One of the common definitions for "Islamic philosophy" is "the style of philosophy produced within the framework of Islamic culture.""Islamic Philosophy"
, ''Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy'' (1998)
Islamic philosophy, in this definition is neither necessarily concerned with religious issues, nor is exclusively produced by Muslims. The Iranian peoples, Persian scholar Avicenna, Ibn Sina (Avicenna) (980–1037) had more than 450 books attributed to him. His writings were concerned with various subjects, most notably philosophy and medicine. His medical textbook ''The Canon of Medicine'' was used as the standard text in European universities for centuries. He also wrote ''The Book of Healing'', an influential scientific and philosophical encyclopedia. One of the most influential Muslim philosophers in the West was Averroes (Ibn Rushd), founder of the Averroism school of philosophy, whose works and commentaries affected the rise of secularism, secular thought in Europe.Majid Fakhry (2001). ''Averroes: His Life, Works and Influence''. Oneworld Publications. . He also developed the concept of "existence precedes essence". Another figure from the
Islamic Golden Age The Islamic Golden Age was a period of cultural, economic, and scientific flourishing in the history of Islam The history of Islam concerns the political, social, economic, and cultural developments of Muslim world, Islamic civilization. M ...
, Avicenna, also founded his own Avicennism school of philosophy, which was influential in both Islamic and Christian lands. He was also a critic of Organon, Aristotelian logic and founder of Avicennian logic, developed the concepts of empiricism and tabula rasa, and distinguished between essence and existence. Yet another influential philosopher who had an influence on modern philosophy was Ibn Tufail. His philosophical novel, ''Hayy ibn Yaqdha'', translated into Latin as ''Philosophus Autodidactus'' in 1671, developed the themes of empiricism, tabula rasa, nature versus nurture, condition of possibility, materialism, and Molyneux's problem. European scholars and writers influenced by this novel include John Locke, Gottfried Leibniz, Melchisédech Thévenot, John Wallis, Christiaan Huygens, George Keith (missionary), George Keith, Robert Barclay, the Quakers, and Samuel Hartlib.G. J. Toomer (1996), ''Eastern Wisedome and Learning: The Study of Arabic in Seventeenth-Century England'', p. 222, Oxford University Press, . Islamic philosophers continued making advances in philosophy through to the 17th century, when Mulla Sadra founded his school of Transcendent theosophy and developed the concept of existentialism. Other influential Muslim philosophers include al-Jahiz, a pioneer in evolutionary thought; Alhazen, Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen), a pioneer of Phenomenology (philosophy), phenomenology and the philosophy of science and a critic of Aristotelian physics, Aristotelian natural philosophy and Aristotle's concept of Location (geography), place (topos); Al-Biruni, a critic of Aristotelian natural philosophy; Ibn Tufail and Ibn al-Nafis, pioneers of the philosophical novel; Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi, founder of Illuminationism, Illuminationist philosophy; Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, a critic of Aristotelian logic and a pioneer of Inductive reasoning, inductive logic; and Ibn Khaldun, a pioneer in the philosophy of history.Dr. S.R.W. Akhtar (1997). "The Islamic Concept of Knowledge", ''Al-Tawhid: A Quarterly Journal of Islamic Thought & Culture'' 12 (3).


Sciences

Muslim scientists placed far greater emphasis on experiment than the Greeks. This led to an early scientific method being developed in the Muslim world, where progress in methodology was made, beginning with the experiments of Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) on optics from ''circa'' 1000, in his ''Book of Optics''. The most important development of the scientific method was the use of experiments to distinguish between competing scientific theories set within a generally empirical orientation, which began among List of Muslim scientists, Muslim scientists. Ibn al-Haytham is also regarded as the father of optics, especially for his empirical proof of the Visual perception#Early studies, intromission theory of light. Jim Al-Khalili stated in 2009 that Ibn al-Haytham is 'often referred to as the "world's first true scientist".' al-Khwarzimi's invented the log base systems that are being used today, he also contributed theorems in trigonometry as well as limits. Recent studies show that it is very likely that the Medieval Muslim artists were aware of advanced decagonal quasicrystal geometry (discovered half a millennium later in the 1970s and 1980s in the West) and used it in intricate decorative tilework in the architecture. Muslim physicians contributed to the field of medicine, including the subjects of anatomy and physiology: such as in the 15th-century Persian work by Mansur ibn Ilyas, Mansur ibn Muhammad ibn al-Faqih Ilyas entitled ''Tashrih al-badan'' (''Anatomy of the body'') which contained comprehensive diagrams of the body's structural, Nervous system, nervous and circulatory systems; or in the work of the Egyptian physician Ibn al-Nafis, who proposed the theory of pulmonary circulation. Avicenna's ''The Canon of Medicine'' remained an authoritative medical textbook in Europe until the 18th century. Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (also known as ''Abulcasis'') contributed to the discipline of medical surgery with his ''Al-Tasrif, Kitab al-Tasrif'' ("Book of Concessions"), a medical encyclopedia which was later translated to Latin and used in European and Muslim medical schools for centuries. Other medical advancements came in the fields of pharmacology and pharmacy. In astronomy, Muḥammad ibn Jābir al-Ḥarrānī al-Battānī improved the precision of the measurement of the precession of the Axial tilt, Earth's axis. The corrections made to the geocentric model by al-Battani, Averroes, Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, Mu'ayyad al-Din al-'Urdi and Ibn al-Shatir were later incorporated into the Copernican heliocentrism, Copernican heliocentric model. Heliocentrism, Heliocentric theories were also discussed by several other List of Muslim astronomers, Muslim astronomers such as Al-Biruni, Al-Sijzi, Qotb al-Din Shirazi, and Najm al-Dīn al-Qazwīnī al-Kātibī. The astrolabe, though originally developed by the Greeks, was perfected by Islamic astronomers and engineers, and was subsequently brought to Europe. Some most famous scientists from the medieval Islamic world include Jābir ibn Hayyān, al-Farabi, Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi, Ibn al-Haytham, Al-Biruni, Avicenna, Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, and Ibn Khaldun.


