Liu Xiaobo (; 28 December 1955 – 13 July 2017) was a Chinese writer, literary criticism, literary critic, human rights activist, philosopher and Nobel Peace Prize laureate who called for political reforms and was involved in campaigns to end Communist Party of China, communist one-party rule in China. He was arrested numerous times, and has been described as China's most prominent dissident and the country's most famous political prisoner. On 26 June 2017, he was granted medical parole after being diagnosed with liver cancer, and died a few days later on 13 July 2017. Liu rose to fame in 1980s Chinese literary circles with his exemplary literary critiques, and eventually became a visiting scholar at several international universities. He returned to China to support the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests and was imprisoned for the first time from 1989 to 1991, again from 1995 to 1996 and yet again from 1996 to 1999 for his involvement on suspicion of inciting subversion of state power. He served as the President of the Independent Chinese International PEN, PEN Center, from 2003 to 2007. He was also the president of ''Minzhu Zhongguo'' (''Democratic China'') magazine starting in the mid-1990s. On 8 December 2008, Liu was detained due to his participation with the ''Charter 08'' manifesto. He was formally arrested on 23 June 2009 on suspicion of "inciting subversion of state power". He was tried on the same charges on 23 December 2009, and sentenced to eleven years' imprisonment and two years' deprivation of political rights on 25 December 2009. During his fourth prison term, Liu was awarded the 2010 Nobel Peace Prize for "his long and non-violent struggle for fundamental human rights in China." Liu was the first Chinese people, Chinese citizen to be awarded a Nobel Prize of any kind while residing in China. He was the third person to have been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize while in prison or detention, after Germany's Carl von Ossietzky (1935) and Burma's Aung San Suu Kyi (1991). He was the second person to have been denied the right to have a representative collect the Nobel Prize for him as well as the second to die in custody, with the first being Ossietzky, who died in Westend hospital in Berlin-Charlottenburg after being detained in a Nazi concentration camp. Berit Reiss-Andersen, chairman of the Norwegian Nobel Committee, blamed the Chinese communist regime for his death and said that "Liu Xiaobo had contributed to the fraternity of peoples through his non-violent resistance against the oppressive actions of the Communist regime in China."

Early life and work

Liu was born on 28 December 1955 in Changchun, Jilin province, to a family of intellectuals. Liu's father, Liu Ling (), was born in 1931 in Huaide County, Jilin. A professor of Chinese at Northeast Normal University, he died of liver disease in September 2011. Liu's mother, Zhang Suqin (), worked in the Northeast Normal University Nursery School. Liu Xiaobo was the third-born in a family of five boys. * His eldest brother Liu Xiaoguang (), Dalian import and export clothing company manager, retired. He was estranged from Liu Xiaobo after the 1989 Tiananmen protests. * His second brother, Liu Xiaohui (), is a historian who graduated from the Department of History of Northeast Normal University, and who became deputy director of the Museum of Jilin Province. * His fourth brother Liu Xiaoxuan (), born in 1957, is professor of Energy and Materials, Guangdong University of Technology, engaged in optical functional polymer materials and light curing application technology research. In 1995, he was admitted as a PhD student at Tsinghua University, but Liu Xiaobo's political activities meant he was not allowed to take the examinations. * His youngest brother, Liu Xiaodong (), died of heart disease early in the 1990s. In 1969, during the Down to the Countryside Movement, Liu's father took him to Horqin Right Front Banner, Inner Mongolia. His father was a professor who remained loyal to the Communist Party of China, Communist Party. After finishing middle school in 1974, he was sent to the countryside to work on a farm in Jilin. In 1977, Liu was admitted to the Department of Chinese Literature at Jilin University, where he founded a poetry group known as "The Innocent Hearts" (赤子心詩社) with six schoolmates. In 1982, he graduated with a BA in literature before being admitted to the Department of Chinese Literature at Beijing Normal University as a research student, where he received an MA in literature in 1984, and started teaching as a lecturer thereafter. That year, he married Tao Li, with whom he had a son named Liu Tao in 1985. In 1986, Liu started his doctoral study program and published his literary critiques in various magazines. He became renowned as a "dark horse" for his radical opinions and scathing comments on the official doctrines and establishments. Opinions such as these shocked both literary and ideological circles, and his influence on Chinese intellectuals was dubbed the "Liu Xiaobo Shock" or the "Liu Xiaobo Phenomenon". In 1987, his first book, ''Criticism of the Choice: Dialogs with Li Zehou'', was published and became a nonfiction bestseller. It comprehensively criticized the Chinese tradition of Confucianism, and posed a frank challenge to Li Zehou, a rising ideological star who had a strong influence on contemporaneous young intellectuals in China. In June 1988, Liu received a PhD in literature. His doctoral thesis, ''Esthetic and Human Freedom'', passed the examination unanimously and was published as his second book. That same year he became a lecturer at the same department. He soon became a visiting scholar at several universities, including Columbia University, the University of Oslo, and the University of Hawaii. During the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests, Liu was in the United States but he decided to return to China to join the movement. He was later named one of the "four junzis of Tiananmen Square" for persuading students to leave the square and thus saving hundreds of lives. That year also saw the publication of his third book, ''The Fog of Metaphysics'', a comprehensive review of Western philosophies. Soon, all of his works were banned in China.

Thoughts and political views

On Chinese and Western cultures

Evolving from his esthetic notion of "individual subjectivity" as opposed to Li Zehou's theory of esthetic subjectivity which combined Marxist materialism and Transcendental idealism#Kant, Kantian idealism, he upheld the notion of "esthetic freedom" which was based on the individualistic conception of freedom and esthetics. He also strongly criticized Chinese intellectuals' "traditional attitude of searching for rationalism and harmony as a slave mentality" just as it was criticized by radical left-wing literary critic Lu Hsün during the New Culture Movement. He also echoed the New Cultural Movement's call for wholesale westernization and the rejection of Chinese traditional culture. In a 1988 interview with Hong Kong's ''Liberation Monthly'' (now known as ''Open Magazine''), he said "modernization means wholesale westernization, choosing a human life is choosing a Western way of life. The difference between the Western and the Chinese governing system is humane vs in-humane, there's no middle ground ... Westernization is not a choice of a nation, but a choice for the human race." In the same interview, Liu also criticised a TV documentary, He Shang, or River Elegy, for not sufficiently criticising Chinese culture and not promoting westernisation enthusiastically enough. Liu was quoted to have said, "If I were to make this I would show just how wimpy, spineless and fucked-up [weisuo, ruanruo, caodan] the Chinese really are". Liu regarded it most unfortunate that his monolingualism binded him to the Chinese cultural sphere. When asked what it would take for China to realize a true historical transformation. He replied: In an article in ''The New York Review of Books'', Simon Leys wrote that Liu Xiaobo's perception of the West and its relationship to a modernizing China evolved during his travels in the United States and Europe in the 1980s.
During a visit to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Metropolitan Museum in New York City, he experienced a sort of epiphany that crystallized the turmoil of his latest self-questioning: he realized the shallowness of his own learning in the light of the fabulous riches of the diverse civilizations of the past, and simultaneously perceived the inadequacy of contemporary Western answers to mankind’s modern predicament. His own dream that Westernization could be used to reform China suddenly appeared to him as pathetic as the attitude of 'a paraplegic laughing at a quadriplegic', he confessed at the time: My tendency to idealize Western civilization arises from my nationalistic desire to use the West in order to reform China. But this has led me to overlook the flaws of Western culture ... I have been obsequious toward Western civilization, exaggerating its merits, and at the same time exaggerating my own merits. I have viewed the West as if it were not only the salvation of China but also the natural and ultimate destination of all humanity. Moreover I have used this delusional idealism to assign myself the role of savior ... I now realize that Western civilization, while it can be useful in reforming China in its present stage, cannot save humanity in an overall sense. If we stand back from Western civilization for a moment, we can see that it possesses all the flaws of humanity in general ... If I, as a person who has lived under China's autocratic system for more than thirty years, want to reflect on the fate of humanity or how to be an authentic person, I have no choice but to carry out two critiques simultaneously. I must: # Use Western civilization as a tool to critique China. # Use my own creativity to critique the West.
In 2002, he reflected on his initial Mao Zedong, Maoist-flavored radical esthetic and political views in the 1980s: Liu admitted in 2006 in another interview with ''Open Magazine'' (formerly known as ''Liberation Monthly'') that his 1988 response of "300 years of colonialism" was extemporaneous, although he did not intend to retract it, because it represented "an extreme expression of his longheld belief". The quote was nonetheless used against him. He has commented, "Even today [in 2006], radical patriotic 'Fenqing, angry youth' still frequently use these words to paint me with 'treason'."

On Chinese democracy

In his letter to his friend Liao Yiwu in 2000, he expressed his thoughts on the prospects of the democracy movement in China: He was also a strong critic of Chinese nationalism, believing that the "abnormal nationalism" which had existed in China over the last century had turned from a defensive style which contained "mixed feelings of inferiority, envy, complaint, and blame" into an aggressive form of "patriotism" that was filled with "blind self-confidence, empty boasts, and pent-up hatred". The "ultra-nationalism" being deployed by the Chinese Communist Party since the Tiananmen protests has also become "a euphemism for worship of violence in service of autocratic goals." In 2009 during his trial for "inciting subversion of state power" due to his participation in drafting the ''Charter 08'' manifesto which demanded freedom of expression, human rights and democratic elections, he wrote an essay known as "I Have No Enemies", stating that "the mentality of enmity can poison a nation's spirit, instigate brutal life and death struggles, destroy a society's tolerance and humanity, and block a nation's progress towards freedom and democracy", and he declared that he had no enemies, and no hatred.

