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Los Angeles ( ; xgf, Tovaangar; es, Los Ángeles, , ), commonly referred to by the
initialism An acronym is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meaning (linguistics), meaning. In ma ...
L.A., is the
largest city The United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, ...
in
California California is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...

California
. With a 2020 population of 3,898,747, it is the second-largest city in the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
, following
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
. Los Angeles is known for its
Mediterranean climate A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by dry summers and mild, wet winters. The climate Climate is the long-term pattern of weather Weather is the state of the atmosphere, describing for example the degre ...
, ethnic and cultural diversity, and sprawling metropolitan area. Los Angeles lies in in
Southern California Southern California (sometimes known as SoCal; es, Sur de California) is a geographic and cultural region that generally comprises the southern portion of the U.S. state of California California is a in the . With over 39.3million resi ...

Southern California
, adjacent to the
Pacific Ocean The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. ...

Pacific Ocean
. The city, which covers about , is the
seat SEAT S.A. (, ; ''Sociedad Española de Automóviles de Turismo'') is a Spanish car manufacturer, which sells its vehicles under the SEAT and Cupra brands. It was founded on 9 May 1950, by the Instituto Nacional de Industria Instituto Nacional d ...
of
Los Angeles County Los Angeles County, officially the County of Los Angeles, and sometimes abbreviated as L.A. County, is the most populous county in the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), o ...
. Home to the
ChumashChumash may refer to: *Chumash (Judaism), a Hebrew word for the Pentateuch, used in Judaism *Chumash people, a Native American people of southern California *Chumashan languages, indigenous languages of California See also

*Chumash traditiona ...
and
Tongva The Tongva ( ) are an indigenous people of California The indigenous peoples of California (known as Native Californians) are the indigenous inhabitants who have lived or currently live in the geographic area within the current boundaries of ...
indigenous people Indigenous peoples, also referred to as first peoples, first nations, aboriginal peoples, native peoples (with these terms often capitalized when referred to relating to specific countries), or autochthonous peoples, are culturally distinct e ...

indigenous people
s, the area that became Los Angeles was claimed by
Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo ( pt, João Rodrigues Cabrilho; 1499 – January 3, 1543) was an Iberian maritime explorer best known for investigations of the West Coast of North America, undertaken on behalf of the Spanish Empire The Spanish Emp ...

Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo
for
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...

Spain
in 1542. The city was founded on September 4, 1781, under Spanish governor
Felipe de Neve Felipe de Neve y Padilla (1724 - 1784) was a Spanish soldier who served as the 4th Governor of the Californias, from 1777 to 1782. Neve is considered one of the founders of Los Angeles Los Angeles (; es, Los Ángeles; "The Angels"), offi ...
, on the village of
Yaanga Yaanga (alternative spelling: Yangna or iyáangẚ, written as "Yang-Na" in Spanish) was a large Tongva The Tongva ( ) are an indigenous people of California from the Los Angeles Basin and the Southern Channel Islands, an area covering appro ...
. It became a part of
Mexico Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organi ...
in 1821 following the
Mexican War of Independence The Mexican War of Independence ( es, Guerra de Independencia de México, links=no, 16 September 1810 – 27 September 1821) was an armed conflict and political process resulting in Mexico's independence from Spain. It was not a single, c ...
. In 1848, at the end of the
Mexican–American War The Mexican–American War, also known in the United States as the Mexican War and in Mexico as the (''U.S. intervention in Mexico''), was an armed conflict between the United States and Second Federal Republic of Mexico, Mexico from 1846 ...

Mexican–American War
, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ( es, Tratado de Guadalupe Hidalgo), officially titled the Treaty of Peace, Friendship, Limits and Settlement between the United States of America and the Mexican Republic, is the peace treaty A peace treaty i ...

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
, and thus became part of the United States. Los Angeles was
incorporated Incorporated may refer to: * Incorporated community * Incorporated (Grip Inc. album), ''Incorporated'' (Grip Inc. album), 2004, by Grip Inc. * Incorporated (Legion of Doom album), ''Incorporated'' (Legion of Doom album), 2006 * Incorporated (TV seri ...
as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved
statehood A state is a polity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of institutionalized social relations, and have a capacity to mobilize resources. A polity ...
. The discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The city was further expanded with the completion of the
Los Angeles Aqueduct The Los Angeles Aqueduct system, comprising the Los Angeles Aqueduct (Owens Valley aqueduct) and the Second Los Angeles Aqueduct, is a water conveyance system, built and operated by the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power. The Owens Valley ...
in 1913, which delivers water from
Eastern California Eastern California is a region defined as either the strip to the east of the crest of the Sierra Nevada (U.S.), Sierra Nevada or as the easternmost counties of California. Demographics According to the 2010 census, the population of the eastern ...
. Los Angeles has a diverse and robust economy, and hosts businesses in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. It also has the in the
Americas The Americas (also collectively called America) is a landmass comprising the totality of North America, North and South America. The Americas make up most of the land in Earth's Western Hemisphere and comprise the New World. Along with th ...

Americas
. In 2018, the Los Angeles metropolitan area had a
gross metropolitan product Gross metropolitan product (GMP) is a monetary measure of the value of all final goods and services produced within a metropolitan statistical area #REDIRECT Metropolitan statistical area#REDIRECT Metropolitan statistical area In the United State ...
of over $1.0 trillion, making it the city with the third-largest GDP in the world, after
Tokyo Tokyo (Japanese language, Japanese: , ''Tōkyō'' ), historically known in the west as Tokio and officially the Tokyo Metropolis (, ''Tōkyō-to''), is capital of Japan, the capital and most populous Prefectures of Japan, prefecture of Japan ...
and
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...
. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and
1984 Summer Olympics The 1984 Summer Olympics (officially known as the Games of the XXIII Olympiad and commonly known as Los Angeles 1984) was an international multi-sport event held from July 28 to August 12, 1984, mainly in Los Angeles, California, United States. ...
and will host the
2028 Summer Olympics The 2028 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXXIV Olympiad, and commonly stylized as LA28, is a forthcoming international multi-sport event that is scheduled to take place from July 21 to August 6, 2028, in Los Angeles, Cali ...
.


History


Pre-colonial history

The Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the
Tongva The Tongva ( ) are an indigenous people of California The indigenous peoples of California (known as Native Californians) are the indigenous inhabitants who have lived or currently live in the geographic area within the current boundaries of ...
(''Gabrieleños'') and
ChumashChumash may refer to: *Chumash (Judaism), a Hebrew word for the Pentateuch, used in Judaism *Chumash people, a Native American people of southern California *Chumashan languages, indigenous languages of California See also

*Chumash traditiona ...
tribes The term tribe is used in many different contexts to refer to a category of human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and intellig ...
. Los Angeles would eventually be founded on the village of ''iyáangẚ'' or
Yaanga Yaanga (alternative spelling: Yangna or iyáangẚ, written as "Yang-Na" in Spanish) was a large Tongva The Tongva ( ) are an indigenous people of California from the Los Angeles Basin and the Southern Channel Islands, an area covering appro ...
(written "Yang-na" by the Spanish), meaning "
poison oak Poison oak refers to two plant species in the genus ''Toxicodendron ''Toxicodendron'' is a genus of flowering plants in the sumac family, Anacardiaceae. It contains trees, shrubs and woody plant, woody vines, including Toxicodendron radicans, poi ...
place." Maritime explorer
Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo ( pt, João Rodrigues Cabrilho; 1499 – January 3, 1543) was an Iberian maritime explorer best known for investigations of the West Coast of North America, undertaken on behalf of the Spanish Empire The Spanish Emp ...

Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo
claimed the area of southern
California California is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...

California
for the
Spanish Empire The Spanish Empire ( es, link=no, Imperio Español), also known as the Hispanic Monarchy ( es, link=no, Monarquía Hispánica) or the Catholic Monarchy ( es, link=no, Monarquía Católica) during the Early Modern period, was a colonial empire ...

Spanish Empire
in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the
Pacific The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. ...

Pacific
coast from earlier colonizing bases of
New Spain New Spain, officially the Viceroyalty of New Spain ( es, Virreinato de Nueva España, ), or Kingdom of New Spain, was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire The Spanish Empire ( es, link=no, Imperio Español), also known as th ...

New Spain
in
Central Central is an adjective usually referring to being in the center (disambiguation), center of some place or (mathematical) object. Central may also refer to: Directions and generalised locations * Central Africa, a region in the centre of Africa ...

Central
and
South America South America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continent ...

South America
.
Gaspar de Portolà Gaspar is a given and/or surname of French, German, Portuguese, and Spanish origin that could refer to: Names * Gáspár, the Hungarian language cognate of Gaspar * Caspar (magus), one of the wise men mentioned in the Bible Given name * Gasp ...
and
Franciscan , image = FrancescoCoA PioM.svg , image_size = 250px , caption = A cross, Christ's arm and Saint Francis's arm, a universal symbol of the Franciscans , abbreviation = OFM , predecessor = , ...
missionary
Juan Crespí ''Juan'' is a given name, the Spanish and Manx versions of '' John''. It is very common in Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazona ...

Juan Crespí
reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769.


Spanish rule

In 1771, Franciscan friar
Junípero Serra Junípero Serra y Ferrer (; ; ca, Juníper Serra i Ferrer; November 24, 1713August 28, 1784) was a Spanish Roman Catholic priest and missionary of the Franciscan Order. He is credited with establishing the Franciscan Missions in the Sierra ...

