HOME

TheInfoList




''Magnolia'' is a large
genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), circumscribing) and classifying gr ...
of about 210The number of species in the genus ''Magnolia'' depends on the taxonomic view that one takes up. Recent molecular and morphological research shows that former genera ''Talauma'', ''Dugandiodendron'', ''Manglietia'', ''Michelia'', ''Elmerrillia'', ''Kmeria'', ''Parakmeria'', ''Pachylarnax'' (and a small number of monospecific genera) all belong within the same genus, ''Magnolia'' s.l. (s.l. = ''sensu lato'': 'in a broad sense', as opposed to s.s. = ''sensu stricto'': 'in a narrow sense'). The genus ''Magnolia'' s.s. contains about 120 species. See the section
Nomenclature and classification Nomenclature (, ) is a system of names or terms, or the rules for forming these terms in a particular field of arts or sciences. The principles of naming vary from the relatively informal naming conventions, conventions of everyday speech to the in ...
in this article.
flowering plant Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greec ...

flowering plant
species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individu ...

species
in the subfamily
Magnolioideae The Magnoliaceae () are a flowering plant The flowering plants, also known as Angiospermae (), or Magnoliophyta (), are the most diverse group of Embryophyte, land plants, with 64 Order(biology), orders, 416 Family (biology), families, approxim ...
of the
family In human society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same spatial or social territory, typically subject to the same Politic ...
Magnoliaceae The Magnoliaceae () are a flowering plant Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anyth ...
. It is named after French botanist
Pierre Magnol Pierre Magnol (8 June 1638 – 21 May 1715) was a French botanist Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scientif ...
. ''Magnolia'' is an ancient genus. Appearing before
bee Bees are flying insects closely related to wasps and ants, known for their role in pollination and, in the case of the best-known bee species, the western honey bee, for producing honey. Bees are a monophyly, monophyletic lineage within the ...

bee
s evolved, the flowers are theorized to have evolved to encourage
pollination Pollination is the transfer of pollen Pollen is a powdery substance consisting of pollen grains which are Sporophyte, microsporophytes of spermatophyta, seed plants, which produce male gametes (sperm cells). Pollen grains have a hard coat ...

pollination
by
beetle Beetles are a group of insect Insects (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known a ...

beetle
s. To avoid damage from pollinating beetles, the
carpel Gynoecium (; ) is most commonly used as a collective term for the parts of a flower A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproduction, reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, ...
s of ''Magnolia'' flowers are extremely tough.
Fossil A fossil (from Classical Latin Classical Latin is the form of Latin language Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, inc ...

Fossil
ized specimens of ''
M. acuminata
M. acuminata
'' have been found dating to 20 million years ago, and of plants identifiably belonging to the Magnoliaceae date to 95 million years ago. Another aspect of ''Magnolia'' considered to represent an ancestral state is that the flower bud is enclosed in a
bract ''). All the "leaves" in this image are bracts. In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in th ...

bract
rather than in sepals; the
perianth The perianth (perigonium, perigon or perigone in monocots) is the non-reproductive part of the flower, and structure that forms an envelope surrounding the sexual organs, consisting of the calyx (botany), calyx (sepals) and the corolla (flower), ...
parts are undifferentiated and called
tepals A tepal is one of the outer parts of a flower A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproduction, reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms). The biological ...
rather than distinct
sepal A sepal ( or ) is a part of the flower A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom Cherry blossoms in Paris in full bloom. In botany, blossoms are the flowers of stone fruit fruit tree, trees (genus ''Prunus'') and of some other p ...
s and
petal Petals are modified leaves A leaf (plural leaves) is the principal lateral appendage of the vascular plant plant stem, stem, usually borne above ground and specialized for photosynthesis. The leaves, stem, flower and fruit together fo ...

petal
s. ''Magnolia'' shares the tepal characteristic with several other flowering plants near the
base Base or BASE may refer to: Brands and enterprises * Base (mobile telephony provider), a Belgian mobile telecommunications operator *Base CRM Base CRM (originally Future Simple or PipeJump) is an enterprise software company based in Mountain Vie ...
of the
flowering plant Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greec ...

flowering plant
lineage such as ''
Amborella ''Amborella'' is a monotypic In biology, a monotypic taxon is a taxonomic group ( taxon) that contains only one immediately subordinate taxon. A monotypic species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, cla ...

Amborella
'' and ''
Nymphaea ''Nymphaea'' is a genus of hardiness (plants), hardy and tender aquatic plants in the family Nymphaeaceae. The genus has a cosmopolitan distribution. Many species are cultivated as ornamental plants, and many cultivars have been bred. Some taxa o ...

Nymphaea
'' (as well as with many more recently derived plants such as ''
Lilium ''Lilium'' is a genus of Herbaceous plant, herbaceous flowering plants growing from bulbs, all with large prominent flowers. They are the true lilies. Lilies are a group of flowering plants which are important in culture and literature in much o ...

Lilium
''). The natural range of ''Magnolia'' species is a
disjunct distribution In biology, a taxon In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, phy ...
, with a main center in east and southeast
Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and Northern Hemisphere, Northern Hemisphere of the Earth, Hemispheres. It shares the continental landmass of Eurasia with the cont ...

Asia
and a secondary center in eastern
North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continen ...

North America
,
Central America Central America ( es, América Central, , ''Centroamérica'' ) is a region of the Americas The Americas (also collectively called America) is a landmass comprising the totality of North North is one of the four compass points or ...

Central America
, the
West Indies The West Indies are a subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, in ...
, and some species in
South America South America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continent ...

South America
.


Description

Magnolias are spreading, evergreen or deciduous trees or shrubs, characterised by large fragrant flowers which may be bowl-shaped or star-shaped, in shades of white, pink, purple, green or yellow. In deciduous species the blooms often appear before the leaves, in Spring. Cone-like fruits are often produced in Autumn. As with all
Magnoliaceae The Magnoliaceae () are a flowering plant Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anyth ...
, the
perianth The perianth (perigonium, perigon or perigone in monocots) is the non-reproductive part of the flower, and structure that forms an envelope surrounding the sexual organs, consisting of the calyx (botany), calyx (sepals) and the corolla (flower), ...
is undifferentiated, with 9–15
tepals A tepal is one of the outer parts of a flower A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproduction, reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms). The biological ...
in 3 or more
whorls A whorl is a type of spiral or circular pattern. Other meanings of whorl include: * Whorl (botany), the attachment of sepals, petals, leaves, or branches at a single point * Whorl (biology), the structure of some organs, used in the aid of ident ...
. The flowers are bisexual with numerous adnate
carpels '' stigmas and style Gynoecium (, from Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided in ...
and
stamens The stamen (plural The plural (sometimes list of glossing abbreviations, abbreviated ), in many languages, is one of the values of the grammatical number, grammatical category of number. The plural of a noun typically denotes a quantity great ...
are arranged in a spiral fashion on the elongated
receptacle Receptacle may refer to: Biology * Receptacle (botany), a plant anatomical part * Seminal receptacle, a sperm storage site in some insects Electrical engineering * Auxiliary car power outlet, formerly known as ''Cigarette lighter receptacle'', a ...
. The fruit dehisces along the dorsal sutures of the carpels. The
pollen Pollen is a powdery substance consisting of pollen grains which are microsporophytes of seed plants The spermatophytes (; ), also known as phanerogams (taxon Phanerogamae) or phaenogams (taxon Phaenogamae), comprise those plant Plant ...

pollen
is
monocolpate
monocolpate
, and the embryo development is of the
Polygonum ''Polygonum'' is a genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. The term may also refer to ...

Polygonum
type. Taxonomists, including James E. Dandy in 1927, have long had an interest in observing fruits of Magnoliaceae and have often used the differences, or perceived differences, in fruit characters to justify systems for classification.


Etymology

Charles Plumier Image:Plumier Charles.jpg, frame, Charles Plumier Charles Plumier (20 April 1646 – 20 November 1704) was a France, French botany, botanist after whom the Frangipani genus ''Plumeria'' is named. Plumier is considered one of the most important of th ...
(1646–1704) described a flowering tree from the island of
Martinique Martinique ( , ; gcf, label=Martinican Creole Antillean Creole (Antillean French Creole, Kreyol, Kwéyòl, Patois) is a French-based creole languages, French-based creole, which is primarily spoken in the Lesser Antilles. Its grammar and ...