On the Islamic World

In international affairs, he supported U.S. President George W. Bush's United States invasion of Afghanistan, 2001 invasion of Afghanistan, his 2003 invasion of Iraq and subsequent 2004 United States presidential election, reelection. In his 2004 article titled "Victory to the Anglo-American Freedom Alliance", he praised the U.S.-led post-Cold War conflicts as "best examples of how war should be conducted in a modern civilization." He wrote "regardless of the savagery of the terrorists, and regardless of the instability of Iraq's situation, and, what's more, regardless of how patriotic youth might despise proponents of the United States such as myself, my support for the invasion of Iraq will not waver. Just as, from the beginning, I believed that the military intervention of Britain and the United States would be victorious, I am still full of belief in the final victory of the Freedom Alliance and the democratic future of Iraq, and even if the armed forces of Britain and the United States should encounter some obstacles such as those that they are currently facing, this belief of mine will not change." He predicted "a free, democratic and peaceful Iraq will emerge." He commented on Islamism that, "a culture and (religious) system that has produced this kind of threat (Islamic fundamentalism) must be inherently intolerant and bloodthirsty." He also criticized the Iraq prison abuse scandals. During the 2004 US presidential election, Liu again praised Bush for his war effort against Iraq and condemned Democratic Party candidate John Kerry for not sufficiently supporting the wars in which the U.S. was then involved. On Israel, he said "without America's protection, the long persecuted Jews who faced extermination during World War II, would probably be drowned once more by the Islamic world's hatred." He had defended U.S. policies in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, which he thought was the fault of the "provocateur" Palestinians.

Human rights activities

On 27 April 1989, Liu returned to Beijing and immediately became an active supporter of the movement. When the People's Liberation Army, army seemed ready to violently eject the students who persistently occupied Tiananmen Square in order to challenge the government and the army that was enforcing its declaration of martial law, he initiated a four-man three-day hunger strike on 2 June. Later referred to as the "Tiananmen Four Gentlemen Hunger Strike", the action earned the trust of the students. He requested that both the government and the students abandon the ideology of Class conflict, class struggle and adopt a new political culture of dialogue and compromise. Although it was too late to prevent the massacre which started on the night of 3 June from occurring beyond the square, he and his colleagues successfully negotiated with the student leaders and the army commander so the several thousand students who remained in the square would all be allowed to peacefully withdraw from it, thus preventing a possibly much larger scale of bloodshed. On 5 June, Liu was arrested and detained in Qincheng Prison for his alleged role in the movement, and three months later he was expelled from Beijing Normal University. The government's media issued numerous publications which labeled him a "mad dog" and a "black hand" because he had allegedly incited and manipulated the student movement to overthrow the government and socialism. His publications were banned, including his fourth book, ''Going Naked Toward God'', which was then in press. In Taiwan however, his first and third books, ''Criticism of the Choice: Dialogues with Leading Thinker Li Zehou'' (1989), and the two-volume ''Mysteries of Thought and Dreams of Mankind'' (1990) were republished with some additions. In January 1991, 19 months after his arrest, Liu Xiaobo was convicted of "counterrevolutionary propaganda and incitement" but he was exempted from criminal punishment due to his "major meritorious action" for preventing what could have been a bloody confrontation in Tiananmen Square. After his release, he was divorced; both his ex-wife and son subsequently emigrated to the US. He resumed his writing, mostly on human rights and political issues, but was not allowed to publish them in Mainland China. In 1992, while in Taiwan, he published his first book after his imprisonment, ''The Monologues of a Doomsday's Survivor'', a controversial memoir which contains his confessions and his political criticism of the popular movement in 1989. In January 1993, Liu was invited to visit Australia and the United States for the interviews in the documentary film ''The Gate of Heavenly Peace''. Although many of his friends suggested that he take refuge abroad, Liu returned to China in May 1993 and continued his freelance writing. On 18 May 1995, the Chinese police took Liu into custody for launching a petition campaign on the eve of the sixth anniversary of the Tiananmen protests calling on the government to reassess the event and initiate political reform. He was held under residential surveillance in the suburbs of Beijing for nine months. He was released in February 1996 but was arrested again on 8 October for writing an October Tenth Declaration, coauthored by him and another prominent dissident, Wang Xizhe, mainly on the Taiwan issue, that advocated a peaceful reunification in order to oppose the Chinese Communist Party's forceful threats against the island. He was ordered to serve three years of reeducation through labor "for disturbing public order" for that statement. In 1996, while he was still imprisoned in the labor camp, Liu married Liu Xia (poet), Liu Xia, who herself not a prisoner. Because she was the only person from the outside allowed to visit him in prison, she was deemed his "most important link to the outside world." After his release on 7 October 1999, Liu Xiaobo resumed his freelance writing. However, it was reported that the government built a sentry station next to his home and his phone calls and internet connections were tapped. In 2000, while in Taiwan, Liu published the book ''A Nation That Lies to Conscience'', a 400-page political criticism. Also published, in Hong Kong, was a ''Selection of Poems'', a 450-page collection of the poems as correspondences between him and his wife during his imprisonment; it was coauthored by Liu and his wife. The last of three books which he published during the year was published in Mainland China, later titled "Selected Poems of Liu Xiaobo and Liu Xia" (劉曉波劉霞詩選), a 250-page collection of literary critiques coauthored by a popular young writer and himself under his unknown pen name of "Lao Xiao". The same year, Liu participated in founding the "Independent Chinese PEN Center," and was elected to both its board of directors and as its president in November 2003; he was reelected to both positions two years later. In 2007, he did not seek reelection as president but held his position as a board member until he was detained by the police in December 2008. In 2003, when Liu started writing a human rights report on China at his home, his computer, letters and documents were all confiscated by the government. He once said, "at Liu Xia's [Liu's wife] birthday, her best friend brought two bottles of wine to [my home] but was blocked by the police from coming in. I ordered a [birthday] cake and the police also rejected the man who delivered the cake to us. I quarreled with them and the police said, 'it is for the sake of your security. It has happened many bomb attacks in these days.'" Those measures were loosened until 2007, prior to the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. In January 2005, following the death of former Chinese Premier Zhao Ziyang, who had shown sympathy towards the student demonstrations in 1989, Liu was immediately put under house arrest for two weeks before he learned about the death of Zhao. The same year, he published two more books in the US, ''The Future of Free China Exists in Civil Society'', and ''Single-Blade Poisonous Sword: Criticism of Chinese Nationalism''. Liu's writing is considered subversive by the Communist Party of China, and his name is censored. He called for multi-party elections and free markets, advocated the values of freedom, supported separation of powers and urged the governments to be Truth and reconciliation commission, accountable for its wrongdoings. When not in prison, he was the subject of government monitoring and he was also put under house arrest during times that the government considered politically sensitive. Liu's human rights work received international recognition. In 2004, Reporters Without Borders awarded him the Fondation de France Prize as a defender of press freedom.

''Charter 08''

Conception and diffusion of ''Charter 08''

Liu Xiaobo actively participated in the writing of ''Charter 08'' and signed it along with more than three hundred Chinese citizens. The Charter is a manifesto that was released on 10 December 2008 in order to coincide with the 60th anniversary of the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. It was written in the style of the Czechoslovak ''Charter 77'', and calls for more freedom of expression, human rights, more democratic elections, the privatization of state enterprises and land, and economic liberalism. As of September 2010, the Charter had collected over 10,000 signatures.

2008–2017 arrest, trial, and imprisonment


Two days before the official release of Charter 08, late on the evening of 8 December 2008, Liu was taken into custody by the police, as was Zhang Zuhua, another scholar and ''Charter 08'' signatory. According to Zhang, the two were detained on suspicion of collecting signatures for the Charter.China Detains Dissidents ahead of Human Rights Day
" Reuters, 9 December 2008;
Report: Chinese Police Detain Political Critic
" Associated Press, 9 December 2008.
While Liu was detained in solitary confinement, he was forbidden to meet with either his lawyer or his family, but he was allowed to eat lunch with his wife, Liu Xia, and two policemen on New Year's Day 2009. On 23 June 2009, the Beijing procuratorate (China), procuratorate approved Liu's arrest on charges of "suspicion of inciting subversion of state power," a crime under Article 105 of Law of the People's Republic of China, China's Criminal Law. In a Xinhua News Agency, Xinhua news release announcing Liu's arrest, the Beijing Public Security Bureau alleged that Liu had incited the subversion of state power and the overthrow of the socialist system through methods such as spreading rumors and slander, citing almost verbatim Article 105; the Beijing PSB also noted that Liu had "fully confessed".


