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The Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science (german: Max-Planck-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften e. V.; abbreviated MPG) is a formally independent non-governmental and non-profit association of
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...

German
research institute A research institute, research centre, or research center is an establishment founded for doing research. Research institutes may specialize in basic research or may be oriented to applied research. Although the term often implies natural science ...
s. Founded in 1911 as the
Kaiser Wilhelm Society was first detected Image:Freie Universitaet Berlin - Fachbereich Rechtswissenschaft.jpg, Former Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut for Biology, Berlin The Kaiser Wilhelm Society for the Advancement of Science ( German ''Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft zur Förd ...
, it was renamed to the Max Planck Society in 1948 in honor of its former president, theoretical physicist
Max Planck Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, (; ; 23 April 1858 – 4 October 1947) was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citi ...

Max Planck
. The society is funded by the federal and state governments of Germany.


Mission

According to its primary goal, the Max Planck Society supports
fundamental research Basic research, also called pure research or fundamental research, is a type of scientific research The scientific method is an Empirical evidence, empirical method of acquiring knowledge that has characterized the development of science sinc ...
in the
natural Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, material world or universe The universe ( la, universus) is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and ...

natural
,
life Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities A bubble of exhaled gas in water In common usage and classical mechanics, a physical object or physical body (or simply an object or body) is a collection of matter within a ...
and
social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchange is voluntary/involuntary. Etymology The word "Social" derives fr ...

social
sciences,
the arts The arts refers to the theory, human application and physical expression of creativity Creativity is a phenomenon whereby something somehow new and somehow valuable is formed. The created item may be intangible (such as an idea, a scienti ...
and
humanities Humanities are List of academic disciplines, academic disciplines that study aspects of human society and culture. In the Renaissance, the term contrasted with Divinity (academic discipline), divinity and referred to what is now called classic ...

humanities
in its 86 (as of December 2018) Max Planck Institutes. The society has a total staff of approximately 17,000 permanent employees, including 5,470 scientists, plus around 4,600 non-tenured scientists and guests. The society's budget for 2018 was about
The euro sign () is the currency sign A currency symbol or currency sign is a graphic symbol used as a shorthand for a currency's name, especially in reference to amounts of money. Usage When writing currency amounts, the location of the sym ...
1.8 billion. As of December 31, 2018, the Max Planck Society employed a total of 23,767 staff, of whom 15,650 were scientists. 44.4% were female employees and 31.5% of all of the employees were foreign nationals. The Max Planck Society has a world-leading reputation as a science and technology research organization, with 37
Nobel Prize The Nobel Prizes ( ; sv, Nobelpriset ; no, Nobelprisen ) are five separate prizes that, according to Alfred Nobel Alfred Bernhard Nobel ( , ; 21 October 1833 – 10 December 1896) was a Swedish chemist, engineer, inventor, busines ...
s awarded to their scientists, and is widely regarded as one of the foremost basic research organizations in the world. In 2020, the
Nature IndexThe Nature Index is a database, that tracks institutions and countries and their scientific output since its introduction in 2016. Each year, Nature Index ranks the leading institutions (which can be companies, universities, government agencies, rese ...
placed the Max Planck Institutes third worldwide in terms of research published in ''Nature'' journals (after the
Chinese Academy of Sciences The Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS; ) is the national academy for the natural sciences of the People's Republic of China. It has historical origins in the Academia Sinica during the Republic of China (1912–49), Republican era and was former ...
and
Harvard University Harvard University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly t ...

Harvard University
). In terms of total research volume (unweighted by citations or impact), the Max Planck Society is only outranked by the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the
Russian Academy of Sciences The Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS; russian: Росси́йская акаде́мия нау́к (РАН) ''Rossíiskaya akadémiya naúk'') consists of the national academy#REDIRECT National academy A national academy is an organizational bo ...
and Harvard University in the Times Higher Education institutional rankings. The Thomson Reuters-Science Watch website placed the Max Planck Society as the second leading research organization worldwide following Harvard University in terms of the impact of the produced research over science fields. The Max Planck Society and its predecessor Kaiser Wilhelm Society hosted several renowned scientists in their fields, including
Otto Hahn Otto Hahn (; 8 March 1879 – 28 July 1968) was a German chemist A chemist (from Greek ''chēm(ía)'' alchemy; replacing ''chymist'' from Medieval Latin Medieval Latin was the form of Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language ...