Martinique
in his ''
Genera Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), circumscribing) and classifying gr ...
'', giving it the name ''Magnolia'', after the French botanist
Pierre Magnol Pierre Magnol (8 June 1638 – 21 May 1715) was a French botanist Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scientif ...
.


Uses


Horticultural uses

In general, the genus ''Magnolia'' has attracted horticultural interest. Some, such as the shrub ''
M. stellata ( , ; plural, pl. , ; 1512, from Middle French , literally "my lord") is an honorific title that was used to refer to or address the eldest living brother of the king in the Ancien Régime in France, French royal court. It has now become the ...

M. stellata
'' (star magnolia) and the tree (saucer magnolia) flower quite early in the spring, before the leaves open. Others flower in late spring or early summer, including (sweetbay magnolia) and (southern magnolia). Hybridisation has been immensely successful in combining the best aspects of different species to give plants which flower at an earlier age than the parent species, as well as having more impressive flowers. One of the most popular garden magnolias, ''M''. × ''soulangeana'', is a hybrid of ''M. liliiflora'' and ''M. denudata''. In the eastern United States, five native species are frequently in cultivation: ''M. acuminata'' (as a shade tree), ''M. grandiflora'', ''M. virginiana'', ''M. tripetala'', and ''M. macrophylla''. The last two species must be planted where high winds are not a frequent problem because of the large size of their leaves.


Culinary uses

The flowers of many species are considered edible. In parts of
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. E ...

England
, the petals of ''M. grandiflora'' are pickled and used as a spicy
condiment A condiment is a sauce In , a sauce is a , , or semi- food, served on or used in preparing other s. Most sauces are not normally consumed by themselves; they add flavor, moisture, and visual appeal to a dish. ''Sauce'' is a word taken fro ...
. In some Asian cuisines, the buds are pickled and used to flavor rice and scent tea. In
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
, the young leaves and flower buds of ''Magnolia hypoleuca'' are broiled and eaten as a vegetable. Older leaves are made into a powder and used as seasoning; dried, whole leaves are placed on a charcoal brazier and filled with miso, leeks,
daikon Daikon (Japanese for 'big root') or mooli, ''Raphanus sativus The radish ('' Raphanus raphanistrum'' subsp. ''sativus'') is an edible root vegetable of the family Brassicaceae Brassicaceae () or Cruciferae () is a medium-sized and econo ...

daikon
, and
shiitake The shiitake (; ''Lentinula edodes'') is an edible mushroom native to East Asia, which is cultivated and consumed in many East Asian countries. It is considered a medicinal mushroom in some forms of traditional medicine. Taxonomy and naming T ...

shiitake
, and broiled. There is a type of miso which is seasoned with magnolia, hoba miso. In parts of Japan, the leaves of ''M. obovata'' are used for wrapping food and cooking dishes.


Traditional medicine

The bark and flower buds of ''M. officinalis'' have long been used in
traditional Chinese medicine#REDIRECT Traditional Chinese medicine {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
, where they are known as ''hou po'' (厚朴). In Japan, ''kōboku'', ''M. obovata'', has been used in a similar manner.


Timber

The cucumbertree, ''M. acuminata'', grows to large size and is harvested as a timber tree in northeastern US forests. Its wood is sold as "yellow poplar" along with that of the tuliptree, ''
Liriodendron tulipifera ''Liriodendron tulipifera''—known as the tulip tree, American tulip tree, tulipwood, tuliptree, tulip poplar, whitewood, fiddletree, and yellow-poplar—is the North American representative of the two-species genus ''Liriodendron'' (the other ...

Liriodendron tulipifera
''. The Fraser magnolia, ''M. fraseri'', also attains enough size sometimes to be harvested, as well.


Other uses

Magnolias are used as food plants by the
larva A larva (plural larvae ) is a distinct juvenile form many animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular A multicellular organism is an organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that f ...
e of some
Lepidoptera Lepidoptera ( ; ) is an order Order or ORDER or Orders may refer to: * Orderliness Orderliness is associated with other qualities such as cleanliness Cleanliness is both the abstract state of being clean and free from germs, dirt, trash, or ...

Lepidoptera
species, including the
giant leopard moth The giant leopard moth (''Hypercompe scribonia'') is a moth Moths are a paraphyletic group of insects that includes all members of the Order (biology), order Lepidoptera that are not Butterfly, butterflies, with moths making up the vast major ...
.


Chemical compounds and bioeffects

The aromatic bark contains
magnolol Magnolol is an organic compound , CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds. In chemistry, organic compounds are generally any chemical compounds that contain carbon-hydrogen chemical bond, bonds. Due to carbon's ability to Catenation, catena ...

magnolol
, , 4-O-methylhonokiol, and
obovatol Obovatol is a biphenolic anti-inflammatory, anxiolytic, and nootropic Bark isolate, isolated from the bark of ''Magnolia obovata''. It is a biphenyl lignan.Obovatol and obovatal, novel biphenyl ether lignans from the leaves of Magnolia obovata Thunb ...

obovatol
. Magnolol and honokiol activate the
nuclear receptor In the field of molecular biology, nuclear receptors are a class of proteins found within cells that are responsible for sensing Steroid hormone, steroid and Thyroid hormone, thyroid hormones and certain other molecules. In response, these recep ...
peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ or PPARG), also known as the glitazone receptor, or NR1C3 (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group C, member 3) is a type II nuclear receptor of a heterodimer of the nuclear receptors PPAR-γ ...
.


Culture


Symbols

* White or
Yulan magnolia ''Magnolia denudata'', the lilytree or Yulan magnolia (), is native to central and eastern China. It has been cultivated in Chinese Buddhist temple gardens since 600 AD. Its flowers were regarded as a symbol of purity in the Tang Dynasty and it w ...
(subgenus ''Yulania'') is the official flower of the Chinese metropolis
Shanghai Shanghai (, , Standard Chinese, Standard Mandarin pronunciation: ) is one of the four Direct-administered municipalities of China, direct-administered municipalities of the China, People's Republic of China. The city is located on the sou ...

Shanghai
. *''
Magnolia grandiflora ''Magnolia grandiflora'', commonly known as the southern magnolia or bull bay, is a tree of the family Magnoliaceae native to the southeastern United States The southeastern United States, also referred to as the American Southeast or simpl ...

Magnolia grandiflora
'' is the official
state flower This is a list of U.S. state, federal district, and territory flowers: Flowers See also *List of U.S. state trees *Lists of U.S. state insignia References External linksUSDA list of state trees and flowersMississippi Mississippi () is a U.S. state, state in the Southeastern United States, Southeastern region of the United States, bordered to the north by Tennessee; to the east by Alabama; to the south by the Gulf of Mexico; to the southwest by Louisiana; a ...
and
Louisiana Louisiana (Standard French Standard French (in French: ''le français standard'', ''le français normé'', ''le français neutre'' eutral Frenchor ''le français international'' nternational French is an unofficial term for a standard ...

Louisiana
. The flower's abundance in Mississippi is reflected in its
nickname A nickname (also moniker) is a substitute for the proper name of a familiar person, place or thing. Commonly used to express affection, a form of endearment, and sometimes amusement, it can also be used to express defamation of character De ...
of "Magnolia State" and the state
flag A flag is a piece of fabric A textile is a flexible material made by creating an interlocking network of yarn Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crochetin ...

flag
. The magnolia is also the official state tree of Mississippi. One of the many nicknames for the city of
Houston Houston ( ) is the List of cities in Texas by population, most populous city in Texas, List of United States cities by population, fourth-most populous city in the United States, most populous city in the Southern United States, as well as th ...

Houston
is "Magnolia City". Historically, magnolias have been associated with the
Southern United States The Southern United States, also referred to as the Southern States, the American South, Dixie, the Southland, or simply the South, is a geographic and cultural region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally ...
. *''
Magnolia sieboldii ''Magnolia sieboldii'', or Siebold's magnolia, also known as Korean mountain magnolia and Oyama magnolia, is a species of ''Magnolia'' native to east Asia in China, Japan, and Korea. It is named after the Germany, German doctor Philipp Franz von ...

Magnolia sieboldii
'' is the national flower of
North Korea North Korea, officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), is a country in East Asia, constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula. It borders China and Russia to the north, at the Yalu River, Yalu (Amnok) and Tu ...