On 1 December 2009, Beijing police transferred Liu's case to the Supreme People's Procuratorate, procuratorate for investigation and processing; on 10 December, the procuratorate formally indicted Liu on charges of "inciting subversion of state power" and sent his lawyers, Shang Baojun and Ding Xikui, the indictment document. He was tried at Beijing No. 1 Intermediate Court on 23 December 2009. His wife was not permitted to observe the hearing, although his brother-in-law was present. Diplomats from more than a dozen countries – including the U.S., Britain, Canada, Sweden, Australia and New Zealand – were denied access to the court in order to watch the trial and they all stood outside the court for its duration. Among them were Gregory May, political officer at the U.S. Embassy, and Nicholas Weeks, first secretary of the Swedish Embassy. Liu wrote a statement, entitled "I have no enemies", intending for it to be read at his trial. He was never given the right to speak. The essay was later read in the 2010 Nobel Peace Prize ceremony, which Liu was unable to attend due to his imprisonment. On 25 December 2009, Liu was sentenced to eleven years' imprisonment and two years' deprivation of political rights by the Beijing No. 2 Intermediate Court on charges of "inciting subversion of state power". According to Liu's family and counsel, he planned to appeal the judgment. In the verdict, ''Charter 08'' was named as part of the evidence supporting his conviction. John Pomfret (journalist), John Pomfret of ''The Washington Post'' said Christmas Day was chosen to dump the news because the Chinese government believed Westerners were less likely to take notice on a holiday. Liu argued that his verdict violated both the Chinese constitution and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of the United Nations. He argued that charges against him of 'spreading rumors, slandering and in other ways inciting the subversion of the government and overturning the socialist system' were contrived, as he did not fabricate or create false information, nor did he besmirch the good name and character of others by merely expressing a point of view, a value judgment. Criminal law professor Gao Mingxuan characterized Liu's activities as publishing provocative speech on the Internet and gathering signatures to advocate the overthrow of government, activites he argued were prohibited by Chinese criminal law. However, Liu was advocating for the incremental and peaceful adoption of a democraic system with individual rights. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China asserted that there are similar laws in many countries to prevent activities to advocate the overthow of government, such as the Treason Act 1351 of England. Liu's detention was condemned worldwide by both Human rights group, human rights organizations and foreign countries. On 11 December 2008, the U.S. Department of State called for Liu's release, which was followed on 22 December 2008 by a similar request from a consortium of scholars, writers, lawyers and human rights advocates. Additionally, on 21 January 2009, 300 international writers, including Salman Rushdie, Margaret Atwood, Ha Jin and Jung Chang, called for Liu's release in a statement put out through International PEN, PEN. In March 2009, the One World Film Festival awarded Liu Xiaobo the Homo Homini Award, organized by the People In Need (Czech Republic), People in Need foundation, for promoting freedom of speech, democratic principles and human rights. In December 2009, the European Union and United States issued formal appeals calling for the unconditional release of Liu Xiaobo. China's government, responding to the international calls prior to the verdict, stated that other nations should "respect China's judicial sovereignty and not do things that will interfere in China's internal affairs". Responding to the verdict, United Nations Human Rights Commissioner Navanethem Pillay expressed concern about the deterioration of political rights in China. German Chancellor Angela Merkel strongly criticized the verdict, stating "despite the great progress in other areas in the expression of views, I regret that the Chinese government still massively restricts press freedom." Canada and Switzerland also condemned the verdict. The Republic of China President Ma Ying-jeou called on Beijing to "tolerate dissent". On 6 January 2010, former Czech president Václav Havel joined with other communist-era dissidents at the Chinese Embassy in Prague to present a petition calling for Liu's release. On 22 January 2010, European Association for Chinese Studies sent an open letter to Hu Jintao on behalf of over 800 scholars from 36 countries calling for Liu's release. On 18 January 2010, Liu was nominated for the 2010 Nobel Peace Prize by Václav Havel, the 14th Dalai Lama, André Glucksmann, Vartan Gregorian, Mike Moore (New Zealand politician), Mike Moore, Karel Schwarzenberg, Desmond Tutu and Grigory Yavlinsky. China's Foreign Ministry spokesperson Ma Zhaoxu stated that awarding the Nobel Peace Prize to Liu would be "totally wrong". Geir Lundestad, a secretary of the Nobel Committee, stated the award would not be influenced by Beijing's opposition. On 25 September 2010, ''The New York Times'' reported that a petition in support of the Nobel nomination was being circulated in China. On 14 September 2010, the Mayor of Reykjavík, Jón Gnarr, met on an unrelated matter with CPC Politburo member Liu Qi (politician, born 1942), Liu Qi and demanded China set the dissident Liu Xiaobo free. Also that September Václav Havel, Dana Němcová and Václav Malý, leaders of Czechoslovakia's Velvet Revolution, published an open letter in the ''International Herald Tribune'' calling for the award to be given to Liu, while a petition began to circulate soon afterwards. On 6 October 2010, the non-governmental organization Freedom Now, which serves as an international counsel to Liu Xiaobo as retained by his family, publicly released a letter from 30 members of the U.S. Congress to President Barack Obama, urging him to directly raise both Liu's case and that of fellow imprisoned dissident Gao Zhisheng to Chinese President Hu Jintao at the G-20 Summit in November 2010. The Republic of China's President Ma Ying-jiu congratulated Liu on winning the Nobel Prize and requested that the Chinese authorities improve their impression in the eyes of the world by respecting human rights, but did not call for his release from prison. On 15 October 2010, the ''China News Service'' indicated that in 2008 Liu had received a financial endowment from the National Endowment for Democracy, which is "''a Washington-based nonprofit funded largely by the US Congress''". In 2011, a WorldWideReading was dedicated to Liu Xiaobo; on 20 March, readings in more than 60 towns and cities on all continents and broadcast via radio stations were held in his honor. The "Freedom for Liu Xiaobo" appeal was supported by more than 700 writers from around the world, among them Nobel Prize laureates John M. Coetzee, Nadine Gordimer, Herta Müller and Elfriede Jelinek, as well as Breyten Breytenbach, Eliot Weinberger, Salman Rushdie, Vikram Seth, Mario Vargas Llosa, Wolf Biermann and Dave Eggers. On 20 March 2011, the international literature festival called for a worldwide reading for Liu Xiaobo. More than 700 authors from all continents signed the appeal and over 150 institutions took part in the event. On 19 November 2013, his wife, Liu Xia, who was placed under house arrest shortly after Liu Xiaobo was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, filed an appeal for Liu Xiaobo's retrial. This move has been called "extraordinary" because the action could refocus the world's attention on China's human rights record. According to her attorney, Mo Shaoping, Liu Xia visited her husband in Jinzhou Prison in Liaoning and gained his approval before filing this motion.

Nobel Peace Prize

On 8 October 2010, the Nobel Committee awarded Liu the Nobel Peace Prize "for his long and non-violent struggle for fundamental human rights in China", saying that Liu had long been front-runner as the recipient of the prize. Liu's wife, Liu Xia, expressed gratitude on behalf of her husband to the Nobel Committee, Liu's proposers, and those who have been supporting him since 1989, including the Tiananmen Mothers—family members or representatives of those who were killed, or had disappeared, in the military crackdown of the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, protests of 4 June 1989. She said, "The prize should belong to all who signed ''Charter 08'' and were jailed due to their support". Liu Xia informed her husband of his award during a visit to Jinzhou Prison on 9 October 2010, one day after the official announcement. She reported that Liu wept and dedicated the award to those who suffered as a result of the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, saying: "The award is first and foremost for the Tiananmen martyrs" After Mrs. Liu returned home, she was put under house arrest and was watched by armed guards. She expressed the desire to attend the awards ceremony in Norway in December, but was skeptical of her chances of being allowed to do so. Liu Xia wrote an open letter to 143 prominent figures, encouraging them to attend the award ceremony in Oslo. China reacted negatively to the award, censorship in the People's Republic of China, immediately censoring news about the announcement of the award in China, though later that day limited news of the award became available. Foreign news broadcasters including CNN and the BBC were immediately blocked, while Internet censorship in the People's Republic of China, heavy censorship was applied to personal communications. The Chinese Foreign Ministry denounced the award to Liu Xiaobo, saying that it "runs completely counter to the principle of the award and it is also a desecration of the Peace Prize". The List of diplomatic missions of Norway, Norwegian ambassador to the People's Republic of China was summoned by the Foreign Ministry on 8 October 2010 and presented with an official complaint about the granting of the Nobel Peace Prize to Liu. The Chinese government has called Liu Xiaobo a criminal and stated that he does not deserve the prize. Chinese dissident Wei Jingsheng, in his response to news of the award, criticized Liu by calling him "the accomplice of the Communist regime." As a result, nearly all large-scale commercial trading between Norway and China was limited, and relations soured until after Liu Xiaobo's death in 2017, when talks resumed. In October 2018, the Norwegian King Harald V of Norway, Harald V visited Beijing and met with Chinese president Xi Jinping, symbolizing the recovery of China-Norway relations. ''Global Times'', part of the Chinese government-owned ''People's Daily'', published a statement saying that Liu Xiaobo and his case had properly undergone "strict legal procedure", blaming Western regimes for sensationalizing the Liu Xiaobo story "in defiance of China's judicial sovereignty". The Chinese paper also rejected the view that Liu Xiaobo should be described as "China's Nelson Mandela, Mandela", by stating: "Mandela was a Nobel Peace Prize laureate for leading African people to Internal resistance to South African apartheid, anti-apartheid victory through struggles ... however, awarding a Chinese prisoner who confronted authorities and was rejected by mainstream Chinese society derides China's judicial system ... [which] makes sure a society of 1.3 billion people runs smoothly." Following the announcement of the Nobel Peace Prize, celebrations in China were either stopped or curtailed, and prominent intellectuals and other dissidents were detained, harassed or put under surveillance; Liu's wife, Liu Xia (poet), Liu Xia, was placed under house arrest and she was forbidden to talk to reporters even though no official charges were filed against her. Sixty-five countries with missions in Norway were all invited to the Nobel Prize ceremony, but fifteen of them declined the invitation, in some cases due to heavy lobbying by China. Besides China, these countries included Russia, Kazakhstan, Tunisia, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Iraq, Iran, Vietnam, Venezuela, Egypt, Sudan, Cuba, and Morocco. China also imposed travel restrictions on known dissidents ahead of the ceremony. A Chinese group announced that its answer to the Nobel Peace Prize, the Confucius Peace Prize, would be awarded to former Taiwanese Vice-President Lien Chan for the bridge of peace which he has been building between Taiwan and Mainland China. Lien Chan himself denied any knowledge of the $15,000 prize.

