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Magna Graecia (, ;
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant la ...

Latin
meaning "Greater Greece", grc, Μεγάλη Ἑλλάς, ', it, Magna Grecia) was the name given by the
Romans Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, ...
to the coastal areas of
Southern Italy Southern Italy ( it, Sud Italia; nap, 'o Sudde; scn, Italia dû Sud), also known as ''Meridione'' or ''Mezzogiorno'' (, literally "Midday"; in nap, 'o Miezojuorno; in scn, Mezzujornu), is a macroregionA macroregion is a geopolitical subdivisi ...
in the present-day regions of
Calabria Calabria (, , ; scn, label=Languages of Calabria, Calabrian, Calàbbria; el, script=Latn, label=Calabrian Greek, Calavría; el, Καλαβρία; aae, Kalavrì), known in classical antiquity, antiquity as Bruttium (), is a Regions of Italy, re ...

Calabria
,
Apulia it, Pugliese , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = , demographics1_titl ...

Apulia
,
Basilicata it, Lucano (man) it, Lucana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = , ...
and
Campania it, Campano (man) it, Campana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 ...
; these regions were extensively populated by
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...

Greek
settlers. These settlers, who began arriving in the 8th century BC, brought with them their
Hellenic civilization Ancient Greece ( el, Ἑλλάς, Hellás) was a civilization A civilization (or civilisation) is any complex society that is characterized by urban development, social stratification, a form of government, and symbol A symbol i ...
, which left a lasting imprint in those territories, as it did in the culture of
ancient Rome In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the earliest historians whose work survives. A historian is a person who stud ...
. They also influenced the native peoples, such as the
Sicels The Sicels (; la, Siculi; grc, Σικελοί ''Sikeloi'') were an Italic tribe who inhabited eastern Sicily (masculine) it, Siciliana (feminine) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , populatio ...
, or the
OenotriansThe Oenotrians ("tribe led by Oenotrus" or "people from the land of vines - Οἰνωτρία") were an ancient people who inhabited a territory in southern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana ...
, who became
Hellenised Hellenization (other British spelling Hellenisation) or Hellenism is the historical spread of ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from ar ...
after they adopted the Greek culture as their own. The term Magna Graecia first appears in
Polybius Polybius (; grc-gre, Πολύβιος, ; ) was a Greek historian of the Hellenistic period The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the R ...

Polybius
' ''
Histories Histories or, in Latin, Historiae may refer to: * the plural of history * Histories (Herodotus), ''Histories'' (Herodotus), by Herodotus * ''The Histories'', by Timaeus (historian), Timaeus * The Histories (Polybius), ''The Histories'' (Polybius), ...
''. The Roman poet
Ovid Pūblius Ovidius Nāsō (; 20 March 43 BC – 17/18 AD), known in English as Ovid ( ), was a who lived during the reign of . He was a contemporary of the older and , with whom he is often ranked as one of the three poets of . The scholar c ...

Ovid
notably referred to the south of Italy as such in his poem ''
Fasti In ancient Rome In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman people, Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roma ...
''.


Antiquity

According to
Strabo Strabo''Strabo'' (meaning "squinty", as in strabismus Strabismus is a condition in which the eyes do not properly align with each other when looking at an object. The eye that is focused on an object can alternate. The condition may be pre ...

Strabo
's ''
Geographica The ''Geographica'' (Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following per ...
'', the colonization of Magna Graecia had already begun by the time of the
Trojan War In Greek mythology, the Trojan War was waged against the city of Troy by the Achaeans (Homer), Achaeans (Greeks) after Paris (mythology), Paris of Troy took Helen of Troy, Helen from her husband Menelaus, king of Sparta. The war is one of the ...
and lasted for several centuries. In the 8th and 7th century BC, due to demographic crises (famine, overcrowding, etc.), ''
stasis Stasis (from Greek στάσις "a standing still") may refer to: * A state in stability theory In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, s ...
'', a developing need for new commercial outlets and ports, and expulsion from their homeland after wars, Greeks began to settle in southern Italy. Colonies began to be established all over the Mediterranean and Black Seas (with the exception of Northwestern Africa, in the sphere of influence of Carthage), including in Sicily and the southern part of the
Italian Peninsula The Italian Peninsula (Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regi ...
. The Romans called this area ''Magna Graecia'' (Latin for "Greater Greece") since it was so densely inhabited by the
Greeks The Greeks or Hellenes (; el, Έλληνες, ''Éllines'' ) are an and native to the and the regions, namely , , , , , and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the . They also form a significant , with Greek communities esta ...