North Korea
. *''
Magnolia sieboldii ''Magnolia sieboldii'', or Siebold's magnolia, also known as Korean mountain magnolia and Oyama magnolia, is a species of ''Magnolia'' native to east Asia in China, Japan, and Korea. It is named after the Germany, German doctor Philipp Franz von ...

Magnolia sieboldii
'' is the official flower of Gangnam.


Arts


Film and television

*
Paul Thomas Anderson Paul Thomas Anderson (born June 26, 1970) is an American film director, producer and screenwriter. He developed an interest in filmmaking from a young age. He made his feature-film debut with '' Hard Eight'' (1996). He found critical and commerci ...
created a movie titled ''
Magnolia ''Magnolia'' is a large genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), ...
''. *''
Steel Magnolias ''Steel Magnolias'' is a 1989 American comedy-drama film Comedy-drama, or dramedy, is a genre of dramatic works that combines elements of comedy and Drama (film and television), drama. History The advent of radio drama, film, cinema and in p ...
'' is a 1989 American comedy-drama film about the bond among a group of women from Louisiana, who can be as beautiful as magnolias, but are as tough as steel. The name 'magnolia' specifically refers to a magnolia tree about which they are arguing at the beginning.


Music

* The folksong "Bungong Jeumpa", from
Aceh Aceh () is the westernmost province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivis ...
, Indonesia, means magnolia flower. * The French song by
Salvatore Adamo Salvatore, Adamo is a very famous singer and composer, who is known for his romantic ballads. Adamo was born on November 1, 1943, in Comiso, Sicily, Italy, and has lived in Belgium Belgium ( nl, België ; french: Belgique ; german: Belgien ...

Salvatore Adamo
"Les collines de Rabiah" in the 1970s describes the magnolia trees in Beirut and calls for peace. * The
Grateful Dead The Grateful Dead was an American rock music, rock band formed in 1965 in Palo Alto, California. The band is known for its eclectic style, which fused elements of rock, Folk music, folk, country music, country, jazz, bluegrass music, bluegrass, ...
recorded a song titled "
Sugar Magnolia "Sugar Magnolia" is a song by the Grateful Dead. Written by Robert Hunter (lyricist), Robert Hunter and Bob Weir, it is one of the most well-known songs by the band, alongside such hits as "Truckin'", "Casey Jones (song), Casey Jones", "Uncle John' ...
" that was first released on the 1970 album '' American Beauty''. The song made its live debut on June 7, 1970, at the
Fillmore West The Fillmore West was a historic rock and roll Rock and roll (often written as rock & roll, rock 'n' roll, or rock 'n roll) is a genre of popular music Popular music is music with wide appeal that is typically distributed to large audien ...
in
San Francisco San Francisco (; Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (dis ...

San Francisco
. The semiofficial 1972 Dead movie '' Sunshine Daydream'' has its title taken from the song's coda section. *
Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers were an American rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, ...
second studio album ''
You're Gonna Get It! ''You're Gonna Get It!'' is the second album by Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers, released in 1978. Originally, the album was to be titled ''Terminal Romance''. It peaked at No. 23 on the Billboard 200, ''Billboard'' Top LPs & Tapes chart in 1978. ...
'' includes a track called "Magnolia", written by
Tom Petty Thomas Earl Petty (October 20, 1950October 2, 2017) was an American singer, songwriter, musician, record producer, and actor. He was the lead vocalist and guitarist of Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers were an ...

Tom Petty
. *
J.J. Cale John Weldon "J. J." Cale (December 5, 1938 – July 26, 2013) was an American guitarist, singer, songwriter and sound engineer An audio engineer (also known as a sound engineer or recording engineer) helps to produce a sound recording, reco ...
(1938–2013) wrote a song about a woman named Magnolia, which has been covered by Poco, Beck and Lucinda Williams. * "The Scent of Magnolia" is the first track in David Sylvian's compilation album,
Everything and Nothing ''Everything and Nothing'' is a compilation album by David Sylvian. Released in October 2000, the album contains previously unreleased, re-recorded, and lesser-known tracks from Sylvian's twenty years with Virgin Records. The record peaked at n ...
. * In 2003, Songs: Ohia released '' The Magnolia Electric Co.'' This was the last release under that project's name for Jason Molina before renaming his band Magnolia Electric Co. after the album. * "Magnolia" is the fifth track on Australian indie rock group
Gang of Youths Gang of Youths are an Australian indie rock group from Sydney Sydney ( ; Dharug language, Dharug: ) is the List of Australian capital cities, capital city of the state of New South Wales, and the List of cities in Australia by population ...

Gang of Youths
' debut album, ''The Positions''. * "Magnolia" is a hit song by rapper
Playboi Carti Jordan Terrell Carter (born September 13, 1996), known professionally as Playboi Carti, is an American rapper, singer, and songwriter. He is recognized for his experimental musical style, mumbled lyrics, gothic fashion, and mysterious public per ...

Playboi Carti
* In his song titled "Marry Me"
Thomas Rhett Thomas Rhett Akins Jr. (born March 30, 1990) is an American country music Country (also called country and western) is a genre of popular music Popular music is music with wide appeal that is typically distributed to large audiences t ...

Thomas Rhett
mentions the magnolia flower. * In his song titled "Roller Coaster" Danny Vera mentions the magnolia flower. * "The Sweet Magnolia Tree" is the eighth track on Doug Wamble, Doug Wamble's 2003 CD ''Country Libations''. * Singer-songwriter Brian Fallon of The Gaslight Anthem included "Honey Magnolia" to his first solo debut album titled ''Painkillers'' released in March 2016.


Literature

* The 1989 movie ''Steel Magnolias'' is based on a 1987 play, ''Steel Magnolias (play), Steel Magnolias'', by Robert Harling (writer), Robert Harling. * In the 1939 song "Strange Fruit", originally written as a poem by New York schoolteacher and communist activist Abel Meeropol to condemn the practice of lynching, the magnolia flower was referred to as being associated with the
Southern United States The Southern United States, also referred to as the Southern States, the American South, Dixie, the Southland, or simply the South, is a geographic and cultural region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally ...
, where many lynchings took place: :::Pastoral scene of the gallant south :::The bulging eyes and the twisted mouth :::''Scent of magnolias, sweet and fresh'', :::Then the sudden smell of burning flesh. Despite Meeropol's frequent mention of the South and magnolia trees, the horrific image which inspired his poem, Lawrence Beitler's 1930 photograph capturing the lynching of Thomas Shipp and Abram Smith following the robbery and murder of Claude Deteer, actually occurred in Marion, Indiana, where magnolia trees are less common. * In the 1960s, magnolias were a symbol of the South in the popular press: the ''New York Post'' noted of Lyndon Johnson that "A man who wore a ten-gallon Stetson and spoke with a magnolia accent had little hope of winning the Democratic nomination in 1960", and biographer Robert Caro picks up the symbol by saying that when Johnson became president "[t]he taint of magnolias still remained to be scrubbed off."


Visual arts

The Canadian artist, Sarah Maloney, has created a series of sculptures of magnolia flowers in bronze and steel, entitled ''First Flowers'', in which she draws our attention to the dual symbols of beginnings in the flower, as both an evolutionary archetype and also one of the first trees to flower in spring (see illustration).


Taxonomy


History


Early

The name ''Magnolia'' first appeared in 1703 in the ''
Genera Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), circumscribing) and classifying gr ...
''Plumier, C. (1703) ''Nova plantarum Americanarum genera''. Paris. [New genera of American plants]. of
Charles Plumier Image:Plumier Charles.jpg, frame, Charles Plumier Charles Plumier (20 April 1646 – 20 November 1704) was a France, French botany, botanist after whom the Frangipani genus ''Plumeria'' is named. Plumier is considered one of the most important of th ...
(1646–1704), for a flowering tree from the island of
Martinique Martinique ( , ; gcf, label=Martinican Creole Antillean Creole (Antillean French Creole, Kreyol, Kwéyòl, Patois) is a French-based creole languages, French-based creole, which is primarily spoken in the Lesser Antilles. Its grammar and ...

