Pre-colonizationBefore Europeans, humans inhabited the area in and around Madison for about 12,000 years. In 1800, the Madison area was (Winnebago) Country. The Native Americans called this place Taychopera (Ta-ko-per-ah), meaning "land of the four lakes" (Mendota, Monona, Waubesa, and Kegonsa). Effigy mounds, which had been constructed for ceremonial and burial purposes over 1,000 years earlier, dotted the rich prairies around the lakes.
CreationMadison's European origins begin in 1829, when former federal judge purchased over a thousand acres (4 km2) of swamp and forest land on the isthmus between Lakes Mendota and Monona, with the intention of building a city in the Four Lakes region. He purchased 1,261 acres for $1,500. When the was created in 1836 the territorial legislature convened in . One of the legislature's tasks was to select a permanent location for the territory's capital. Doty lobbied aggressively for Madison as the new capital, offering robes to the freezing legislators and promising choice Madison lots at discount prices to undecided voters. He had James Slaughter two cities in the area, Madison and "The City of Four Lakes", near present-day . Doty named his city Madison for , the fourth President of the U.S. who had died on June 28, 1836, and he named the streets for the other 39 signers of the . Although the city existed only on paper, the territorial legislature voted on November 28, 1836 in favor of Madison as its capital, largely because of its location halfway between the new and growing cities around in the east and the long established strategic post of Prairie du Chien in the west, and between the highly populated mining regions in the southwest and Wisconsin's oldest city, Green Bay, in the northeast.
ExpansionThe cornerstone for the Wisconsin capitol was laid in 1837, and the legislature first met there in 1838. On October 9, 1839, Kintzing Prichett registered the of Madison at the registrar's office of the then-territorial . Madison was incorporated as a village in 1846, with a population of 626. When Wisconsin became a state in 1848, Madison remained the capital, and the following year it became the site of the University of Wisconsin (now ). The (a predecessor of the ) connected to Madison in 1854. Madison incorporated as a city in 1856, with a population of 6,863, leaving the unincorporated remainder as a separate Town of Madison. The original capitol was replaced in 1863 and the second capitol burned in 1904. The current capitol was built between 1906 and 1917. During the , Madison served as a center of the in Wisconsin. The intersection of Milwaukee, East Washington, Winnebago, and North Streets is known as Union Corners, because a tavern there was the last stop for Union soldiers before heading to fight the Confederates. , on the west side of Madison, was built and used as a training camp, a military hospital, and a prison camp for captured soldiers. After the war ended, the Camp Randall site was absorbed into the University of Wisconsin and was built there in 1917. In 2004 the last vestige of active military training on the site was removed when the stadium renovation replaced a firing range used for training.
1960s and 1970sIn the 1960s and 1970s, the Madison was centered in the neighborhood of Mifflin and Bassett streets, referred to as "Miffland". The area contained many three-story apartments where students and counterculture youth lived, painted murals, and operated the co-operative grocery store, the Mifflin Street Co-op. Residents of the neighborhood often came into conflict with authorities, particularly during the administration of Republican mayor . Dyke was viewed by students as a direct antagonist in efforts to protest the because of his efforts to suppress local protests. The annual became a focal point for protest, although by the late 1970s it had become a mainstream community party. During the late 1960s and early 1970s, thousands of students and other citizens took part in anti-Vietnam War marches and demonstrations, with more violent incidents drawing national attention to the city and UW campus. These include: * the 1967 student protest of , with 74 injured; * the 1969 strike to secure greater representation and rights for African-American students and faculty, which resulted in the involvement of the Wisconsin ; * the 1970 fire that caused damage to the Army headquarters housed in the , also known as the Red Gym; and * the 1970 late-summer predawn bombing of the Army Mathematics Research Center in Sterling Hall, killing a postdoctoral researcher, Robert Fassnacht. ''(See )'' These protests were the subject of the 1979 documentary ''The War at Home''. 's 2004 book, '' They Marched into Sunlight'', incorporated the 1967 Dow protests into a larger narrative. Tom Bates wrote the book ''Rads'' on the subject (). Bates wrote that Dyke's attempt to suppress the annual "would take three days, require hundreds of officers on overtime pay, and engulf the student community from the nearby Southeast Dorms to Langdon Street's fraternity row. hung like heavy fog across the Isthmus." In the fracas, student activist Paul Soglin, then a city , was arrested twice and taken to . Soglin was later elected mayor of Madison, serving several times.
21st centuryIn early 2011, Madison was the site for large protests against a bill proposed by Governor Scott Walker that abolished almost all for public worker unions. The protests at the capitol ranged in size from 10,000 to over 100,000 people and lasted for several months.
GeographyMadison is located in the center of Dane County in south-central Wisconsin, west of and northwest of . The city completely surrounds the smaller town of Madison, the city of Monona, and the of Maple Bluff and Shorewood Hills. Madison shares borders with its largest suburb, Sun Prairie, and three other suburbs, , McFarland, and Fitchburg. Other suburbs include the city of and the villages of Cottage Grove, DeForest, and Waunakee as well as Mount Horeb, Wisconsin, Mount Horeb, Oregon, Wisconsin, Oregon, Stoughton, Wisconsin, Stoughton, and Cross Plains, Wisconsin, Cross Plains. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of , of which is land and is water. The city is sometimes described as ''The City of Four Lakes'', comprising the four successive lakes of the Yahara River: ("Fourth Lake"), ("Third Lake"), ("Second Lake") and Lake Kegonsa State Park, Lake Kegonsa ("First Lake"), although Waubesa and Kegonsa are not actually in Madison, but just south of it. A fifth smaller lake, Lake Wingra, is within the city as well; it is connected to the Yahara River chain by Wingra Creek. The Yahara flows into the Rock River (Mississippi River), Rock River, which flows into the Mississippi River. Downtown Madison is located on an Madison Isthmus, isthmus between Lakes Mendota and Monona. The city's trademark of "Lake, City, Lake" reflects this geography. The city's lowest elevation is Lake Monona, at 845 ft (257.5 m). The highest elevation is located along S. Pleasant View Rd on the far westside of the city, atop a portion of a terminal moraine of the Green Bay Lobe of the Wisconsin Glaciation, at 1192 ft (363.3 m).