Junípero Serra
directed the building of the
Mission San Gabriel Arcángel Mission San Gabriel Arcángel ( es, Misión de San Gabriel Arcángel) is a Californian mission and historic landmark in San Gabriel, California San Gabriel is a city in Los Angeles County Los Angeles County, officially the County of Los ...

Mission San Gabriel Arcángel
, the first
mission Mission may refer to: Religion *Mission (station) A religious mission or mission station is a location for missionary work, in particular Christian missions. History Historically, missions have been religious communities used to spread ...
in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as " Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called . The original name of the settlement is disputed; the
Guinness Book of World Records ''Guinness World Records'', known from its inception in 1955 until 1999 as ''The Guinness Book of Records'' and in previous United States editions as ''The Guinness Book of World Records'', is a reference book A reference work is a work, ...
rendered it as "El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles de Porciúncula"; other sources have shortened or alternate versions of the longer name. The present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or (
New Spain New Spain, officially the Viceroyalty of New Spain ( es, Virreinato de Nueva España, ), or Kingdom of New Spain, was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire The Spanish Empire ( es, link=no, Imperio Español), also known as th ...

New Spain
) settlers were
mestizo (; ; fem. ) is a racial classification used to refer to a person of a combined Ethnic groups in Europe, European and Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Indigenous American ancestry. The term was used as an ethnic/racial category for mixed-ra ...

mestizo
or
mulatto Mulatto (, ) is a Race (human categorization), racial classification to refer to people of mixed Sub-Saharan African, African and Ethnic groups in Europe, European ancestry. Its use is considered outdated and offensive. A mulatta (Spanish: ''mu ...

mulatto
, a mixture of African, indigenous and European ancestry. The settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and
Olvera Street Olvera Street (also ''Calle Olvera'' or ''Placita Olvera'', originally Calle de los Vignes, Vine Street, and Wine Street) is a historic street in downtown Los Angeles Downtown Los Angeles (DTLA) is the central business district of Los Angeles, ...
, the oldest part of Los Angeles.


Mexican rule

New Spain New Spain, officially the Viceroyalty of New Spain ( es, Virreinato de Nueva España, ), or Kingdom of New Spain, was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire The Spanish Empire ( es, link=no, Imperio Español), also known as th ...

New Spain
achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, and the pueblo continued as a part of
Mexico Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organi ...

Mexico
. During Mexican rule, Governor
Pío Pico Don Pío de Jesús Pico (May 5, 1801 – September 11, 1894) was a Californio politician, ranchero, and entrepreneur, famous for serving as the last Governor of Alta California (present-day California) under Mexican rule. A member of the promin ...
made Los Angeles
Alta California Alta California ('Upper California'), also known as ('New California'), among other names, was a province of New Spain, formally established in 1804. Along with the Baja California peninsula, it had previously comprised the province of , but wa ...
's regional capital.


1847 to present

Mexican rule ended during the
Mexican–American War The Mexican–American War, also known in the United States as the Mexican War and in Mexico as the (''U.S. intervention in Mexico''), was an armed conflict between the United States and Second Federal Republic of Mexico, Mexico from 1846 ...

Mexican–American War
: Americans took control from the
Californios Californios are Hispanic people native to the U.S. state of California California is a U.S. state, state in the Western United States. With over 39.3million residents across a total area of approximately , it is the List of states and terr ...
after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the
Treaty of Cahuenga The Treaty of Cahuenga ( es, Tratado de Cahuenga), also called the Capitulation of Cahuenga (''Capitulación de Cahuenga''), was an 1847 agreement that ended the Conquest of California, resulting in a ceasefire between Californios and Americans. T ...

Treaty of Cahuenga
on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental
Southern Pacific The Southern Pacific (or Espee from the railroad initials- SP) was an American Class I railroad Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a means of transferring passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, whic ...
line from
New Orleans New Orleans (,New Orleans
to Los Angeles in 1876 and the
Santa Fe Railroad The Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway , often referred to as the Santa Fe or AT&SF, was one of the larger railroad Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a means of transferring passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles run ...
in 1885.
Petroleum Petroleum, also known as crude oil and oil, is a naturally occurring, yellowish-black liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible In fluid mechanics or more generally continuum mechanics, incompressible flow (isochoric process, isoc ...

Petroleum
was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, and by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000, putting pressure on the city's
water supply Water supply is the provision of water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an , transparent, tasteless, odorless, and , which is the main constituent of 's and the s of all known living organisms (in which it acts as a ). It is vital for ...
. The completion of the
Los Angeles Aqueduct The Los Angeles Aqueduct system, comprising the Los Angeles Aqueduct (Owens Valley aqueduct) and the Second Los Angeles Aqueduct, is a water conveyance system, built and operated by the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power. The Owens Valley ...
in 1913, under the supervision of
William Mulholland William Mulholland (September 11, 1855 – July 22, 1935) was a self-taught Irish American Irish Americans ( ga, Gael-Mheiriceánaigh) are Americans who have full or partial ancestry from Ireland Ireland (; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialec ...
, ensured the continued growth of the city. Because of clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent cities and communities felt compelled to join Los Angeles. Los Angeles created the first municipal
zoning Zoning is a method of urban planning Urban planning, also known as regional planning, town planning, city planning, or rural planning, is a technical and political process that is focused on the development and design of land use and the bu ...
ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the
Los Angeles City Council The Los Angeles City Council is the legislative body of the City of Los Angeles. The council is composed of 15 members elected from single-member districts for four-year terms. The president of the council and the president ''pro tempore'' are ch ...
promulgated residential and industrial land use zones. The new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were prohibited. The proscriptions included barns, lumber yards, and any industrial land use employing machine-powered equipment. These laws were enforced against industrial properties after the fact. These prohibitions were in addition to existing activities that were already regulated as nuisances. These included explosives warehousing, gas works, oil drilling, slaughterhouses, and
tanneries Tanning may refer to: *Tanning (leather), treating animal skins to produce leather *Sun tanning, using the sun to darken pale skin **Indoor tanning, the use of artificial light in place of the sun **Sunless tanning, application of a stain or dye to ...

tanneries
. Los Angeles City Council also designated seven industrial zones within the city. However, between 1908 and 1915, Los Angeles City Council created various exceptions to the broad proscriptions that applied to these three residential zones, and as a consequence, some industrial uses emerged within them. There are two differences between the 1908 Residence District Ordinance and later zoning laws in the United States. First, the 1908 laws did not establish a comprehensive zoning map as the 1916 New York City Zoning Ordinance did. Second, the residential zones did not distinguish types of housing; they treated apartments, hotels, and detached-single-family housing equally. In 1910,
Hollywood Hollywood is a neighborhood A neighbourhood (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of An ...

Hollywood
merged into Los Angeles, with 10 movie companies already operating in the city at the time. By 1921, more than 80 percent of the world's film industry was concentrated in L.A. The money generated by the industry kept the city insulated from much of the economic loss suffered by the rest of the country during the
Great Depression The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression An economic depression is a sustained, long-term downturn in economic activity in one or more economies. It is a more severe economic downturn than a economic recession, recess ...
. By 1930, the population surpassed one million. In 1932, the city hosted the
Summer Olympics The Summer Olympic Games, also known as the Games of the Olympiad, are a major international multi-sport event A multi-sport event is an organized sporting Sporting may refer to: *Sport, recreational games and play *Sporting (neighborhood), ...
. During
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, Los Angeles was a major center of wartime manufacturing, such as shipbuilding and aircraft. Calship built hundreds of
Liberty Ship Liberty ships were a class Class or The Class may refer to: Common uses not otherwise categorized * Class (biology), a taxonomic rank * Class (knowledge representation), a collection of individuals or objects * Class (philosophy), an analyt ...
s and
Victory Ship The Victory ship was a class of cargo ship produced in large numbers by North American North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be described as th ...

Victory Ship
s on Terminal Island, and the Los Angeles area was the headquarters of six of the country's major aircraft manufacturers (
Douglas Aircraft Company The Douglas Aircraft Company was an American aerospace manufacturer Aerospace is a term used to collectively refer to the atmosphere An atmosphere (from the greek words ἀτμός ''(atmos)'', meaning 'vapour', and σφαῖρα ''(sphair ...
,
Hughes Aircraft The Hughes Aircraft Company was a major American aerospace Aerospace is a term used to collectively refer to the atmosphere and outer space. Aerospace activity is very diverse, with a multitude of commercial, industrial and military application ...
,
LockheedLockheed (originally spelled Loughead) may refer to: Brands and enterprises * Lockheed Corporation, a former American aircraft manufacturer * Lockheed Martin, formed in 1995 by the merger of Lockheed Corporation and Martin Marietta ** Lockheed Mart ...
,
North American Aviation North American Aviation (NAA) was a major American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly ...
,
Northrop Corporation Northrop Corporation was an American aircraft manufacturer from its formation in 1939 until its 1994 merger with Grumman to form Northrop Grumman. The company is known for its development of the flying wing design, most successfully the B-2 Spirit ...
, and
Vultee The Vultee Aircraft Corporation became an independent company in 1939 in Los Angeles County, California Los Angeles County, officially the County of Los Angeles, and sometimes abbreviated as L.A. County, is the List of the most populous cou ...
). During the war, more aircraft were produced in one year than in all the pre-war years since the Wright brothers flew the first airplane in 1903, combined. Manufacturing in Los Angeles skyrocketed, and as William S. Knudsen, of the National Defense Advisory Commission put it, "We won because we smothered the enemy in an avalanche of production, the like of which he had never seen, nor dreamed possible." In the 1930s–1940s, Los Angeles County was the national leader in agriculture. Following the end of
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, Los Angeles grew more rapidly than ever, sprawling into the
San Fernando Valley The San Fernando Valley, known locally as "the Valley", is an urbanized valley A valley is an elongated low area often running between hills or mountains, which will typically contain a river or stream running from one end to the other ...