Technology

In technology, the Muslim world adopted papermaking from China. The knowledge of gunpowder was also transmitted from China via predominantly Islamic countries, where formulas for pure potassium nitrateAhmad Y. al-Hassan
Gunpowder Composition for Rockets and Cannon in Arabic Military Treatises In Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries
, ''History of Science and Technology in Islam''.
were developed. Advances were made in irrigation and farming, using new technology such as the windmill. Crops such as almonds and citrus fruit were brought to Europe through al-Andalus, and sugar cultivation was gradually adopted by the Europeans. Arab merchants dominated trade in the Indian Ocean until the arrival of the Portuguese in the 16th century. Ormus, Hormuz was an important center for this trade. There was also a dense network of trade routes in the Mediterranean Sea, Mediterranean, along which Muslim-majority countries traded with each other and with European powers such as Venice, Genoa and Catalonia. The Silk Road crossing Central Asia passed through Islamic states between China and Europe. The emergence of major economic empires with technological resources after the conquests of Timur (Tamerlane) and the resurgence of the Timurid Renaissance include the Mali Empire and the India's Bengal Sultanate in particular, a major global trading nation in the world, described by the Europeans to be the "richest country to trade with". Muslim engineers in the Islamic world made a number of innovative industrial uses of hydropower, and early industrial uses of tidal power and wind power, fossil fuels such as petroleum, and early large factory complexes (''tiraz'' in Arabic). The industrial uses of watermills in the Islamic world date back to the 7th century, while horizontal-Water wheel, wheeled and vertical-wheeled water mills were both in widespread use since at least the 9th century. A variety of industrial mills were being employed in the Islamic world, including early fulling mills, gristmills, paper mills, Rice huller, hullers, sawmills, ship mills, stamp mills, steel mills, Sugar refinery, sugar mills, tide mills and windmills. By the 11th century, every province throughout the Islamic world had these industrial mills in operation, from al-Andalus and North Africa to the Middle East and Central Asia.Adam Robert Lucas (2005), "Industrial Milling in the Ancient and Medieval Worlds: A Survey of the Evidence for an Industrial Revolution in Medieval Europe", ''Technology and Culture'' 46 (1), pp. 1–30 [10]. Muslim engineers also invented crankshafts and water turbines, employed gears in mills and water-raising machines, and pioneered the use of dams as a source of water power, used to provide additional power to watermills and water-raising machines.Ahmad Y. al-Hassan
Transfer Of Islamic Technology To The West, Part II: Transmission Of Islamic Engineering
Such advances made it possible for industrial tasks that were previously driven by manual labour in Ancient history, ancient times to be Mechanization, mechanized and driven by machinery instead in the medieval Islamic world. The transfer of these technologies to medieval Europe had an influence on the Industrial Revolution, particularly from the proto-industrialization, proto-industrialised Mughal Bengal and Tipu Sultan's Kingdom, through the conquests of the East India Company.