NeighborhoodsLocal identity varies throughout Madison, with over 120 officially recognized neighborhood associations, such as the east side Williamson-Marquette Neighborhood. Historically, the north, east, and south sides were blue-collar worker, blue collar while the west side was white-collar worker, white collar, and to a certain extent this remains true. Students dominate on the University of Wisconsin–Madison, University of Wisconsin campus and to the east into downtown, while to its south and in Shorewood Hills on its west, faculty have been a major presence since those neighborhoods were originally developed. The turning point in Madison's development was the university's 1954 decision to develop its experimental farm on the western edge of town; since then, the city has grown substantially along suburban lines.
Major commercial areas
HilldaleThe Hilldale area comprises the Hill Farms neighborhood, Sunset Village Neighborhood, and part of the suburb of Shorewood Hills. The area has long winding streets, and according to a planning document issued by the neighborhood association, a "suburban-like feel". The area is also a commercial district, and contains Hilldale Shopping Center, an outdoor shopping center containing restaurants, a movie theater, and national retail chains.
Capitol SquareThe Capitol Square Area is Madison's central business district. It is home to high rise apartments, restaurants, and shopping outlets. It contains several museums and is home to the building and the Monona Terrace. The capitol square holds a number of public events for the city of Madison including the Dane County Farmers' Market, Concerts on the Square, Taste of Madison and Art Fair on the Square (Madison), Art Fair on the Square. The area's nightlife is served by several bars and live music venues.
State StreetState Street (Madison), State Street, which links the University of Wisconsin campus with the Capitol Square, is lined with restaurants, espresso cafes, and shops. Only pedestrians, buses, emergency vehicles, delivery vehicles, and bikes are allowed on State Street. State Street is home to much of the nightlife of the University of Wisconsin–Madison, as it is the location of a number of bars and performance venues ranging from comedy clubs to multiple large theaters, including the historic Orpheum Theater, that feature local ballets and Broadway touring casts. State street is also home to State Street Halloween Party, Freakfest, the annual Halloween party in Madison. A newer event on State Street is the Madison Night Market that occurs four nights during the year.
Park StreetThe Park Street Area is located in the south of Madison, and contains multiple official neighborhoods, including the Burr Oaks Neighborhood Association and Greenbush. It has been described as the "racially and economically diverse area of Madison". Park Street is home to ethnic restaurants and specialty grocery stores, as well as retail. Residential areas to the sides of Park Street tend to have smaller houses or condos, and a higher density of houses.
Monroe StreetThe Dudgeon-Monroe neighborhood neighbors downtown Madison. It is located around Monroe Street, a commercial area which has local shops, coffee houses, dining and galleries. It is home to a neighborhood jazz fest and Wingra Park, where people can rent paddle boats and canoes at the boathouse on Lake Wingra.
Willy StreetThe Marquette neighborhood sits on the near east side of Madison. Willy (Williamson) Street contains locally owned shops, restaurants, and entertainment establishments, as well as art galleries, and the Willy Street Cooperative, Willy Street Co-op. The houses in the Marquette neighborhood fall into two separate historic districts, Third Lake Ridge Historic District and Marquette Bungalow Historic District. The area is also the location of festivals like the Waterfront Festival (June), La Fete de Marquette (July), Orton Park Festival (August), and Willy Street Fair (September). The Willy Street neighborhood is a hub for Madison's bohemian culture. Houses lining the street are often painted colorfully, and the area has several murals.
ArchitectureMadison's architectural landmarks reflect a wide range of styles, from the densest cluster of Native Americans in the United States, Native American effigy mounds in the United States to the Beaux-Arts architecture, Beaux-Arts , the Renaissance Revival architecture, Renaissance Revival Memorial Union (Wisconsin), University of Wisconsin Memorial Union and the , designed by Postmodern architecture, postmodern architect César Pelli. Madison is home to List of Frank Lloyd Wright works, eight buildings designed by influential Wisconsin-born modern architecture, modern architect , more than any other city outside of the Chicago metropolitan area. Wright, who spent much of his childhood in Madison and studied briefly at the , was based at Taliesin (studio), Taliesin in nearby Spring Green, Wisconsin, Spring Green for most of his career. His designs in Madison include Monona Terrace, the city's Lake Monona, lakefront convention center, as well as Wright's first Usonian house, the Herbert and Katherine Jacobs First House, The 20th-Century Architecture of Frank Lloyd Wwhich is a . The height of Madison's skyline is limited by a state law that restricts building heights in the downtown area. All buildings within one mile (1.6 km) of the have to be less than above sea level to preserve the view of the building in most areas of the city. The dome was modeled after the dome of the United States Capitol, U.S. Capitol, and was erected on the high point of the isthmus. Capitol Square is located in Madison's urban core. The Harold C. Bradley House in the University Heights neighborhood was designed collaboratively by Louis Sullivan, Louis H. Sullivan and George Grant Elmslie in 1908–1910, and now serves as the Sigma Phi Fraternity. The , opened 2004, and the adjacent Madison Museum of Contemporary Art, opened 2006, on State Street near the capitol were designed by architect César Pelli. Within the Overture Center are Overture Hall, Capitol Theater, and The Playhouse. Its Modern architecture, modernist style, with simple expanses of glass framed by stone, was designed to complement nearby historic building facades. The architectural firm Claude and Starck designed over 175 Madison buildings, and many are still standing, including Breese Stevens Field, Doty School (now condominiums), and many private residences. Architecture on the University of Wisconsin campus includes many buildings designed or supervised by the firm J. T. W. Jennings, such as the Dairy Barn and Agricultural Hall, or by architect Arthur Peabody, such as the Memorial Union and Carillon Tower. Several campus buildings erected in the 1960s followed the brutalist architecture, brutalist style. In 2005 the university embarked on a major redevelopment at the east end of its campus. The plan called for the razing of nearly a dozen 1950s to 1970s vintage buildings; the construction of new dormitories, administration, and classroom buildings; as well as the development of a new pedestrian mall extending to Lake Mendota. The campus now includes 12- to 14-story buildings.