Medical parole and health

On 26 June 2017, it was reported that Liu had been granted medical parole after being diagnosed with terminal liver cancer in late May 2017. The Shenyang Justice Ministry released a statement on 5 July saying that the First Hospital of China Medical University, where Liu was being treated, has invited cancer experts from the United States, Germany and other nations to join its team of doctors. However, the statement did not mention which foreign doctors had been invited or whether or not any of them had responded. A statement one day later from the hospital said that Liu was admitted on 7 June. On 8 July, the hospital said that Joseph M. Herman of University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and Markus Büchler of Heidelberg University had joined domestic experts for group consultation. The foreign doctors said that Liu had indicated that he wanted to be sent abroad for treatment. Acknowledging the risk that is involved when a patient is moved, they deemed that Liu was fit to travel abroad in order to receive the care which they were willing to provide him. However, the hospital said that the foreign doctors had confirmed that even they had no better treatment methods and also that the domestic doctors had done a very good job. On 10 July, the hospital said that Liu was in critical condition, and that he was suffering from an increasingly bloated stomach, an inflamed abdominal wall, falling blood pressure, faltering kidneys, growing cancer lesions, and that they were actively rescuing him, and were starting to use Hemofiltration, continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). On 12 July, the hospital said that Liu was suffering from liver failure (Child–Pugh score, Child–Pugh class C), kidney failure, respiratory failure, septic shock, Thrombus, blood clot, etc. and that they had communicated the necessity for tracheal intubation, but his family had rejected the procedure. The ''New York Times'' reported that Liu's family could not be independently reached for confirmation of his condition.

Death and funeral

Liu Xiaobo died on 13 July 2017 in Shenyang's First Hospital of China Medical University (PRC), China Medical University from liver cancer.


Since his death, the fate of Liu Xiaobo has been compared by the media of the world to that of Carl von Ossietzky, 1935 Nobel Peace Prize, Nobel Laureate in 1935 who also died as a prisoner of an authoritarian regime. Whilst Liu's death was widely reported in the Western media, it was mentioned only in the most perfunctory manner in the press inside mainland China. Censors deleted images or emojis of candles, or a simple "RIP"; searches on Sina Weibo regarding Liu's health returned the message: "According to relevant laws and policies, results for 'Liu Xiaobo' cannot be displayed". The Citizen Lab documented censorship of the death of Liu Xiaobo on WeChat and Sina Weibo, Weibo." They noted on 16 July censorship on WeChat of images related to Liu after his death, and found that even images were being blocked in one-to-one chat the first time as well as in group chat and WeChat Moments. Based on analyses of Great Firewall, search term blocking on Weibo, the lab confirmed that a blanket ban on searches for Liu Xiaobo's name was still being applied. They said: "In fact, just his given name of Xiaobo is enough to trigger censorship in English and both Simplified and Traditional Chinese..." On the early morning of 15 July 2017, a brief funeral service was held for Liu which Liu's body was cremated following a short mourning service. Liu's mourning ceremony and funeral were heavily stage-managed as friends and supporters had been warned that public funeral or memorial would not be tolerated. All the questions international journalists have been asking about Liu failed to appear in official transcripts of news briefings by the Chinese foreign ministry. Germany, UK, France, the United States, Taiwan and the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, Zeid Ra'ad Al Hussein, called for the People's Republic of China to allow Liu Xiaobo's wife Liu Xia to travel and leave the country if she wishes.


The funeral was organized in a heavy-handed fashion in which Chinese government attempted to defend their treatment of Liu and his wife, even though it was clear they and their family members were under perpetual surveillance. Although the funeral was attended by a brother of Ms. Liu and two of Mr. Liu's brothers and their wives, none of Liu's friends could be identified from official photographs of the mourners. A government spokesman said: "Liu Xia is free now, [but was] grief-stricken and doesn't need to be disturbed" However, she has been out of sight since the video of Liu's sea burial. The government claimed that Liu had been cremated, and his ashes burial at sea, scattered into the sea at the family's own request. His eldest brother, Liu Xiaoguang appeared at the same press briefing, thanked the Chinese Communist party and also the government "because everything they have done for our family shows a high level of humanity and personal care to us". According to Liu Xiaobo's biographer Yu Jie, Liu had excommunicated his eldest brother, Xiaoguang, after the June 4 incident, calling him a "petty bureaucrat of the Communist Party". Yu further criticized Xiaoguang for usurping Liu Xia's position of next of kin and his "shamelessness" in attempting to grab a share of Liu's Nobel Prize money. The government of China has been accused by Liu's supporters of trying to erase any shrine or traces to Liu Xiaobo with a sea burial of his remains. Chinese human rights activists Hu Jia (activist), Hu Jia stated to the ''South China Morning Post'' that the hasty actions were "humiliating to a Nobel winner". In Hong Kong, which still enjoys a rapidly diminishing range of Human rights in China, civil rights that are nonexistent in mainland China, activists organized the only large-scale commemoration for Liu on Chinese soil. A vigil outside the Beijing Liaison Office started on 10 July and continued until his death. Some newspapers in the city splashed Liu's portrait on their front pages to announce his death, while other pro-Communist journals relegated coverage to the inner pages. In the Legislative Council legislators of the Pro-democracy camp in Hong Kong, Pro-democracy camp made seven attempts to table a debate on Liu, but president of the council, Andrew Leung, who is from the governing faction, rejected the attempts on the grounds that the matter did not have "urgent public importance according to 16.2 of the Rules of Procedure, [and that] the wording of their petitions lacked neutrality".



: The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China, Ministry of Foreign Affairs' spokesman Geng Shuang chastised foreign officials' "improper comments on Liu Xiaobo's death of illness" and said that China had lodged "stern representations" with their countries. Geng also said on 14 July that "Conferring the prize to such a person goes against the purposes of this award. It's a blasphemy of the peace prize", according to the ''Voice of America''. But an almost identical report from ''Voice of America Chinese'' also wrote that Geng's statement could not be found from the regular press briefing's Q&A transcript posted on the ministry's website. : President of the Republic of China Tsai Ing-wen pleaded with the Communist government to "show confidence in engaging in political reform so that the Chinese can enjoy the God-given rights of freedom and democracy ... The Chinese Dream is not supposed to be about military might. It should be about taking ideas like those from Liu Xiaobo into consideration. Only through democracy, in which every Chinese person has freedom and respect, can China truly become a proud and important country." In his tribute on Facebook, former ROC President and leader of the Kuomintang Ma Ying-jeou said the Chinese dream should develop proportionally on freedom and human rights. Mayor of Taipei Ko Wen-je expressed condolences. Tibetan Government in Exile: The 14th Dalai Lama, who himself is the 1989 Nobel Peace Prize winner, the Speaker of the Tibetan Parliament-in-Exile, Khenpo Sonam Tenphel, and Prime Minister of the Tibetan Government-in-Exile, Lobsang Sangay mourned the death of Liu. The Dalai Lama issued the following short statement on 14 July 2017, "I am deeply saddened to learn that fellow Nobel Laureate Liu Xiaobo has passed away while undergoing a lengthy prison sentence. I offer my prayers and condolences to his wife, Liu Xia and to other members of his family. Although he is no longer living, the rest of us can best pay honor to Liu Xiaobo by carrying forward the principles he has long embodied, which would lead to a more harmonious, stable and prosperous China. It is my belief that Nobel Laureate Liu Xiaobo's unceasing efforts in the cause of freedom will bear fruit before long."