Otto Hahn
,
Werner Heisenberg Werner Karl Heisenberg (; ; 5 December 1901 – 1 February 1976) was a German theoretical physicist and one of the key pioneers of quantum mechanics Quantum mechanics is a fundamental Scientific theory, theory in physics that provides a de ...
, and
Albert Einstein Albert Einstein ( ; ; 14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist, widely acknowledged to be one of the greatest physicists of all time. Einstein is known for developing the theory of relativity The theo ...

Albert Einstein
.


History

The organization was established in 1911 as the
Kaiser Wilhelm Society was first detected Image:Freie Universitaet Berlin - Fachbereich Rechtswissenschaft.jpg, Former Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut for Biology, Berlin The Kaiser Wilhelm Society for the Advancement of Science ( German ''Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft zur Förd ...
, or ''Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft'' (KWG), a non-governmental research organization named for the then German emperor. The KWG was one of the world's leading research organizations; its board of directors included scientists like
Walther Bothe Walther Wilhelm Georg Bothe (8 January 1891 – 8 February 1957) was a German nuclear physicist, who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1954 with Max Born Max Born (; 11 December 1882 – 5 January 1970) was a German physicist A ph ...
,
Peter Debye Peter Joseph William Debye (; ; March 24, 1884 – November 2, 1966) was a Dutch-American physicist A physicist is a scientist A scientist is a person who conducts Scientific method, scientific research to advance knowledge in an Branches ...

Peter Debye
,
Albert Einstein Albert Einstein ( ; ; 14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist, widely acknowledged to be one of the greatest physicists of all time. Einstein is known for developing the theory of relativity The theo ...

Albert Einstein
, and
Fritz Haber Fritz Haber (; 9 December 1868 – 29 January 1934) was a German chemist who received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1918 for his invention of the Haber process, Haber–Bosch process, a method used in industry to synthesize ammonia from nit ...

Fritz Haber
. In 1946,
Otto Hahn Otto Hahn (; 8 March 1879 – 28 July 1968) was a German chemist A chemist (from Greek ''chēm(ía)'' alchemy; replacing ''chymist'' from Medieval Latin Medieval Latin was the form of Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language ...

Otto Hahn
assumed the position of president of KWG, and in 1948, the society was renamed the Max Planck Society (MPG) after its former president (1930–37)
Max Planck Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, (; ; 23 April 1858 – 4 October 1947) was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citi ...

Max Planck
, who died in 1947. The Max Planck Society has a world-leading reputation as a science and technology research organization. In 2006, the
Times Higher Education Supplement ''Times Higher Education'' (''THE''), formerly ''The Times Higher Education Supplement'' (''THES''), is a British magazine reporting specifically on news and issues related to higher education. Ownership TPG Capital acquired TSL Education from ...
rankings of non-university research institutions (based on international peer review by academics) placed the Max Planck Society as No.1 in the world for science research, and No.3 in technology research (behind
AT&T Corporation AT&T Corporation, originally the American Telephone and Telegraph Company, is the subsidiary of AT&T Inc. that provides voice, video, data, and Internet The Internet (Capitalization of Internet, or internet) is the global system of i ...
and the
Argonne National Laboratory Argonne National Laboratory is a science and engineering research United States Department of Energy National Labs, national laboratory operated by University of Chicago, UChicago Argonne LLC for the United States Department of Energy. The facil ...
in the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
). The domain ''mpg.de'' attracted at least 1.7 million visitors annually by 2008 according to a
Compete.com Compete.com was a web traffic Web traffic is the amount of data sent and received by visitors to a website A website (also written as web site) is a collection of web pages and related content that is identified by a common domain name an ...
study.


List of presidents of the KWG and the MPG

*
Adolf von Harnack Carl Gustav Adolf von Harnack (born Harnack; 7 May 1851 – 10 June 1930) was a Baltic German Lutheran theologian and prominent Church historian. He produced many religious publications from 1873 to 1912 (in which he is sometimes credited ...

Adolf von Harnack
(1911–1930) *
Max Planck Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, (; ; 23 April 1858 – 4 October 1947) was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citi ...

Max Planck
(1930–1937) *
Carl Bosch Carl Bosch (; 27 August 1874 – 26 April 1940) was a German chemist and engineer and Nobel Laureate in Chemistry. He was a pioneer in the field of high-pressure industrial chemistry and founder of IG Farben, at one point the world's largest ch ...

Carl Bosch
(1937–1940) *
Albert Vögler Albert Vögler (8 February 1877 – 14 April 1945) was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see al ...
(1941–1945) *
Max Planck Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, (; ; 23 April 1858 – 4 October 1947) was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citi ...