Points of interest* Alliant Energy Center / Veteran's Memorial Coliseum and Exhibition Hall * * Chazen Museum of Art * Madison Museum of Contemporary Art * Madison Children's Museum * * The Kohl Center * Mifflin Street, home to the annual * Monona Terrace Community and Convention Center designed by * Memorial Union (Wisconsin), Memorial Union * Olbrich Botanical Gardens * Overture Center for the Arts * The Gates of Heaven Synagogue in James Madison Park is the List of the oldest synagogues in the United States, eighth-oldest-surviving synagogue building in the U.S. * State Street (Madison), State Street * Williamson ("Willy") Street * Smart Studios, Butch Vig and Steve Marker's longtime studio where many notable alternative rock records of the 1990s and 2000s were recorded and/or produced * First Unitarian Society of Madison, Unitarian Meeting House, another notable and tourable Frank Lloyd Wright structure, is adjacent to Madison city limits in suburban Shorewood Hills * * University of Wisconsin–Madison Arboretum * Wisconsin Field House, University of Wisconsin Field House * UW–Madison Geology Museum * Wisconsin Historical Society/Wisconsin Historical Museum * Wisconsin Veterans Museum * * University of Wisconsin–Madison Lakeshore Nature Preserve, Lakeshore Nature Preserve, a campus-associated preserve which features notable long peninsula called Picnic Point
ClimateMadison, along with the rest of the state, has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification, Köppen: ''Dfa/Dfb''), characterized by variable weather patterns and a large seasonal temperature variance: winter temperatures can be well below freezing, with moderate to occasionally heavy snowfall and temperatures reaching on 17 mornings annually; high temperatures in summer average in the lower 80s °F (27–28 °C), reaching on an average 12 afternoons per year, with lower humidity levels than winter but higher than spring. Summer accounts for a greater proportion of annual rainfall, but winter still sees significant precipitation.
DemographicsAs of 2000 the median income for a household in the city was $41,941, and the median income for a family was $59,840. Males had a median income of $36,718 versus $30,551 for females. The per capita income for the city was $23,498. About 5.8% of families and 15.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.4% of those under age 18 and 4.5% of those age 65 or over.
2020 censusAs of the census of 2020, there were 269,840 people, 126,070 households, and 47,824 families residing in the city. The population density was . There were 108,843 housing units at an average density of . The racial makeup of the city is 71 percent white, 7.4 percent black, 0.5 percent American Indian, 9.5 percent Asian, 3.8 percent other races, and 7.8 mixed race. Hispanic (U.S. Census), Hispanic or Latino (U.S. Census), Latino of any race consisted of 8.7 percent of the population. There were 102,516 households, of which 22.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.1% were married couples living together, 8.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.2% had a male householder with no wife present, and 53.3% were non-families. 36.2% of all households were made up of individuals, and 7.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.17 and the average family size was 2.87. The median age in the city was 30.9 years. 17.5 percent of residents were under the age of 18; 19.6% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 31.4% were from 25 to 44; 21.9% were from 45 to 64; and 9.6% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 49.2% male and 50.8% female.
Combined Statistical AreaMadison is the larger principal city of the Madison-Janesville-Beloit, WI CSA, a Combined Statistical Area that includes the Madison metropolitan area (Columbia, Dane, Green and Iowa counties), the Janesville-Beloit metropolitan area (Rock County, Wisconsin, Rock County), and the Baraboo, Wisconsin, Baraboo micropolitan area (Sauk County, Wisconsin, Sauk County). As of the 2020 census, the Madison MSA had a population of 680,796 and the Madison CSA had a population of 910,246.
ReligionMadison is the episcopal see for the Roman Catholic Diocese of Madison. Saint Raphael's Cathedral (Madison, Wisconsin), Saint Raphael's Cathedral, damaged by arson in 2005 and demolished in 2008, was the mother church of the diocese. The steeple and spire survived and have been preserved with the intention they could be incorporated in the structure of a replacement building. InterVarsity Christian Fellowship/USA has its headquarters in Madison. The Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod has three churches in Madison: Eastside Lutheran Church, Our Redeemer Lutheran Church, and Wisconsin Lutheran Chapel. The Evangelical Lutheran Synod has three churches in Madison: Grace Lutheran Church, Holy Cross Lutheran Church, and Our Saviour's Lutheran Church. Bethel Lutheran Church of the Evangelical Church in America, in downtown Madison, is one of the largest Lutheran congregations in the country. Most American Christian movements are represented in the city, including mainline denominations, evangelical, charismatic and fully independent churches, including an The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, LDS stake (LDS), stake. The city also has multiple Sikh Gurdwaras, Hindu temples, three mosques and several synagogues, a community center serving the Baháʼí Faith, a Friends meeting house, Quaker Meeting House, and a Unity Church congregation. The nation's third largest congregation of Unitarian Universalists, the First Unitarian Society of Madison, makes its home in the historic Unitarian Meeting House, designed by one of its members, . Madison is home to the Freedom From Religion Foundation, Freedom from Religion Foundation, a non-profit organization that promotes the separation of church and state.