Gunpowder empires

Scholars often use the term Age of the Islamic Gunpowders to describe period the Safavid Empire, Safavid,
Ottoman Ottoman is the Turkish spelling of the Arabic masculine given name Uthman (name), Uthman (Arabic: عُثْمان ''‘uthmān''). It may refer to: Governments and dynasties * Ottoman Caliphate, an Islamic caliphate from 1517 to 1924 * Ottoman Empi ...
and Mughal Empire, Mughal states. Each of these three empires had considerable military exploits using the newly developed firearms, especially cannon and small arms, to create their empires. They existed primarily between the fourteenth and the late seventeenth centuries. During the 17th–18th centuries, when the Indian subcontinent was ruled by Mughal Empire's sixth ruler Aurangzeb, Muhammad Auranzgeb through sharia and Islamic economics, India became the world's largest economy, valued 25% of world GDP, having better conditions to 18th-century Western Europe, prior to the Industrial Revolution, causing the emergence of the period of proto-industrialization. File:Canonnier Persan. Auguste Wahlen. Moeurs, usages et costumes de tous les peuples du monde. 1843.jpg,
Safavid Empire Safavid Iran or Safavid Persia (), also referred to as the Safavid Empire, '. was one of the greatest Iranian peoples, Iranian empires after the 7th-century Muslim conquest of Persia, ruled from 1501 to 1736 by the Safavid dynasty. It is often ...
's Zamburak. File:Bullocks dragging siege-guns up hill during the attack on Ranthambhor Fort.jpg, Bullocks dragging siege-guns up hill during
Mughal Emperor The Mughal (or Moghul) emperors built and ruled the Mughal Empire The Mughal, Mogul, or Moghul Empire was an early modern The early modern period of modern history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, ...
Akbar's Siege of Ranthambore (1568), Siege of Ranthambore Fort in 1568. File:The capture of Orchha by imperial forces (October 1635).jpg, The Mughal Army under the command of Islamist Aurangzeb recaptures Orchha in October 1635. File:OttomanJanissariesAndDefendingKnightsOfStJohnSiegeOfRhodes1522.jpg, Gun-wielding Ottoman Janissary, Janissaries in combat against the Knights Hospitaller, Knights of Saint John at the Siege of Rhodes (1522), Siege of Rhodes in 1522. File:Ottoman and Acehnese guns after the Dutch conquest of Aceh in 1874 Illustrated London News.jpg, Cannons and guns belonging to the Aceh Sultanate (in modern Indonesia).


Great Divergence

The Great Divergence was the reason why European colonial powers militarily defeated preexisting Oriental powers like the Mughal Empire, starting from the wealthy Bengal Subah, Tipu Sultan's Kingdom of Mysore, the Ottoman Empire and many smaller states in the pre-modern Greater Middle East, and initiated a period known as 'colonialism'. File:Shah Alam II, Mughal emperor of india, reviewing the East India Companys troops.jpg,
Mughal Emperor The Mughal (or Moghul) emperors built and ruled the Mughal Empire The Mughal, Mogul, or Moghul Empire was an early modern The early modern period of modern history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, ...
Shah Alam II negotiates with the East India Company after being defeated during the Battle of Buxar. File:Clive.jpg, East India Company's Robert Clive meeting the Nawabs of Bengal before the Battle of Plassey File:January Suchodolski - Ochakiv siege.jpg, Siege of Ochakov (1788), an armed conflict between the Ottoman Empire, Ottomans and the Russian Tsardom. File:Сражение под Елисаветполем.jpeg, Combat during the Russo-Persian War (1722–23), Russo-Persian Wars). File:Bataille du mont-thabor.jpg, French campaign in Egypt and Syria against the Mamluks and Ottomans


Colonialism

Beginning with the 15th century, colonialism by European powers profoundly affected Muslim-majority societies in Africa, Europe, the Middle East and Asia. Colonialism was often advanced by conflict with mercantile initiatives by colonial powers and caused tremendous social upheavals in Muslim-dominated societies. A number of Muslim-majority societies reacted to Western powers with zealotry and thus initiating the rise of
Pan-Islamism Pan-Islamism ( ar, الوحدة الإسلامية) is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political) ...
; or affirmed more traditionalist and inclusive cultural ideals; and in rare cases adopted modernity that was ushered by the colonial powers. The only Muslim-majority regions not to be colonized by the Europeans were Saudi Arabia, Iran, Turkey, and Afghanistan. Turkey was one of the first colonial powers of the world with the Ottoman empire ruling several states for over 6 centuries. File:Reprise Buda 1686.jpg, The Christian reconquest of Buda, Ottoman Hungary, 1686, painted by Frans Geffels File:Nicolaas Pieneman - The Submission of Prince Dipo Negoro to General De Kock.jpg, The submission of Diponegoro to Hendrik Merkus de Kock, General De Kock at the end of the Java War in 1830 File:Vernet-Combat de Somah.jpg, French conquest of Algeria (1830–1857) File:Battle of Omdurman.jpg, Anglo-Egyptian invasion of Sudan 1896–1899 File:1 5 Campaña Africa 1909.jpg, The Second Melillan campaign, Melilla War between Spain and Riffian people, Rif Berbers of Morocco in 1909