San Fernando Valley
. The expansion of the
Interstate Highway System The Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways, commonly known as the Interstate Highway System, is a network of controlled-access highway network. A controlled-access highway is a type of highway that has ...
during the 1950s and 1960s helped propel suburban growth and signaled the demise of the city's electrified rail system, once the world's largest.
As a consequence of World War II, suburban growth, and population density, many amusement parks were built and operated in this area. An example is Beverly Park, which was located at the corner of Beverly Boulevard and La Cienega before being closed and substituted by the Beverly Center. Racial tensions led to the
Watts riots #REDIRECT Watts riots#REDIRECT Watts riots The Watts riots, sometimes referred to as the Watts Rebellion or Watts Uprising, took place in the Watts neighborhood and its surrounding areas of Los Angeles Los Angeles (; es, Los Ángeles; ...
in 1965, resulting in 34 deaths and over 1,000 injuries. In 1969, California became the birthplace of the
Internet The Internet (or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices. It is a ''internetworking, network of networks'' that consist ...

Internet
, as the first
ARPANET The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) was the first wide-area packet-switching network with distributed control and one of the first networks to implement the Internet protocol suite, TCP/IP protocol suite. Both technologies ...
transmission was sent from the
University of California, Los Angeles The University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) is a public university, public Land-grant university, land-grant research university in Los Angeles, California. UCLA’s academic roots were established in 1882 as a teachers college then known ...
(UCLA) to the
Stanford Research Institute SRI International (SRI) is an American nonprofit organization, nonprofit scientific research, scientific research institute and organization headquartered in Menlo Park, California. The trustees of Stanford University established SRI in 1946 as ...
in Menlo Park. In 1973, Tom Bradley was elected as the city's first
African American African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being t ...

African American
mayor, serving for five terms until retiring in 1993. Other events in the city during the 1970s included the
Symbionese Liberation Army The United Federated Forces of the Symbionese Liberation Army (SLA) was an American organization active between 1973 and 1975 that committed bank robberies, two murder Murder is the unlawful killing of another human Humans (''Homo sapi ...
's
South CentralSouth Central may refer to: Entertainment * South Central (film), ''South Central'' (film), a 1992 film starring Glenn Plummer * South Central (soundtrack), ''South Central'' (soundtrack), a soundtrack album from the film * South Central (TV series ...
standoff in 1974 and the Hillside Stranglers
murder Murder is the unlawful killing of another human without justification (jurisprudence), justification or valid excuse (legal), excuse, especially the unlawful killing of another human with malice aforethought. ("The killing of another person w ...

murder
cases in 1977–1978. In 1984, the city hosted the Summer Olympic Games for the second time. Despite being boycotted by 14 Communist countries, the 1984 Olympics became more financially successful than any previous, and the second Olympics to turn a profit; the other, according to an analysis of contemporary newspaper reports, was the
1932 Summer Olympics The 1932 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the X Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event that was held from July 30 to August 14, 1932, in Los Angeles Los Angeles ( ; xgf, Tovaangar; es, Los Ángeles, , ), co ...
, also held in Los Angeles. Racial tensions erupted on April 29, 1992, with the acquittal by a
Simi Valley Simi Valley (ChumashChumash may refer to: *Chumash (Judaism), a Hebrew word for the Pentateuch, used in Judaism *Chumash people, a Native American people of southern California *Chumashan languages, indigenous languages of California See also ...

Simi Valley
jury of four
Los Angeles Police Department The Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD), officially known as the City of Los Angeles Police Department, is the municipal A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle ...

Los Angeles Police Department
(LAPD) officers captured on videotape beating
Rodney King Rodney Glen King (April 2, 1965June 17, 2012) was an African-American man who was a victim of police brutality Police brutality is the excessive and unwarranted use of force by law enforcement File:CBP female officers going aboard a s ...
, culminating in large-scale riots. In 1994, the magnitude 6.7
Northridge earthquake The 1994 Northridge earthquake was a moment 6.7 (), blind thrust earthquake that occurred on the annual Martin Luther King, Jr. Day holiday, on Monday, January 17, 1994. It occurred at 4:30:55 a.m. (PST) and was located in the San Fe ...
shook the city, causing $12.5 billion in damage and 72 deaths. The century ended with the Rampart scandal, one of the most extensive documented cases of police misconduct in American history. In 2002, Mayor
James Hahn James Kenneth Hahn (born July 3, 1950) is an American lawyer and politician. A Democrat, Hahn was elected the 40th mayor of Los Angeles The Mayor of the City of Los Angeles is the official head and chief executive officer of Los Angeles, Cali ...
led the campaign against secession, resulting in voters defeating efforts by the San Fernando Valley and Hollywood to secede from the city. Los Angeles will host the
2028 Summer Olympics The 2028 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXXIV Olympiad, and commonly stylized as LA28, is a forthcoming international multi-sport event that is scheduled to take place from July 21 to August 6, 2028, in Los Angeles, Cali ...
and
Paralympic Games The Paralympic Games or Paralympics, also known as the ''Games of the Paralympiad'', is a periodic series of international multi-sport events involving athletes with a range of physical disability, disabilities, including impaired muscle power ...
, making Los Angeles the third city to host the Olympics three times.


Pronunciation of the name

The English pronunciation of the name of the city has varied. A 1953 article in the
journal A journal, from the Old French ''journal'' (meaning "daily"), may refer to: *Bullet journal, a method of personal organizations *Diary, a record of what happened over the course of a day or other period *Daybook, also known as a general journal, a ...
of the
American Name Society The American Name Society (ANS) is a non-profit organization founded in 1951 to promote onomastics, the study of names and naming practices, both in the United States and abroad. The organization investigates cultural insights, settlement history, a ...
asserts that the pronunciation was established following the 1850 incorporation of the city and that since the 1880s the pronunciation emerged out of a trend in California to give places Spanish, or Spanish-sounding, names and pronunciations. In 1908, librarian
Charles Fletcher Lummis Charles Fletcher Lummis (March 1, 1859, in Lynn, Massachusetts Lynn is the 9th largest List of municipalities in Massachusetts, municipality in Massachusetts and the largest city in Essex County, Massachusetts, Essex County. Situated on the Atla ...

Charles Fletcher Lummis
, who argued for the pronunciation with , reported that there were at least 12 pronunciation variants. In the early 1900s, the ''
Los Angeles Times The ''Los Angeles Times'' (abbreviated as ''LA Times'') is a daily newspaper A newspaper is a containing written and is often typed in black ink with a white or gray background. Newspapers can cover a wide variety of fields such as , ...

Los Angeles Times
'' advocated for pronouncing it ''Loce AHNG-hayl-ais'' (), approximating Spanish , by printing the
respelling A pronunciation respelling is a regular phonetic respelling of a word that has a standard spelling but whose pronunciation according to that spelling may be ambiguous, which is used to indicate the pronunciation of that word. Pronunciation respel ...
under its masthead for several years. This did not find favor. Since the 1930s, has been most common. In 1934, the United States Board on Geographic Names decreed that this pronunciation be used. This was also endorsed in 1952 by a "jury" appointed by Mayor Fletcher Bowron to devise an official pronunciation.


Geography


Topography

The city of Los Angeles covers a total area of , comprising of land and of water. The city extends for north-south and for east-west. The perimeter of the city is . Los Angeles is both flat and hilly. The highest point in the city proper is Mount Lukens at , located at the northeastern end of the
San Fernando Valley The San Fernando Valley, known locally as "the Valley", is an urbanized valley A valley is an elongated low area often running between hills or mountains, which will typically contain a river or stream running from one end to the other ...

San Fernando Valley
. The eastern end of the Santa Monica Mountains stretches from Downtown Los Angeles, Downtown to the
Pacific Ocean The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. ...

Pacific Ocean
and separates the Los Angeles Basin from the San Fernando Valley. Other hilly parts of Los Angeles include the Mt. Washington, Los Angeles, Mt. Washington area north of Downtown, eastern parts such as Boyle Heights, the Crenshaw, Los Angeles, Crenshaw district around the Baldwin Hills, Los Angeles, Baldwin Hills, and the San Pedro, Los Angeles, San Pedro district. Surrounding the city are much higher mountains. Immediately to the north lie the San Gabriel Mountains, which is a popular recreation area for Angelenos. Its high point is Mount San Antonio, locally known as Mount Baldy, which reaches . Further afield, the highest point in the Greater Los Angeles area is San Gorgonio Mountain, with a height of . The Los Angeles River, which is largely seasonal, is the primary drainage channel. It was straightened and lined in of concrete by the United States Army Corps of Engineers, Army Corps of Engineers to act as a flood control channel. The river begins in the Canoga Park, Los Angeles, Canoga Park district of the city, flows east from the San Fernando Valley along the north edge of the Santa Monica Mountains, and turns south through the city center, flowing to its mouth in the Port of Long Beach, California, Long Beach at the Pacific Ocean. The smaller Ballona Creek flows into the Santa Monica Bay at Playa del Rey, Los Angeles, Playa del Rey.