EconomyMadison's economy is marked by the sectors of tech business and state employment. As of late 2018, the two largest employers in the Madison Metropolitan Area were the University of Wisconsin-Madison, and . The Wisconsin state government and the University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics remain the two major state employers. Madison's economy today is evolving from a government-based economy to a consumer services and high-tech base, particularly in the health, biotech, and advertising sectors. Beginning in the early 1990s, the city experienced a steady economic boom and has been less affected by recession than other areas of the state. Underpinning the boom is the development of high-tech companies, many fostered by UW–Madison working with local businesses and entrepreneurs to transfer the results of academic research into real-world applications, especially bio-tech applications. Many businesses are attracted to Madison's skill base, taking advantage of the area's high level of education. 48.2% of Madison's population over the age of 25 holds at least a bachelor's degree. ''Forbes'' magazine reported in 2004 that Madison had the highest percentage of individuals holding Ph.D.s in the United States. Madison was also named in a number of ''Forbes'' 'Ten Best Cities' lists several times in the early 21st century.
State enterprisesAs Madison is the State Capital of , it is home to many Wisconsin state agencies and bureaus. Madison also contains the University of Wisconsin-Madison, a research institution that employs 22,365 faculty and staff. The University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics is an important regional teaching hospital and regional trauma center, with strengths in transplant medicine, oncology, digestive disorders, and endocrinology. Other Madison hospitals include St. Mary's Hospital (Madison, Wisconsin), St. Mary's Hospital, Meriter Hospital, and the Veterans Health Administration, VA Medical Center.
BusinessMadison is home to companies such as (formerly Rayovac), Trek Bicycle Corporation, Trek, Alliant Energy, the Credit Union National Association (CUNA), MGE Energy, EatStreet, and Sub-Zero Refrigerator, Sub-Zero & Wolf Appliance. Insurance companies based in Madison include , CUNA Mutual Group, and National Guardian Life. Technology companies in Madison include Broadjam, Zendesk, Full Compass Systems, Raven Software, and TDS Telecom. Some economic growth in Madison is driven by biotech and health information technology. Biotech firms include Invitrogen, Panvera (now part of Invitrogen), , , and Arrowhead Pharmaceuticals among others. The contract research organization Covance is a major employer in the city. Madison's community Hackerspace, hackerspaces/makerspaces are Sector67, which serves inventors and entrepreneurs, and The Bodgery, which serves hobbyists, artists, and tinkerers. Start up incubators and connectors include StartingBlock, gener8tor and University Research Park. was based in Madison from 1979 to 2005, when it moved to a larger campus in the nearby Madison suburb of . Other firms include Nordic, Forward Health, and Forte Research Systems. Oscar Mayer was a Madison fixture for decades, and was a family business for many years before being sold to Kraft Foods. ''The Onion'' satirical newspaper, as well as the pizza chains Rocky Rococo (pizza chain), Rocky Rococo and the Glass Nickel Pizza Company, originated in Madison.
FoodThe city is home to several James Beard Award winners, gastropubs, and farm-to-table restaurants. Madison is home to unique foods such as the large spring-rolls sold from the food carts on the Capital Square and State Street, particularly in warmer months. Other foods that are unique to the area are cheese curds either fried or dipped in ranch dressing and hot and spicy cheese bread made by some Madison bakeries and available at farmer's markets around the city. On Saturday mornings in the summer, the Dane County Farmers' Market is held around the Capitol Square, the largest producer-only farmers' market in the country. A smaller version of this market is held on Martin Luther King Boulevard on Wednesdays during the summer. In late fall, this market moves indoors, first as the Holiday Market at the Monona Terrace. Later it becomes the Late Winter Market at the Madison Senior Center. This market attracts numerous vendors who sell fresh produce, meat, cheese, and other products. Some restaurants in Madison follow the general Wisconsin supper club practice of restaurants serving "Friday fish fry, Saturday prime rib special, Sunday chicken dinner special." The Great Taste of the Midwest craft beer festival, established in 1987 and the second-longest-running such event in North America, is held the second Saturday in August. The highly coveted tickets sell out within an hour of going on sale in May.
Outdoor activitiesDuring the winter months, sports enthusiasts enjoy iceboat, ice-boating, ice skating, ice hockey, ice fishing, cross-country skiing, and snowkiting. During the rest of the year, outdoor recreation includes sailing on the local lakes, bicycling, and hiking. Madison is known for its extensive biking infrastructure, with numerous bike paths and bike lanes throughout the city. Several of these bike paths connect to state trails, such as the Capital City State Trail, Military Ridge State Trail, and Badger State Trail. In addition to these bike paths, most city streets have designated bike lanes or are designated as bicycle boulevards, which give high priority to bicyclists. In 2015 Madison was awarded platinum level Bicycle Friendly Community designation from the League of American Bicyclists, one of only five cities in the US to receive this (highest) level.
NightlifeMuch of the city's nightlife is centralized to the downtown area which includes a variety of bars, restaurants, and performance venues. State Street (Madison), State Street and the surrounding area are popular with tourists and University of Wisconsin-Madison students. Venues in the Capital Square neighborhood are popular with local young professionals and provide many happy hour specials. Another center of nightlife is the Williamson (Willy) Street Neighborhood. Madison is also home to a number of nightclubs, gay bars and live music venues. The and the State Street Halloween Party, Freakfest Halloween Party also attract thousands of partygoers.