Max Planck
(16 May 1945 – 31 March 1946) *
Otto Hahn Otto Hahn (; 8 March 1879 – 28 July 1968) was a German chemist A chemist (from Greek ''chēm(ía)'' alchemy; replacing ''chymist'' from Medieval Latin Medieval Latin was the form of Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language ...

Otto Hahn
(as President of the KWG 1946 and then as Founder and President of the MPG 1948–1960) *
Adolf Butenandt Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt (24 March 1903 – 18 January 1995) was a German biochemist. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1939 for his "work on sex hormones." He initially rejected the award in accordance with government policy ...
(1960–1972) *
Reimar Lüst Reimar Lüst (; 25 March 1923 – 31 March 2020) was a German astrophysicist. He worked in European space science from its beginning, as the scientific director of the European Space Research Organisation (ESRO) from 1962 and as Director Genera ...
(1972–1984) * Heinz Staab (1984–1990) * Hans F. Zacher (1990–1996) *
Hubert Markl Hubert Simon Markl (17 August 1938 – 8 January 2015) was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see ...
(1996–2002) *
Peter Gruss Peter Gruss (born 28 June 1949 in Alsfeld, Hesse) is a Germany, German developmental biologist, president of the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology, and the former president of the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (having been elected for the term ...
(2002–2014) *
Martin Stratmann Martin Stratmann (born 20 April 1954 in Essen, Germany) is a German electrochemist and materials science, materials scientist. He is one of the directors at the Max Planck Institute for Iron Research, Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung (Max-Pl ...
(2014–present)


Max Planck Research Award

From 1990 to 2004, the "Max Planck Research Award for International Cooperation" was presented to several researchers from a wide range of disciplines each year. From 2004 to 2017, the "Max Planck Research Award" was conferred annually to two internationally renowned scientists, one of whom was working in Germany and one in another country. Calls for nominations for the award were invited on an annually rotating basis in specific sub-areas of the natural sciences and engineering, the life sciences, and the human and social sciences. The objective of the Max Planck Society and the
Alexander von Humboldt Foundation Alexander is a male given name. The most prominent bearer of the name is Alexander the Great, the king of the Ancient Greek kingdom of Macedonia (ancient kingdom), Macedonia who created one of the largest empires in ancient history. Etymology Th ...
in presenting this joint research award was to give added momentum to specialist fields that were either not yet established in Germany or that deserved to be expanded. Since 2018, the award has been succeeded by the "Max Planck-Humboldt Research Award", annually awarded to an internationally renowned mid-career researcher with outstanding future potential from outside Germany but having a strong interest in a research residency in Germany for limited time periods, alternately in the fields of natural and engineering sciences, human sciences, and life sciences, as well as the "Max Planck-Humboldt Medal" awarded to other two finalists.


Max Planck-Humboldt Research Award


Max Planck Research Award


Max Planck Research Award for International Cooperation

See :de:Max-Planck-Forschungspreis


Organization

The Max Planck Society is formally an ''
eingetragener Verein An (; "registered association" or "incorporated association*), abbreviated ''e.V.'' (), is a legal status for a Civil registration, registered voluntary association in Germany. While any group may be called a ', registration as ' confers many l ...
'', a registered association with the institute directors as scientific members having equal voting rights. The society has its registered seat in
Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inhabitants, as of 31 December 2019 makes it the List of cities in the European Union by ...

Berlin
, while the administrative headquarters are located in
Munich Munich ( ; german: München ; bar, Minga ) is the capital and most populous city of Bavaria. With a population of 1,558,395 inhabitants as of 31 July 2020, it is the List of cities in Germany by population, third-largest city in Germany, ...

Munich
. Since June 2014, materials scientist Martin Stratmann has been the President of the Max Planck Society. Funding is provided predominantly from federal and state sources, but also from research and license fees and donations. One of the larger donations was the castle
Schloss Ringberg Schloss Ringberg (Ringberg Castle) is located in the Bavarian Alps, 50 km south of Munich Munich ( ; german: München ; bar, Minga ) is the capital and most populous city of Bavaria. With a population of 1,558,395 inhabitants as of ...
near
Kreuth Kreuth is a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordinat ...
in
Bavaria Bavaria (; German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language ...