Vegetation

Los Angeles is rich in native plant species partly because of its diversity of habitats, including beaches, wetlands, and mountains. The most prevalent plant communities are coastal sage scrub, chaparral shrubland, and riparian woodland. Native plants include: the California poppy, matilija poppy, Heteromeles, toyon, Ceanothus, Chamise, Coast Live Oak, Platanus racemosa, sycamore, willow and Leymus condensatus, Giant Wildrye. Many of these native species, such as the Helianthus nuttallii, Los Angeles sunflower, have become so rare as to be considered endangered. Although it is not native to the area, the official tree of Los Angeles is the Coral Tree (''Erythrina caffra'') and the official flower of Los Angeles is the Bird of Paradise (''Strelitzia reginae''). Washingtonia robusta, Mexican Fan Palms, Phoenix canariensis, Canary Island Palms, Syagrus romanzoffiana, Queen Palms, Date Palms, and Washingtonia filifera, California Fan Palms are common in the Los Angeles area, although only the last is native to California, though still not native to the City of Los Angeles.


Geology

Los Angeles is subject to earthquakes because of its location on the Ring of Fire, Pacific Ring of Fire. The geologic instability has produced numerous Fault (geology), faults, which cause approximately 10,000 earthquakes annually in Southern California, though most of them are too small to be felt. The Strike-slip fault, strike-slip San Andreas Fault system, which sits at the boundary between the Pacific Plate and the North American Plate, passes through the Los Angeles metropolitan area. The segment of the fault passing through Southern California experiences a major earthquake roughly every 110 to 140 years, and seismologists have warned about the next "big one", as the last major earthquake was the 1857 Fort Tejon earthquake. The Los Angeles basin and metropolitan area are also at risk from blind thrust earthquakes. Major earthquakes that have hit the Los Angeles area include the 1933 Long Beach earthquake, 1933 Long Beach, 1971 San Fernando earthquake, 1971 San Fernando, 1987 Whittier Narrows earthquake, 1987 Whittier Narrows, and the 1994 Northridge earthquake, 1994 Northridge events. All but a few are of low intensity and are not felt. The USGS has released the California earthquake forecast, UCERF California earthquake forecast, which models earthquake occurrence in California. Parts of the city are also vulnerable to tsunamis; harbor areas were damaged by waves from 1946 Aleutian Islands earthquake, Aleutian Islands earthquake in 1946, 1960 Valdivia earthquake, Valdivia earthquake in 1960, 1964 Alaska earthquake, Alaska earthquake in 1964, 2010 Chile earthquake, Chile earthquake in 2010 and 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, Japan earthquake in 2011.


Cityscape

The city is divided into many different districts and neighborhoods, some of which were incorporated cities that merged with Los Angeles. These neighborhoods were developed piecemeal, and are well-defined enough that the city has signage marking nearly all of them.


Overview

The city's street patterns generally follow a grid plan, with uniform block lengths and occasional roads that cut across blocks. However, this is complicated by rugged terrain, which has necessitated having different grids for each of the valleys that Los Angeles covers. Major streets are designed to move large volumes of traffic through many parts of the city, many of which are extremely long; Sepulveda Boulevard is long, while Foothill Boulevard (Southern California), Foothill Boulevard is over long, reaching as far east as San Bernardino. Drivers in Los Angeles suffer from, and cause, one of the worst rush hour periods in the world, according to an annual traffic index by navigation system maker, TomTom. LA drivers spend an additional 92 hours in traffic each year. During the peak rush hour, there is 80% congestion, according to the index. Los Angeles is often characterized by the presence of low-rise buildings, in contrast to
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
. Outside of a few centers such as Downtown Los Angeles, Downtown, Warner Center, Century City, Koreatown, Los Angeles, Koreatown, Miracle Mile, Los Angeles, Miracle Mile,
Hollywood Hollywood is a neighborhood A neighbourhood (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of An ...

Hollywood
, and Westwood, Los Angeles, Westwood, skyscrapers and high-rise buildings are not common in Los Angeles. The few skyscrapers built outside of those areas often stand out above the rest of the surrounding landscape. Most construction is done in separate units, rather than Curtain wall (architecture), wall-to-wall. That being said, Downtown Los Angeles itself has many buildings over 30 stories, with fourteen over 50 stories, and two over 70 stories, the tallest of which is the Wilshire Grand Center. Also, Los Angeles is increasingly becoming a city of apartments rather than single-family dwellings, especially in the dense inner city and Westside (Los Angeles County), Westside neighborhoods.


Climate

Los Angeles has a
Mediterranean climate A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by dry summers and mild, wet winters. The climate Climate is the long-term pattern of weather Weather is the state of the atmosphere, describing for example the degre ...
(Köppen climate classification, Köppen ''Csb'' on the coast and most of downtown, ''Csa'' near the metropolitan region to the west), and receives just enough annual precipitation to avoid being classified as a semi-arid climate (''BSh)''. Daytime temperatures are generally temperate all year round. In winter, they average around giving it a tropical feel although it is a few degrees too cool to be a true tropical climate on average due to cool night temperatures. Los Angeles has plenty of sunshine throughout the year, with an average of only 35 days with measurable precipitation annually. Temperatures in the coastal basin exceed on a dozen or so days in the year, from one day a month in April, May, June and November to three days a month in July, August, October and to five days in September. Temperatures in the San Fernando and San Gabriel Valleys are considerably warmer. Temperatures are subject to substantial daily swings; in inland areas the difference between the average daily low and the average daily high is over . The average annual temperature of the sea is , from in January to in August. Hours of sunshine total more than 3,000 per year, from an average of 7 hours of sunshine per day in December to an average of 12 in July. The Los Angeles area is also subject to phenomena typical of a microclimate, causing extreme variations in temperature in close physical proximity to each other. For example, the average July maximum temperature at the Santa Monica Pier is whereas it is in Canoga Park, away. The city, like much of the Southern Californian coast, is subject to a late spring/early summer weather phenomenon called "June Gloom". This involves overcast or foggy skies in the morning that yield to sun by early afternoon. Downtown Los Angeles averages of precipitation annually, mainly occurring between November and March, generally in the form of moderate rain showers, but sometimes as heavy rainfall during winter storms. Rainfall is usually higher in the hills and coastal slopes of the mountains because of orographic uplift. Summer days are usually rainless. Rarely, an incursion of moist air from the south or east can bring brief thunderstorms in late summer, especially to the mountains. The coast gets slightly less rainfall, while the inland and mountain areas get considerably more. Years of average rainfall are rare. The usual pattern is a year-to-year variability, with a short string of dry years of rainfall, followed by one or two wet years with more than . Wet years are usually associated with warm water El Niño conditions in the Pacific, dry years with cooler water La Niña episodes. A series of rainy days can bring floods to the lowlands and mudslides to the hills, especially after wildfires have denuded the slopes. Both freezing temperatures and snowfall are extremely rare in the city basin and along the coast, with the last occurrence of a reading at the downtown station being January 29, 1979; freezing temperatures occur nearly every year in valley locations while the mountains within city limits typically receive snowfall every winter. The greatest snowfall recorded in downtown Los Angeles was on January 15, 1932. While the most recent snowfall occurred in February 2019, the first snowfall since 1962, with snow falling in areas adjacent to Los Angeles as recently as January 2021. At the official downtown station, the highest recorded temperature is on September 27, 2010, while the lowest is , on January 4, 1949. Within the City of Los Angeles, the highest temperature ever officially recorded is , on September 6, 2020, at the weather station at Los Angeles Pierce College, Pierce College in the
San Fernando Valley The San Fernando Valley, known locally as "the Valley", is an urbanized valley A valley is an elongated low area often running between hills or mountains, which will typically contain a river or stream running from one end to the other ...

San Fernando Valley
neighborhood of Woodland Hills, Los Angeles, Woodland Hills. During autumn and winter, Santa Ana winds sometimes bring much warmer and drier conditions to Los Angeles, and raise wildfire risk.


Environmental issues

A Gabrielino settlement in the area was called ''iyáangẚ'' (written ''Yang-na'' by the Spanish), which has been translated as "poison oak place". ''Yang-na'' has also been translated as "the valley of smoke". Owing to geography, heavy reliance on automobiles, and the Los Angeles/Long Beach port complex, Los Angeles suffers from air pollution in the form of smog. The Los Angeles Basin and the
San Fernando Valley The San Fernando Valley, known locally as "the Valley", is an urbanized valley A valley is an elongated low area often running between hills or mountains, which will typically contain a river or stream running from one end to the other ...