Greeks
. Ancient
geographer A geographer is a physical scientist, social scientist or humanist whose area of study is geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, feat ...
s differed on whether the term included Sicily or merely
Apulia it, Pugliese , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = , demographics1_titl ...

Apulia
,
Campania it, Campano (man) it, Campana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 ...
and
Calabria Calabria (, , ; scn, label=Languages of Calabria, Calabrian, Calàbbria; el, script=Latn, label=Calabrian Greek, Calavría; el, Καλαβρία; aae, Kalavrì), known in classical antiquity, antiquity as Bruttium (), is a Regions of Italy, re ...

Calabria
,
Strabo Strabo''Strabo'' (meaning "squinty", as in strabismus Strabismus is a condition in which the eyes do not properly align with each other when looking at an object. The eye that is focused on an object can alternate. The condition may be pre ...

Strabo
and
Livy Titus Livius (; 59 BC – AD 17), known in English as Livy ( ), was a historian. He wrote a monumental history of and the Roman people, titled , covering the period from the earliest legends of Rome before the traditional founding in 753 BC th ...
being the most prominent advocates of the wider definitions. With colonization,
Greek culture The culture of Greece has evolved over thousands of years, beginning in Minoan and later in Mycenaean Greece, continuing most notably into Classical Greece Classical Greece was a period of around 200 years (5th and 4th centuries BC) in Gree ...
was exported to Italy in its dialects of the
Ancient Greek language Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek (modern , romanized: ''Elliniká'', Ancient Greek, ancient , ''Hellēnikḗ'') is an independent branch of the Indo-European languages, Indo-European family of languages, nati ...
, its religious rites and its traditions of the independent ''
polis ''Polis'' (, ; grc-gre, , ), plural ''poleis'' (, , ), literally means "" in Greek. In , it originally referred to an administrative and religious city center, as distinct from the rest of the city. Later, it also came to mean the body of cit ...

polis
''. An original
Hellenic civilization Ancient Greece ( el, Ἑλλάς, Hellás) was a civilization A civilization (or civilisation) is any complex society that is characterized by urban development, social stratification, a form of government, and symbol A symbol i ...
soon developed and later interacted with the native
Italic
Italic
civilisations. The most important cultural transplant was the
Chalcidean
Chalcidean
/ Cumaean variety of the
Greek alphabet The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late ninth or early eighth century BC. It is derived from the earlier Phoenician alphabet, and was the first alphabetic script in history to have distinct letters for vowels ...

Greek alphabet
, which was adopted by the
Etruscans The Etruscan civilization () of List of ancient peoples of Italy, ancient Italy covered a territory, at its greatest extent, of roughly what is now Tuscany, western Umbria, and northern Lazio, as well as what are now the Po Valley, Emilia-Romagna ...

Etruscans
; the
Old Italic alphabet The Old Italic scripts are a family of similar ancient writing systems used in the Italy, Italian Peninsula between around 700 and 100 BC, for various languages spoken in that time and place. The most notable member is the Etruscan alphabet ...
subsequently evolved into the
Latin alphabet The Latin alphabet or Roman alphabet is the collection of letters originally used by the ancient Romans In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived ...

Latin alphabet
, which became the most widely used alphabet in the world. Some of these Hellenic colonies still stand today such as Neapolis ("New City", now
Naples Naples (; it, Napoli ; nap, Napule ), from grc, Νεάπολις, Neápolis, lit=new city. is the regional capital of and the third-largest city of , after and , with a population of 967,069 within the city's administrative limits as of ...