Bavaria
, which was pledged by Luitpold Emanuel in Bayern (
Duke in Bavaria Duke in Bavaria (german: Herzog in Bayern) was a title used among others since 1506, when primogeniture was established, by all members of the House of Wittelsbach, with the exception of the Duke ''of'' Bavaria which began to be a unique position. ...
). It passed to the Society after the duke died in 1973, and is now used for conferences.


Max Planck Institutes and research groups

The Max Planck Society consists of over 80 research institutes. In addition, the society funds a number of Max Planck Research Groups (MPRG) and International Max Planck Research Schools (IMPRS). The purpose of establishing independent research groups at various universities is to strengthen the required networking between universities and institutes of the Max Planck Society. The research units are primarily located across Europe with a few in South Korea and the U.S. In 2007, the Society established its first non-European centre, with an institute on the Jupiter campus of
Florida Atlantic University Florida Atlantic University (Florida Atlantic or FAU) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or o ...
focusing on neuroscience. The Max Planck Institutes operate independently from, though in close cooperation with, the universities, and focus on innovative research which does not fit into the university structure due to their
interdisciplinary Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combination of two or more academic disciplines into one activity (e.g., a research project). It draws knowledge from several other fields like sociology, anthropology, psychology, ...
or
transdisciplinary Transdisciplinarity connotes a research strategy that crosses many disciplinary boundaries to create a holistic Holism (from Ancient Greek, Greek ''holos'' "all, whole, entire") is the idea that various systems (e.g. physical, biological, soci ...
nature or which require resources that cannot be met by the state universities. Internally, Max Planck Institutes are organized into research departments headed by directors such that each MPI has several directors, a position roughly comparable to anything from full professor to department head at a university. Other core members include Junior and Senior Research Fellows. In addition, there are several associated institutes: Max Planck Society also has a collaborative center with
Princeton University Princeton University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly tw ...

Princeton University
Max Planck Princeton Research Center for Plasma Physics—located in
Princeton, New Jersey Princeton is a municipality with a borough A borough is an administrative division in various English language, English-speaking countries. In principle, the term ''borough'' designates a self-governing walled town, although in practice, off ...
, in the U.S. The latest Max Planck Research Center has been established at
Harvard University Harvard University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly t ...

Harvard University
in 2016 as the Max Planck Harvard Research Center for the Archaeoscience of the Ancient Mediterranean.


International Max Planck Research Schools

Together with the Association of Universities and other Education Institutions in Germany, the Max Planck Society established numerous International Max Planck Research Schools (IMPRS) to promote junior scientists: * Cologne Graduate School of Ageing Research,
Cologne Cologne ( ; german: Köln ; ksh, Kölle ) is the largest city of Germany, Germany's most populous States of Germany, state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) and the List of cities in Germany by population, fourth-most populous city and one of t ...

Cologne
* International Max Planck Research School for Intelligent Systems, at the Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems located in
Tübingen Tübingen (, , Swabian: ''Dibenga'') is a traditional university city in central Baden-Württemberg Baden-Württemberg (; ) is a state (''Land'') in southwest Germany Southern Germany () as a region has no exact boundary but is generally ...
and
Stuttgart Stuttgart (; Swabian: ; ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') ...

Stuttgart
* International Max Planck Research School on Adapting Behavior in a Fundamentally Uncertain World (Uncertainty School), at the Max Planck Institutes for Economics, for Human Development, and/or Research on Collective Goods * International Max Planck Research School for Analysis, Design and Optimization in Chemical and Biochemical Process Engineering,
Magdeburg Magdeburg (; nds, label=Low German, Low Saxon, Meideborg ) is the capital and second-largest city of the Germany, German States of Germany, state of Saxony-Anhalt, after Halle (Saale). It is situated on the Elbe River. Otto I, Holy Roman Emp ...

Magdeburg
* International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Cosmic Physics,
Heidelberg Heidelberg () is a university town in the German state The Federal Republic of Germany, as a federal state, consists of sixteen partly sovereign federated states (german: Land (state), plural (states); commonly informally / federated s ...

Heidelberg
at the MPI for Astronomy * International Max Planck Research School for Astrophysics,
Garching Garching bei München or Garching is a town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of ...

Garching
at the MPI for Astrophysics * International Max Planck Research School for Complex Surfaces in Material Sciences,
Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inhabitants, as of 31 December 2019 makes it the List of cities in the European Union by ...

Berlin
* International Max Planck Research School for Computer Science,
Saarbrücken Saarbrücken (; french: link=no, Sarrebruck ; Rhine Franconian dialects, Rhine Franconian: ''Saarbrigge'' ; lat, Saravipons) is the capital and largest List of cities and towns in Germany, city of the state of Saarland, Germany. Saarbrücken i ...