San Fernando Valley
are susceptible to Inversion (meteorology), atmospheric inversion, which holds in the exhausts from road vehicles, airplanes, locomotives, shipping, manufacturing, and other sources. The percentage of small particle pollution (the kind that penetrates into the lungs) coming from vehicles in the city can get as high as 55 percent. The smog season lasts from approximately May to October. While other large cities rely on rain to clear smog, Los Angeles gets only of rain each year: pollution accumulates over many consecutive days. Issues of air quality in Los Angeles and other major cities led to the passage of early national environmental legislation, including the United States Clean Air Act, Clean Air Act. When the act was passed, California was unable to create a State Implementation Plan that would enable it to meet the new air quality standards, largely because of the level of pollution in Los Angeles generated by older vehicles. More recently, the state of California has led the nation in working to limit pollution by mandating low-emission vehicles. Smog is expected to continue to drop in the coming years because of aggressive steps to reduce it, which include Electric car, electric and Hybrid electric vehicle, hybrid cars, improvements in mass transit, and other measures. The number of Stage 1 smog alerts in Los Angeles has declined from over 100 per year in the 1970s to almost zero in the new millennium. Despite improvement, the 2006 and 2007 annual reports of the American Lung Association ranked the city as the most polluted in the country with short-term particle pollution and year-round particle pollution. In 2008, the city was ranked the second most polluted and again had the highest year-round particulate pollution. The city met its goal of providing 20 percent of the city's power from renewable sources in 2010. The American Lung Association's 2013 survey ranks the metro area as having the nation's worst smog, and fourth in both short-term and year-round pollution amounts. Los Angeles is also home to the nation's largest urban oil field. There are more than 700 active oil wells within of homes, churches, schools and hospitals in the city, a situation about which the United States Environmental Protection Agency, EPA has voiced serious concerns.


Demographics

The 2010 United States Census reported Los Angeles had a population of 3,792,621. The population density was 8,092.3 people per square mile (2,913.0/km2). The age distribution was 874,525 people (23.1%) under 18, 434,478 people (11.5%) from 18 to 24, 1,209,367 people (31.9%) from 25 to 44, 877,555 people (23.1%) from 45 to 64, and 396,696 people (10.5%) who were 65 or older. The median age was 34.1 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.6 males. There were 1,413,995 housing units—up from 1,298,350 during 2005–2009—at an average density of 2,812.8 households per square mile (1,086.0/km2), of which 503,863 (38.2%) were owner-occupied, and 814,305 (61.8%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2.1%; the rental vacancy rate was 6.1%. 1,535,444 people (40.5% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 2,172,576 people (57.3%) lived in rental housing units. According to the 2010 United States Census, Los Angeles had a median household income of $49,497, with 22.0% of the population living below the federal poverty line.


Race and ethnicity

According to the 2010 Census, the racial makeup of Los Angeles included: 1,888,158 White American, Whites (49.8%), 365,118
African American African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being t ...

African American
s (9.6%), 28,215 Native Americans in the United States, Native Americans (0.7%), 426,959 Asian American, Asians (11.3%), 5,577 Pacific Islander American, Pacific Islanders (0.1%), 902,959 from Race and ethnicity in the United States Census#Race, other races (23.8%), and 175,635 (4.6%) from Multiracial American, two or more races. Hispanic and Latino Americans, Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 1,838,822 persons (48.5%). Los Angeles is home to people from more than 140 countries speaking 224 different identified languages. Ethnic enclaves like Chinatown, Los Angeles, Chinatown, Historic Filipinotown, Los Angeles, Historic Filipinotown, Koreatown, Los Angeles, Koreatown, Little Armenia, Los Angeles, Little Armenia, Little Ethiopia, Los Angeles, Little Ethiopia, Tehrangeles, Little Tokyo, Los Angeles, Little Tokyo, Little Bangladesh, and Thai Town, Los Angeles, Thai Town provide examples of the Multiculturalism, polyglot character of Los Angeles. Non-Hispanic Whites were 28.7% of the population in 2010, compared to 86.3% in 1940. The majority of the Non-Hispanic White population is living in areas along the Pacific coast as well as in neighborhoods near and on the Santa Monica Mountains from the Pacific Palisades, Los Angeles, Pacific Palisades to Los Feliz, Los Angeles, Los Feliz. Mexican American, Mexican ancestry make up the largest ethnic group of Hispanics at 31.9% of the city's population, followed by those of Salvadoran American, Salvadoran (6.0%) and Guatemalan American, Guatemalan (3.6%) heritage. The Hispanic population has a long established Mexican-American and Central American community and is spread well-nigh throughout the entire city of Los Angeles and its metropolitan area. It is most heavily concentrated in regions around Downtown as East Los Angeles (region), East Los Angeles, Northeast Los Angeles and Westlake, Los Angeles, Westlake. Furthermore, a vast majority of residents in neighborhoods in eastern South Los Angeles towards Downey, California, Downey are of Hispanic origin. The largest Asian ethnic groups are Filipino American, Filipinos (3.2%) and Korean American, Koreans (2.9%), which have their own established ethnic enclaves—Koreatown, Los Angeles, Koreatown in the Wilshire Center and Historic Filipinotown. Chinese American, Chinese people, which make up 1.8% of Los Angeles's population, reside mostly outside of Los Angeles city limits and rather in the San Gabriel Valley of eastern Los Angeles County, but make a sizable presence in the city, notably in Chinatown, Los Angeles, Chinatown. Chinatown and Thaitown, Los Angeles, California, Thaitown are also home to many Thai American, Thais and Cambodian American, Cambodians, which make up 0.3% and 0.1% of Los Angeles's population, respectively. The Japanese American, Japanese comprise 0.9% of LA's population and have an established Little Tokyo, Los Angeles, Little Tokyo in the city's downtown, and another significant community of Japanese Americans is in the Sawtelle, Los Angeles, Sawtelle district of West Los Angeles. Vietnamese American, Vietnamese make up 0.5% of Los Angeles's population. Indian American, Indians make up 0.9% of the city's population. The city is also home to Armenian American, Armenians, Assyrian Americans, Assyrians, and Iranian Americans, Iranians, many of whom live in enclaves like Little Armenia, Los Angeles, Little Armenia and Tehrangeles. African Americans have been the predominant ethnic group in South Los Angeles, which has emerged as the largest African American community in the western United States since the 1960s. The neighborhoods of South Los Angeles with highest concentration of African Americans include Crenshaw, Los Angeles, Crenshaw, Baldwin Hills, Los Angeles, Baldwin Hills, Leimert Park, Los Angeles, Leimert Park, Hyde Park, Los Angeles, Hyde Park, Gramercy Park, Los Angeles, Gramercy Park, Manchester Square, Los Angeles, Manchester Square and Watts, Los Angeles, Watts. Apart from South Los Angeles, neighborhoods in the Central Los Angeles, Central region of Los Angeles, as Mid-City, Los Angeles, Mid-City and Mid-Wilshire, Los Angeles, Mid-Wilshire have a moderate concentration of African Americans as well.


Religion

According to a 2014 study by the Pew Research Center, Christianity is the most prevalently practiced religion in Los Angeles (65%).Major U.S. metropolitan areas differ in their religious profiles
Pew Research Center
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Los Angeles is the largest Diocese, archdiocese in the country. Roger Mahony, Cardinal Roger Mahony, as the archbishop, oversaw construction of the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels, which opened in September 2002 in Downtown Los Angeles. In 2011, the once common, but ultimately lapsed, custom of conducting a procession and Mass (liturgy), Mass in honor of Nuestra Señora de los Ángeles, in commemoration of the founding of the City of Los Angeles in 1781, was revived by the Queen of Angels Foundation and its founder Mark Albert, with the support of the Archdiocese of Los Angeles as well as several civic leaders. The recently revived custom is a continuation of the original processions and Masses that commenced on the first anniversary of the founding of Los Angeles in 1782 and continued for nearly a century thereafter. With 621,000 American Jews, Jews in the metropolitan area, the region has the second-largest population of Jews in the United States. Many of Los Angeles's Jews now live on the Westside (Los Angeles County), Westside and in the
San Fernando Valley The San Fernando Valley, known locally as "the Valley", is an urbanized valley A valley is an elongated low area often running between hills or mountains, which will typically contain a river or stream running from one end to the other ...

San Fernando Valley
, though Boyle Heights, Los Angeles, California, Boyle Heights once had a large Jewish population prior to World War II due to restrictive housing covenants. Major Orthodox Jewish neighborhoods include Hancock Park, Los Angeles, Hancock Park, Pico-Robertson, and Valley Village, Los Angeles, Valley Village, while Jewish Israelis are well represented in the Encino, Los Angeles, Encino and Tarzana, Los Angeles, Tarzana neighborhoods, and Persian Jews in Beverly Hills, California, Beverly Hills. Many varieties of Judaism are represented in the greater Los Angeles area, including Reform Judaism, Reform, Conservative Judaism, Conservative, Orthodox Judaism, Orthodox, and Reconstructionist Judaism, Reconstructionist. The Breed Street Shul in East Los Angeles, California, East Los Angeles, built in 1923, was the largest synagogue west of Chicago in its early decades; it is no longer in daily use as a synagogue and is being converted to a museum and community center. The Kabbalah Centre also has a presence in the city. The International Church of the Foursquare Gospel was founded in Los Angeles by Aimee Semple McPherson in 1923 and remains headquartered there to this day. For many years, the church convened at Angelus Temple, which, at its construction, was one of the largest churches in the country. Los Angeles has had a rich and influential Protestant tradition. The first Protestant service in Los Angeles was a Methodist meeting held in a private home in 1850 and the oldest Protestant church still operating, First Congregational Church of Los Angeles, First Congregational Church, was founded in 1867. In the early 1900s the Bible Institute Of Los Angeles published the founding documents of the Christian Fundamentalist movement and the Azusa Street Revival launched Pentecostalism. The Metropolitan Community Church also had its origins in the Los Angeles area. Important churches in the city include First Presbyterian Church of Hollywood, Bel Air Presbyterian Church, First African Methodist Episcopal Church of Los Angeles, West Angeles Church of God in Christ, Second Baptist Church (Los Angeles, California), Second Baptist Church, Crenshaw Christian Center, McCarty Memorial Christian Church, and First Congregational Church. The Los Angeles California Temple, the second-largest Temple (Latter Day Saints), temple operated by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, is on California State Route 2, Santa Monica Boulevard in the Westwood, Los Angeles, Westwood neighborhood of Los Angeles. Dedicated in 1956, it was the first Temple (LDS Church), temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints built in California and it was the largest in the world when completed. The Hollywood region of Los Angeles also has several significant headquarters, churches, and the Celebrity Center of Scientology. Because of Los Angeles's large multi-ethnic population, a wide variety of faiths are practiced, including Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, Zoroastrianism, Sikhism, Baháʼí Faith, Baháʼí, various Eastern Orthodox Church, Eastern Orthodox churches, Sufism, Shintoism, Taoism, Confucianism, Chinese folk religion and countless others. Immigrants from Asia for example, have formed a number of significant Buddhism, Buddhist congregations making the city home to the greatest variety of Buddhists in the world. The first Buddhist joss house was founded in the city in 1875. Atheism and other secular beliefs are also common, as the city is the largest in the Western U.S. Unchurched Belt.