Martinique
(''talauma''). English botanist William Sherard, who studied botany in Paris under Joseph Pitton de Tournefort, a pupil of Magnol, was most probably the first after Plumier to adopt the genus name ''Magnolia''. He was at least responsible for the Taxonomy (biology), taxonomic part of Johann Jacob Dillenius's ''Hortus Elthamensis'' and of Mark Catesby's ''Natural History of Carolina, Florida and the Bahama Islands''. These were the first works after Plumier's ''Genera'' that used the name ''Magnolia'', this time for some species of flowering plant, flowering trees from temperate North America. The species that Plumier originally named ''Magnolia'' was later described as ''Annona dodecapetala'' by Lamarck, and has since been named ''Magnolia plumieri'' and ''Talauma plumieri'' (and still a number of other names) but is now known as ''Magnolia dodecapetala''.Under the rule of priority, the first name that is validly published in Linnaeus' ''Species Plantarum'' (1 May 1753) or any other work of any other botanist after that, takes precedence over later names. Plumier's name was not a binomen and moreover published before ''Species Plantarum'', so it has no status. The first binomen published after 1753 was Lamarck's ''Annona dodecapetala'' (1786). ''Magnolia plumieri'' (1788) was published on a later date by Schwartz, and is treated as a later synonym, as are ''Magnolia fatiscens'' (1817; Richard), ''Talauma caerulea'' (Jaume St-Hilaire 1805) and ''Magnolia linguifolia'' (1822). Carl Linnaeus, who was familiar with Plumier's ''Genera'', adopted the genus name ''Magnolia'' in 1735 in his first edition of ''Systema Naturae'', without a description, but with a reference to Plumier's work. In 1753, he took up Plumier's ''Magnolia'' in the first edition of ''Species Plantarum''. There he described a monotypic genus, with the sole species being ''Magnolia virginiana''. Since Linnaeus never saw a herbarium specimen (if there ever was one) of Plumier's ''Magnolia'' and had only his description and a rather poor picture at hand, he must have taken it for the same plant which was described by Catesby in his 1730 ''Natural History of Carolina''. He placed it in the synonymy of ''Magnolia virginiana'' var. ''fœtida'', the taxon now known as ''
Magnolia grandiflora ''Magnolia grandiflora'', commonly known as the southern magnolia or bull bay, is a tree of the family Magnoliaceae native to the southeastern United States The southeastern United States, also referred to as the American Southeast or simpl ...

Magnolia grandiflora
''. Under ''Magnolia virginiana'' Linnaeus described five varieties (''glauca'', ''fœtida'', ''grisea'', ''tripetala'', and ''acuminata''). In the tenth edition of ''Systema Naturae'' (1759), he merged ''grisea'' with ''glauca'', and raised the four remaining varieties to species status.''Magnolia glauca'' has the same type specimen as ''Magnolia virginiana'' and as the latter is the first valid name, the species is now called ''Magnolia virginiana'' (sweetbay magnolia). Var. ''fœtida'' was renamed ''
Magnolia grandiflora ''Magnolia grandiflora'', commonly known as the southern magnolia or bull bay, is a tree of the family Magnoliaceae native to the southeastern United States The southeastern United States, also referred to as the American Southeast or simpl ...

Magnolia grandiflora
'', which is legitimate as the epithet ''fœtida'' only has priority in its rank of variety. ''Magnolia grandiflora'' is the southern magnolia. ''Magnolia tripetala'' (umbrella magnolia) and ''Magnolia acuminata'' (cucumber tree) are still recognized as species.
By the end of the 18th century, botanists and plant hunters exploring Asia began to name and describe the ''Magnolia'' species from China and Japan. The first Asiatic species to be described by western botanists were ''Magnolia denudata'', ''Magnolia liliiflora'',Under these names the species were described by Louis Auguste Joseph Desrousseaux, Desrousseaux in Lamarck's ''Encyclopédie Méthodique Botanique'', tome troisieme (1792): 675. In the beginning of the 20th century, descriptions which seemed to represent the same species, were found in a work of the French naturalist Pierre Joseph Buchoz, P.J. Buc'hoz, ''Plantes nouvellement découvertes'' (1779), under the names ''Lassonia heptapeta'' and ''Lassonia quinquepeta''. In 1934, the English botanist J.E. Dandy argued that these names had priority over the names by which both species had been known for over a century and hence from then on ''Magnolia denudata'' had to be named ''Magnolia heptapeta'', ''Magnolia liliiflora'' should be changed into ''Magnolia quinquepeta''. After a lengthy debate, specialist taxonomists decided that the Buc'hoz's names were based on chimaeras (pictures constructed of elements of different species), and as Buc'hoz did not cite or preserve herbarium specimens, his names were ruled not to be acceptable. ''Magnolia coco'' and ''Michelia figo, Magnolia figo''.These species were published as ''Liriodendron coco'' and ''Liriodendron figo'' by J. de Loureiro in ''Flora Cochinchinensis'' (1790) and later (1817) transferred to ''Magnolia'' by A. P. de Candolle. ''Magnolia figo'' was soon after transferred to the genus ''Michelia''. Soon after that, in 1794, Carl Peter Thunberg collected and described ''Magnolia obovata'' from Japan and at roughly the same time ''Magnolia kobus'' was also first collected.


Recent

With the number of species increasing, the genus was divided into the two subgenera ''Magnolia'' and ''Yulania''. ''Magnolia'' contains the American evergreen species ''M. grandiflora'', which is of horticulture, horticultural importance, especially in the southeastern United States, and ''M. virginiana'', the type species. ''Yulania'' contains several deciduous Asiatic species, such as ''M. denudata'' and ''M. kobus'', which have become horticulturally important in their own right and as parents in hybrids. Classified in ''Yulania'', is also the American deciduous ''M. acuminata'' (cucumber tree), which has recently attained greater status as the parent responsible for the yellow flower color in many new hybrids. Relations in the family Magnoliaceae have been puzzling taxonomists for a long time. Because the family is quite old and has survived many geological events (such as ice ages, mountain formation, and continental drift), its distribution has become scattered. Some species or groups of species have been isolated for a long time, while others could stay in close contact. To create divisions in the family (or even within the genus ''Magnolia''), solely based upon morphological characters, has proven to be a nearly impossible task.In 1927 J.E. Dandy accepted 10 genera in ''The genera of Magnoliaceae'', ''Kew Bulletin 1927'': 257–264. In 1984 Law Yuh-Wu proposed 15 in ''A preliminary study on the taxonomy of the family Magnoliaceae'', ''Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica'' 22: 89–109; in 2004 even 16, in ''Magnolias of China''. This is not just about grouping some genera together where others do not; authors often choose different boundaries. By the end of the 20th century, DNA sequencing had become available as a method of large-scale research on Phylogenetics, phylogenetic relationships. Several studies, including studies on many species in the family Magnoliaceae, were carried out to investigate relationships. What these studies all revealed was that genus ''Michelia'' and ''Magnolia'' subgenus ''Yulania'' were far more closely allied to each other than either one of them was to ''Magnolia'' subgenus ''Magnolia''. These phylogenetic studies were supported by morphological data. As nomenclature is supposed to reflect relationships, the situation with the species names in ''Michelia'' and ''Magnolia'' subgenus ''Yulania'' was undesirable. Taxonomically, three choices are available: # to join ''Michelia'' and ''Yulania'' species in a common genus, not being ''Magnolia'' (for which the name ''Michelia'' has priority); # to raise subgenus ''Yulania'' to generic rank, leaving ''Michelia'' names and subgenus ''Magnolia'' names untouched, or; # to join ''Michelia'' with genus ''Magnolia'' into genus ''Magnolia'' sensu (taxonomy), s.l. (a big genus). ''Magnolia'' subgenus ''Magnolia'' cannot be renamed because it contains ''M. virginiana'', the type species of the genus and of the family. Not many ''Michelia'' species have so far become horticulturally or economically important, apart for their wood. Both subgenus ''Magnolia'' and subgenus ''Yulania'' include species of major horticultural importance, and a change of name would be very undesirable for many people, especially in the horticultural branch. In Europe, ''Magnolia'' even is more or less a synonym for ''Yulania'', since most of the cultivated species on this continent have ''Magnolia (Yulania) denudata'' as one of their parents. Most taxonomists who acknowledge close relations between ''Yulania'' and ''Michelia'' therefore support the third option and join ''Michelia'' with ''Magnolia''. The same goes, ''mutatis mutandis'', for the (former) genera ''Talauma'' and ''Dugandiodendron'', which are then placed in subgenus ''Magnolia'', and genus ''Manglietia'', which could be joined with subgenus ''Magnolia'' or may even earn the status of an extra subgenus. ''Elmerrillia'' seems to be closely related to ''Michelia'' and ''Yulania'', in which case it will most likely be treated in the same way as ''Michelia'' is now. The precise nomenclatural status of small or monospecific genera like ''Kmeria'', ''Parakmeria'', ''Pachylarnax'', ''Manglietiastrum'', ''Aromadendron'', ''Woonyoungia'', ''Alcimandra'', ''Paramichelia'' and ''Tsoongiodendron'' remains uncertain. Taxonomists who merge ''Michelia'' into ''Magnolia'' tend to merge these small genera into ''Magnolia'' s.l. as well. Botanists do not yet agree on whether to recognize a big ''Magnolia'' or the different small genera. For example, ''Flora of China'' offers two choices: a large genus ''Magnolia'' which includes about 300 species, everything in the
Magnoliaceae The Magnoliaceae () are a flowering plant Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anyth ...
except ''Liriodendron'' (tulip tree), or 16 different genera, some of them recently split out or re-recognized, each of which contains up to 50 species.4. Magnoliaceae
''Flora of China''
The western co-author favors the big genus ''Magnolia'', whereas the Chinese recognize the different small genera.