Saarbrücken
* International Max Planck Research School for Earth System Modeling,
Hamburg en, Hamburgian(s) , timezone1 = Central (CET) , utc_offset1 = +1 , timezone1_DST = Central (CEST) , utc_offset1_DST = +2 , postal_code_type = Post ...

Hamburg
* International Max Planck Research School for Elementary Particle Physics, Munich, at the MPI for Physics * International Max Planck Research School for Environmental, Cellular and Molecular Microbiology,
Marburg Marburg ( or ) is a college town, university town in the States of Germany, German federal state (''Bundesland'') of Hesse, capital of the Marburg-Biedenkopf Districts of Germany, district (''Landkreis''). The town area spreads along the valley ...

Marburg
at the Max Planck Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology * International Max Planck Research School for Evolutionary Biology,
Plön Plön (; Holsatian: ''Plöön'') is the district seat of the Plön district in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, and has about 8,700 inhabitants. It lies right on the shores of Schleswig-Holstein's biggest lake, the Great Plön Lake, as well as on se ...
at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology * International Max Planck Research School "From Molecules to Organisms",
Tübingen Tübingen (, , Swabian: ''Dibenga'') is a traditional university city in central Baden-Württemberg Baden-Württemberg (; ) is a state (''Land'') in southwest Germany Southern Germany () as a region has no exact boundary but is generally ...
at the
Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology The Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology is located in Tübingen, Germany; it was founded in 1954 as an offshoot of the Tübingen-based Max Planck Institute for Biology. The main topics of scientific research conducted by the Max Planck In ...
* International Max Planck Research School for Global Biogeochemical Cycles,
Jena Jena (; ) is a German city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Rou ...

Jena
at the Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry * International Max Planck Research School on Gravitational Wave Astronomy,
Hannover Hanover (; german: Hannover ; nds, Hannober) is the capital and largest city of the German States of Germany, state of Lower Saxony. Its 534,049 (2020) inhabitants make it the List of cities in Germany by population, 13th-largest city in Germa ...

Hannover
and Potsdam MPI for Gravitational Physics * International Max Planck Research School for Heart and Lung Research, Bad Nauheim at the Max Planck Institute for Heart and Lung Research *International Max Planck Research School for Infectious Diseases and Immunity, Berlin at the Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology * International Max Planck Research School for Language Sciences,
Nijmegen Nijmegen ( , ;; Spanish language, Spanish and it, Nimega. South Guelderish, Nijmeegs: ''Nimwèège'' ) is a city in the Dutch province of Gelderland, on the Waal (river), Waal river close to the Germany–Netherlands border, German border ...

Nijmegen
* International Max Planck Research School for Neurosciences,
Göttingen Göttingen (, , ; nds, Chöttingen) is a college town, university city in Lower Saxony, central Germany, the Capital (political), capital of Göttingen (district), the eponymous district. The River Leine runs through it. At the end of 2019, t ...
* International Max Planck Research School for Cognitive and Systems Neuroscience,
Tübingen Tübingen (, , Swabian: ''Dibenga'') is a traditional university city in central Baden-Württemberg Baden-Württemberg (; ) is a state (''Land'') in southwest Germany Southern Germany () as a region has no exact boundary but is generally ...
* International Max Planck Research School for Marine Microbiology (MarMic), joint program of the Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology in
Bremen Bremen (, also ; Low German : : : : : , minority = (70,000) (30,000) (8,000) , familycolor = Indo-European , fam2 = Germanic Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples, an ethno-linguistic group identified by t ...
, the
University of Bremen The University of Bremen (German ''Universität Bremen'') is a public university A public university or public college is a university or college that is in state ownership or receives significant Government spending, public funds through a nati ...
, the
Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research The Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (German: ''Alfred-Wegener-Institut, Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung'') is located in Bremerhaven, Germany, and a member of the Helmholtz Association ...
in
Bremerhaven Bremerhaven (, , Low German : : : : : , minority = (70,000) (30,000) (8,000) , familycolor = Indo-European , fam2 = Germanic Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples, an ethno-linguistic group identified by th ...