Postcolonial era

In the 20th century, the end of the European colonial domination has led to creation of a number of nation states with significant Muslim populations. These states drew on Islamic traditions to varying degree and in various ways in organizing their legal, educational and economic systems. A significant change in the Muslim world was the Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, defeat and dissolution of the Ottoman Empire (1908–1922), to which the Ottoman officer and Turkish National Movement, Turkish revolutionary statesman Mustafa Kemal Atatürk had an instrumental role in ending and replacing it with the Republic of Turkey, a Modernity, modern, secular democracy (see Abolition of the Ottoman sultanate). The Secularism in Turkey, secular values of Kemalism, Kemalist Turkey, which Separation of church and state, separated religion from the state with the abolition of the Caliphate in 1924, have sometimes been seen as the result of Western influence. In the 21st century, after the September 11 attacks (2001) coordinated by the Wahhabism, Wahhabi Islamism, Islamist Islamic terrorism, terrorist group Al-Qaeda against the United States, scholars considered the ramifications of seeking to understand Muslim experience through the framework of secular Western world#Enlightenment (17th-18th centuries), Enlightenment principles. Muhammad Atta, one of the Hijackers in the September 11 attacks, 11 September hijackers, reportedly quoted from the
Quran The Quran (, ; ar, القرآن , "the recitation"), also romanized Qur'an or Koran, is the central religious text Religious texts, also known as scripture, scriptures, holy writ, or holy books, are the texts which various religious t ...

Quran
to allay his fears: "Fight them, and God will chastise them at your hands/And degrade them, and He will help you/Against them, and bring healing to the breasts of a people who believe", referring to the ''ummah'', the community of Muslim believers, and invoking the imagery of the early warriors of Islam who lead the faithful from the darkness of ''jahiliyyah''. By Sayyid Qutb's definition of
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or ex ...
, the faith is "a complete divorce from jahiliyyah". He complained that American churches served as centers of community social life that were "very hard [to] distinguish from places of fun and amusement". For Qutb, Western society was the modern ''jahliliyyah''. His understanding of the "Muslim world" and its "social order" was that, presented to the Western world as the result of practicing Islamic teachings, would impress "by the beauty and charm of true Islamic ideology". He argued that the values of the Enlightenment and its related precursor, the Scientific Revolution, "denies or suspends God's sovereignty on earth" and argued that strengthening "Islamic character" was needed "to abolish the negative influences of ''jahili'' life."


Geography

According to a 2010 study and released January 2011, Islam had 1.5 billion adherents, making up c. 22% of the world population. Because the terms 'Muslim world' and 'Islamic world' are disputed, since no country is homogeneously Muslim, and there is no way to determine at what point a Muslim minority in a country is to be considered 'significant' enough, there is no consensus on how to define the Muslim world geographically. The only rule of thumb for inclusion which has some support, is that countries need to have a Muslim population of more than 50%. According to the Pew Research Center in 2015 there were 50 List of Muslim-majority countries, Muslim-majority countries. Jones (2005) defines a "large minority" as being between 30% and 50%, which described nine countries in 2000, namely Bosnia and Herzegovina, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kazakhstan, Nigeria, North Macedonia, and Tanzania. Islam is the second largest religion in numerous other countries, including: Serbia, Romania, Bulgaria, North Macedonia, Georgia, Israel, India, Thailand, Cambodia, the Philippines, Mozambique, Malawi, Tanzania, Uganda, Burundi, Kenya, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Central African Republic, Gabon, Cameroon, Benin, Togo, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Liberia and Guinea-Bissau.


Government

In its list of Islamic countries of the world, WorldAtlas identifies six major Islamic states, meaning countries that base their systems of government on Sharia, Sharia law: Iran, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Afghanistan, Mauritania, and Yemen. Other countries not considered Islamic states, but which politically define Islam as the state religion, are listed as: Egypt, Jordan, Iraq, Kuwait, Algeria, Malaysia, Maldives, Morocco, Libya, Tunisia, the United Arab Emirates, Somalia, and Brunei. It is noted that Libya also has 18 other official state religions. Neutral Muslim majority countries, in which Islam is not the state religion, are: Niger, Indonesia, Sudan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Sierra Leone, and Djibouti. Countries with a majority of Muslims, that have declared an official separation of religion and state, are listed as secular Muslim majority countries: Albania, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Chad, The Gambia, Guinea, Kazakhstan, Kosovo, Kyrgyzstan, Mali, Northern Cyprus, Nigeria, Senegal, Syria, Lebanon, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Turkey, and Uzbekistan.


Religion and state

As the Muslim world came into contact with Secularism, secular ideals, societies responded in different ways. Some Muslim-majority countries are secular. Azerbaijan became the first secular republic in the Muslim world, between 1918 and 1920, before it was incorporated into the Soviet Union. Turkey has been governed as a secular state since the reforms of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. By contrast, the 1979 Iranian Revolution replaced a monarchial semi-secular regime with an
Islamic republic An Islamic republic can be considered a sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of Institution ...
led by the Ayatollah, Ruhollah Khomeini. Some countries have declared Islam as the official state religion. In those countries, the legal code is largely secular. Only personal status matters pertaining to inheritance and marriage are governed by Sharia law.