Homelessness

As of January 2020, there are 41,290 Homelessness in the United States, homeless people in the City of Los Angeles, comprising roughly 62% of the homeless population of LA County. This is an increase of 14.2% over the previous year (with a 12.7% increase in the overall homeless population of LA County). The epicenter of homelessness in Los Angeles is the Skid Row, Los Angeles, Skid Row neighborhood, which contains 8,000 homeless people, one of the largest stable populations of homeless people in the United States. The increased homeless population in Los Angeles has been attributed largely to lack of housing affordability. Almost 60 percent of the 82,955 people who became newly homeless in 2019 said their homelessness was because of economic hardship. In Los Angeles, black people are roughly four times more likely to experience homelessness.


Crime

In 1992, the city of Los Angeles recorded 1,092 murders. Los Angeles experienced a significant decline in crime in the 1990s and late 2000s and reached a 50-year low in 2009 with 314 homicides. This is a rate of 7.85 per 100,000 population—a major decrease from 1980 when a homicide rate of 34.2 per 100,000 was reported. This included 15 officer-involved shootings. One shooting led to the death of a LAPD Metropolitan Division#S.W.A.T. ("D" Platoon), SWAT team member, Randal Simmons, the first in LAPD's history. Los Angeles in the year of 2013 totaled 251 murders, a decrease of 16 percent from the previous year. Police speculate the drop resulted from a number of factors, including young people spending more time online. In 2015, it was revealed that the LAPD had been under-reporting crime for eight years, making the crime rate in the city appear much lower than it really is. The Los Angeles crime family, Dragna crime family and the Cohen crime family dominated organized crime in the city during the Prohibition in the United States, Prohibition era and reached its peak during the 1940s and 1950s with the battle of Sunset Strip as part of the American Mafia, but has gradually declined since then with the rise of various black and Hispanic gangs in the late 1960s and early 1970s. According to the
Los Angeles Police Department The Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD), officially known as the City of Los Angeles Police Department, is the municipal A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle ...

Los Angeles Police Department
, the city is home to 45,000 gang members, organized into 450 gangs. Among them are the Crips and Bloods, which are both African American street gangs that originated in the South Los Angeles region. Latino street gangs such as the Sureños, a Mexican American street gang, and Mara Salvatrucha, which has mainly members of Salvadoran American, Salvadoran descent, all originated in Los Angeles. This has led to the city being referred to as the "Gang Capital of America".


Economy

The economy of Los Angeles is driven by international trade, entertainment (television, motion pictures, video games, music recording, and production), aerospace, technology, petroleum, fashion, apparel, and tourism. Other significant industries include finance, telecommunications, law, healthcare, and transportation. In the 2017 Global Financial Centres Index, Los Angeles was ranked as having the 19th most competitive financial center in the world, and sixth most competitive in the United States (after Economy of New York City#Finance, New York City, San Francisco#Economy, San Francisco, Economy of Chicago#Finance, Chicago, Boston#Economy, Boston, and Washington, D.C.#Economy, Washington, D.C.). One of the five major film studios, Paramount Pictures, is within the city limits, its location being part of the so-called "Studio zone, Thirty-Mile Zone" of entertainment headquarters in Southern California. Los Angeles is the largest manufacturing center in the United States. The contiguous Port of Los Angeles, ports of Los Angeles and Port of Long Beach, Long Beach together comprise the busiest port in the United States by some measures and the fifth-busiest port in the world, vital to trade within the Pacific Rim. The Los Angeles metropolitan area has a
gross metropolitan product Gross metropolitan product (GMP) is a monetary measure of the value of all final goods and services produced within a metropolitan statistical area #REDIRECT Metropolitan statistical area#REDIRECT Metropolitan statistical area In the United State ...
of over $1.0 trillion (), making it the third-largest economic metropolitan area in the world, after Greater Tokyo Area, Tokyo and New York metropolitan area, New York. Los Angeles has been classified an "Global city, alpha world city" according to a 2012 study by a group at Loughborough University. The Department of Cannabis Regulation enforces cannabis legislation after the legalization of the sale and distribution of Cannabis (drug), cannabis in 2016. , more than 300 existing cannabis businesses (both retailers and their suppliers) have been granted approval to operate in what is considered the nation's largest market. , Los Angeles is home to three Fortune 500 companies: AECOM, CBRE Group, and Reliance Steel & Aluminum Co., Reliance Steel & Aluminum Co.


Arts and culture

Los Angeles is often billed as the "Creative Capital of the World" because one in every six of its residents works in a creative industry and there are more artists, writers, filmmakers, actors, dancers and musicians living and working in Los Angeles than any other city at any other time in History of Los Angeles, history.


Movies and the performing arts

The city's Hollywood, Los Angeles, Hollywood neighborhood has become recognized as the center of the Film industry, motion picture industry and the Los Angeles area is also associated as being the center of the television industry. The city is home to major film studios as well as major record labels. Los Angeles plays host to the annual Academy Awards, the Primetime Emmy Awards, the Grammy Awards as well as many other entertainment industry awards shows. Los Angeles is the site of the USC School of Cinematic Arts, the oldest film school in the United States.The performing arts play a major role in Los Angeles's cultural identity. According to the USC Stevens Institute for Innovation, "there are more than 1,100 annual theatrical productions and 21 openings every week." The Los Angeles Music Center is "one of the three largest performing arts centers in the nation", with more than 1.3 million visitors per year. The Walt Disney Concert Hall, centerpiece of the Music Center, is home to the prestigious Los Angeles Philharmonic. Notable organizations such as Center Theatre Group, the Los Angeles Master Chorale, and the Los Angeles Opera are also resident companies of the Music Center. Talent is locally cultivated at premier institutions such as the Colburn School and the USC Thornton School of Music.


Museums and galleries

There are 841 museums and art galleries in
Los Angeles County Los Angeles County, officially the County of Los Angeles, and sometimes abbreviated as L.A. County, is the most populous county in the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), o ...
, more museums per capita than any other city in the U.S. Some of the notable museums are the Los Angeles County Museum of Art (the largest art museum in the Western United States), the Getty Center (part of the J. Paul Getty Trust, the world's wealthiest art institution), the Petersen Automotive Museum, the Huntington Library, the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Natural History Museum, the Battleship Iowa, and the Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles, Museum of Contemporary Art. A significant number of art galleries are on Gallery Row, and tens of thousands attend the monthly Downtown Art Walk there.


Libraries

The Los Angeles Public Library system operates 72 public libraries in the city. Enclaves of unincorporated areas are served by branches of the County of Los Angeles Public Library, many of which are within walking distance to residents.


Landmarks

Important landmarks in Los Angeles include the Hollywood Sign, Walt Disney Concert Hall, Capitol Records Building, the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels, Angels Flight, Grauman's Chinese Theatre, Dolby Theatre, Griffith Observatory, Getty Center, Getty Villa, Stahl House, the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, L.A. Live, the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, the Venice Canal Historic District and boardwalk, Theme Building, Bradbury Building, U.S. Bank Tower, Wilshire Grand Center, Hollywood Boulevard, Los Angeles City Hall, Hollywood Bowl, battleship , Watts Towers, Staples Center, Dodger Stadium, and
Olvera Street Olvera Street (also ''Calle Olvera'' or ''Placita Olvera'', originally Calle de los Vignes, Vine Street, and Wine Street) is a historic street in downtown Los Angeles Downtown Los Angeles (DTLA) is the central business district of Los Angeles, ...
.