Naples
),
Syracuse Syracuse may refer to: Places Italy *Syracuse, Sicily Syracuse ( ; it, Siracusa , or scn, Seragusa, label=none ; lat, Syrācūsae ; grc-att, wikt:Συράκουσαι, Συράκουσαι, Syrákousai ; grc-dor, wikt:Συράκοσ ...
,
Akragas Agrigento (; scn, Girgenti or ; grc, Ἀκράγας, translit=Akragas; la, Agrigentum or ; ar, script=Latn, Kirkent or ) is a city on the southern coast of Sicily, Italy and capital of the province of Agrigento. It was one of the leading ...

Akragas
(Agrigento), Taras (
Taranto Taranto (, also ; ; nap, label=Tarantino dialect, Tarantino, Tarde; Latin: Tarentum; early it, Tarento; Ancient Greek: Τάρᾱς) is a coastal city in Apulia, Southern Italy. It is the capital of the Province of Taranto, serving as an impor ...

Taranto
),
Rhegion Reggio di Calabria ( scn, label= Reggino, Rìggiu; el, label= Bovesia Calabrian Greek The Calabrian dialect of Greek language, Greek, or Grecanico
(Reggio Calabria), or
Kroton
Kroton
(Crotone). The first Greek city to be absorbed into the
Roman Republic The Roman Republic ( la, Rēs pūblica Rōmāna ) was a state of the , run through of the . Beginning with the of the (traditionally dated to 509 BC) and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the , Rome's control rapidly expanded durin ...
was Neapolis in 327 BC. The other Greek cities in Italy followed during the
Samnite Wars The First, Second, and Third Samnite Wars (343–341 BC, 326–304 BC, and 298–290 BC) were fought between the Roman Republic The Roman Republic ( la, Rēs pūblica Rōmāna ) was a state of the , run through of the . Beginning with t ...
and the
Pyrrhic War The Pyrrhic War (280–275 BC) was a war fought by Pyrrhus, the king of Epirus Epirus () is a geographical and historical History (from Ancient Greek, Greek , ''historia'', meaning "inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation") is the stu ...
; Taras was the last to fall in 272. Sicily was conquered by Rome during the
First Punic War The First Punic War (264–241 BC) was the first of three wars fought between Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus Romulus was the legendary founder and first ...
. Only Syracuse remained independent until 212, because its king
Hiero II Image:HieroII syracusa.jpg, Zeus' sacrificial altar built by Hiëro II in Syracuse Hiero II ( el, Ἱέρων Β΄; c. 308 BC – 215 BC) was the Greek tyrant of Syracuse, Sicily, Syracuse from 270 to 215 BC, and the illegitimate son of a Syracusan ...
was a devoted ally of the Romans. His grandson
Hieronymus Hieronymus, in English pronounced or , is the Latin form of the Ancient Greek name (Hierṓnymos), meaning "with a sacred name". It corresponds to the English given name Jerome (given name), Jerome. Notable persons with that given name include: * ...
however made an alliance with
Hannibal Hannibal (; xpu, 𐤇𐤍𐤁𐤏𐤋, ''Ḥannibaʿl''; 247 – between 183 and 181 BC) was a Carthaginian general and statesman who commanded the forces of Carthage Carthage was the capital city of the ancient Ancient Carthage, ...

Hannibal
, which prompted the Romans to besiege the city, which fell in 212, despite the machines of
Archimedes Archimedes of Syracuse (; grc, ; ; ) was a Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its popula ...

Archimedes
as Proclus writes in his commentary on Euclid's Elements Archimedes constructed weapons functioning with compressed air, with weights and counterweights as Ctesibius and Hero explain. File:Paestum BW 2013-05-17 15-01-57.jpg,
Greek temples Greek temples ( grc, ναός, naós, dwelling, semantically distinct from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area ...
of
Paestum Paestum ( , , ) was a major city on the coast of the in (southern Italy). The ruins of Paestum are famous for their three s in the , dating from about 550 to 450 BC, which are in an excellent state of preservation. The city walls and amphith ...

