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Kingston upon Hull, usually abbreviated to Hull, is a
port city The Porticciolo del Cedas port in Trieste.html"_;"title="Barcola_near_Trieste">Barcola_near_Trieste,_a_small_local_port A_port_is_a_ Barcola_near_Trieste,_a_small_local_port">Trieste.html"_;"title="Barcola_near_Trieste">Barcola_near ...
and
unitary authority A unitary authority is a local authority Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration Public administration is the implementation of public policy, government policy and also an academic discipline that s ...
in the
East Riding of Yorkshire The East Riding of Yorkshire, or simply East Riding or East Yorkshire, is a county in Northern England Northern England, also known as the North of England or simply the North, is the most northern area of England. There are three Regions ...
, England. It lies upon the
River Hull The River Hull is a navigable river in the East Riding of Yorkshire in Northern England. It rises from a series of springs to the west of Driffield, and enters the Humber Estuary at Kingston upon Hull. Following a period when the Archbishops of ...

River Hull
at its
confluence In geography, a confluence (also: ''conflux'') occurs where two or more flowing bodies of water join together to form a single channel. A confluence can occur in several configurations: at the point where a tributary joins a larger river (main ...

confluence
with the
Humber The Humber is a large tidal estuary An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. Estuaries form a transition zone betw ...
Estuary, 25 miles (40 km) inland from the
North Sea The North Sea is a sea The sea, connected as the world ocean or simply the ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approximately 71% of the surface of the Earth.
, 50 miles (80 km) east of
Leeds Leeds is the largest city in the Ceremonial counties of England, county of West Yorkshire, England. Leeds is to the east of Bradford, north of Sheffield, south-west of York, and north-east of Manchester. The city forms the core of the City of ...

Leeds
, 34 miles (55 km) south-east of
York York is a cathedral city City status in the United Kingdom is granted by the monarch of the United Kingdom The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United ...

York
and 54 miles (87 km) north-east of
Sheffield Sheffield is a and in , England. The name derives from the which runs through the city. It is a part of , although some southern suburbs have been annexed from . It is situated east of , south of and north of . It is the largest settlement ...

Sheffield
. With a population of (), Hull is the fourth-largest city in the
Yorkshire and the Humber Yorkshire and the Humber is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of ITL (UK), ITL for Office for National Statistics, statistical purposes. The population in 2011 was 5,284,000 with its largest settlements being Leeds, Shef ...
region. The town of Wyke on Hull was founded late in the 12th century by the monks of
Meaux Abbey Meaux Abbey (archaic, also referred to as ''Melsa'') was a Cistercian , one of the most influential early Cistercians, seen here depicted in a historiated initial. Cistercian monks standing in a cloister and wearing their religious habits The C ...

Meaux Abbey
as a port from which to export their wool. Renamed ''Kings-town upon Hull'' in 1299, Hull had been a
market town A market town is a European that obtained by custom or royal charter, in the , a market right, which allowed it to host a regular ; this distinguished it from a or . In Britain, small rural towns with a hinterland of villages are still com ...
, military supply port, trading hub, fishing and whaling centre and industrial metropolis. Hull was an early theatre of battle in the
English Civil WarsThis is a list of civil war A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war between organized groups within the same state or country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It i ...
. Its 18th-century Member of Parliament,
William Wilberforce William Wilberforce (24 August 175929 July 1833) was a British politician, philanthropist, and a leader of the movement to abolish the Atlantic slave trade, slave trade. A native of Kingston upon Hull, Yorkshire, he began his political career ...

William Wilberforce
, took a prominent part in the abolition of the
slave trade Slavery and enslavement are both the state and the condition of being a slave, who is someone forbidden to quit their service for an enslaver, and who is treated by the enslaver as their property Property is a system of rights that give ...