Subdivision

Species of magnolia are most commonly listed under three subgenus, subgenera, 12 section (biology), sections, and 13 subsections, such as that used here, following the classification of the Magnolia Society. It does not represent the last word on the subclassification of the genus ''Magnolia'' (see above), as a clear consensus has not yet been reached. Each species entry follows this pattern: ''Botanical name'' Naming auth.(REGION FOUND) The subdivision structure is as follows: * Subgenus ''Magnolia'' (8 sections) ** ''Magnolia'' ** ''Gwillimia'' (2 subsections) *** ''Gwillimia'' *** ''Blumiana'' ** ''Talauma'' (3 subsections) *** ''Talauma'' *** ''Dugandiodendron'' *** ''Cubenses'' ** ''Manglietia'' ** ''Kmeria'' ** ''Rhytidospermum'' (2 subsections) *** ''Rhytidospermum'' *** ''Oyama'' ** ''Auriculata'' ** ''Macrophylla'' * Subgenus ''Yulania'' (2 sections) ** ''Yulania'' (2 subsections) *** ''Yulania'' *** ''Tulipastrum'' ** ''Michelia'' (4 subsections) *** ''Michelia'' *** ''Elmerrillia'' *** ''Maingola'' *** ''Aromadendron'' * Subgenus ''Gynopodium'' (2 sections) ** ''Gynopodium'' ** ''Manglietiastrum''


Subgenus ''Magnolia''

Anthers open by splitting at the front facing the centre of the flower, deciduous or evergreen, flowers produced after the leaf, leaves.


=Section ''Magnolia''

= * ''
Magnolia grandiflora ''Magnolia grandiflora'', commonly known as the southern magnolia or bull bay, is a tree of the family Magnoliaceae native to the southeastern United States The southeastern United States, also referred to as the American Southeast or simpl ...

Magnolia grandiflora
'' L. - (SE US) * ''Magnolia guatemalensis'' Donn. Sm. - (Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador) ** ''Magnolia guatemalensis'' subsp. ''guatemalensis'' (Guatemala) ** ''Magnolia guatemalensis'' subsp. ''hondurensis'' (Molina) Vazquez (Honduras, El Salvador) * ''Magnolia guerrerensis'' J.Jiménez Ram., K.Vega & Cruz Durán (Mexico) * ''Magnolia iltisiana'' Vazquez (W Mexico) * ''Magnolia krusei'' J.Jiménez Ram. & Cruz Durán (Mexico) * ''Magnolia pacifica'' Vazquez (W Mexico) ** ''Magnolia pacifica'' subsp. ''pacifica'' (W Mexico) ** ''Magnolia pacifica'' subsp. ''pugana'' Iltis & Vazquez (W Mexico) * ''Magnolia panamensis'' Vazquez & Iltis (Panama) * ''Magnolia poasana'' (Pittier) Dandy (Costa Rica, Panama) *''Magnolia poqomchi'' * ''Magnolia schiedeana'' Schltdl. (E Mexico) * ''Magnolia sharpii'' Meranda (Chiapas (Mexico)) * ''Magnolia sororum'' Seibert (Costa Rica, Panama) ** ''Magnolia sororum'' subsp. ''lutea'' Vazquez. (Costa Rica, Panama) ** ''Magnolia sororum'' subsp. ''sororum'' (Panama) * ''Magnolia tamaulipana'' Vazquez - Mexican evergreen magnolia (NE Mexico) * ''Magnolia tarahumara'' (Vazquez) A.Vázquez (W Mexico) * ''Magnolia vazquezii'' Cruz Durán & K.Vega (Mexico) * ''Magnolia virginiana'' L. (SE US) * ''Magnolia yoroconte'' Dandy (Guatemala, Honduras, Belize)


=Section ''Gwillimia''

=


Subsection ''Gwillimia''

* ''Magnolia albosericea'' Chun & Tsoong. (Hainan (China)) * ''Magnolia bawangensis'' Law, R.Z.Zhou & D.M.Liu (Hainan (China)) * ''Magnolia championii'' Benth (S & SE China) * ''Magnolia clemensiorum'' Dandy (Vietnam) * ''Magnolia coco'' (Lour.) DC. (SE China) * ''Magnolia delavayi'' Franchet (Yunnan (China)) * ''Magnolia fistulosa'' (Finet & Gagnep.) Dandy (SE Yunnan (China)) * ''Magnolia henryi'' Dunn (Yunnan (China)) * ''Magnolia nana'' Dandy (Vietnam) * ''Magnolia odoratissima'' Law et Zhou (S China) * ''Magnolia pterocarpa'' Roxb. (Nepal, Burma) * ''Magnolia xiana'' Noot. (China)


Subsection ''Blumiana''

* ''Magnolia angatensis'' Blanco (Philippines) * ''Magnolia betongensis'' (Craib) H.Keng (Borneo) * ''Magnolia gigantifolia'' (Miq.) Noot. (Borneo, Sumatra) * ''Magnolia hodgsonii'' (Hook.f. & Thom.) H.Keng (Nepal, Burma) * ''Magnolia lasia'' Noot. (Borneo) * ''Magnolia liliifera'' (L.) Baillon (SE Asia, Borneo, Philippines, Singapore, Sumatra) ** ''Magnolia liliifera'' var. ''angatensis'' (Blanco) Noot. (Philippines) ** ''Magnolia liliifera'' var. ''beccarii'' (Henry Nicholas Ridley, Ridley) Noot. (Borneo) ** ''Magnolia liliifera'' var. ''liliifera'' (SE Asia) ** ''Magnolia liliifera'' var. ''obovata'' (Korth.) Govaerts (Borneo) ** ''Magnolia liliifera'' var. ''singapurensis'' (Ridley) Noot. (Singapore, Sumatra) * ''Magnolia mariusjacobsia'' Noot. (Borneo) * ''Magnolia persuaveolens'' Dandy (Borneo) ** ''Magnolia persuaveolens'' subsp. ''persuaveolens'' (Borneo) ** ''Magnolia persuaveolens'' subsp. ''rigida'' Noot. (Borneo) * ''Magnolia rabaniana'' Hook.f. & Thomson D.C.S.Raju & M.P.Nayer (India) * ''Magnolia sarawakensis'' (Agostini) Noot. (Borneo) * ''Magnolia singapurensis'' (Ridl.) H.Keng (Singapore, Sumatra) * ''Magnolia villosa'' (Miq.) H.Keng (Sumatra, Borneo)


=Section ''Talauma''

=


Subsection ''Talauma''