MusicMadison's music scene covers a spectrum of musical culture. Several venues offer live music nightly, spreading from the historic Barrymore Theatre and High Noon Saloon on the east side to small coffee houses and wine bars. The biggest headliners sometimes perform at the Orpheum Theatre, the Overture Center, Breese Stevens Field, the Alliant Energy Center, or the UW Theatre on campus. Other major rock and pop venues include the Majestic Theatre, the Sylvee, and The Bartell. During the summer, the Memorial Union Terrace on the University of Wisconsin campus, offers live music five nights a week. The Union is located on the shores of Lake Mendota. Concerts on the Square is a weekly Madison tradition during the summer. On Wednesday evenings, the Wisconsin Chamber Orchestra performs free concerts on the capitol's lawn, and people come to listen to the music while picnicking on the grass. The Madison Scouts Drum and Bugle Corps has provided youth aged 16–22 opportunities to perform across North America every summer since 1938. The University of Wisconsin Marching Band is a local marching band. Madison has a lively independent rock scene, and local independent record labels include Crustacean Records, Science of Sound, Kind Turkey Records, and Art Paul Schlosser Inc. A Dr. Demento and weekly live karaoke favorite is The Gomers, who have a Madison Mayoral Proclamation named after them. They have performed with fellow residents Les Paul and Steve Miller (musician), Steve Miller. Madison is also home to other nationally known artists such as Paul Kowert of Punch Brothers, Mama Digdown's Brass Band, Clyde Stubblefield of Funky Drummer and James Brown fame, and musicians Roscoe Mitchell, Richard Davis (double bassist), Richard Davis, Ben Sidran, Sexy Ester and the Pretty Mama Sisters, Reptile Palace Orchestra, Ted Park, DJ Pain 1, Killdozer (band), Killdozer, Zola Jesus, VO5 (band), VO5, Caustic (band), Caustic, PHOX, Masked Intruder, and Lou & Peter Berryman, among others. The band Garbage (band), Garbage formed in Madison in 1994, and has sold 17 million albums. In the summer Madison hosts many Festival, music festivals, including the Waterfront Festival, the Willy St. Fair, Atwood Summerfest, the Isthmus Jazz Festival, the Orton Park Festival, 94.1 WJJO's Band Camp, Greekfest, the WORT Block Party and the Sugar Maple Traditional Music Festival, and the Madison World Music Festival sponsored by the Wisconsin Union Theater (held at the Memorial Union Terrace and at the Willy St. Fair in September). Past festivals include the Madison Pop Festival and Forward Music Festival (2009–2010.) One of the latest additions is the La Fete de Marquette, Fête de Marquette, taking place around Bastille Day at various east side locations. This new festival celebrates French music, with a focus on Cajun influences. Madison also hosts an annual electronic music festival, Reverence, and the Folk Ball, a world music and Folk dance festival held annually in January. Madison is home to the LGBT, LBGTQA festival, Fruit Fest, celebrating queer culture and LGBT allies. Madison also plays host to the National Women's Music Festival. UW-Madison also hosts the annual music and arts festival, Revelry, on campus at the Memorial Union each spring. The festival is put on by students for students as an end of the year celebration on campus.
ArtArt museums include the University of Wisconsin–Madison, UW–Madison's Chazen Museum of Art (formerly the Elvehjem Museum), and the Madison Museum of Contemporary Art, which annually organizes the Art Fair on the Square. Madison also has independent art studios, galleries, and arts organizations, with events such as Art Fair on the Square (Madison), Art Fair Off the Square. Other museums include Wisconsin Historical Museum (run by the Wisconsin Historical Society), the Wisconsin Veterans Museum, and the Madison Children's Museum.
Performing artsThe Madison Opera, the Madison Symphony Orchestra, Forward Theater Company, the Wisconsin Chamber Orchestra, and the Madison Ballet are some of the professional resident companies of the Overture Center for the Arts. The city is also home to a number of smaller performing arts organizations, including a group of theater companies that present in the Bartell Theatre, a former movie palace renovated into live theater spaces, and Opera for the Young, an opera company that performs for elementary school students across the Midwest. Music Theatre of Madison is a professional musical theater company that performs new and lesser-known musicals in a variety of venues. The Wisconsin Union Theater (a 1,300-seat theater) is home to seasonal attractions and is the main stage for Four Seasons Theatre, a community theater company specializing in musical theater, and other groups. The Young Shakespeare Players, a theater group for young people, performs uncut Shakespeare and George Bernard Shaw, George B. Shaw plays. Community-based theater groups include Children's Theatre of Madison, Strollers Theatre, Madison Theatre Guild, the Mercury Players, and Broom Street Theater (which is no longer on Broom Street). Madison has one comedy club, the Comedy Club on State (which has hosted the Madison's Funniest Comic competition every year since 2010), owned by the Paras family. Madison has other options for more alternative humor, featuring several improv groups, such as Atlas Improv Company, Monkey Business Institute, and open mic nights. Madison is home to a large entertainment industry archive at the Wisconsin Center for Film and Theater Research, part of the Wisconsin Historical Society.
PoliticsCity voters have supported the Democratic Party (United States), Democratic Party in national elections in the last half-century, and a liberal and progressive majority is generally elected to the city council. Detractors often refer to Madison as "77 square miles surrounded by reality" a phrase coined by former Wisconsin Republican governor Lee S. Dreyfus, while campaigning in 1978. In 2013, there was a motion in the city council to turn Dreyfus' humor into the official city "punchline," but it was voted down by the city council. The city's voters are generally much more liberal than voters in the rest of Wisconsin. For example, 76% of Madison voters voted against a 2006 state Wisconsin Referendum 1, constitutional amendment to ban gay marriage, even though the ban passed statewide with 59% of the vote. In 1992, a local third party, Progressive Dane, was founded. City policies supported in the Progressive Dane platform have included an inclusionary zoning ordinance, later abandoned by the mayor and a majority of the city council, and a city minimum wage. The party holds several seats on the Madison City Council and Dane County Board of Supervisors, and is aligned variously with the Democratic and Green parties.
Other cultural eventsThe Madison metro area has a higher percentage of gay couples than any other city in the area outside of Chicago and Minneapolis. Madison was host to Rhythm and Booms, a large fireworks celebration coordinated to music. It began with a fly-over by General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon, F-16s from the local Wisconsin Air National Guard. This celebration was the largest fireworks display in the Midwest in length, number of shells fired, and the size of its annual budget. Effective 2015, the event location was changed to downtown and renamed Shake The Lake. There are several cooperative organizations in the Madison area, ranging from grocery stores (such as the Willy Street Cooperative) to housing co-ops (such as Madison Community Cooperative and Nottingham Housing Cooperative) to worker cooperatives (including an engineering firm, a wholesale organic bakery and a cab company). Every April, the Wisconsin Film Festival is held in Madison. This five-day event features films from a variety of genres shown in theaters across the city. The University of Wisconsin–Madison Arts Institute sponsors the Film Festival. Madison is known for its unique official bird. In 2009, the Madison Common Council voted to name the plastic pink flamingo as the official city bird.