Sports

The city of Los Angeles and its metropolitan area are the home of eleven top-level professional sports teams, several of which play in neighboring communities but use Los Angeles in their name. These teams include the Los Angeles Dodgers and Los Angeles Angels of Major League Baseball (MLB), the Los Angeles Rams and Los Angeles Chargers of the National Football League (NFL), the Los Angeles Lakers and Los Angeles Clippers of the National Basketball Association (NBA), the Los Angeles Kings and Anaheim Ducks of the National Hockey League (NHL), the Los Angeles Galaxy and Los Angeles FC of Major League Soccer (MLS), and the Los Angeles Sparks of the Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA). Other notable sports teams include the UCLA Bruins and the USC Trojans in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), both of which are Division I teams in the Pac-12 Conference. Los Angeles is the second-largest city in the United States but hosted no NFL team between 1995 and 2015. At one time, the Los Angeles area hosted two NFL teams: the Los Angeles Rams, Rams and the Las Vegas Raiders, Raiders. Both left the city in 1995, with the Rams moving to St. Louis, and the Raiders moving back to their original home of Oakland, California, Oakland. After 21 seasons in St. Louis, on January 12, 2016, the NFL announced the Rams would be moving back to Los Angeles for the 2016 NFL season with its home games played at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum for four seasons. Prior to 1995, the Rams played their home games in the Coliseum from 1946 to 1979 which made them the first professional sports team to play in Los Angeles, and then moved to Anaheim Stadium from 1980 until 1994. The History of the San Diego Chargers, San Diego Chargers announced on January 12, 2017, that they would also relocate back to Los Angeles (the first since its inaugural season in 1960) and become the Los Angeles Chargers beginning in the 2017 NFL season and played at Dignity Health Sports Park in Carson, California for three seasons. The Rams and the Chargers would soon move to the newly built SoFi Stadium, located in nearby Inglewood, California, Inglewood during the 2020 season. Los Angeles boasts a number of sports venues, including Dodger Stadium, the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, Banc of California Stadium and the Crypto.com Arena. The Forum (Inglewood, California), The Forum, SoFi Stadium, Dignity Health Sports Park, the Rose Bowl (stadium), Rose Bowl, Angel Stadium and Honda Center are also in adjacent cities and cities in Los Angeles's metropolitan area. Los Angeles has twice hosted the Summer Olympic Games: in 1932 and in 1984 Summer Olympics, 1984, and will host the games for a third time in 2028 Summer Olympics, 2028. Los Angeles will be the third city after London (1908 Summer Olympics, 1908, 1948 Summer Olympics, 1948 and 2012 Summer Olympics, 2012) and Paris (1900 Summer Olympics, 1900, 1924 Summer Olympics, 1924 and 2024 Summer Olympics, 2024) to host the Olympic Games three times. When the tenth Olympic Games were hosted in 1932, the former 10th Street was renamed Olympic Blvd. Los Angeles also hosted the Deaflympics in 1985 Summer Deaflympics, 1985 and Special Olympics World Games, Special Olympics World Summer Games in 2015 Special Olympics World Summer Games, 2015. 7 NFL Super Bowls were also held in the city and its surrounding areas- 2 at the Memorial Coliseum (Super Bowl I, the first Super Bowl, I and Super Bowl VII, VII) and 5 at the Rose Bowl in suburban Pasadena, California, Pasadena (Super Bowl XI, XI, Super Bowl XIV, XIV, Super Bowl XVII, XVII, Super Bowl XXI, XXI, and Super Bowl XXVII, XXVII), 10 miles north of downtown Los Angeles. Super Bowl LVI will be held at SoFi Stadium in Inglewood, California, Inglewood in 2022. The Rose Bowl also hosts an annual and highly prestigious NCAA college football game called the Rose Bowl game, Rose Bowl, which happens every New Year's Day. Los Angeles also hosted 8 FIFA World Cup soccer games at the Rose Bowl (stadium), Rose Bowl in 1994 FIFA World Cup, 1994, including the 1994 FIFA World Cup Final, final, where Brazil national football team, Brazil won. The Rose Bowl also hosted 4 matches in the 1999 FIFA Women's World Cup, including the 1999 FIFA Women's World Cup Final, final, where the United States women's national soccer team, United States won against China women's national football team, China on penalty kicks. This was the game where Brandi Chastain took her shirt off after she scored the tournament-winning penalty kick, creating an iconic image. Los Angeles is one of six North American cities to have won championships in all five of its major leagues (MLB, NFL, NHL, NBA and MLS), having completed the feat with the Kings' 2012 Stanley Cup Finals, 2012 Stanley Cup title.


Government

Los Angeles is a charter city as opposed to a general law city. The current charter was adopted on June 8, 1999, and has been amended many times. The List of elected officials in Los Angeles, elected government consists of the Los Angeles City Council and the mayor of Los Angeles, which operate under a mayor–council government, as well as the Los Angeles City Attorney, city attorney (not to be confused with the Los Angeles County District Attorney, district attorney, a county office) and Los Angeles City Controller, controller. The mayor is Eric Garcetti. There are Los Angeles City Council, 15 city council districts. The city has many departments and appointed officers, including the
Los Angeles Police Department The Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD), officially known as the City of Los Angeles Police Department, is the municipal A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle ...

Los Angeles Police Department
(LAPD), the Los Angeles Board of Police Commissioners, the Los Angeles Fire Department (LAFD), the Housing Authority of the City of Los Angeles (HACLA), the Los Angeles Department of Transportation (LADOT), and the Los Angeles Public Library (LAPL). The charter of the City of Los Angeles ratified by voters in 1999 created a system of advisory neighborhood councils that would represent the diversity of stakeholders, defined as those who live, work or own property in the neighborhood. The neighborhood councils are relatively autonomous and spontaneous in that they identify their own boundaries, establish their own bylaws, and elect their own officers. There are about 90 neighborhood councils. Residents of Los Angeles elect Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors, supervisors for the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th supervisorial districts.


Federal and state representation

In the California State Assembly, Los Angeles is split between fourteen districts. In the California State Senate, the city is split between eight districts. In the United States House of Representatives, it is split among ten congressional districts.


Education


Colleges and universities

There are three public universities within the city limits: California State University, Los Angeles (CSULA), California State University, Northridge (CSUN) and
University of California, Los Angeles The University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) is a public university, public Land-grant university, land-grant research university in Los Angeles, California. UCLA’s academic roots were established in 1882 as a teachers college then known ...
(UCLA). Private colleges in the city include: * AFI Conservatory, American Film Institute Conservatory * Alliant International University * American Academy of Dramatic Arts (Los Angeles Campus) * American Jewish University * Abraham Lincoln University * American Musical and Dramatic Academy, The American Musical and Dramatic Academy – Los Angeles campus * Antioch University's Los Angeles campus * Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science * Columbia College Hollywood * Emerson College (Los Angeles Campus) * Emperor's College * Fashion Institute of Design & Merchandising's Los Angeles campus (FIDM) * Los Angeles Film School * Loyola Marymount University (LMU is also the parent university of Loyola Law School in Los Angeles) * Marymount College, Palos Verdes, Marymount College * Mount St. Mary's College * National University (California), National University of California * Occidental College ("Oxy") * Otis College of Art and Design (Otis) * Southern California Institute of Architecture (SCI-Arc) * Southwestern Law School * University of Southern California (USC) * Woodbury University The community college system consists of nine campuses governed by the trustees of the Los Angeles Community College District: * East Los Angeles College (ELAC) * Los Angeles City College (LACC) * Los Angeles Harbor College * Los Angeles Mission College * Los Angeles Pierce College * Los Angeles Valley College (LAVC) * Los Angeles Southwest College * Los Angeles Trade-Technical College * West Los Angeles College There are numerous additional colleges and universities outside the city limits in the Greater Los Angeles area, including the Claremont Colleges consortium, which includes the most selective liberal arts colleges in the U.S., and the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), one of the top STEM-focused research institutions in the world.


Schools

Los Angeles Unified School District serves almost all of the city of Los Angeles, as well as several surrounding communities, with a student population around 800,000. After California Proposition 13 (1978), Proposition 13 was approved in 1978, urban school districts had considerable trouble with funding. LAUSD has become known for its underfunded, overcrowded and poorly maintained campuses, although its 162 Magnet schools help compete with local private schools. Several small sections of Los Angeles are in the Las Virgenes Unified School District. The Los Angeles County Office of Education operates the Los Angeles County High School for the Arts.


Media

The Los Angeles metro area is the second-largest broadcast designated market area in the U.S. (after Media in New York City, New York) with 5,431,140 homes (4.956% of the U.S.), which is served by a wide variety of local Media in Los Angeles#AM, AM and Media in Los Angeles#FM, FM radio and Media in Los Angeles#Television, television stations. Los Angeles and New York City are the only two media markets to have seven VHF allocations assigned to them. As part of the region's aforementioned creative industry, the Big Four major broadcast television networks, American Broadcasting Company, ABC, CBS, Fox Broadcasting Company, FOX, and NBC, all have production facilities and offices throughout various areas of Los Angeles. All four major broadcast television networks, plus major Spanish-language networks Telemundo and Univision, also own and operate stations that both serve the Los Angeles market and serve as each network's West Coast flagship station: ABC's KABC-TV (Channel 7), CBS's KCBS-TV (Channel 2), Fox's KTTV-TV (Channel 11), NBC's KNBC-TV (Channel 4), MyNetworkTV's KCOP-TV (Channel 13), Telemundo's KVEA-TV (Channel 52), and Univision's KMEX-DT, KMEX-TV (Channel 34). The region also has three Public Broadcasting Service, PBS stations, as well as KCET (Channel 28), the nation's largest independent public television station. KTBN (Channel 40) is the flagship station of the religious Trinity Broadcasting Network, based out of Santa Ana, California, Santa Ana. A variety of independent television stations, such as KCAL-TV (Channel 9) and KTLA-TV (Channel 5), also operate in the area. The major daily English-language newspaper in the area is the ''
Los Angeles Times The ''Los Angeles Times'' (abbreviated as ''LA Times'') is a daily newspaper A newspaper is a containing written and is often typed in black ink with a white or gray background. Newspapers can cover a wide variety of fields such as , ...