* ''Magnolia allenii'' Standl. (Panama) * ''Magnolia amazonica'' (Ducke) Govaerts (Brazil, Peru) * ''Magnolia arcabucoana'' (Lozano) Govaerts (Colombia) * ''Magnolia bankardiorum'' M.O.Dillon & Sánchez Vega (Peru) * ''Magnolia boliviana'' (M.Nee) Govaerts (Bolivia) * ''Magnolia caricifragrans'' (Lozano) Govaerts (Colombia) * ''Magnolia cespedesii'' (Triana & Planch) Govaerts (Colombia) * ''Magnolia chocoensis'' (Lozano) Govaerts (Colombia) * ''Magnolia coronata'' M.Serna, C.Velásquez & Cogollo (Colombia) * ''Magnolia dixonii'' (Little) Govaerts (Ecuador) * ''Magnolia dodecapetala'' (Lam.) Govaerts (Lesser Antilles) * ''Magnolia espinalii'' (Lozano) Govaerts (Colombia) * ''Magnolia georgii'' (Lozano) Govaerts (Colombia) * ''Magnolia gilbertoi'' (Lozano) Govaerts (Colombia) * ''Magnolia gloriensis'' (Pittier) Govaerts (Central America) * ''Magnolia henaoi'' (Lozano) Govaerts (Colombia) * ''Magnolia hernandezii'' (Lozano) Govaerts (Colombia) * ''Magnolia irwiniana'' (Lozano) Govaerts (Brazil) * ''Magnolia jardinensis'' M.Serna, C.Velásquez & Cogollo (Colombia) * ''Magnolia katiorum'' (Lozano) Govaerts (Colombia) * ''Magnolia lacandonica'' Vazquez-Garcia, Perez-Farrera, Martinez-Camilo, Muniz-Castro & Martinez-Melendez (Mexico) * ''Magnolia manguillo'' Marcelo-Peña & F. Arroyo (Peru) * ''Magnolia mexicana'' DC. (Mexico) * ''Magnolia minor'' (Urb.) Govaerts (Cuba) * ''Magnolia morii'' (Lozano) Govaerts (Panama) * ''Magnolia narinensis'' (Lozano) Govaerts (Colombia) * ''Magnolia neillii'' (Lozano) Govaerts (Ecuador) * ''Magnolia ovata'' (A.St.-Hil.) Spreng. (Brazil) * ''Magnolia polyhypsophylla'' (Lozano) Govaerts (Colombia) * ''Magnolia quetzal'' Vazquez-Garcia, Veliz-Perez, Triboullier-Navas & Muniz-Castro (Guatemala) * ''Magnolia rimachii'' (Lozano) Govaerts (Peru, Ecuador) * ''Magnolia sambuensis'' (Pittier) Govaerts (Panama, Colombia) * ''Magnolia santanderiana'' (Lozano) Govaerts (Colombia) * ''Magnolia sellowiana'' (A.St.-Hil.) Govaerts (Brazil) * ''Magnolia silvioi'' (Lozano) Govaerts (Colombia) * ''Magnolia venezuelensis'' (Lozano) Govaerts (Venezuela) * ''Magnolia virolinensis'' (Lozano) Govaerts (Colombia) * ''Magnolia wolfii'' (Lozano) Govaerts (Colombia)


Subsection ''Dugandiodendron''

* ''Magnolia argyrothricha'' (Lozano) Govaerts (Colombia) * ''Magnolia calimaensis'' (Lozano) Govaerts (Colombia) * ''Magnolia calophylla'' (Lozano) Govaerts (Colombia) * ''Magnolia cararensis'' (Lozano) Govaerts (Colombia) * ''Magnolia chimantensis'' Steyermark & Maguire – “Chimanta magnolia” (Venezuela) * ''Magnolia colombiana'' (Little) Govaerts (Colombia) * ''Magnolia guatapensis'' (Lozano) Govaerts (Colombia) * ''Magnolia jaenensis'' Marcelo-Peña (Peru) * ''Magnolia lenticellata'' (Lozano) Govaerts (Colombia) * ''Magnolia magnifolia'' (Lozano) Govaerts (Colombia) * ''Magnolia mahechae'' (Lozano) Govaerts (Colombia) * ''Magnolia ptaritepuiana'' Steyermark – “''ptari-tepui'' magnolia” (Venezuela) * ''Magnolia striatifolia'' Little (Colombia, Ecuador) * ''Magnolia urraoense'' (Lozano) Govaerts (Colombia) * ''Magnolia yarumalense'' (Lozano) Govaerts (Colombia)


Subsection ''Cubenses''

* ''Magnolia cristalensis'' Bisse (Cuba) * ''Magnolia cubensis'' Urb. (Cuba) * ''Magnolia domingensis'' Urb. (Haiti, Dominican Rep.) * ''Magnolia ekmannii'' Urb. (Haiti) * ''Magnolia emarginata'' Urb. & Ekman (Haiti) * ''Magnolia hamorii'' Howard (Dominican Rep.) * ''Magnolia pallescens'' Urb. & Ekman (Dom. Rep.) * ''Magnolia portoricensis'' Bello (Puerto Rico) * ''Magnolia splendens'' Urban (Puerto Rico)


=Section ''Manglietia''

= * ''Magnolia aromatica'' (Dandy) V.S.Kumar (S China) * ''Magnolia blaoensis'' (Gagnep.) Dandy (Vietnam) * ''Magnolia blumei'' Prantl (Sumatra, Java) ** ''Magnolia blumei'' var. ''blumei'' (Sumatra, Java) ** ''Magnolia blumei'' var. ''sumatrana'' (Miq.) Figlar & Noot. (W Sumatra) * ''Magnolia calophylloides'' Figlar & Noot. (W Sumatra) * ''Magnolia caveana'' (Hook.f. & Thoms.) D.C.Raju & M.P.Nayer (Assam, N Burma) * ''Magnolia changhuntana'' Noot. (Guangdong (China)) * ''Magnolia chevalieri'' (Dandy) V.S.Kumar (Vietnam, Laos) * ''Magnolia conifera'' (Dandy) V.S.Kumar (SE China, Vietnam) ** ''Magnolia conifera'' var. ''chingii'' (Dandy) V.S.Kumar (SE China) ** ''Magnolia conifera'' var. ''conifera'' (SE China, Vietnam) * ''Magnolia crassipes'' (Y.W.Law) V.S.Kumar (Guangdong (China)) * ''Magnolia dandyi'' (Gapnep.) Dandy (S China, Vietnam, Laos) * ''Magnolia decidua'' (Q.Y.Zheng) V.S.Kumar (Jiangxi (China)) * ''Magnolia duclouxii'' Finet & Gagnep. (Vietnam, SW China) * ''Magnolia figlarii'' V.S.Kumar (Sichuan (China)) * ''Magnolia fordiana'' (Oliv.) Hu (Vietnam, S China) ** ''Magnolia fordiana'' var. ''calcarea'' (X.H.Song) Chen & Noot. (Guizhou (China)) ** ''Magnolia fordiana'' var. ''fordiana'' (Vietnam, S China) ** ''Magnolia fordiana'' var. ''forrestii'' (W.W.Sm. Ex Dandy) Chen & Noot. (SW China) ** ''Magnolia fordiana'' var. ''kwangtungensis'' (Merr.) Chen & Noot. (SE China) * ''Magnolia garrettii'' (Craib) V.S.Kumar (SW China, Vietnam, Thailand) * ''Magnolia grandis'' (Hu & W.C.Cheng) V.S.Kumar (Yunnan (China)) * ''Magnolia hongheensis'' (Y.M.Shui & W.H.Chen) V.S.Kumar (Yunnan (China)) * ''Magnolia hookeri'' Cubitt & W.W.Sm. (SW China, N Burma, Thailand) * ''Magnolia insignis'' (Wall.) Blume (S China, Nepal, Burma) * ''Magnolia kwangtungensis'' Merr. (SE China) * ''Magnolia lanuginosoides'' Figlar & Noot. (Sumatra) * ''Magnolia longipedunculata'' (Q.W.Zeng & Law) V.S.Kumar (Guangdong (China)) * ''Magnolia lucida'' (B.L. Chen & S.C. Yang) V.S. Kumar (SW China) * ''Magnolia obovalifolia'' (C.Y.Yu & Law) V.S.Kumar (Yunnan (China)) * ''Magnolia ovoidea'' (H.T.Chang & B.L.Chen) V.S.Kumar (Yunnan (China)) * ''Magnolia patungensis'' (Hu) Noot. (China) * ''Magnolia rufibarbata'' (Dandy) V.S. Kumar (Vietnam) * ''Magnolia sabahensis'' (Dandy ex Noot.) Figlar & Noot. (Borneo) * ''Magnolia sapaensis'' (N.H.Xia & Q.N.Vu) Grimshaw & Macer (Vietnam) * ''Magnolia utilis'' (Dandy) V.S.Kumar (N Burma, Thailand) * ''Magnolia ventii'' (N.V.Tiep) V.S.Kumar (Yunnan (China)) * ''Magnolia xinganensis'' Noot. (Guangxi (China)) * ''Magnolia yuyuanensis'' (Y.W.Law) V.S.Kumar (E China) * ''Magnolia zhengyiana'' (N.H.Xia) Noot. (Yunnan (China))