Paestum
,
Campania it, Campano (man) it, Campana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 ...
File:Reggio calabria museo nazionale mosaico da kaulon.jpg, Mosaic from
Caulonia Caulonia ( Kaulonia) is a ''comune'' (municipality) in the Province of Reggio Calabria in the Italy, Italian region Calabria, located about southwest of Catanzaro and about northeast of Reggio Calabria in the Stilaro Valley. Originally it was kno ...
,
Calabria Calabria (, , ; scn, label=Languages of Calabria, Calabrian, Calàbbria; el, script=Latn, label=Calabrian Greek, Calavría; el, Καλαβρία; aae, Kalavrì), known in classical antiquity, antiquity as Bruttium (), is a Regions of Italy, re ...

Calabria
File:Tavole-palatine - Hera temple.jpg, Temple of
Hera Hera (; grc-gre, Ἥρα, Hḗrā; grc, Ἥρη, Hḗrē, label=none in Ionic Ionic or Ionian may refer to: Arts and entertainment * Ionic meter, a poetic metre in ancient Greek and Latin poetry * Ionian mode, a musical mode or a diatonic s ...

Hera
in
Metaponto Metaponto is a small town of about 1,000 people in the province of Matera, Basilicata it, Lucano (man) it, Lucana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , d ...

Metaponto
,
Basilicata it, Lucano (man) it, Lucana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = , ...
File:Agrigento-Tempio della Concordia01.JPG, The ,
Akragas Agrigento (; scn, Girgenti or ; grc, Ἀκράγας, translit=Akragas; la, Agrigentum or ; ar, script=Latn, Kirkent or ) is a city on the southern coast of Sicily, Italy and capital of the province of Agrigento. It was one of the leading ...

Akragas
,
Sicily Sicily ( it, Sicilia ; scn, Sicilia ) is the in the and one of the 20 of . It is one of the five and is officially referred to as ''Regione Siciliana''. The region has 5 million inhabitants. Its is . Sicily is in the central Mediterranean ...

Sicily
File:Suvée, Joseph-Benoit - Milo of Croton.jpg,
Milo of Croton Milo of Croton (; Ancient Greek, Greek: Μίλων, ''Mílōn''; gen.: Μίλωνος, ''Mílōnos'') was a 6th-century BC Greek wrestling, wrestler from the Magna Graecian city of Crotone, Croton, who enjoyed a brilliant wrestling career and ...
File:ആർക്കിമിഡീസ്‌.jpg,
Archimedes of Syracuse Archimedes of Syracuse (; grc, ; ; ) was a Greeks, Greek Greek mathematics, mathematician, physics, physicist, engineering, engineer, inventor, and astronomy, astronomer. Although few details of his life are known, he is regarded as one of th ...

Archimedes of Syracuse
File:Archytas of Tarentum MAN Napoli Inv5607.jpg,
Archytas of Tarentum Archytas (; el, Ἀρχύτας; 435/410–360/350 BC) was an Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek philosopher, mathematician, astronomer, wikt:statesman, statesman, and military strategy, strategist. He was a scientist of the Pythagoreanism, Pythagorea ...

Archytas of Tarentum
File:Tarentum.jpg, 5th century BC Greek coins of Tarentum File:2547 - Milano - Museo archeologico - Piatto apulo - Foto di Giovanni Dall'Orto - 1 feb 2014.jpg, The riding on a two-horse
chariot A chariot is a type of carriage A carriage is a private four-wheeled vehicle for people and is most commonly horse-drawn A horse-drawn vehicle is a mechanized piece of equipment pulled by one horse or by a team of horses. These vehicles ...

chariot
,
Apulia it, Pugliese , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = , demographics1_titl ...