NicknamesOver the years, Madison has acquired nicknames and slogans that include: * Mad City * Madtown * The Berkeley, California, Berkeley of the Midwest * 77 square miles surrounded by reality * Four Lakes City *People's Republic of Madison
SportsMadison is known for having the athletics fanbase which centers on the University of Wisconsin-Madison. In 2003, ''Sports Illustrated'' identified the city as one of the "best college sports towns" in the nation. In 2019, Sports Illustrated named Madison the greatest college football town in the nation. The University of Wisconsin–Madison, UW–Madison teams play their home-field sporting events in venues in and around Madison. The Wisconsin Badgers football team plays at where crowds of as many as 83,000 have attended games. The Wisconsin Badgers men's basketball and Wisconsin Badgers men's ice hockey teams play at the Kohl Center. Construction on the $76 million arena was completed in 1997. The Wisconsin Badgers women's ice hockey team plays at the LaBahn Arena. Some events are played at the county-owned Alliant Energy Center (formerly Dane County Memorial Coliseum) and the University-owned Wisconsin Field House. In 2014, the Madison Capitols made their return to the Madison area following 19 years of dormancy. The Capitols play their home games at Bob Suter's Capitol Ice Arena following three years at Alliant Energy Center. On May 17, 2018, it was announced that Forward Madison FC would become Madison's first professional soccer team, which plays at the historic Breese Stevens Field. Madison is home to the Madison Mallards, a college wood-bat summer baseball league team in the Northwoods League. They play in Warner Park on the city's north side from June to August.
Prominent sports teams
Former teamsThe Madison Muskies, a Class A, Midwest League affiliate of the Oakland A's, left town in 1993 after 11 seasons. The Madison Hatters, another Class A, Midwest League team, played in Madison for only the 1994 season. The Madison Black Wolf, an independent Northern League (baseball, 1993–2010), Northern League franchise lasted five seasons (1996–2000), before decamping for Lincoln, Nebraska.
Amateur sportsMadison has an active amateur sports scene, with ultimate (sport), ultimate, endurance sports, and soccer being common pastimes. Madison has several active ultimate (sport), ultimate disc leagues organized through the nonprofit Madison Ultimate Frisbee Association. In 2013, the Madison Radicals, a professional ultimate frisbee team, debuted in the city. Madison is home to several endurance sports racing events, such as the Crazylegs Classic, the CrossFit Games, Paddle and Portage, the Mad City Marathon, and Ironman triathlon, Ironman Wisconsin, which attracts over 45,000 spectators. The Wisconsin Rugby Club, the 1998 and 2013 USA Rugby Division II National Champions, and the Wisconsin Women's Rugby Football Club are the state's only Division I women's rugby team. All Madison rugby teams play within the Wisconsin Rugby Football Union — the Midwest Rugby Union and USA Rugby. The Madison Curling Club was founded in 1921. Team Spatola of the Madison Curling Club won the 2014 Women's US National Championship. Team members are: Nina Spatola, Becca Hamilton, Tara Peterson, Sophie Brorson. Madison's Gaelic sports club hosts a hurling team organized as Hurling Club of Madison, The Hurling Club of Madison and a Gaelic football club with men's and women's teams. The roller derby league, Madison Roller Derby, was formed in Madison in 2004 and is a member of the Women's Flat Track Derby Association. Madison is also home to Wisconsin United Roller Derby, a member league of the Men's Roller Derby Association. The adult women's ice hockey teams (Thunder, Lightning, Freeze, UW–B and C teams) play in the Women's Central Hockey League. The Blackhawk Ski Club, formed in 1947, provides ski jumping, cross country skiing and alpine skiing. The club's programs have produced several Olympic ski jumpers, two Olympic ski jumping coaches and one Olympic ski jumping director. The club had the first Nordic ski facility with lighted night jumping. As of 2017, the CrossFit Games have been held at the Alliant Energy Center. After seven years at the Dignity Health Sports Park, StubHub Center in Carson, California, the Games moved to Madison for an initial three-year contract. CrossFit chose the multi-building entertainment venue, which encompasses 164 acres, after posting a national request for proposals.
ParksMadison has 6,431 acres of park space, which is 13.5% of the total city area. The city has 12.7 parks per 10,000 residents, more than any other city. Parks in the city include James Madison Park, which has views of Lake Mendota, Frank W. Hoyt Park, which is listed on the National Register of Historic Places, Garner park, where the Madison Opera hold an 'Opera in the Park' event, and Warner Park, which is home to the stadium for the baseball team the Madison Mallards.
GovernmentMadison has a mayor-council system of government. Madison's Madison Common Council, city council, known as the Madison Common Council, Common Council, consists of 20 members, one from each district. The mayor Mayoral elections in Madison, Wisconsin, is elected in a citywide vote. Madison is the heart of in the United States House of Representatives, represented by Mark Pocan (D). Melissa Agard (D) and Kelda Roys (D) represent Madison in the Wisconsin State Senate, and Jimmy P. Anderson (D), Samba Baldeh (D), Francesca Hong (D), Shelia Stubbs, Sheila Stubbs (D), and Lisa Subeck (D) represent Madison in the Wisconsin State Assembly. Ron Johnson (Wisconsin politician), Ron Johnson (R) and Tammy Baldwin (D) represent Madison, and all of Wisconsin, in the United States Senate. Baldwin is a Madison resident; she represented the 2nd from 1999 to 2013 before handing it to Pocan.