=Section ''Kmeria''

= * ''Magnolia duperreana'' Pierre (Vietnam, Cambodia) * ''Magnolia kwangsiensis'' Figlar & Noot. (Yunnan, Guangxi (China)) * ''Magnolia thailandica'' Noot. & Chalermglin (Thailand)


=Section ''Rhytidospermum''

=


Subsection ''Rhytidospermum''

* ''Magnolia obovata'' Thunb. (Japan) * ''Magnolia officinalis'' Rehd. & Wilson (W China) ** ''Magnolia officinalis'' subsp. ''biloba'' Cheng & Law (E China) ** ''Magnolia officinalis'' subsp. ''officinalis'' (E China) * ''Magnolia rostrata'' W.W.Smith (SW China) * ''Magnolia tripetala'' (L.) L. (SE US)


Subsection ''Oyama''

* ''Magnolia globosa'' Hook. f. & Thoms. (Nepal, Burma) * ''
Magnolia sieboldii ''Magnolia sieboldii'', or Siebold's magnolia, also known as Korean mountain magnolia and Oyama magnolia, is a species of ''Magnolia'' native to east Asia in China, Japan, and Korea. It is named after the Germany, German doctor Philipp Franz von ...

Magnolia sieboldii
'' K. Koch (Korea, E China, Japan) ** ''Magnolia sieboldii'' subsp. ''japonica'' K.Ueda (Japan, central China) ** ''Magnolia sieboldii'' subsp. ''sieboldii'' (Japan) ** ''Magnolia sieboldii'' subsp. ''sinensis'' (Rehd. & Wilson) Spongberg (central China) * ''Magnolia wilsonii'' (Finet. & Gagnep.) Rehd. - Wilson's magnolia (SW China)


= Section ''Auriculata''

= * ''Magnolia fraseri'' Walt. - Fraser magnolia or ear-leaved magnolia (SE US) ** ''Magnolia fraseri'' var. ''fraseri'' - Fraser magnolia or ear-leaved magnolia (SE US) ** ''Magnolia fraseri'' var. ''pyramidata'' (Bartram) Pampanini - pyramid magnolia (SE US)Often treated as a distinct species, ''Magnolia pyramidata.''


=Section ''Macrophylla''

= * ''Magnolia macrophylla'' Michx. (SE US, E Mexico) ** ''Magnolia macrophylla'' var. ''ashei'' (Weatherby) D. Johnson (SE US)Often treated as a distinct species, ''Magnolia ashei.'' ** ''Magnolia macrophylla'' var. ''dealbata'' (Zuccarini) D. Johnson (E Mexico)Often treated as a distinct species, ''Magnolia dealbata.'' ** ''Magnolia macrophylla'' var. ''macrophylla'' (SE US)


Subgenus ''Yulania''

Anthers open by splitting at the sides, deciduous, flowers mostly produced before leaves (except ''M. acuminata'')


=Section ''Yulania''

=


Subsection ''Yulania''

* ''Magnolia amoena'' W.C. Cheng (E China) * ''Magnolia biondii'' Pampan (E China) * ''Magnolia campbellii'' Hook. f. & Thomson (W China, Himalayas, India, Nepal, Assam) ** ''Magnolia campbellii'' var. ''alba'' Treseder (Himalayas) ** ''Magnolia campbellii'' var. ''campbellii''. (Himalayas) ** ''Magnolia campbellii'' var. ''mollicomata'' (W.W. Smith) F. Kingdon-Ward (W China, Himalayas) * ''Magnolia cylindrica'' Wilson (E China) * ''Magnolia dawsoniana'' Rehd. & Wilson (Sichuan (China)) * ''Magnolia denudata'' Desr. (E China) * ''Magnolia kobus'' DC. (Japan, Korea) * ''Magnolia liliiflora'' Desr. (central China) * ''Magnolia × loebneri'' Paul Kache (Japan) * ''Magnolia salicifolia'' (Sieb. & Zucc.) Maxim. (Japan) * ''Magnolia sargentiana'' Rehd. & Wilson (W China) ** ''Magnolia sargentiana'' var. ''robusta'' Rehd. & Wilson (Sichuan (China)) ** ''Magnolia sargentiana'' var. ''sargentiana'' (W China) * ''Magnolia × soulangeana'' Thiéb.-Bern. (hybrid origin) * ''Magnolia sprengeri'' Pampan (Sichuan (China)) ** ''Magnolia sprengeri'' var. ''elongata'' (Rehd. & Wilson) Johnstone (Sichuan (China)) ** ''Magnolia sprengeri'' var. ''sprengeri'' (Sichuan (China)) * ''Magnolia stellata'' (Sieb. & Zucc.) Maxim. (Japan) * ''Magnolia zenii'' Cheng (E China)


Subsection ''Tulipastrum''

* ''Magnolia acuminata'' (L.) L. (E North America) ** ''Magnolia acuminata'' var. ''acuminata'' (E North America) ** ''Magnolia acuminata'' var. ''subcordata'' (Spach) Dandy (SE US)


=Section ''Michelia''

=


Subsection ''Michelia''