Islamic states

Islamic states have adopted Islam as the ideological foundation of state and constitution. * * * * * * *


State religion

The following List of Muslim-majority countries, Muslim-majority nation-states have endorsed Islam as their state religion, and though they may guarantee freedom of religion for citizens, do not declare a separation of state and religion: * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *


Unclear or no declaration

These are neutral states where the constitutional or official announcement regarding status of religion is not clear or unstated. * * * * *


Secular states

Secular states in the Muslim world have declared separation between civil/government affairs and religion. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *


Law and ethics

In some states, Muslim ethnic groups enjoy considerable autonomy. In some places, Muslims implement Islamic law, called sharia in Arabic. The Islamic law exists in a number of variations, called Madh'hab, schools of jurisprudence. The Amman Message, which was endorsed in 2005 by prominent Islamic scholars around the world, recognized four
Sunni Sunni Islam () is by far the largest branch Image:Tree Leaves.JPG, The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany as a ramus) is a woody structural member connected to but not part o ...
schools (Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i, Hanbali), two
Shia Shia Islam or Shi'ism is the second largest Islamic schools and branches, branch of Islam. It holds that the Prophets and messengers in Islam, Islamic prophet Muhammad in Islam, Muhammad designated Ali, Ali ibn Abi Talib as his Succession to Mu ...
schools (Ja'fari jurisprudence, Ja'fari, Zaidiyyah, Zaidi), the Ibadi school, and the Zahiri school. * Hanafi school in Pakistan, North India, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Turkey, Albania, Kosovo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, other Balkan States, Lower Egypt, Spain, Canada, Jordan, Lebanon, Iraq, Russia, Caucasus Republics, China, and Central Asian Republics. * Maliki in North Africa, West Africa, Sahel, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, and Kuwait. * Shafi'i in Malaysia, Indonesia, Brunei, Eritrea, Somalia, Yemen, Maldives, Sri Lanka, and South India * Hanbali in Saudi Arabia, * Ja'fari jurisprudence, Jaferi in Iran, Iraq, Bahrain and Azerbaijan. These four are the only "Muslim states" where the majority is Shia population. In Yemen, Pakistan, India, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Turkey, and Syria, are countries with Sunni populations. In Lebanon, the majority Muslims (54%) were about equally divided between Sunni and Shia in 2010. * Ibadi in Oman and small regions in North Africa. In a Hijab by country, number of Muslim-majority countries the law requires women to cover either their legs, shoulders and head, or the whole body apart from the face. In strictest forms, the face as well must be covered leaving just a mesh to see through. These List of types of sartorial hijab, hijab rules for dressing cause tensions, concerning particularly Muslims living in Western countries, where restrictions are considered both sexist and oppressive. Some Muslims oppose this charge, and instead declare that the media in these countries presses on women to reveal too much to be deemed attractive, and that this is itself sexist and oppressive.


Politics

During much of the 20th century, the Islamic identity and the dominance of Islam on political issues have arguably increased during the early 21st century. The fast-growing interests of the Western world in Islamic regions, international conflicts and globalization have changed the influence of Islam on the world in contemporary history.


Democracy and compulsion indexes

The Open Doors USA organization, in its 2012 survey of countries around the world that Persecution of Christians in the Muslim world, persecute Christians, listed 37 members of the Muslim world amongst the top 50 countries where Christians face the most severe persecution. 9 of the top 10 countries are Islamic-majority states.


Islamism


Islam-based intergovernmental organizations

The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) is an inter-governmental organization Member states of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, grouping fifty-seven states. 49 are Muslim-majority countries, the others have significant Muslim minorities. The organization claims to be the collective voice of the Muslim world to safeguard the interest and ensure the progress and well-being of their peoples and those of other Muslims in the world over.


Education

In most Muslim-majority countries, illiteracy is a problem, whereas in others literacy rates are high. In Egypt, the largest Muslim-majority Arab country, the youth female literacy rate exceeds that for males. Lower literacy rates are more prevalent in South Asian countries such as in Afghanistan and Pakistan, but are rapidly increasing. In the Eastern Middle East, Iran has a high level of youth literacy at 98%, whereas Iraq's youth literacy rate has sharply declined from 85% to 57%, during the American-led war and subsequent occupation. Indonesia, the largest Muslim-majority country in the world, has a very high youth literacy rate at 99%. In Afghanistan, seminaries are operated by politically active religious organizations and have taken the place of basic education not provided and funded by the government. A 2016 Pew Research Center study about religion and education around the world found that
Muslims Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", ...
have the lowest average levels of education after Hindus, with an average of 5.6 years of schooling. About 36% of all Muslims have no formal schooling, Muslims have also the lowest average levels of higher education of any major religious group, with only 8% having Academic degree, graduate and post-graduate degrees. The highest of years of schooling among Muslim-majority countries found in Uzbekistan (11.5), Kuwait (11.0) and Kazakhstan (10.7). In addition, the average of years of schooling in countries where Muslims are the majority is 6.0 years of schooling, which lag behind the global average (7.7 years of schooling). In the youngest age (25–34) group surveyed, Young Muslims have the lowest average levels of education of any major religious group, with an average of 6.7 years of schooling, which lag behind the global average (8.6 years of schooling). The study found that
Muslims Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", ...
have a significant amount of gender inequality in educational attainment, since Muslim women have an average of 4.9 years of schooling, compared to an average of 6.4 years of schooling among Muslim men. File:Schoolgirls in Bamozai.JPG, Young school girls in Paktia Province of Afghanistan. File:Niger_primary_school_MCC3500.jpg, A primary classroom in Niger. File:Girls lining up for class - Flickr - Al Jazeera English.jpg, Schoolgirls in Gaza City, Gaza lining up for class, 2009. File:Medical students before exam in saloon of moulages 1.JPG, Medical students of anatomy, before an exam in moulage, Iran