= States

= : President Emmanuel Macron, who hosted a press conference for visiting US President Trump, later paid tribute to Dr Liu in a tweet, praising him as "a freedom fighter". French Foreign Minister Jean-Yves Le Drian expressed condolences as well. : Chancellor Angela Merkel described Liu Xiaobo as a "courageous fighter for civil rights and freedom of expression". Foreign Minister Sigmar Gabriel said that "China now has the responsibility to quickly, transparently and plausibly answer the question of whether the cancer could not have been identified much earlier." : Both the Minister of Foreign affairs Fumio Kishida and Chief Cabinet Secretary Yoshihide Suga expressed condolences. : Prime Minister of Norway Erna Solberg said that "It is with deep grief that I received the news of Liu Xiaobo's passing. Liu Xiaobo was for decades a central voice for human rights and China's further development." Thorbjørn Jagland, a member and former chairman of the Norwegian Nobel Committee, and a former Prime Minister of Norway, compared Liu Xiaobo to Carl von Ossietzky, noting that he became the second Nobel Prize laureate who was prevented from receiving the prize because he died in prison. An official statement by the Norwegian Nobel Committee blamed the Chinese communist regime for Liu Xiaobo's death and condemned the erosion of human rights as a universal value; on behalf of the committee, chairwoman Berit Reiss-Andersen, Reiss-Andersen said that "Liu Xiaobo had contributed to the fraternity of peoples through his non-violent resistance against the oppressive actions of the Communist regime in China" and that "the Chinese Government bears a heavy responsibility for his premature death". Reiss-Andersen said Liu Xiaobo will remain "a powerful symbol for all who fight for freedom, democracy and a better world". She also lamented the "sad and disturbing fact that the representatives of the free world, who themselves hold democracy and human rights in high regard, are less willing to stand up for those rights for the benefit of others." : Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson called Liu a "lifelong campaigner for democracy, human rights and peace", and said that his death was a huge loss. He further stated that "Liu Xiaobo should have been allowed to choose his own medical treatment overseas" and called for the Chinese authorities "to lift all restrictions" on Liu's widow. : The White House Press Secretary issued a statement of condolences. Secretary of State Rex Tillerson said that "Mr Liu dedicated his life to the betterment of his country and humankind, and to the pursuit of justice and liberty," and urged Beijing to free Liu's widow. United States Ambassador to the United Nations, U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations Nikki Haley and United States Ambassador to China, U.S. Ambassador to China Terry Branstad both expressed condolences. The Congressional-Executive Commission on China, whose commissioners come from both the United States House of Representatives, House of Representatives and United States Senate, Senate, issued a bipartisan statement. The United States House Foreign Affairs Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health, Global Human Rights and International Organizations held a hearing on Liu and his death (entitled "The Tragic Case of Liu Xiaobo"). Nancy Pelosi, Party leaders of the United States House of Representatives, the House Minority Leader, was saddened by the news of Liu's passing. Back on 18 May, both Republican Party (United States), Republican Senator Ted Cruz and Representative Mark Meadows (North Carolina politician), Mark Meadows had re-introduced bills to resume their push to rename the address of Embassy of China in Washington, D.C. as "1 Liu Xiaobo Plaza." Bob Fu, a Chinese American human rights activist and pastor, told The Texas Tribune that he is "definitely more optimistic" about Cruz's bill getting enacted with President Trump in office. Later Senator Marco Rubio write a letter to sent Liu Xia, Liu Xiaobo's widow. Senator John McCain said that "this is only the latest example of Communist China's assault on human rights, democracy, and freedom." Former President George W. Bush and First Lady of the United States, First Lady Laura Bush also expressed condolences.

= Organizations

= : President of the European Commission Jean-Claude Juncker and President of the European Council Donald Tusk said in a joint statement that they had learned of Liu's death "with deep sadness" and that "We appeal to the Chinese authorities to allow his wife, Ms Liu Xia and his family to bury Liu Xiaobo at a place and in a manner of their choosing, and to allow them to grieve in peace". : UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Zeid Ra'ad Al Hussein said, "The human rights movement in China and across the world has lost a principled champion who devoted his life to defending and promoting human rights, peacefully and consistently, and who was jailed for standing up for his beliefs. Liu Xiaobo was the true embodiment of the democratic, non-violent ideals he so ardently advocated."

Major works

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

Awards and honors

* Human Rights Watch, Hellman-Hammett Grant (1990, 1996) * China Foundation on Democracy Education for Outstanding Democratic Activist (2003) * Reporters Without Borders, Fondation de France Prize for defender of press freedom (2004) * Hong Kong Human Rights Press Awards (2004, 2005, 2006) :*Excellent Award (2004) for an article ''Corrupted News is not News'', published on Open Magazine (Hong Kong), Open Magazine, January 2004 issue :*Grand Prize (2005) for an article ''Paradise of the Powerful, Hell of the Vulnerable'' on Open Magazine (Hong Kong), Open Magazine, September 2004 issue :*Excellent Award (2006) for ''The Causes and Ending of Dongzhou protests, Shanwei Bloodshed'' on Open Magazine (Hong Kong), Open Magazine, January 2006 * Asia-Pacific Human Rights Foundation (Australia) Courage of Conscience Award (2007) * People In Need (Czech Republic), People in Need (Czech) Homo Homini Award (2009) * PEN/Barbara Goldsmith Freedom to Write Award (2009) * Independent Federation of Chinese Students and Scholars (USA) Free Spirit Award (2009) * German PEN Hermann Kesten Medal (2010) * Nobel Peace Prize (2010) * Giuseppe Motta Medal (2010) * Honorary member of German, American, Portuguese, Czech and Sydney PEN Centers and Honorary President of Independent Chinese PEN Center. A statue of Liu Xiaobo in Hong Kong was removed in November 2021 after the police objected to its presence.https://hongkongfp.com/2021/11/15/statue-of-late-chinese-dissident-liu-xiaobo-removed-from-hong-kong-storefront-following-govt-order/

See also

* Carl von Ossietzky * Charter 08 * Human rights in the People's Republic of China * Inciting subversion of state power * List of Chinese dissidents * List of Chinese Nobel laureates * Literary inquisition * Weiquan movement * Wolf warrior diplomacy