* Magnolia × alba, ''Magnolia'' × ''alba'' (DC.) Figlar & Noot. (hybrid origin) * ''Magnolia angustioblonga'' (Law & Wu) Figlar (SW China) * ''Magnolia baillonii'' Pierre (SW China, Vietnam) * ''Magnolia balansae'' A.DC. (S China, Vietnam) * ''Magnolia banghamii'' (Noot.) Figlar & Noot. (Malaysia, Sumatra) * ''Magnolia braianensis'' (Gagnep.) Figlar (Vietnam) * ''Magnolia cavaleriei'' (Finet & Gagnep.) Figlar (S China) * ''Magnolia champaca'' (L.) Baillon ex Pierre (S India, Lesser Sunda isl., Java, Malay penn.) ** ''Magnolia champaca'' var. ''champaca'' (S India, Lesser Sunda isl.) ** ''Magnolia champaca'' var. ''pubinervia'' (Blume) Figlar & Noot. (Java, Malay penn.) * ''Magnolia chapensis'' (Dandy) Sima (S China, N Vietnam) * ''Magnolia citrata'' Noot. & Chalermglin (NE Thailand) * ''Magnolia compressa'' Maxim. (Japan, SW China) * ''Magnolia coriacea'' (H.T. Chang & B.L. Chen) Figlar (SE Yunnan (China)) * ''Magnolia doltsopa'' (Buch.-Ham. Ex DC.) Figlar (SW China, Himalayas) * ''Magnolia elegantifolia'' Noot. (Zhejiang (China)) * ''Magnolia ernestii'' Figlar. (Sichuan (China)) ** ''Magnolia ernestii'' subsp. ''ernestii'' (Sichuan (China)) ** ''Magnolia ernestii'' subsp. ''szechuanica'' (Dandy) Sima & Figlar (Sichuan (China)) * ''Magnolia figo'' (Lour.) DC. (SE China) ** ''Magnolia figo'' var. ''crassipes'' (Law) Figlar & Noot. (SE China) ** ''Magnolia figo'' var. ''figo'' . (SE China) ** ''Magnolia figo'' var. ''skinneriana'' ined. (SE China) * ''Magnolia flaviflora'' (Law & Wu) Figlar (Vietnam, SW China) * ''Magnolia floribunda'' (Finet & Gagnep.) Figlar. (S China, Vietnam) * ''Magnolia foveolata'' (Merr. Ex Dandy) Figlar (S China, Vietnam) * ''Magnolia fujianensis'' (Q.F.Zheng) Figlar (SE China) * ''Magnolia fulva'' (H.T. Chang & B.L. Chen) Figlar (Yunnan (China), Vietnam?) ** ''Magnolia fulva'' var. ''calcicola'' Sima & Yu (Yunnan (China)) ** ''Magnolia fulva'' var. ''fulva'' . (Yunnan (China)) * ''Magnolia gioi'' (A.Chevalier) Noot. (S China, Vietnam) * ''Magnolia guangdongensis'' (Y.H.Yan, Q.W.Zeng & F.W.Xing) Noot. (Guandong (China)) * ''Magnolia guangxiensis'' (Law & R.Z.Zhou) Sima (Guangxi (China)) * ''Magnolia hypolampra'' (Dandy) Figlar (S China, Vietnam) * ''Magnolia iteophylla'' (C.Y.Wu ex Y.W.Law & Y.F.Wu) Noot. (Yunnan (China)) * ''Magnolia kingii'' (Dandy) Figlar (Bangladesh, Assam) * ''Magnolia kisopa'' (Bush.-Ham. ex DC.) Figlar (Vietnam, Nepal) * ''Magnolia koordersiana'' (Noot.) Figlar (Malaysia, W Sumatra) * ''Magnolia lacei'' (W.W.Smith) Figlar (SW China, Vietnam) * ''Magnolia laevifolia'' (Law & Y.F.Wu) Noot. (Yunnan (China)) * ''Magnolia lanuginosa'' (Wall.) Figlar & Noot. (Yunnan (China), Nepal) * ''Magnolia leveilleana'' (Dandy) Figlar (SW China) * ''Magnolia macclurei'' (Dandy) Figlar (S China, N Vietnam) ** ''Magnolia macclurei'' var. ''macclurei''. (S China, N Vietnam) ** ''Magnolia macclurei'' var. ''sublanea'' Dandy (Guangdong (China)) * ''Magnolia mannii'' (King) King (Assam) * ''Magnolia martinii'' H.Lev. (SE China, Vietnam) * ''Magnolia masticata'' (Dandy) Figlar (Yunnan (China), Laos) * ''Magnolia maudiae'' (Dunn) Figlar (SE China, Hainan isl.) ** ''Magnolia maudiae'' var. ''hunanensis'' (C.L.Peng & L.H.Yan) Sima (Hunan (China)) ** ''Magnolia maudiae'' var. ''maudiae'' (SE China, Hainan Isl.) ** ''Magnolia maudiae'' var. ''platypetala'' (Hand.-Mazz.) Sima (s.central China) * ''Magnolia mediocris'' (Dandy) Figlar (S China, Vietnam) * ''Magnolia microcarpa'' (B.L.Chen & S.C.Yang) Sima (S China) * ''Magnolia microtricha'' (Hand.-Mazz.) Figlar. (Yunnan (China)) * ''Magnolia montana'' (Blume) Figlar & Noot. (Malaysia to Borneo) * ''Magnolia nilagirica'' (Zenker) Figlar (S India, Sri Lanka) * ''Magnolia oblonga'' (Wall. Ex Hook.f. & Thomson) Figlar. (Assam) * ''Magnolia odora'' (Chun) Figlar & Noot. (SE China, N Vietnam) * ''Magnolia opipara'' (H.T.Chang & B.L.Chen) Sima (Yunnan (China)) * ''Magnolia philippinensis'' P.Pharm (Philippines) * ''Magnolia punduana'' (Hook.f. & Thoms.) Figlar (Assam) * ''Magnolia rajaniana'' (Craib.) Figlar. (Thailand) * ''Magnolia scortechinii'' (King) Figlar & Noot. (Malay penn., W Sumatra) * ''Magnolia shiluensis'' (Chun & Y.F.Wu) Figlar (Hainan isl.) * ''Magnolia sirindhorniae'' Noot. & Chalermglin (Thailand) * ''Magnolia sphaerantha'' (C.Y.Wu ex Z.S.Yue) Sima (SW China) * ''Magnolia subulifera'' (Dandy) Figlar (Vietnam) * ''Magnolia sumatrae'' (Dandy) Figlar & Noot. (Malaysia, Sumatra) * ''Magnolia xanthantha'' (C.Y.Wu ex Law & Y.F.Wu) Figlar (Yunnan (China))


Subsection ''Elmerrillia''

* ''Magnolia platyphylla'' (Merr.) Figlar & Noot. (Philippines) * ''Magnolia pubescens'' (Merr.) Figlar & Noot. (Philippines) * ''Magnolia sulawesiana'' Brambach, Noot. & Culmsee (Sulawesi) * ''Magnolia tsiampacca'' (L.) Figlar & Noot. (Sumatra, Borneo, Sulawesi, Moluccas, New Guinea, Bismarck Archipelago) ** ''Magnolia tsiampacca'' subsp. ''mollis'' (Dandy) Figlar & Noot. (Sumatra, Borneo) ** ''Magnolia tsiampacca'' subsp. ''tsiampacca'' (Sulawesi, Moluccas, New Guinea, Bismarck Archipelago) *** ''Magnolia tsiampacca'' subsp. ''tsiampacca'' var. ''glaberrima'' (Dandy) Figlar & Noot. (New Guinea) *** ''Magnolia tsiampacca'' subsp. ''tsiampacca'' var. ''tsiampacca'' (Sulawesi, Moluccas, New Guinea, Bismarck Archipelago) * ''Magnolia vrieseana'' (Miq.) Baill. ex Pierre (Sulawesi, Moluccas)


Subsection ''Maingola''

* ''Magnolia annamensis'' Dandy (Vietnam) * ''Magnolia carsonii'' Dandy ex Noot. (Borneo, Celebes) ** ''Magnolia carsonii'' var. ''carsonii'' (Borneo) ** ''Magnolia carsonii'' var. ''drymifolia'' Noot. (Borneo) ** ''Magnolia carsonii'' var. ''phaulanta'' (Dandy ex Noot.) S.Kim (Celebes) * ''Magnolia cathcartii'' (Hook.f. & Thoms.) Noot. (SW China, Burma) * ''Magnolia griffithii'' King (India, Assam) * ''Magnolia gustavii'' King (India, Assam) * ''Magnolia macklottii'' (Korth.) Dandy (W Java, Borneo, Sumatra) ** ''Magnolia macklottii'' var. ''beccariana'' (Agostini) Noot. (Sumatra) ** ''Magnolia macklottii'' var. ''macklottii'' (W Java, Borneo) * ''Magnolia pealiana'' King (Assam)


Subsection ''Aromadendron''

* ''Magnolia ashtonii'' Dandy ex. Noot. (Sumatra, Borneo) * ''Magnolia bintuluensis'' (Agostini) Noot. (Sumatra, Borneo) * ''Magnolia borneensis'' Noot. (Borneo, Philippines) * ''Magnolia elegans'' (Blume) Keng (Sumatra, Java) * ''Magnolia pahangensis'' Noot. (Borneo, Philippines)


Subgenus ''Gynopodium''


=Section ''Gynopodium''

= * ''Magnolia kachirachirai'' (Kanehira & Yamamoto) Dandy (Taiwan) * ''Magnolia lotungensis'' Chun & Tsoon (S China) * ''Magnolia nitida'' W.W.Smith (NW Yunnan (China)) * ''Magnolia omeiensis'' (Hu & Cheng) Dandy (Sichuan (China)) * ''Magnolia yunnanensis'' (Hu) Noot. (SE Yunnan (China))


=Section ''Manglietiastrum''

= * ''Magnolia pleiocarpa'' (Dandy) Figlar & Noot. (Assam) * ''Magnolia praecalva'' (Dandy) Figlar & Noot. (Vietnam, Malay penn.) * ''Magnolia sinica'' (Law) Noot. (SE Yunnan (China))


See also

* List of AGM magnolias


Notes


References


Bibliography

* * * * * * * * *


External links


''Magnolia'' images at the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University Plant Image Database
*Friedman, William (Ned)
"Hunting magnolia fruits at the Arboretum."
''Posts from the Collection,'' Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University website, 20 October 2019. Accessed 29 April 2020. *Dosmann, Michael and Nancy Rose
"Early to Evolve, Early to Flower: Collections Up Close Spotlights the Magnolia Collection."
''Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University'' website, Spring/Summer 2014. Accessed 29 April 2020.
"Magnolia - April Tree of the Month."
''Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University,'' 2014. Accessed 29 April 2020. *Glasser, Larissa
"Magnolia madness in April."
''Blog of the Arnold Arboretum Horticultural Library,'' Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University website, 19 April 2017. Accessed 29 April 2020. * * * * * * {{Authority control Magnolia, Magnoliales genera Culture of the Southern United States Medicinal plants National symbols of North Korea Plants used in traditional Chinese medicine Symbols of Louisiana Symbols of Mississippi