Bremerhaven
, and the
Jacobs University Bremen Jacobs University Bremen (abbreviated JU Bremen or JU) is an international, private, residential, doctorate-granting research university A research university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational instit ...
* International Max Planck Research School for Maritime Affairs, Hamburg * International Max Planck Research School for Molecular and Cellular Biology,
Freiburg Freiburg im Breisgau Breisgau () is an Gau (administrative division), area in southwest Germany between the Rhine River and the foothills of the Black Forest. Part of the state of Baden-Württemberg, it centers on the city of Freiburg im Breis ...

Freiburg
* International Max Planck Research School for Molecular and Cellular Life Sciences,
Munich Munich ( ; german: München ; bar, Minga ) is the capital and most populous city of Bavaria. With a population of 1,558,395 inhabitants as of 31 July 2020, it is the List of cities in Germany by population, third-largest city in Germany, ...

Munich
* International Max Planck Research School for Molecular Biology, Göttingen * International Max Planck Research School for Molecular Cell Biology and Bioengineering,
Dresden Dresden (, ; wen, label=Sorbian languages, Upper and Lower Sorbian, Drježdźany) is the capital city of the Germany, German States of Germany, state of Saxony and its second most populous city, after Leipzig. It is the List of cities in German ...

Dresden
* International Max Planck Research School Molecular Biomedicine, program combined with the 'Graduate Programm Cell Dynamics And Disease' at the University of
Münster Münster ( , ; nds, Mönster) is an independent city#Germany, independent city (''Kreisfreie Stadt'') in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is in the northern part of the state and is considered to be the cultural centre of the Westphalia reg ...

Münster
and the
Max Planck Institute for Molecular Biomedicine The Max Planck Institute for Molecular Biomedicine was founded on 1 April 2001 in Münster, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is part of the Max Planck Society. The current managing director is professor Hans Robert Scholer, Hans R. Schöler. ...
* International Max Planck Research School on Multiscale Bio-Systems, Potsdam * International Max Planck Research School for Organismal Biology, at the
University of Konstanz The University of Konstanz (german: Universität Konstanz) is a university A university () is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards acad ...
and the
Max Planck Institute for Ornithology The Max Planck Institute for Ornithology is a non-university research institution under the sponsorship of the Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science (MPG). It is located in Seewiesen, which belongs to the municipality of Pöcking in ...
* International Max Planck Research School on Reactive Structure Analysis for Chemical Reactions (IMPRS RECHARGE),
Mülheim an der Ruhr Mülheim an der Ruhr (), also described as ''"City on the River"'', is a List of cities and towns in Germany, city in North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany. It is located in the Ruhr Area between Duisburg, Essen, Germany, Essen, Oberhausen and Ratinge ...

Mülheim an der Ruhr
, at the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Energy Conversion
International Max Planck Research School for Science and Technology of Nano-Systems
Halle at Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics * International Max Planck Research School for Solar System Science at the University of Göttingen hosted by Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, MPI for Solar System Research * International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Bonn, at the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy, MPI for Radio Astronomy (formerly the International Max Planck Research School for Radio and Infrared Astronomy) * International Max Planck Research School for the Social and Political Constitution of the Economy, Cologne * International Max Planck Research School for Surface and Interface Engineering in Advanced Materials, Düsseldorf at Max Planck Institute for Iron Research GmbH * International Max Planck Research School for Ultrafast Imaging and Structural Dynamics, Hamburg


Max Planck Schools

* Max Planck School of Cognition * Max Planck School Matter to Life * Max Planck School of Photonics


Max Planck Center

* The Max Planck Centre for Attosecond Science (MPC-AS), POSTECH Pohang * The Max Planck POSTECH Center for Complex Phase Materials, POSTECH Pohang


Former institutes

Among others: * Max Planck Institute for Aeronomics in Katlenburg-Lindau was renamed to Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research in 2004; * Max Planck Institute for Biology in
Tübingen Tübingen (, , Swabian: ''Dibenga'') is a traditional university city in central Baden-Württemberg Baden-Württemberg (; ) is a state (''Land'') in southwest Germany Southern Germany () as a region has no exact boundary but is generally ...
was closed in 2005; * Max Planck Institute for Cell Biology in Ladenburg, Ladenburg b. Heidelberg was closed in 2003; * Max Planck Institute for Economics in Jena was renamed to the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in 2014; * Max Planck Institute for Ionospheric Research in Katlenburg-Lindau was renamed to Max Planck Institute for Aeronomics in 1958; * Max Planck Institute for Metals Research,
Stuttgart Stuttgart (; Swabian: ; ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') ...