Literacy

The literacy rate in the Muslim world varies. Azerbaijan is in second place in the Index of Literacy of World Countries. Some members such as Iran, Kuwait, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan have over 97% literacy rates, whereas literacy rates are the lowest in Mali, Afghanistan, Chad and parts of Africa. In 2015, the International Islamic News Agency reported that nearly 37% of the population of the Muslim world is unable to read or write, basing that figure on reports from the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and the Islamic Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.


Scholarship

Several Muslim-majority countries like Turkey, Iran and
Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identi ...

Egypt
have a high rate of citable scientific publications.


Demographics

More than 24.1% of the world's population is Muslim. Current estimates conclude that the number of Muslims in the world is around 1.8 billion. Muslims are the majority in 49 countries, they speak hundreds of languages and come from diverse ethnic backgrounds. The city of Karachi has the largest Muslim population in the world.


Religion

The two main denominations of Islam are the Sunni and Shia sects. They differ primarily upon of how the life of the ummah ("faithful") should be governed, and the role of the imam. Sunnis believe that the true political successor of the Prophet according to the Sunnah should be selected based on ٍShura (consultation), as was done at Saqifah, the Saqifah which selected Abu Bakr, Muhammad's father-in-law, to be Muhammad's political but not his religious successor. Shia, on the other hand, believe that Muhammad designated his son-in-law Ali ibn Abi Talib as his true political as well as religious successor. The overwhelming majority of Muslims in the world, between 87 and 90%, are Sunni. Shias and other groups make up the rest, about 10–13% of overall Muslim population. The countries with the highest concentration of Shia populations are: Iran – 89%, Azerbaijan – 85%, Iraq – 60/70%, Bahrain – 70%, Yemen – 47%, Turkey – 28%, Lebanon – 27%, Syria – 17%, Afghanistan – 15%, Pakistan – 5%/10%, and India – 5%. The Kharijites, Kharijite Muslims, who are less known, have their own stronghold in the country of Oman holding about 75% of the population. File:Muslims perform the Eid Al-Adha prayer at Eyup Sultan Mosque 2019-08-11 21.jpg, Turkish Muslims at the Eyüp Sultan Mosque on Eid al-Adha File:عزاداری شیعیان در ماه محرم 02.jpg, Shi'a Muslims in Iran commemorate Ashura File:Saying Juma Namaz (Friday prayer for Muslims), Dhaka, Bangladesh NK.JPG, Friday prayer for Sunni Muslims in Dhaka, Bangladesh


Islamic schools and branches

The first centuries of Islam gave rise to three major Muslim sects, sects: Sunnis, Shi'as and Kharijites. Each sect developed distinct Islamic jurisprudence, jurisprudence schools (''madhhab'') reflecting different methodologies of jurisprudence (''fiqh''). The major Sunni madhhabs are Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i, and Hanbali. The major Shi'a branches are Twelver (Imami), Ismaili (Sevener) and Zaidiyyah, Zaidi (Fiver). Isma'ilism later split into Nizari Ismaili and Musta’li Ismaili, and then Mustaali was divided into Hafizi and Taiyabi Ismailis.Öz, Mustafa, ''Mezhepler Tarihi ve Terimleri Sözlüğü (The History of madh'habs and its terminology dictionary),'' Ensar Publications, İstanbul, 2011. It also gave rise to the Qarmatian movement and the Druze faith. Twelver Shiism developed Ja'fari jurisprudence whose branches are Akhbarism and Usulism, and other movements such as Alawites, Shaykism"Muhammad ibn Āliyy’ūl Cillī aqidah" of "Maymūn ibn Al-Tabarani, Abu’l-Qāsim Sulaiman ibn Ahmad ibn at-Tabarānī fiqh" (Sūlaiman Affandy, ''Al-Bākūrat’ūs Sūlaiman’īyyah – Family tree of the Nusayri Tariqat,'' pp. 14–15, Beirut, 1873.) and Alevism. Similarly, Kharijites were initially divided into five major branches: Sufris, Azariqa, Najdat, Adjarites and Ibadis. Among these numerous branches, only Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i, Hanbali, Imamiyyah-Ja'fari jurisprudence, Ja'fari-Usuli, Nizārī Ismā'īlī, Alevi, Zaidiyyah, Zaydi, Ibadi, Zahiri, Alawite, Druze and Taiyabi communities have survived. In addition, new schools of thought and movements like Quranist Muslims and Ahmadi Muslims later emerged independently. File:Drummer at Hamed el-Nil Mosque (8625532075).jpg, A Sufi dervish drums up the Friday afternoon crowd in Omdurman, Sudan File:Flickr - Government Press Office (GPO) - Nebi Shueib Festival.jpg, Druze dignitaries celebrating the Nabi Shu'ayb festival at the tomb of the prophet in Hittin File:Ghardaia01.jpg, Ibadis living in the M'zab valley in Algerian Sahara File:Sanaa street.jpg, Zaidiyyah, Zaydi Imams of Yemen, Imams ruled in Yemen until 1962 File:Hunza Valley Karimabad.jpg, Most of the inhabitants of the Hunza Valley in Pakistan are Ismaili Muslims