Madison Police DepartmentThe Madison Police Department is the law enforcement agency in the city led by Police Chief Shon Barnes. The department has six districts: Central, East, North, South, West and Midtown District Special units in the police department include: * K9 Unit * Crime Scene Unit * Forensic Unit * Narcotics and Gangs Task Force * Parking Enforcement * Traffic Enforcement Safety Team * S.W.A.T Team * Special Events Team * C.O.P.S (Safety Education) * Mounted Patrol * Crime Stoppers * Amigos en Azul The Madison Police Department was criticized for absolving Officer Steve Heimsness of any wrongdoing in the November 2012 shooting death of an unarmed man, Paul Heenan. The department's actions resulted in community protests, including demands that the shooting be examined and reviewed by an independent investigative body. WisconsinWatch.org called into question the MPD's facts and findings, stating that the use of deadly force by Heimsness was unwarranted. There were calls for an examination of the Madison Police Department's rules of engagement and due process for officers who use lethal force in the line of duty. Community criticism of the department's practices resurfaced after MPD officer Matt Kenny Shooting of Tony Robinson, shot Tony Robinson, an unarmed man. The shooting was particularly controversial given the context of the ongoing Black Lives Matter movement. Due to new Wisconsin state legislation that addresses the mechanisms under which officer-on-civilian violence is handled by state prosecutors, proceedings were handed over to a special unit of the Wisconsin Department of Justice in Madison. On March 27, 2015, the state concluded its investigation and gave its findings to Ismael Ozanne, the district attorney of Dane County. On May 12, 2015, Ozanne determined that the shooting was justified self-defense.
Madison Fire DepartmentThe Madison Fire Department (MFD) provides fire protection and emergency medical services to the city. The MFD operates out of 14 fire stations, with a fleet of 12 engines, 5 ladders, 2 rescue squads, 2 hazmat units, a lake rescue team, and 8 ambulances. The MFD also provides mutual aid to surrounding communities.
CrimeAs of 2021, Madison was ranked as the 10th safest city in the United States with a population above 100,000. There were 53 homicides reported by Madison Police from 2000 to 2009. The highest total was 10 in 2008. Police reported 28 murders from 2010 to 2015, with the highest year being 7 murders in 2011.
EducationAccording to ''Forbes'' magazine, Madison ranks second in the nation in education. The Madison Metropolitan School District serves the city while a variety of other districts serve the surrounding area. With an enrollment of approximately 25,000 students in 46 schools, it is the second largest school district in Wisconsin behind the Milwaukee School District. The five public high schools are James Madison Memorial High School, James Madison Memorial, Madison West, Madison East High School, Madison East, La Follette High School, La Follette, and Malcolm Shabazz City High School, an alternative school. Among private church-related high schools are Abundant Life Christian School, Edgewood High School (Wisconsin), Edgewood High School, near the Edgewood College campus, and St. Ambrose Academy, a Catholic school offering grades 6 through 12. Madison Country Day School is a private high school with no religious affiliation. The city is home to the , Edgewood College and Madison Area Technical College, giving the city a post-secondary student population of nearly 55,000. The University of Wisconsin accounts for the vast majority of students, with an enrollment of roughly 44,000, of whom 31,750 are undergraduates. In a ''Forbes'' magazine city ranking from 2003, Madison had the highest number of Ph.D.s per capita, and third-highest college graduates per capita, among cities in the United States. Additional degree programs are available through satellite campuses of Cardinal Stritch University, Concordia University-Wisconsin, Globe University, Lakeland College (Wisconsin), Lakeland College, the University of Phoenix, and Upper Iowa University. Madison also has a non-credit learning community with multiple programs and many private businesses also offering classes.
RadioMadison has three large media companies that own the majority of the commercial radio stations within the market. These companies consist of iHeartMedia, Entercom Communications, and Mid-West Family Broadcasting as well as other smaller broadcasters. Madison is home to Mid-West Family Broadcasting, which is an independently owned broadcasting company that originated and is headquartered in Madison. Mid-West Family owns radio stations throughout the state and the Midwestern United States, Midwest. Madison hosts two volunteer-operated and community-oriented radio stations, WORT and WSUM. WORT Community Radio (89.9 FM), founded in 1975, is one of the oldest volunteer-powered radio stations in the United States. A listener-sponsored community radio station, WORT offers locally produced diverse music and talk programming. WSUM (91.7 FM) is a free-form student radio station programmed and operated almost entirely by students. Madison's Wisconsin Public Radio station, WHA (AM), WHA, was one of the first radio stations in the nation to begin broadcasting. Public radio programs that originate at the WPR studios include ''Michael Feldman's Whad'Ya Know?'', ''Zorba Pastor On Your Health'', ''To the Best of Our Knowledge'',''Calling All Pets'', and the longest running radio program in America, ''Chapter a Day''. WXJ-87 is the NOAA Weather Radio, NOAA Weather Radio All Hazards station on Madison's west side, with broadcasts originating from the National Weather Service in Sullivan, Wisconsin.
TVMadison has six commercial stations, two public television stations and two religious stations. The commercial stations consist of WISC-TV "News 3 Now" (CBS), WMTV "NBC 15" (NBC), WKOW-TV "27 News" (American Broadcasting Company, ABC), WMSN-TV "FOX 47" (Fox Broadcasting Company, Fox), WIFS (TV), WIFS "Wisconsin's 57" (Ion Television, Ion) and WZCK-LD. Religious stations consist of WMWD-LD (Daystar (TV network), Daystar) and W23BW-D (Three Angels Broadcasting Network, 3ABN). Madison has two public television stations: WHA-TV, which is owned by the University of Wisconsin–Extension and airs throughout the state with the exception of , and Madison City Channel, which is owned and operated by the City of Madison covering city governmental affairs.