Stuttgart
* Max Planck Institute of Oceanic Biology in Wilhelmshaven was renamed to Max Planck Institute of Cell Biology in 1968 and moved to Ladenburg 1977; * Max Planck Institute for Psychological Research in
Munich Munich ( ; german: München ; bar, Minga ) is the capital and most populous city of Bavaria. With a population of 1,558,395 inhabitants as of 31 July 2020, it is the List of cities in Germany by population, third-largest city in Germany, ...

Munich
merged into the Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences in 2004; * Max Planck Institute for Protein and Leather Research in Regensburg moved to
Munich Munich ( ; german: München ; bar, Minga ) is the capital and most populous city of Bavaria. With a population of 1,558,395 inhabitants as of 31 July 2020, it is the List of cities in Germany by population, third-largest city in Germany, ...

Munich
1957 and was united with the Max Planck Institute for Biochemistry in 1977; * Max Planck Institute for Virus Research in
Tübingen Tübingen (, , Swabian: ''Dibenga'') is a traditional university city in central Baden-Württemberg Baden-Württemberg (; ) is a state (''Land'') in southwest Germany Southern Germany () as a region has no exact boundary but is generally ...
was renamed as
Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology The Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology is located in Tübingen, Germany; it was founded in 1954 as an offshoot of the Tübingen-based Max Planck Institute for Biology. The main topics of scientific research conducted by the Max Planck In ...
in 1985; * Max Planck Institute for the Study of the Scientific-Technical World in Starnberg (from 1970 until 1981 (closed)) directed by Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker and Jürgen Habermas. *Max Planck Institute for Behavioral Physiology *Max Planck Institute of Experimental Endocrinology *Max Planck Institute for Foreign and International Social Law *Max Planck Institute for Physics and Astrophysics *Max Planck Research Unit for Enzymology of Protein Folding


Open access publishing

The Max Planck Society describes itself as "a co-founder of the international Open Access movement". Together with the European Cultural Heritage Online Project the Max Planck Society organized the Berlin Open Access Conference in October 2003 to ratify the Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing. At the Conference the Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities was passed. The Berlin Declaration built on previous open access declarations, but widened the research field to be covered by open access to include humanities and called for new activities to support open access such as “encouraging the holders of cultural heritage” to provide open access to their resources. The Max Planck Society continues to support open access in Germany and mandates institutional self-archiving of research outputs on the eDoc server and publications by its researchers in open access journals within 12 months. To finance open access the Max Planck Society established the Max Planck Digital Library. The library also aims to improve the conditions for open access on behalf of all Max Planck Institutes by negotiating contracts with open access publishers and developing infrastructure projects, such as the Max Planck open access repository.


Criticism


Pay for PhD students

In 2008, the General Court (European Union), European General Court ruled in a case brought by a Doctor of Philosophy, PhD student against the Max Planck Society that "a researcher preparing a doctoral thesis on the basis of a grant contract concluded with the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften eV, must be regarded as a worker within the meaning of Article 39 EC only if his activities are performed for a certain period of time under the direction of an institute forming part of that association and if, in return for those activities, he receives remuneration". In 2012, the Max Planck Society was at the centre of a controversy about some PhD students being given employment contracts. Of the 5,300 students who at the time wrote their PhD thesis at the 80 Max Planck Institutes 2,000 had an employment contract. The remaining 3,300 received grants of between 1,000 and 1,365 Euro. According to a 2011 statement by the Max Planck Society "As you embark on a PhD, you are still anything but a ''proper'' scientist; it’s during the process itself that you become a ''proper'' scientist... a PhD is ''an apprenticeship in the lab'', and as such it is usually not paid like a ''proper'' job – and this is, by and large, the practice at all research institutions and universities". The allegation of wage dumping for young scientists was discussed during the passing of the 2012 "Wissenschaftsfreiheitsgesetz" (Scientific Freedom Law) in the German Parliament.