Apulia
n
patera In the of , a ''phiale'' ( ) or ''patera'' () is a shallow ceramic or metal bowl. It often has a bulbous indentation (', "bellybutton") in the center underside to facilitate holding it, in which case it is sometimes called a ''mesomphalic phi ...

patera
(tray), 4th century BC. File:Head-Kantharos of a Female Faun or Io (?) LACMA 50.8.25.jpg, Head-
Kantharos Silver kantharos with the death of Orpheus and the abduction of Helen of Troy, Helen, c.420-410 BC, part of the Vassil Bojkov Collection, Vassil Bojkov collection, Sofia, Bulgaria A ''kantharos'' ( grc, κάνθαρος) or cantharus is a type ...
of a Female Faun or Io,
red-figure pottery Red-figure vase painting is one of the most important styles of figural Greek vase painting. It developed in Athens , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in ...
, South Italy, 375-350 BC


List of Hellenic ''Poleis'' in Italy

This is a list of the 22
''poleis''
''poleis''
(city states) in Italy, according to
Mogens Herman Hansen Mogens Herman Hansen FBA (born 20 August 1940, Frederiksberg Frederiksberg () is a part of the Capital Region of Denmark. It is formally an independent municipality, Frederiksberg Municipality, separate from Copenhagen Municipality, but bo ...
. It does not list all the Hellenic settlements, only those organised around a ''polis'' structure.


List of Hellenic ''Poleis'' in Sicily

This is a list of the 46
''poleis''
''poleis''
(city states) in Sicily, according to Mogens Herman Hansen. It does not list all the Hellenic settlements, only those organised around a ''polis'' structure.


Middle Ages

During the
Early Middle Ages The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, sometimes referred to as the Dark Ages, is typically regarded by historians as lasting from the late 5th or early 6th century to the 10th century. They marked the start of the Middle Ages ...
, following the disastrous
Gothic WarGothic War may refer to: *Gothic War (367–369), a war of Thervingi against the Eastern Roman Empire in which the Goths retreated to Montes Serrorum *Gothic War (376–382), Thervingi and Greuthungi against the Roman Empire *Gothic War (401–403), ...
, new waves of Byzantine Christian Greeks may have come to Southern Italy from
Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, Elláda, ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe, Southeastern Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of 2021; Athens is its largest and capital city, followed ...

Greece
and
Asia Minor Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from 'almost' and 'island') is a landform A landform is a natural or artificial feature of ...

Asia Minor
, though this is not proven archeologically, as
Southern Italy Southern Italy ( it, Sud Italia; nap, 'o Sudde; scn, Italia dû Sud), also known as ''Meridione'' or ''Mezzogiorno'' (, literally "Midday"; in nap, 'o Miezojuorno; in scn, Mezzujornu), is a macroregionA macroregion is a geopolitical subdivisi ...
remained governed by the
Eastern Roman Empire The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn ...

Eastern Roman Empire
. Although possible, the archaeological evidence shows no trace of new arrivals of Greek peoples, only a division between barbarian newcomers, and Greco-Roman locals. The iconoclast emperor Leo III appropriated lands that had been granted to the Papacy in southern Italy and the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire continued to govern the area in the form of the
Catapanate of Italy The Catepanate (or Catapanate) of Italy ( el, ''Katepaníkion Italías'') was a province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the ...
(965 -1071) through the Middle Ages, well after northern, central and the northern regions of southern Italy fell to the Lombards. At the time of the
Normans The Normans (Norman Norman or Normans may refer to: Ethnic and cultural identity * The Normans The Normans (Norman language, Norman: ''Normaunds''; french: Normands; la, Nortmanni/Normanni) were inhabitants of the early medieval Duchy of N ...
' late medieval conquest of southern Italy and Sicily (in the late 12th century), the
Salento Salento (: ''Salentu'', : ''Σαλέντο'') is a cultural, historical and geographic region at the southern end of the administrative region of in Southern Italy. It is a sub- of the , sometimes described as the "heel" of the Italian "boot". ...