Refugees

According to the UNHCR, Muslim-majority countries hosted 18 million refugees by the end of 2010. Since then Muslim-majority countries have absorbed refugees from recent conflicts, including Syrian uprising (2011–present), the uprising in Syria. In July 2013, the UN stated that the number of Refugees of the Syrian civil war, Syrian refugees had exceeded 1.8 million. In Asia, an estimated 625,000 refugees from Rakhine, Myanmar, mostly Muslim, had crossed the border into
Bangladesh Bangladesh (, bn, বাংলাদেশ, ), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-c ...

Bangladesh
since August 2017.


Culture

Throughout history, Muslim cultures have been diverse ethnically, linguistically and regionally. According to Michael Muhammad Knight, M.M. Knight, this diversity includes diversity in beliefs, interpretations and practices and communities and interests. Knight says perception of Muslim world among non-Muslim is usually supported through introductory literature about Islam, mostly present a version as per scriptural view which would include some Islamic advice literature, prescriptive literature and abstracts of history as per authors own point of views, to which even many Muslims might agree, but that necessarily would not reflect Islam as lived on the ground, 'in the experience of real human bodies'.


Arts

The term "Islamic art and Islamic architecture, architecture" denotes the works of art and architecture produced from the 7th century onwards by people who lived within the territory that was inhabited by culturally Islamic populations.


Architecture


Aniconism

No Islamic visual images or depictions of God in Islam, God are meant to exist because it is believed that such artistic depictions may lead to idolatry. Moreover, Muslims believe that God is incorporeal, making any two- or three- dimensional depictions impossible. Instead, Muslims describe God by the Names of God in Islam, names and attributes that, according to Islam, he revealed to his creation. All but one sura of the Quran begins with the phrase "Basmala, In the name of God, the Beneficent, the Merciful". Images of Mohammed are likewise prohibited. Such aniconism and iconoclasm can also be found in Jewish and some Christian theology.


Arabesque

Islamic art frequently adopts the use of geometrical floral or vegetal designs in a repetition known as Arabesque (Islamic art), arabesque. Such designs are highly nonrepresentational, as Islam forbids representational depictions as found in Arabian mythology, pre-Islamic pagan religions. Despite this, there is a presence of depictional art in some Muslim societies, notably the Persian miniature, miniature style made famous in Achaemenid Empire, Persia and under the Ottoman Empire which featured paintings of people and animals, and also depictions of Quranic stories and Islamic traditional narratives. Another reason why Islamic art is usually abstract is to symbolize the transcendence, indivisible and infinite nature of God, an objective achieved by arabesque.Madden (1975), pp. 423–30 Islamic calligraphy is an omnipresent decoration in Islamic art, and is usually expressed in the form of Quranic verses. Two of the main scripts involved are the symbolic ''kufic'' and ''Naskh (script), naskh'' scripts, which can be found adorning the walls and domes of mosques, the sides of minbars, and so on. Distinguishing Motif (visual arts), motifs of Islamic architecture have always been ordered repetition, radiating structures, and rhythmic, metric patterns. In this respect, fractal geometry has been a key utility, especially for mosques and palaces. Other features employed as motifs include columns, Pier (architecture), piers and arches, organized and interwoven with alternating sequences of niches and colonnettes. The role of domes in Islamic architecture has been considerable. Its usage spans centuries, first appearing in 691 with the construction of the Dome of the Rock mosque, and recurring even up until the 17th century with the Taj Mahal. And as late as the 19th century, Islamic domes had been incorporated into European architecture. File:Interlaced-Triangles quasi-Arabesque Brunnian-link.svg, Example of an Arabesque File:Brunnian-link-12crossings-nonBorromean-quasi-Arabesque.svg, Example of an Arabesque File:Interlaced-Triangles Brunnian-link alternate.svg, Example of an Arabesque


Girih

File:Girih tiles.svg, Girih tiles File:Darbeimam subdivision rule.svg, The subdivision rule used to generate the Girih pattern on the spandrel. File:Girih compass straightedge example.svg, Girih pattern that can be drawn with Compass and straightedge constructions, compass and straight edge.