Nobel Laureates


Max-Planck-Society (since 1948)

# Benjamin List, Nobel Prize, chemistry 2021 # Klaus Hasselmann, Nobel Prize, physics 2021 # Emmanuelle Charpentier, Nobel Prize, chemistry 2020 # Reinhard Genzel, Nobel Prize, physics 2020 # Stefan W. Hell,
Nobel Prize The Nobel Prizes ( ; sv, Nobelpriset ; no, Nobelprisen ) are five separate prizes that, according to Alfred Nobel Alfred Bernhard Nobel ( , ; 21 October 1833 – 10 December 1896) was a Swedish chemist, engineer, inventor, busines ...
, chemistry 2014 # Gerhard Ertl, Nobel Prize, chemistry 2007 # Theodor W. Hänsch, Nobel Prize, physics 2005 # Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard, Nobel Prize, medicine 1995 # Paul Crutzen, Nobel Prize, chemistry 1995 # Erwin Neher, Nobel Prize, medicine 1991 # Bert Sakmann, Nobel Prize, medicine 1991 # Robert Huber, Nobel Prize, chemistry 1988 # Hartmut Michel, Nobel Prize, chemistry 1988 # Johann Deisenhofer, Nobel Prize, chemistry 1988 # Ernst Ruska, Nobel Prize, physics 1986 # Klaus von Klitzing, Nobel Prize, physics 1985 # Georges Köhler, Nobel Prize, medicine 1984 # Konrad Lorenz, Nobel Prize, medicine 1973 # Manfred Eigen, Nobel Prize, chemistry 1967 # Feodor Lynen, Nobel Prize, medicine 1964 # Karl Ziegler, Nobel Prize, chemistry 1963 # Walter Bothe, Nobel Prize, physics 1954


Kaiser-Wilhelm-Society (1914–1948)

#
Otto Hahn Otto Hahn (; 8 March 1879 – 28 July 1968) was a German chemist A chemist (from Greek ''chēm(ía)'' alchemy; replacing ''chymist'' from Medieval Latin Medieval Latin was the form of Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language ...

Otto Hahn
, Nobel Prize, chemistry 1944 #
Adolf Butenandt Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt (24 March 1903 – 18 January 1995) was a German biochemist. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1939 for his "work on sex hormones." He initially rejected the award in accordance with government policy ...
, Nobel Prize, chemistry 1939 # Richard Kuhn, Nobel Prize, chemistry 1938 # Peter J. W. Debye, Nobel Prize, chemistry 1936 # Hans Spemann, Nobel Prize, medicine 1935 #
Werner Heisenberg Werner Karl Heisenberg (; ; 5 December 1901 – 1 February 1976) was a German theoretical physicist and one of the key pioneers of quantum mechanics Quantum mechanics is a fundamental Scientific theory, theory in physics that provides a de ...
, Nobel Prize, physics 1932 # Otto Heinrich Warburg, Nobel Prize, medicine 1931 #
Carl Bosch Carl Bosch (; 27 August 1874 – 26 April 1940) was a German chemist and engineer and Nobel Laureate in Chemistry. He was a pioneer in the field of high-pressure industrial chemistry and founder of IG Farben, at one point the world's largest ch ...

Carl Bosch
, Nobel Prize, chemistry 1931 # James Franck, Nobel Prize, physics 1925 # Otto Meyerhof, Nobel Prize, medicine 1922 #
Albert Einstein Albert Einstein ( ; ; 14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist, widely acknowledged to be one of the greatest physicists of all time. Einstein is known for developing the theory of relativity The theo ...

Albert Einstein
, Nobel Prize, physics 1921 #
Max Planck Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, (; ; 23 April 1858 – 4 October 1947) was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citi ...

Max Planck
, Nobel Prize, physics 1918 #
Fritz Haber Fritz Haber (; 9 December 1868 – 29 January 1934) was a German chemist who received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1918 for his invention of the Haber process, Haber–Bosch process, a method used in industry to synthesize ammonia from nit ...

Fritz Haber
, Nobel Prize, chemistry 1918 # Richard Willstätter, Nobel Prize, chemistry 1915 # Max von Laue, Nobel Prize, physics 1914


See also

* Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft * Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Scientific Community * Harnack medal * Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres *
Schloss Ringberg Schloss Ringberg (Ringberg Castle) is located in the Bavarian Alps, 50 km south of Munich Munich ( ; german: München ; bar, Minga ) is the capital and most populous city of Bavaria. With a population of 1,558,395 inhabitants as of ...


References


Citations


Sources

* Alison Abbott: ''German science starts facing up to its historical amnesia'', in: Nature Vol 403 (2000), S.474f. (article about the Commission for the history of the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft under National Socialism) * Gretchen Vogel: ''Aufbau Ost: Max Planck's East German Experiment'', in: Science Vol. 326, 6. November 2009 (about the new institutes in the eastern part of Germany)


External links

* {{use dmy dates, date=July 2016 Max Planck Society, 1911 establishments in Germany Scientific organisations based in Germany Scientific organizations established in 1911 Organisations based in Munich