Salento
peninsula (the "heel" of Italy), up to one third of Sicily (concentrated in the
Val Demone Val Demone or Val di Demona (English: 'Valley of Demona') is a historical and geographical region encompassing the north-eastern third of Sicily Sicily ( it, Sicilia ; scn, Sicilia ) is the in the and one of the 20 of . It is one of the fiv ...

Val Demone
), and much of Calabria and Lucania were still largely Greek speaking. Some regions of southern Italy experienced demographic shifts as Greeks began to migrate northwards in significant numbers from regions further south. One such region was
Cilento Cilento is an Italian geographical region of Campania it, Campano (man) it, Campana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = ...

Cilento
, which came to have a Greek speaking majority due to said migrations. At this time the language had evolved into medieval Greek, also known as
Byzantine Greek Medieval Greek (also known as Middle Greek or Byzantine Greek) is the stage of the Greek language Greek (modern , romanized: ''Elliniká'', Ancient Greek, ancient , ''Hellēnikḗ'') is an independent branch of the Indo-European languages, ...
, and its speakers were known as
Byzantine Greeks The Byzantine Greeks were the Greek-speaking Eastern Romans of Orthodox Christianity Orthodoxy (from Greek: ) is adherence to correct or accepted creed A creed, also known as a confession, symbol, or statement of faith, is a statement o ...
. The resultant fusion of local Byzantine Greek culture with Norman and Arab culture (from the Arab occupation of Sicily) gave rise to
Norman-Arab-Byzantine culture The term Norman-Arab-Byzantine culture, Norman-Sicilian culture or, less inclusively, Norman-Arab culture, (sometimes referred to as the "Arab-Norman civilization") refers to the interaction of the Norman, Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical ...
on Sicily. A remnant of this influence can be found in the survival of the Greek language in some villages of the above mentioned Salento peninsula (the "heel" of Italy). This living dialact of Greek, known locally as
Griko Griko, sometimes spelled Grico, is the dialect of Italiot Greek Italiot Greek, also known as Salentino-Calabrian Greek, Italic-Greek or Apulia-Calabrian Greek refers to two dialect The term dialect (from Latin , , from the Ancient Greek word , ...
, is found in the Italian regions of
Calabria Calabria (, , ; scn, label=Languages of Calabria, Calabrian, Calàbbria; el, script=Latn, label=Calabrian Greek, Calavría; el, Καλαβρία; aae, Kalavrì), known in classical antiquity, antiquity as Bruttium (), is a Regions of Italy, re ...

Calabria
and
Apulia it, Pugliese , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = , demographics1_titl ...

Apulia
. ''Griko'' is considered by linguistics to be a descendant of
Byzantine Greek Medieval Greek (also known as Middle Greek or Byzantine Greek) is the stage of the Greek language Greek (modern , romanized: ''Elliniká'', Ancient Greek, ancient , ''Hellēnikḗ'') is an independent branch of the Indo-European languages, ...
, which had been the majority language of Salento through the Middle Ages, combining also some ancient
DoricDoric may refer to: * Doric, of or relating to the Dorians of ancient Greece ** Doric Greek, the dialects of the Dorians * Doric order, a style of ancient Greek architecture * Doric mode, a synonym of Dorian mode * Doric dialect (Scotland) * Doric C ...
and local romance elements. There is a rich
oral tradition Oral tradition, or oral lore, is a form of human communication Human communication, or anthroposemiotics, is the field dedicated to understanding how human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of prima ...
and Griko
folklore Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the tradition A tradition is a belief A belief is an attitude Attitude may refer to: Philosophy and psychology * Attitude (psycholog ...

folklore
, limited now but once numerous, to around 30,000 people, most of them having abandoned their language in favor of Italian or the local romance dialect. Some scholars, such as
Gerhard Rohlfs Gerhard Rohlfs (Berlin-Lichterfelde Lichterfelde () is a locality in the borough A borough is an administrative division in various English language, English-speaking countries. In principle, the term ''borough'' designates a self-governing wall ...
, argue that the origins of Griko may ultimately be traced to the colonies of Magna Graecia.