{{Reflist , colwidth = 30em , refs = {{cite press release , url=https://www.canada.ca/en/global-affairs/news/2017/07/statement_by_ministerofforeignaffairsfollowingdeathofliuxiaobo.html, title=Statement by Minister of Foreign Affairs following death of Liu Xiaobo, date=13 July 2017, first=Chrystia, last=Freeland, publisher=Global Affairs Canada {{Cite book, title=Biography of Liu Xiaobo, url=http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1656918/Liu-Xiaobo , publisher=Encyclopædia Britannica , year=2010 Frances Romero
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Mark McDonald
An inside look at China's most famous political prisoner
''The New York Times'', 23 July 2012.
Congressional-Executive Commission on China
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{{cite news, url=https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-40403416, title=Liu Xiaobo: Jailed Chinese dissident has terminal cancer, work=BBC News, date=26 June 2017 Benjamin Kang Lim
China's top dissident arrested for subversion
Reuters, 24 June 2009.
{{cite news, url=http://cn.chinareviewnews.com/doc/1010/0/3/6/101003632.html?coluid=0&kindid=0&docid=101003632 , language=zh-cn , script-title=zh:刘晓波因涉嫌煽动颠覆国家政权罪被依法逮捕 , trans-title=Liu Xiaobo Formally Arrested on 'Suspicion of Inciting Subversion of State Power' Charges , work=China Review News , date=24 June 2009 Canghai [沧海] {{cite web , url=http://canyu.org/n11318c6.asp , language=zh-cn , script-title=zh:刘晓波案闪电移送法院 律师两次前往未能会见 , trans-title=Liu Xiaobo's Case Quickly Escalated to the Court; Lawyers Twice Try to Meet with Liu to No Avail , publisher=Canyu [参与] , date=11 December 2009{{dead link, date=September 2017 , bot=InternetArchiveBot , fix-attempted=yes {{dead link, date=June 2016, bot=medic{{cbignore, bot=medic Beijing No. 1 Intermediate Court, Criminal Verdict no. (2009) yi zhong xing chu zi 3901, unofficial English translation in Human Rights in China,
International Community Speaks Out on Liu Xiaobo Verdict
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{{cite web , author=Dwyer Arce, url=http://jurist.org/paperchase/2010/12/china-dissident-liu-xiaobo-awarded-nobel-peace-prize-in-absentia.php, title=China dissident Liu Xiaobo awarded Nobel Peace Prize in absentia, date=10 December 2010, publisher=JURIST – Paper Chase {{Citation , url=http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/2010/announcement.html , title=The Nobel Peace Prize 2010 – Prize Announcement, date=8 October 2010 , publisher=Nobel Prize {{Citation , url=http://www.rthk.org.hk/rthk/news/expressnews/20101008/news_20101008_55_703618.htm , language=zh-hk , script-title=zh:劉曉波獲諾貝爾和平獎 , trans-title=Liu Xiaobo won the Nobel Peace Prize , date=8 October 2010 , work=RTHK , url-status=dead , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20101011093444/http://www.rthk.org.hk/rthk/news/expressnews/20101008/news_20101008_55_703618.htm , archive-date=11 October 2010 McKinnon, Mark
"Liu Xiaobo could win the Nobel Peace Prize, and he’d be the last to know"
''The Globe and Mail''. 7 October 2010. 'Ms. Liu said her husband had been told by his lawyer during a recent visit that he had been nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize, but he would be shocked if he won, she said. "I think he would definitely find it hard to believe. He never thought of being nominated, he never mentioned any awards. For so many years, he has been calling for people to back the Tiananmen Mothers (a support group formed by parents of students killed in the 1989 demonstrations).."'
{{cite news, author=Lovell, Julia, url=https://www.independent.co.uk/opinion/commentators/julia-lovell-beijing-values-the-nobels-thats-why-this-hurts-2101812.html, title=Beijing values the Nobels. That's why this hurts, date=9 October 2010, work=The Independent , location=UK, access-date=9 October 2010 Wachter, Paul (18 November 2010)
"Liu Xiaobo wasn't the First Nobel Laureate Barred From Accepting His Prize"
{{webarchive, url=https://web.archive.org/web/20101221234853/http://www.aolnews.com/2010/11/18/liu-xiaobo-isnt-the-first-nobel-laureate-barred-from-accepting/ , date=21 December 2010 . AOL News
{{cite web , url = http://cneffpaysages.blog.lemonde.fr/2017/07/17/liu-xiaobo-carl-von-ossietzky/ , title = Liu Xiaobo – Carl von Ossietzky, author = Christophe Neff , date = 17 July 2017 , publisher = Blogs le Monde on LeMonde.fr , language=fr {{cite web, url=http://www.nobelpeaceprize.org/Press/Press-Releases2/Norwegian-Nobel-Committee-mourns-Liu-Xiaobo-statement-by-Chair-Berit-Reiss-Andersen, title=Norwegian Nobel Committee mourns Liu Xiaobo, statement by Chair Berit Reiss-Andersen, website=The Nobel Peace Prize {{cite web, url=http://www.pen.org/viewmedia.php/prmMID/4454/prmID/172, title=Verdict Against Liu Xiaobo, publisher=International PEN, access-date=11 January 2012, url-status=dead, archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120308173713/http://www.pen.org/viewmedia.php/prmMID/4454/prmID/172, archive-date=8 March 2012 {{Cite news , url=https://news.mingpao.com/ins/instantnews/web_tc/article/20170713/s00004/1499874447378 , script-title=zh:【劉曉波逝世】一門五兄弟 父同因肝病去世 , date=13 July 2017 , work=Ming Pao, access-date=17 July 2017 , language=zh-tw {{Cite book , script-title=zh:我無罪: 劉曉波傳 , author=Yu Jie , publisher=時報文化 , year=2012 , isbn=9789571356280 , oclc=820002390, language=zh {{Cite news , url=http://www.cna.com.tw/news/firstnews/201707150296-1.aspx , script-title=zh:劉曉波好友 怒批劉曉光無恥, language=zh, access-date=17 July 2017 {{Cite web , url=http://www.jlplib.com.cn/szzy/yjyjjzt/xgxxbd/201102/t20110211_14793.htm , script-title=zh:新时代仍需要抗联精神(December 2004 )——杨念杨靖宇将军诞辰100周年特别报道 , access-date=17 July 2017 , publisher=Jilin Provincial Library , archive-url=https://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:dYHs3RCoGhYJ:www.jlplib.com.cn/szzy/yjyjjzt/xgxxbd/201102/t20110211_14793.htm+&cd=10&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us , archive-date=2 June 2017, language=zh {{Cite news , 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Dies at 61 , work=The New York Times , date=13 July 2017 {{cite web, url=http://www.scmp.com/news/china/policies-politics/article/2101699/liu-xiaobo-quiet-determined-teller-chinas-inconvenient, title=Liu Xiaobo – the quiet, determined teller of China's inconvenient truths, date=13 July 2017, work=South China Morning Post {{cite web, url=https://www.pbs.org/wnet/need-to-know/five-things/liu-xiaobo/5668/, publisher=pbs.org, title=5 things you need to know about Liu Xiaobo, date=10 December 2010 {{cite web , url=http://www.scmp.com/news/china/policies-politics/article/2101699/liu-xiaobo-quiet-determined-teller-chinas-inconvenient , title=Liu Xiaobo – the quiet, determined teller of China's inconvenient truths , last1=Huang , first1=Cary , last2=Mai , first2=Jun , date=14 July 2017 , website=South China Morning Post , access-date=20 December 2017 {{cite magazine , author=Liu Xiaobo , url=http://www.open.com.hk/old_version/1011p68.html , language=zh-Hant , script-title=zh:文壇「黑馬」劉曉波 , trans-title=Liu Xiaobo, the "Dark Horse" of Literature , magazine=Open Magazine , date=27 November 1988 {{cite journal , author=貝嶺, url = http://mag.udn.com/mag/world/storypage.jsp?f_MAIN_ID=409&f_SUB_ID=4595&f_ART_ID=255134, script-title=zh:別無選擇—記1989年前後的劉曉波, journal=United Daily News , location=Taiwan, language=zh , date =17 June 2010 {{cite book , last1=Xiaobing , first1=Li , date=2016 , title=Modern China , publisher=ABC-CLIO , isbn=978-1-61069-625-8 , pages=106 {{cite journal, last1=Yu , first1=Shicun (余世存) , url=http://www.chinesepen.org/Article/hyxz/200806/Article_20080603033147.shtml , language=zh-Hans , script-title=zh:北京当代汉语研究所2008年公告, publisher=Chinese Pen, date=2 June 2008, url-status=dead, archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110718134903/http://www.chinesepen.org/Article/hyxz/200806/Article_20080603033147.shtml, archive-date=18 July 2011 {{cite web, last1=Kristof, first1=Nicholas, title=Liu Xiaobo, We Miss You, 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"He Told the Truth About China’s Tyranny"
''The New York Review of Books''.
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''The New York Review of Books''.
{{cite book, title=Letter from Liu Xiaobo to Liao Yiwu, url=http://www.hrichina.org/en/content/3215, publisher=Human Rights in China {{cite book, title=Cosmopolitanism and the Legacies of Dissent, first1=Tamara, last1=Caraus, first2=Camil Alexandru, last2=Parvu, pages=69–70 {{cite book, page=75, title=No Enemies, No Hatred, last=Liu, first=Xiabo, publisher=Harvard University Press, year=2012 {{cite book, page=83, title=No Enemies, No Hatred, last=Liu, first=Xiabo, publisher=Harvard University Press, year=2012 McKey, Robert (8 October 2010)
Jailed Chinese Dissident's 'Final Statement'
''The New York Times''.
{{cite web, last1=Buckley, first1=Chris, title=Liu Xiaobo, Chinese Dissident Who Won Nobel While Jailed, Dies at 61, url=https://www.nytimes.com/2017/07/13/world/asia/liu-xiaobo-dead.html, website=The New York Times, access-date=13 July 2017 {{cite web, last1=Johnson, first1=Ian, title=China's 'Fault Lines': Yu Jie on His New Biography of Liu Xiaobo, url=http://www.nybooks.com/daily/2012/07/14/china-fault-lines-yu-jie-liu-xiaobo/, website=The New York Review of Books, access-date=13 July 2017 {{cite web, last1=Sautman, first1=Barry, last2=Yan, first2=Hairong, title=Do supporters of Nobel winner Liu Xiaobo really know what he stands for?, url=https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2010/dec/15/nobel-winner-liu-xiaobo-chinese-dissident, website=The Guardian, access-date=13 July 2017 {{cite web, last1=Liu , first1=Xiaobo , trans-title=The Iraq War and the 2004 U.S. Election , language=zh-cn , script-title=zh:伊战与美国大选, url=https://blog.boxun.com/hero/liuxb/217_1.shtml, website=Independent Chinese Pen Center, access-date=13 July 2017 {{cite web , author=Liu Xiaobo , url=http://blog.boxun.com/hero/liuxb/133_1.shtml , language=zh-cn , script-title=zh:刘晓波:美英自由联盟必胜 , trans-title=Liu Xiaobo: Victory to the Anglo-American Freedom Alliance , publisher=Boxun , date=11 April 2004 {{cite web, last1=Xiaobo, first1=Liu, title=The Prison Abuse Scandal and Iraq's Status, url=https://blog.boxun.com/hero/liuxb/152_1.shtml, website=Independent Chinese Pen Center, access-date=13 July 2017 Sautman, Barry; Yan, Hairong (15 December 2010)
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''The Guardian''. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
Geremie R. Barmé, "Confession, Redemption and Death: Liu Xiaobo and the Protest Movement of 1989", in George Hicks (ed.), ''The Broken Mirror: China After Tiananmen'', London: Longmans, 1990, pp. 52–99 K. Mok, ''Intellectuals and the State in Post-Mao China'', p. 167, 1998 Jean-Philippe Béja, Fu Hualing, Eva Pils, ''Liu Xiaobo, Charter 08 and the Challenges of Political Reform in China'', p. 25 (2012) {{cite web, url=http://www.appledaily.com.tw/realtimenews/article/new/20170713/1160597/, script-title=zh:《零八憲章》惹怒中共 劉曉波遭重判11年 , date=13 July 2017, work=Apple Daily, language=zh Wang Ming,