TransportationMadison is served by the Dane County Regional Airport, which serves nearly 2.2 million passengers annually. Most major general aviation operations take place at Morey Field in Middleton, WI, Middleton from Madison's city center. Madison Metro operates bus routes throughout the city and to some neighboring suburbs. Madison has four taxicab companies (Union, Badger, Madison, and Green), and several companies provide specialized transit for individuals with disabilities. Several carsharing services are also available in Madison, including Community Car, a locally owned company, and U-Haul subsidiary Uhaul Car Share. Starting from the last decades of the 20th century, Madison has been among the leading cities for bicycling as a form of transportation, with about 3% of working residents pedaling on their journey to work. The share of Madison workers who bicycled to work increased to 5.3% by 2014. The 2016 survey by American Community Survey indicated that 65.7% of working Madison residents commuted by driving alone, 6.7% carpooled, 8.6% used public transportation, and 8.5% walked. About 6% used all other forms of transportation, including bicycles, motorcycles, and taxis. About 4.5% worked at home. According to Walk Score, Madison has an overall 48 out of 100 in walkability, making it a "largely car dependent city", and a 65 out of 100 for bicycling. However, the State-Langdon and Downtown areas scored significantly higher, 94 and 93 for walkability, and 87 and 89 for biking, respectively. In 2015, 11.2% of Madison households were without a car, which was unchanged in 2016. The national average was 8.7% in 2016. Madison averaged 1.5 cars per household in 2016, compared to a national average of 1.8 per household.
RailwaysPassenger train service between Madison and on the ''Sioux (train), Sioux'' and the ''Varsity (train), Varsity'' was provided by the Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pacific Railroad (Milwaukee Road) until 1971. The Chicago and North Western Railway also provided service to the east side of Madison, ending in 1965. A high-speed rail route from Chicago through and Madison to Minneapolis–Saint Paul, Minnesota, was proposed as part of the Chicago Hub Network, Midwest Regional Rail Initiative. Funding for the railway connecting Madison to Milwaukee was approved in January 2010, but then Governor-elect Scott Walker's opposition to the project led the Federal Railroad Administration to retract the $810 million in funding and reallocate it to projects in other states. Plans to establish Amtrak service within the city of Madison were revived in 2021, pending federal legislative action, Madison is again slated to receive a rail link to Chicago via Milwaukee, likely with an expansion of the Hiawatha Service, longer term plans are also to connect to the Twin Cities potentially via Eau Claire however this has not been officially established at this time. The city is served by the Columbus station, Columbus Amtrak station to the northeast with once daily trains to Chicago Union Station, Chicago, Portland Union Station, Portland, OR and King Street Station, Seattle, WA and stops in between via the Empire Builder route. While located outside of the city proper the station is listed on Amtrak timetables as Madison's official stop in addition to thruway bus services within the city. Railroad freight services are provided to Madison by the Wisconsin and Southern Railroad (WSOR) and the Canadian Pacific Railway (CP).
BusesIn addition to public transportation, regional buses connect Madison to , , Minneapolis–Saint Paul, and many other communities. Badger Bus, which connects Madison and Milwaukee, runs several trips daily. Greyhound Lines, a nationwide bus company, serves Madison on its Chicago, Milwaukee, and Minneapolis–Saint Paul route. Van Galder Bus Company, a subsidiary of Coach USA, provides transportation through Rockford, Illinois, Rockford to Chicago—stopping at Union Station (Chicago), Union Station, O'Hare International Airport, O'Hare Airport, and Chicago Midway International Airport, Midway Airport. Jefferson Lines provides transportation to Minneapolis–Saint Paul via La Crosse, Wisconsin, La Crosse. Megabus (North America), Megabus provides limited-stop service to Chicago and Minneapolis–Saint Paul. Lamers Bus Lines has once daily trips from Madison to Wausau, Wisconsin, Wausau, Dubuque, Iowa, Dubuque, and Green Bay.
HighwaysInterstate 39 (I-39), Interstate 90 in Wisconsin, I-90 and Interstate 94, I-94 run along the far east side of the city, connecting to Janesville, Wisconsin, Janesville to the south, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Milwaukee to the east, and to Portage, Wisconsin, Portage, La Crosse, Wisconsin, La Crosse, Eau Claire, Wisconsin, Eau Claire, and Wausau, Wisconsin, Wausau heading north and northwest. U.S. Route 151, U.S. Highway 151 (US 151) runs through downtown and serves as the main thoroughfare through the northeast (as Washington Avenue) and south-central parts (as Park Street) of the city, connecting Madison with Dubuque, Iowa to the southwest and Fond du Lac, Wisconsin, Fond du Lac and Manitowoc, Wisconsin, Manitowoc to the northeast. U.S. Route 12 in Wisconsin, US 12, frequently referred to by locals as the Beltline, is a six- to eight-lane freeway serving the south and west sides of Madison and is the main link from the western suburb of to Cambridge, Wisconsin, Cambridge. Southeast of the area, US 12 connects to Lake Geneva, Wisconsin, Lake Geneva, and going northwest, it heads to Wisconsin Dells. U.S. Route 18 in Wisconsin, US 18 is also a component highway of the Beltine, continuing south along US 151 and east towards Waukesha, Wisconsin, Waukesha and Milwaukee.
Sister citiesMadison is Sister city, twinned with: * Arcatao, El Salvador (1986) * Bahir Dar, Ethiopia (2019) * Camagüey, Cuba (1994) * Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany (1988) * Kanifing (Gambia), Kanifing, Gambia (2016) * Mantua, Italy (2001) * Obihiro, Hokkaido, Obihiro, Japan (2003) * Tepatitlán, Tepatitlán de Morelos, Mexico (2012) * Vilnius, Lithuania (1988)
See also* List of tallest buildings in Madison
Further reading* Bates, Tom, ''Rads: The 1970 Bombing of the Army Math Research Center at the University of Wisconsin–Madison and Its Aftermath'' (1993) * Durrie, Daniel S.