Islamic calligraphy

File:Kufic Quran, sura 7, verses 86-87.jpg, Kufic script from Uthman Qur'an, an early Qur'an manuscript, 7th century. (Surah 7: 86–87) File:Bismillah.svg, Bismallah calligraphy. File:Seven sleepers islam.jpg, Islamic calligraphy represented for amulet of sailors in the Ottoman Empire. File:Shiite Calligraphy symbolising Ali as Tiger of God.svg, Islamic calligraphy praising Ali. File:Planets by ibrahimabutouq.jpg, Modern Islamic calligraphy representing various planets.


Calendar

Two calendars are used all over the Muslim world. One is a lunar calendar that is most widely used among Muslims. The other one is a solar calendar officially used in Iran and Afghanistan.


Islamic lunar calendar


Solar Hijri calendar


Contemporary developments

File:Museum Islamic Art Doha 3470122137 354168dabf.jpg, Ceiling with Islamic patterns at the Museum of Islamic Art, Doha. File:Flag of the Red Crescent.svg, The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent, Red Crescent is recognized in 33 countries. File:Silk route.jpg, By the medieval era most of the countries on the Silk Road were Muslim majority. File:Muhammad yunus at weforum.jpg, Muhammad Yunus was awarded the Nobel Prize, for his concepts in Microcredit and Microfinance. As of 2015
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or ex ...
has 1.8 billion adherents, making up over 24.1% of the world population. Due to globalization,
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or ex ...
today has taken root and influenced cultures in places far from the traditional boundaries of the Muslim world.McAlister, Elizabeth. 2005
Globalization and the Religious Production of Space.
" Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, Vol. 44, No 3, September 2005. , 249–255.


Women

According to ''Riada Asimovic Akyol'' while Muslim women's experiences differs a lot by location and personal situations such as family upbringing, class and education; the difference between culture and religions is often ignored by community and state leaders in many of the Muslim majority countries, the key issue in the Muslim world regarding gender issues is that medieval religious texts constructed in highly patriarchal environments and based on biological essentialism are still valued highly in Islam; hence views emphasizing on men's superiority in unequal Gender roles in Islam, gender roles– are widespread among many conservative Muslims (men and women) . Orthodox Muslims often believe that rights and responsibilities of women in Islam are different than that of men and sacrosanct since assigned by the God. According to Asma Barlas patriarchal behaviour among Muslims is based in an ideology which jumbles sexual and biological differences with gender dualisms and inequality. Islamic Modernism, Modernist discourse of Liberalism and progressivism within Islam, liberal progressive movements like Islamic feminism have been revisiting hermeneutics of feminism in Islam in terms of respect for Muslim women's lives and rights. ''Riada Asimovic Akyol'' further says that equality for Muslim women needs to be achieved through self-criticism.


Gallery

File:Kazakh wedding 3.jpg, A Kazakhs, Kazakh wedding ceremony in a mosque File:COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Een marabout gaat voor in het gebed tijdens een naamgevingsfeest TMnr 20018270.jpg, A group of marabouts – West African religious leaders and teachers of the
Quran The Quran (, ; ar, القرآن , "the recitation"), also romanized Qur'an or Koran, is the central religious text Religious texts, also known as scripture, scriptures, holy writ, or holy books, are the texts which various religious t ...

Quran
. File:Muslim girls at Istiqlal Mosque jakarta.png, Muslim girls at Istiqlal Mosque, Jakarta, Istiqlal Mosque in Jakarta File:Chadian delegation.jpg, A tribal delegation in Chad File:Asosiasi Pelajar Islam Mengaji 02.jpg, Minangkabau people (Padang, Western Sumatra) reciting Al-Qur'an File:Trio of Muslim Girls in Street - Srimangal - Sylhet Division - Bangladesh (12950725824).jpg, Muslim girls walking for school in
Bangladesh Bangladesh (, bn, বাংলাদেশ, ), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-c ...

Bangladesh


See also

* Outline of Islam * Glossary of Islam * Index of Islam-related articles * Spread of Islam * Islam by country * Islamic studies * Islam and other religions *
Pan-Islamism Pan-Islamism ( ar, الوحدة الإسلامية) is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political) ...
* Islamic Military Alliance * Organisation of Islamic Cooperation


Notes


References


Citations


Bibliography

* * Graham, Mark, ''How Islam Created the Modern World'' (2006) * * * * * See https://www.researchgate.net/publication/290349218_The_political_algebra_of_global_value_change_General_models_and_implications_for_the_Muslim_world *Livny, Avital. Trust and the Islamic Advantage: Religious-Based Movements in Turkey and the Muslim World. United Kingdom, Cambridge University Press, 2020.


External links


The Islamic World to 1600
an online tutorial at the University of Calgary, Canada.
Is There a Muslim World?
on NPR

* [https://ideas.repec.org/b/erv/ebooks/b001.html Why Europe has to offer a better deal towards its Muslim communities. A quantitative analysis of open international data]
Indian Ocean in World History, A free online educational resource
{{DEFAULTSORT:Muslim World Cultural regions Islamic culture Pan-Islamism Historical regions Regions of Eurasia Regions of Africa Islam