Modern Italy

Although the last Greek inhabitants of
Southern Italy Southern Italy ( it, Sud Italia; nap, 'o Sudde; scn, Italia dû Sud), also known as ''Meridione'' or ''Mezzogiorno'' (, literally "Midday"; in nap, 'o Miezojuorno; in scn, Mezzujornu), is a macroregionA macroregion is a geopolitical subdivisi ...
were entirely
Latinized Latinisation or Latinization can refer to: * Latinisation of names, the practice of rendering a non-Latin name in a Latin style * Latinisation in the Soviet Union, the campaign in the USSR during the 1920s and 1930s to replace traditional writing sy ...
during the Middle Ages, pockets of Greek culture and language remained and survived into modernity partly because of continuous immigration to southern Italy from the
Greek mainland Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of 2018; Athens is its largest and capital city, followed by Thessaloniki. Situ ...
. One example is the
Griko people The Griko people ( el, Γκρίκο), also known as Grecanici in Calabria, are an ethnic Greek The Greeks or Hellenes (; el, Έλληνες, ''Éllines'' ) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Greek Cypriots, Cyprus, Greeks in Albania, Alb ...
in
Calabria Calabria (, , ; scn, label=Languages of Calabria, Calabrian, Calàbbria; el, script=Latn, label=Calabrian Greek, Calavría; el, Καλαβρία; aae, Kalavrì), known in classical antiquity, antiquity as Bruttium (), is a Regions of Italy, re ...

Calabria
and
Apulia it, Pugliese , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = , demographics1_titl ...

Apulia
, some of whom still maintain their Greek language and customs. Their working practices have been passed down through generations through storytelling and allowing the observation of work. The Italian parliament recognizes the Griko people as an ethnolinguistic minority under the official name of ''Minoranze linguistiche Grike dell'Etnia Griko-Calabrese e Salentina''. Greek nobles started taking refuge in Italy following the
Fall of Constantinople The fall of Constantinople ( grc-x-byzant, Ἅλωσις τῆς Κωνσταντινουπόλεως , translit=Hálōsis tē̂s Kōnstantīnoupóleōs ; tr, İstanbul'un Fethi, lit=Conquest of Istanbul ) was the capture of the capital Cap ...
in 1453. Greeks immigrated once again to the region in the 16th and 17th centuries in reaction to the conquest of the
Peloponnese The Peloponnese (), Peloponnesia, or Peloponnesus (; el, Πελοπόννησος, Pelopónnēsos, ) is a peninsula and geographic regions of Greece, geographic region in southern Greece. It is connected to the central part of the country by the ...
by the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
. Especially after the end of the
Siege of Coron The siege of Coron in 1532–1534 involved the siege and capture of the Ottoman-held fortress of Koroni Koroni or Corone ( el, Κορώνη) is a town and a former municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division ...
(1534), large numbers of Greeks took refuge in the areas of Calabria, Salento and Sicily. Greeks from
Coroni
Coroni
, the so-called Coronians, were nobles, who brought with them substantial movable property. Other Greeks who moved to Italy came from the
Mani Peninsula The Mani Peninsula ( el, Μάνη, Mánē), also long known by its medieval name Maina or Maïna (Μαΐνη), is a geographical and cultural region in southern Greece that is home to the Maniots (Mανιάτες, ''Maniátes'' in Greek), who clai ...
of the Peloponnese. The
Maniots The Maniots or Maniates ( el, Μανιάτες) are the inhabitants of Mani Peninsula, located in western Laconia and eastern Messenia, in the southern Peloponnese, Greece. They were also formerly known as Mainotes and the peninsula as ''Maina''. ...
(their name originating from the Greek word ''mania'') were known for their proud military traditions and for their bloody vendettas, many of which still continue today. Another group of Maniot Greeks moved to
Corsica Corsica (, Upper , Southern , ; french: link=no, Corse ; lij, link=no, Còrsega) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by the and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north ...