Los Angeles Times
''. ''La Opinión'' is the city's major daily Spanish-language paper. ''The Korea Times (Los Angeles), The Korea Times'' is the city's major daily Korean language paper while ''The World Journal'' is the city and county's major Chinese newspaper. The ''Los Angeles Sentinel'' is the city's major African-American weekly paper, boasting the largest African-American readership in the Western United States. ''Investor's Business Daily'' is distributed from its LA corporate offices, which are headquartered in Playa del Rey. There are also a number of smaller regional newspapers, alternative weeklies and magazines, including the ''Freedom Communications, Los Angeles Register'', Los Angeles Community News, (which focuses on coverage of the greater Los Angeles area), ''Los Angeles Daily News'' (which focuses coverage on the
San Fernando Valley The San Fernando Valley, known locally as "the Valley", is an urbanized valley A valley is an elongated low area often running between hills or mountains, which will typically contain a river or stream running from one end to the other ...

San Fernando Valley
), ''LA Weekly'', ''L.A. Record'' (which focuses coverage on the music scene in the Greater Los Angeles Area), ''Los Angeles Magazine'', the ''Los Angeles Business Journal'', the ''Los Angeles Daily Journal'' (legal industry paper), ''The Hollywood Reporter'', ''Variety (magazine), Variety'' (both entertainment industry papers), and ''Los Angeles Downtown News''. In addition to the major papers, numerous local periodicals serve immigrant communities in their native languages, including Armenian, English, Korean, Persian, Russian, Chinese, Japanese, Hebrew, and Arabic. Many cities adjacent to Los Angeles also have their own daily newspapers whose coverage and availability overlaps with certain Los Angeles neighborhoods. Examples include ''The Daily Breeze'' (serving the South Bay, Los Angeles, South Bay), and ''The Long Beach Press-Telegram''. Los Angeles arts, culture and nightlife news is also covered by a number of local and national online guides, including ''Time Out Los Angeles'', ''Thrillist'', ''Kristin's List'', ''DailyCandy'', ''Diversity News Magazine'', ''LAist'', and ''Flavorpill''.


Infrastructure


Transportation


Freeways

The city and the rest of the Los Angeles metropolitan area are served by an extensive network of freeways and highways. The Texas Transportation Institute, which publishes an annual Urban Mobility Report, ranked Los Angeles road traffic as the most congested in the United States in 2005 as measured by annual delay per traveler. The average traveler in Los Angeles experienced 72 hours of traffic delay per year according to the study. Los Angeles was followed by San Francisco/Oakland, Washington, D.C., and Atlanta (each with 60 hours of delay). Despite the congestion in the city, the mean travel time for commuters in Los Angeles is shorter than other major cities, including
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
, Philadelphia and Chicago. Los Angeles's mean travel time for work commutes in 2006 was 29.2 minutes, similar to those of San Francisco and Washington, D.C.https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/acs/ The major highways that connect LA to the rest of the nation include Interstate 5, which runs south through San Diego to Tijuana in Mexico and north through Sacramento, California, Sacramento, Portland, Oregon, Portland, and Seattle to the Canada–United States border, Canada–US border; Interstate 10, the southernmost east–west, coast-to-coast Interstate Highway in the United States, going to Jacksonville, Florida; and U.S. Route 101, which heads to the California Central Coast, San Francisco, the Redwood Empire, and the Oregon and Washington (state), Washington coasts.


Transit systems

The LA County Metropolitan Transportation Authority (LA County Metro) and other agencies operate an extensive system of bus lines, as well as Rapid transit, subway and light rail lines across Los Angeles County, with a combined monthly ridership (measured in individual boardings) of 38.8 million . The majority of this (30.5 million) is taken up by the city's bus system, the second busiest in the country. The subway and light rail combined average the remaining roughly 8.2 million boardings per month. LA County Metro recorded over 397 million boardings for the 2017 calendar year, including about 285 million bus riders and about 113 million riding on rail transit. For the first quarter of 2018, there were just under 95 million system-wide boardings, down from about 98 million in 2017, and about 105 million in 2016. In 2005, 10.2% of Los Angeles commuters rode some form of public transportation. According to the 2016 American Community Survey, 9.2% of working Los Angeles (city) residents made the journey to work via public transportation. The Metro Rail (Los Angeles County), city's subway system is the List of United States rapid transit systems by ridership, ninth busiest in the United States and its light rail system is the country's List of United States light rail systems by ridership, busiest. The rail system includes the B Line (Los Angeles Metro), B and D Line (Los Angeles Metro), D subway lines, as well as the A Line (Los Angeles Metro), A, C Line (Los Angeles Metro), C, E Line (Los Angeles Metro), E, and L Line (Los Angeles Metro), L light rail lines. In 2016, the E Line was extended to the Pacific Ocean at Santa Monica. The G Line (Los Angeles Metro), Metro G and J Line (Los Angeles Metro), J lines are bus rapid transit lines with stops and frequency similar to those of light rail. , the total number of light rail stations is 93. The city is also central to the commuter rail system Metrolink (Southern California), Metrolink, which links Los Angeles to all neighboring counties as well as many suburbs. Besides the rail service provided by Metrolink (Southern California), Metrolink and the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority, Los Angeles is served by inter-city passenger trains from Amtrak. The main rail station in the city is Union Station (Los Angeles), Union Station just north of Downtown. In addition, the city directly contracts for local and commuter bus service through the Los Angeles Department of Transportation, or LADOT.


Airports

The main international and domestic airport serving Los Angeles is Los Angeles International Airport , commonly referred to by its airport code, LAX. Other major nearby commercial airports include: * Ontario International Airport, owned by the city of Ontario, CA; serves the Inland Empire. * Hollywood Burbank Airport, jointly owned by the cities of Burbank, Glendale, and Pasadena. Formerly known as Bob Hope Airport and Burbank Airport, the closest airport to Downtown Los Angeles serves the San Fernando, San Gabriel, and Antelope Valleys. * Long Beach Airport, serves the Long Beach/Harbor area. * John Wayne Airport of Orange County. One of the world's busiest general-aviation airports is also in Los Angeles: Van Nuys Airport .


Seaports

The Port of Los Angeles is in San Pedro Bay (California), San Pedro Bay in the San Pedro, Los Angeles, San Pedro neighborhood, approximately south of Downtown. Also called Los Angeles Harbor and WORLDPORT LA, the port complex occupies of land and water along of waterfront. It adjoins the separate Port of Long Beach. The sea ports of the Port of Los Angeles and Port of Long Beach together make up the ''Los Angeles/Long Beach Harbor''. Together, both ports are the fifth busiest Container (cargo), container port in the world, with a trade volume of over 14.2 million Twenty-foot equivalent unit, TEU's in 2008. Singly, the Port of Los Angeles is the busiest container port in the United States and the largest cruise ship center on the West Coast of the United States – The Port of Los Angeles's World Cruise Center served about 590,000 passengers in 2014. There are also smaller, non-industrial harbors along Los Angeles's coastline. The port includes four bridges: the Vincent Thomas Bridge, Henry Ford Bridge, Gerald Desmond Bridge (2020-present), Gerald Desmond Bridge, and Commodore Schuyler F. Heim Bridge. Passenger ferry service from San Pedro to the city of Avalon, California, Avalon on Santa Catalina Island, California, Santa Catalina Island is provided by Catalina Express.


Notable people

As home to Hollywood and its entertainment industry, numerous singers, actors, celebrities and other entertainers live in various districts of Los Angeles.


Sister cities

Los Angeles has 25 sister cities, listed chronologically by year joined: * Eilat, Israel (1959) * Nagoya, Japan (1959) * Salvador, Bahia, Salvador, Brazil (1962) * Bordeaux, France (1964) * Berlin, Germany (1967) * Lusaka, Zambia (1968) * Mexico City, Mexico (1969) * Auckland, New Zealand (1971) * Busan, South Korea (1971) * Mumbai, India (1972) * Tehran, Iran (1972) * Taipei, Taiwan (1979) * Guangzhou, China (1981) * Athens, Greece (1984) * Saint Petersburg, Russia (1984) * Vancouver, Canada (1986) * Giza, Egypt (1989) * Jakarta, Indonesia (1990) * Kaunas, Lithuania (1991) * Makati, Philippines (1992) * Split, Croatia (1993) * San Salvador, El Salvador (2005) * Beirut, Lebanon (2006) * Ischia, Campania, Italy (2006) * Yerevan, Armenia (2007) In addition, Los Angeles has the following "friendship cities": * London, United Kingdom * Łódź, Poland * Melbourne, Australia * Manchester, United Kingdom * Tel Aviv, Israel


See also

* Largest cities in Southern California * Largest cities in the Americas * List of hotels in Los Angeles * List of largest houses in the Los Angeles Metropolitan Area * List of museums in Los Angeles * List of museums in Los Angeles County, California * List of music venues in Los Angeles * List of people from Los Angeles * List of tallest buildings in Los Angeles * Los Angeles in popular culture * National Register of Historic Places listings in Los Angeles, California


Notes


References


Further reading


General

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Architecture and urban theory

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Race relations

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LGBT

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Environment

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Art and literature

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External links

* {{authority control Los Angeles, Cities in Los Angeles County, California County seats in California Incorporated cities and towns in California Populated coastal places in California Port cities in California Railway towns in California Populated places established in 1781 1781 establishments in New Spain 1850 establishments in California