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url=http://www.scmp.com/news/china/policies-politics/article/2102761/liu-xiaobo-cremated-funeral-ailing-widow-makes-first, title=Liu Xiaobo's ashes scattered at sea after 'hasty' cremation, work=South China Morning Post {{cite web, url=https://qz.com/1030454/only-one-city-in-china-is-getting-to-mourn-liu-xiaobo, title=Only one city in China is getting to mourn Liu Xiaobo, first=Tripti, last=Lahiri {{cite web, url=https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-china-40597514, title=Liu Xiaobo: China's most prominent dissident dies, date=13 July 2017, publisher=BBC {{cite web, url=https://www.nytimes.com/2017/07/13/world/asia/liu-xiaobo-chinese-dissident-nobel-dies-at-61.html, title=Liu Xiaobo, Chinese Dissident Who Won Nobel While Jailed, Dies at 61, first=Chris, last=Buckley, date=13 July 2017, work=The New York Times {{cite web, url=https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-china-40603059, title=Liu Xiaobo: China rejects foreign criticism over dissident's death, date=14 July 2017, publisher=BBC {{cite web, url=https://www.nytimes.com/2017/07/15/world/asia/liu-xiaobo-cremation-china.html, title=Liu Xiaobo, Chinese Dissident and Nobel Laureate, Is Cremated, first=Chris, last=Buckley, date=15 July 2017, work=The New York Times {{cite web, url=https://abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory/china-cremates-body-jailed-nobel-laureate-liu-xiaobo-48654246, title=China cremates body of jailed Nobel laureate Liu Xiaobo, publisher=ABC News, url-status=dead, archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170722212635/http://abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory/china-cremates-body-jailed-nobel-laureate-liu-xiaobo-48654246, archive-date=22 July 2017 {{Cite web , url=http://news.creaders.net/china/2017/07/15/big5/1847311.html , language=zh-Hant , script-title=zh:劉曉波哥哥被批企圖分諾貝爾獎金 – 萬維讀者網 , access-date=17 July 2017 , work=news.creaders.net {{cite news , url=https://www.latimes.com/world/la-fg-china-liu-burial-20170715-story.html , title= Family scatters ashes of Chinese Nobel laureate Liu Xiaobo into the sea , date=15 July 2017 , agency=Associated Press , newspaper=Los Angeles Times , access-date=25 November 2019 {{cite web, url=https://www.thenational.ae/world/asia/anger-as-ashes-of-chinese-dissident-liu-xiaobo-are-buried-at-sea-in-disgusting-funeral-1.609150, title=Anger as ashes of Chinese dissident Liu Xiaobo are buried at sea in 'disgusting' funeral {{cite web, url=http://news.rthk.hk/rthk/en/component/k2/1342352-20170715.htm, title=Marchers pay respect to Liu Xiaobo , publisher=RTHK {{cite web, url=http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2017/07/thousands-march-hong-kong-remember-liu-xiaobo-170716022817652.html, title=Thousands march in Hong Kong to remember Liu Xiaobo, publisher=Al Jazeera {{cite web, url=https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/jul/16/hong-kong-vigil-for-liu-xiaobo-sends-powerful-message-to-beijing, title=Hong Kong vigil for Liu Xiaobo sends powerful message to Beijing, first=Benjamin, last=Haas, date=15 July 2017, work=The Guardian {{cite web, url=http://news.rthk.hk/rthk/en/component/k2/1341748-20170712.htm, title=Legco chief rebuffs attempts to discuss Liu Xiaobo – RTHK {{cite web, url=https://www.hongkongfp.com/2017/07/13/president-hong-kong-legislature-refuses-let-lawmakers-discuss-chinese-dissident-liu-xiaobo/, title=President of Hong Kong legislature refuses to let lawmakers discuss Chinese dissident Liu Xiaobo, first=Catherine, last=Lai, date=13 July 2017, publisher=Hong Kong Free Press {{Cite web, url=https://www.voanews.com/a/china-says-liu-nobel-prize-was-blasphemy/3944012.html, title=China: Liu's Nobel Peace Prize was 'Blasphemy', date=14 July 2017, publisher=Voice of America, access-date=14 July 2017 {{Cite web, url=https://www.voachinese.com/a/voanews-20170714-liu-xiaobo-china/3944082.html, language=zh-Hans , script-title=zh:中国外交部:诺贝尔和平奖授予刘晓波是"亵渎", date=14 July 2017, website=Voice of America Chinese, access-date=14 July 2017 {{cite web, last1=Ko, first1=Yu-how, last2=Shen, first2=Pei-yao, last3=Chung, first3=Jake, title=Taiwanese mourn Nobel laureate's passing, url=http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/front/archives/2017/07/15/2003674588, website=Taipei Times, access-date=14 July 2017 {{cite web, url=https://www.voachinese.com/a/voanews-20170714-tw-ma-liu-xiaobo/3944051.html, language=zh-Hans , script-title=zh:台湾现任及前任总统透过脸书哀悼刘晓波病逝, last=张永泰 {{Cite news, url=http://tibet.net/2017/07/speaker-of-tibetan-parliament-offers-condolences-on-the-demise-of-nobel-laureate-liu-xiaobo/, title=Speaker of Tibetan Parliament Offers Condolences on the demise of Nobel Laureate Liu Xiaobo, date=13 July 2017, work=Central Tibetan Administration {{Cite web, url=http://tibet.net/2017/07/cta-president-offers-condolence-over-liu-xiaobos-death-says-he-is-heartbroken/, title=CTA President Offers Condolence over Liu Xiaobo's Death, says He is Heartbroken, publisher=Central Tibetan Administration, date=13 July 2017, url-status=bot: unknown, archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170713220338/http://tibet.net/2017/07/cta-president-offers-condolence-over-liu-xiaobos-death-says-he-is-heartbroken/, archive-date=13 July 2017 {{Cite web, url=http://www.thetibetpost.com/en/news/international/5625-leaders-of-tibet-join-global-community-to-mourn-liu-xiaobos-death, title=Leaders of Tibet join global community to mourn Liu Xiaobo's death, last=Choesang, first=Yeshe, date=14 July 2017, website=Tibet Post, access-date=14 July 2017 {{Cite web, url=https://www.dalailama.com/news/2017/message-from-his-holiness-the-dalai-lama, title=His Holiness the Dalai Lama Deeply Saddened by Liu Xiaobo's Passing… , date=18 July 2017, publisher=The 14th Dalai Lama {{cite web, url=http://www.straitstimes.com/asia/east-asia/world-reacts-with-praise-sadness-to-liu-xiaobos-death, title=World reacts with praise, sadness to Liu Xiaobo's death, date=14 July 2017 {{cite press release, url=http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_STATEMENT-17-2032_en.htm, title=Joint statement by the President of the European Commission, Jean-Claude Juncker, and the President of the European Council, Donald Tusk on the passing away of Liu Xiaobo, publisher=Europa (web portal) {{cite web, title=Trump, Macron avoid criticism of China's Xi, url=http://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/world/trump--macron-avoid-criticism-of-china-s-xi-9030154, agency=Agence France-Presse, access-date=16 July 2017 {{cite web, url=http://www.bbc.com/zhongwen/simp/chinese-news-40600292, language=zh-Hans , script-title=zh:中国异议人士刘晓波病逝 国际社会强烈反应, date=13 July 2017, publisher=BBC {{cite web, url=https://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-rights-merkel-idUSKBN19Y1Z1, title=Merkel hails China's Liu as a courageous civil rights fighter, date=13 July 2017, work=Reuters {{cite web, url=https://www.voachinese.com/a/japan-react-xiaobo-liu/3943927.html, language=zh-Hans , script-title=zh:日本政府与传媒舆论对刘晓波逝世反应显温差, last=歌篮, publisher=Voice of America {{cite web, title=Press Conference by Foreign Minister Fumio Kishida: The Passing of Mr. Liu Xiaobo, url=http://www.mofa.go.jp/press/kaiken/kaiken4e_000397.html#topic2, website=Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan, access-date=18 July 2017 {{cite web, last1=Suga, first1=Yoshihide, title=Press Conference by the Chief Cabinet Secretary, url=http://japan.kantei.go.jp/tyoukanpress/201707/14_a.html, website=Prime Minister of Japan and His Cabinet, access-date=18 July 2017 {{cite web, url=https://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-rights-reaction-idUSKBN19Y2DC, title=West mourns Chinese dissident Liu Xiaobo, criticizes Beijing, date=13 July 2017, work=Reuters {{cite web, url=http://www.aftenposten.no/verden/i/yqX02/Kinesiske-myndigheter-Nobelprisvinner-Liu-Xiaobo-er-dod, title=Nobelprisvinner Liu Xiaobo er død, language=no {{Cite press release, title=Foreign Secretary statement on Liu Xiaobo , url=https://www.gov.uk/government/news/foreign-secretary-statement-on-liu-xiaobo , date=13 July 2017 {{cite press release, title=Statement from the Press Secretary on the Death of Liu Xiaobo, url=https://trumpwhitehouse.archives.gov/briefings-statements/statement-press-secretary-death-liu-xiaobo/, via=NARA, National Archives, work=whitehouse.gov, date=13 July 2017 {{cite web, url=https://www.voachinese.com/a/white-house-on-liu-xiaobo-death-20170713/3943390.html, script-title=zh:川普: 获悉刘晓波去世深感悲伤 , publisher=Voice of America Chinese , language=zh-cn {{Cite web, url=https://www.state.gov/secretary/remarks/2017/07/272579.htm, title=On the Passing of Liu Xiaobo, last=Tillerson, first=Rex W., date=13 July 2017, publisher=U.S. Department of State, access-date=14 July 2017 {{Cite web, url=https://china.usembassy-china.org.cn/ambassador-nikki-haleys-statement-passing-liu-xiaobo/, title=Ambassador Nikki Haley's Statement on the Passing of Liu Xiaobo, last=Haley, first=Nikki, date=13 July 2017, publisher=US Embassy & Consulates in China, access-date=16 July 2017 {{cite web, url=https://www.voachinese.com/a/us-ambassador-on-liu-xiao-bo-death-20170713/3943378.html, language=zh-Hans , script-title=zh:美国驻联合国大使黑利就刘晓波去世发表声明, last1=An , first1=Hua (安华), publisher=Voice of America {{Cite web, url=https://china.usembassy-china.org.cn/statement-u-s-ambassador-branstad-passing-liu-xiaobo-july-13-2017/, title=Statement from U.S. Ambassador Branstad on the passing of Liu Xiaobo, last=Branstad, first=Terry, date=13 July 2017, access-date=16 July 2017 {{cite web, url=http://www.rfa.org/mandarin/yataibaodao/renquanfazhi/ql1-07132017112006.html, language=zh-Hans , script-title=zh:刘晓波病逝引发国际社会强烈反响, publisher=Radio Free Asia {{Cite web, url=https://www.cecc.gov/media-center/press-releases/cecc-commissioners-issue-statements-on-the-death-of-nobel-laureate-liu, title=CECC Commissioners Issue Statements on the Death of Nobel Laureate Liu Xiaobo, date=13 July 2017, website=The Congressional-Executive Commission on China, access-date=16 July 2017 The Tragic Case of Liu Xiaobo
Hearing of the United States House Foreign Affairs Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health, Global Human Rights and International Organizations (14 July 2017).
The Latest: US Congress holds hearing on Liu Xiaobo’s life
Associated Press (14 July 2017).
{{Cite web, url=https://pelosi.house.gov/news/press-releases/transcript-of-pelosi-press-conference-today-129, title=Transcript of Pelosi Press Conference Today, date=13 July 2017, website=Congresswoman Nancy Pelosi Serving California's 12th District, access-date=19 July 2017 {{cite web, last1=Cruz, first1=Ted, title=S.1187 – A bill to designate the area between the intersections of International Drive, Northwest and Van Ness Street, Northwest and International Drive, Northwest and International Place, Northwest in Washington, District of Columbia, as "Liu Xiaobo Plaza", and for other purposes., date=18 May 2017, url=https://www.congress.gov/bill/115th-congress/senate-bill/1187, publisher=Congress.gov, access-date=16 July 2017 {{cite web, last1=Meadows, first1=Mark, title=H.R.2537 – To designate the area between the intersections of International Drive Northwest and Van Ness Street Northwest and International Drive Northwest and International Place Northwest in Washington, District of Columbia, as "Liu Xiaobo Plaza", and for other purposes., date=18 May 2017, url=https://www.congress.gov/bill/115th-congress/house-bill/2537/, publisher=Congress.gov, access-date=16 July 2017 {{Cite web, url=https://www.texastribune.org/2017/07/15/cruz-renews-push-rename-chinese-embassy-address-after-famous-dissident/, title=After dissident's death, Ted Cruz hopeful about changing Chinese Embassy address, last=Thomas, first=Neil, date=15 July 2017, website=Texas Tribune, access-date=16 July 2017 {{cite web, title=Statement by President George W. Bush on the death of Liu Xiaobo, url=http://www.ntxe-news.com/artman/publish/article_106955.shtml, website=North Texas e-News, access-date=14 July 2017 Original title: {{lang, zh-Hans, 《选择的批判——与李泽厚对话》, published by {{lang, zh, 上海人民出版社 Original title: {{lang, zh-Hans, 《选择的批判—与思想领袖李泽厚对话》, published by {{lang, zh-Hans, 台湾风云时代出版公司 Original title: {{lang, zh-Hans, 《审美与人的自由》, published by {{lang, zh-Hant, 北京師范大學出版社 Original title: {{lang, zh-Hans, 《赤身裸体,走向上帝》, published by {{lang, zh-Hans, 时代文艺出版社 Original title: {{lang, zh-Hans, 《形而上学的迷雾》, published by {{lang, zh, 上海人民出版社 Original title: {{lang, zh-Hans, 《思想之谜与人类之梦》(二卷), by {{lang, zh-Hans, 台湾风云时代出版公司 Original title: {{lang, zh-Hans, 《中国当代政治与中国知识份子》, published by {{lang, zh-Hans, 台北唐山出版社 Original title: {{lang, zh-Hant, 《現代中国知識人批判》, published by {{Nihongo2, 日本德间书店 Original title: {{lang, zh-Hans, 《末日幸存者的独白》, published by {{lang, zh-Hans, 台湾中国时报出版社 Original title: {{lang, zh-Hans, 《刘晓波刘霞诗选》, published by {{lang, zh-Hans, 香港夏菲尔国际出版公司 Original title: {{lang, zh-Hans, 《美人赠我蒙汗药》, published by {{lang, zh-Hans, 长江文艺出版社 Original title: {{lang, zh-Hans, 《向良心说谎的民族》, published by {{lang, zh-Hans, 台湾捷幼出版社 Original title: {{lang, zh-Hans, 《未来的自由中国在民间》, published by {{lang, zh-Hans, 劳改基金会 Original title: {{lang, zh-Hans, 《单刃毒剑——中国当代民族主义批判》, published by {{lang, zh-Hans, 美国博大出版社 Original title: {{lang, zh-Hans, 《大国沈沦—写给中国的备忘录》, published by {{lang, zh-Hans, 台北允晨文化出版社 Original title: {{Nihongo2, 《天安門事件から「08憲章」》, published by {{Nihongo2, 日本藤原书店 Original title: {{lang, zh-Hans, 《念念六四》, published by Graywolf Press {{cite web, url=https://www.hrw.org/legacy/worldreport/Ps-01.htm, title=Ps, publisher=Human Rights Watch One World Homo Homini award goes to Chinese dissident
12 March 2009 .
{{cite news, url=http://www.dw.de/dw/article/0,,4214763,00.html, title=Liu Xiaobo , publisher=Deutsche Welle, date=29 April 2009, access-date=29 April 2009
DW, 7 October 2010.
{{cite web, url=https://www.amnesty.org/en/search/?contentType=2561, title= LIU XIAOBO'S NOBEL PEACE PRIZE WIN PUTS SPOTLIGHT ON CHINA RIGHTS VIOLATIONS http://motta.gidd.eu.org {{webarchive, url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140222040927/http://motta.gidd.eu.org/ , date=22 February 2014 Giuseppe Motta Medal Website