Corsica
in the 17th century under the protection of the
Republic of Genoa The Republic of Genoa ( lij, Repúbrica de Zêna ; it, Repubblica di Genova; la, Res Publica Ianuensis) was a medieval and early modern maritime republic The maritime republics ( it, repubbliche marinare), also called merchant republics ( it ...
.


See also


References


Sources

* Polyxeni Adam-Veleni and Dimitra Tsangari (editors), ''Greek colonisation: New data, current approaches; Proceedings of the scientific meeting held in Thessaloniki (6 February 2015),'' Athens, Alpha Bank, 2015. *Michael J. Bennett, Aaron J. Paul, Mario Iozzo, & Bruce M. White, ''Magna Graecia: Greek Art From South Italy and Sicily,'' Cleveland, OH, Cleveland Museum of Art, 2002. * John Boardman, N. G. L. Hammond (editors), ''The'' ''Cambridge Ancient History, vol. III, part 3, The Expansion of the Greek World, Eighth to Sixth Centuries B.C.'', Cambridge University Press, 1982. *Giovanni Casadio & Patricia A. Johnston, ''Mystic Cults In Magna Graecia,'' Austin, University of Texas Press, 2009. *Lucia Cerchiai, Lorenna Jannelli, & Fausto Longo (editors), ''The Greek cities of Magna Graecia and Sicily,'' Photography by Mark E. Smith, Los Angeles, J. Paul Getty Museum, 2004. *Giovanna Ceserani, ''Italy's Lost Greece: Magna Graecia and the Making of Modern Archaeology,'' New York, Oxford University Press, 2012. *T. J. Dunbabin, ''The Western Greeks'', 1948. *M. Gualtieri, ''Fourth Century B.C. Magna Graecia: A Case Study,'' Jonsered, Sweden, P. Åströms, 1993. *
Mogens Herman Hansen Mogens Herman Hansen FBA (born 20 August 1940, Frederiksberg Frederiksberg () is a part of the Capital Region of Denmark. It is formally an independent municipality, Frederiksberg Municipality, separate from Copenhagen Municipality, but bo ...
& Thomas Heine Nielsen, ''An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis'', Oxford University Press, 2004. *R. Ross Holloway, ''Art and Coinage In Magna Graecia,'' Bellinzona, Edizioni arte e moneta, 1978. *Margaret Ellen Mayo, ''The Art of South Italy: Vases From Magna Graecia,'' Richmond, Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, 1982. *Giovanni Pugliese Carratelli, ''The Greek World: Art and Civilization In Magna Graecia and Sicily,'' New York: Rizzoli, 1996. *———— (editor), ''The Western Greeks: Catalog of an exhibition held in the Palazzo Grassi, Venice, March–Dec., 1996,'' Milan, Bompiani, 1976. *William Smith (lexicographer), William Smith
"Magna Graecia."
In ''Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography'', 1854. *A. G. Woodhead, ''The Greeks in the West'', 1962. *Günther Zuntz, ''Persephone: Three Essays On Religion and Thought In Magna Graecia,'' Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1971.


External links

*
Map
'' Ancient Coins. * David Willey.
Italy rediscovers Greek heritage
'' BBC News. 21 June 2005, 17:19 GMT 18:19 UK. *
Gaze On The Sea
'' Salentine Peninsula, Greece and Greater Greece. (in Italian, Greek and English) *
Oriamu pisulina
'' Traditional Griko song performed by Ghetonia. *
Kalinifta
'' Traditional Griko song performed by amateur local group. *
Second Interdisciplinary Symposium on the Hellenic Heritage of Southern Italy
'' Archaeological Institute of America (AIA). June 11, 2015. (Dates: Monday, May 30, 2016 to Thursday, June 2, 2016.) * Sergio Tofanelli et al.

'' European Journal of Human Genetics, (15 July 2015). {{Authority control Magna Graecia, Ancient Italian history Historical regions