External links

{{Wikiquote {{Commons category, Liu Xiaobo {{Wikinews, Nobel Peace Prize winning Chinese dissident Liu Xiaobo dies, aged 61 ; Liu's verdict and articles cited as evidence of Liu's guilt in the verdict
Liu Xiaobo's 2009 criminal verdict

"The Communist Party of China’s Dictatorial Patriotism"

"Can It Be that the Chinese People Deserve Only Party-Led Democracy?"

"Changing the Regime by Changing Society"

"The Negative Effects of the Rise of Dictatorship on World Democratization"

"Further Questions about Child Slavery in China's Kilns"

''Charter 08''
; Other items written by Liu Xiaobo
Letter from Liu Xiaobo to Liao Yiwu
"The Rise of Civil Society in China"
"Atop a Volcano"
"Remembering June 4th for China's Future"
The Poet in an Unknown Prison
letter by Liu from ''The New York Review of Books'' (2009)
''No Enemies, No Hatred: Selected Essays and Poems''
"Behind ''The Rise of the Great Powers''"
in ''Guernica Magazine'', January 2012 * Huang, Zheping; Huang, Echo (17 July 2017).
Dying in custody, a Nobel prize-winning Chinese dissident wrote this last love letter to his wife
. ''Quartz''.

Film Excerpts of Liu Xiaobo
from ''The Gate of Heavenly Peace'' * {{YouTube, 2QJGuPOMPvE, Interview with Liu Xiaobo (English and Chinese) by PEN American Center ; Other items related to Liu Xiaobo * {{YouTube, 2_pcpak05F8, 30 September 2009 floor debate in U.S. Congress on the Liu Xiaobo resolution
Jailed Chinese Dissident Liu Xiaobo Awarded Nobel Peace Prize
video report by Democracy Now!
"Liu Xiaobo’s Plea for the Human Spirit"
essay by Jonathan Mirsky in the Sunday Book Review in ''The New York Times'' 30 December 2011
Nobel Peace Prize Laureate Liu Xiaobo and the Future of Political Reform in China: Hearing before the Congressional-Executive Commission on China, One Hundred Eleventh Congress, Second Session, 9 November 2010

Two Years Later: The Ongoing Detentions of Nobel Peace Prize Laureate Liu Xiaobo and his Wife Liu Xia: Hearing before the Congressional-Executive Commission on China, One Hundred Twelfth Congress, Second Session, 12 December 2012

A worldwide reading organized for Liu Xiaobo
by the Berlin International Literature Festival, international literature festival berlin * {{Nobelprize {{s-start {{s-ach {{s-bef , before = Barack Obama {{s-ttl , title = Nobel Peace Prize Laureate , years = 2010 {{s-aft , after = Ellen Johnson Sirleaf
Leymah Gbowee
Tawakel Karman {{s-end {{2010 Nobel Prize winners {{Nobel Peace Prize Laureates 2001–2025 {{Nobel laureates of the People's Republic of China {{Ethnic Chinese Nobel laureates {{Footer Homo Homini Award laureates {{1989 Tiananmen protests {{Authority control {{Portal bar, China, Biography, Poetry {{DEFAULTSORT:Liu, Xiaobo 1955 births 2017 deaths Amnesty International prisoners of conscience held by China Beijing Normal University alumni Charter 08 signatories Chinese anti-communists Chinese democracy activists Chinese dissidents Chinese human rights activists Chinese political prisoners Deaths from liver cancer Deaths from cancer in the People's Republic of China Progressivism in China PEN International Jilin University alumni Nobel laureates of the People's Republic of China Nobel Peace Prize laureates Writers from Changchun People's Republic of China poets Columbia University people Poets from Jilin Sent-down youths Burials at sea Philosophers from Jilin Nonviolence advocates 1989 Tiananmen Square protesters