slave trade
in Britain. After suffering heavy damage in the Second World War (the "
Hull Blitz The Hull Blitz was the bombing campaign that targeted the English port city of Kingston upon Hull Kingston upon Hull, usually abbreviated to Hull, is a port city and unitary authorities of England, unitary authority in the East Riding of York ...
"), Hull weathered a period of post-industrial decline, doing poorly on measures of social deprivation, education and policing. In the early 21st century spending boom before the
late 2000s recession The Great Recession was a period of marked general decline ( recession) observed in national economies globally that occurred between 2007 and 2009. The scale and timing of the recession varied from country to country (see map). At the time, th ...
the city saw large amounts of new retail, commercial, housing and public service construction spending. Tourist attractions include The Hull People's Memorial, the historic Old Town and Museum Quarter,
marina A marina (from Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambig ...
and The Deep aquarium. Rugby league football teams include clubs
Hull F.C. Hull Football Club, commonly referred to as Hull or Hull F.C., is a professional rugby league Rugby league football, commonly known as just rugby league or simply league, rugby, football, or footy, is a contact sport, full-contact sport ...
and
Hull Kingston Rovers Hull Kingston Rovers are a professional rugby league club in Kingston upon Hull Kingston upon Hull, usually abbreviated to Hull, is a port city and unitary authorities of England, unitary authority in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England ...
. The city's association football clubs are
Hull City Hull City Association Football Club is an English professional football Football is a family of team sport A team is a Hull, East Riding of Yorkshire. Founded in 1904, the club competes in the EFL League One, League One, the third ti ...
(EFL Championship) and non-league Hull United.
Hull University , mottoeng = Bearing the Torch f learning, established = 1927 – University College Hull1954 – university status , type = Public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual ...
was founded in 1927 and now enrols more than 16,000 students. In 2017, Hull was the
UK City of Culture UK City of Culture is a designation given to a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. ...
and hosted the
Turner Prize The Turner Prize, named after the English painter J. M. W. Turner, is an annual prize presented to a British visual artist. Between 1991 and 2016, only artists under the age of 50 were eligible (this restriction was removed for the 2017 award). A ...
at its
Ferens Art Gallery The Ferens Art Gallery is an art gallery in the England, English city of Kingston upon Hull. The site and money for the gallery were donated to the city by Thomas Ferens, after whom it is named. The architects were S. N. Cooke and E. C. ...

Ferens Art Gallery
.


History


Early development

Kingston upon Hull stands on the north bank of the
Humber Estuary The Humber is a large tidal estuary An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. Estuaries form a transition zone betw ...
at the mouth of its tributary, the
River Hull The River Hull is a navigable river in the East Riding of Yorkshire in Northern England. It rises from a series of springs to the west of Driffield, and enters the Humber Estuary at Kingston upon Hull. Following a period when the Archbishops of ...

River Hull
. The valley of the River Hull has been inhabited since the early
Neolithic The Neolithic period is the final division of the Stone Age The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, also known as world history, is t ...
period but there is little evidence of a substantial settlement in the area of the present city. The area was attractive to people because it gave access to a prosperous
hinterland Hinterland is a German word meaning "the land behind" (a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclope ...

hinterland
and navigable rivers but the site was poor, being remote, low-lying and with no fresh water. It was originally an outlying part of the hamlet of Myton, named Wyke. The name is thought to originate either from a Scandinavian word ''Vik'' meaning inlet or from the Saxon ''Wic'' meaning dwelling place or refuge. The River Hull was a good haven for shipping, whose trade included the export of wool from
Meaux Abbey Meaux Abbey (archaic, also referred to as ''Melsa'') was a Cistercian , one of the most influential early Cistercians, seen here depicted in a historiated initial. Cistercian monks standing in a cloister and wearing their religious habits The C ...

Meaux Abbey
, which owned Myton. In 1293 the town of Wyke was acquired from the abbey by King Edward I, who on 1 April 1299 granted it a
royal charter A royal charter is a formal grant issued by a monarch under royal prerogative The royal prerogative is a body of customary authority, privilege, and immunity, recognized in common law and, sometimes, in civil law jurisdictions possessing ...

royal charter
that renamed the settlement ''King's town upon Hull'' or Kingston upon Hull. The charter is preserved in the archives of the
Guildhall A guildhall is either a town hall, or a building historically used by guilds for meetings and other purposes, in which sense it can also be spelled as "guild hall" and may also be called a "guild house". It is also the official or colloquial nam ...

Guildhall
. In 1440, a further charter
incorporated Incorporated may refer to: * Incorporated community * Incorporated (Grip Inc. album), ''Incorporated'' (Grip Inc. album), 2004, by Grip Inc. * Incorporated (Legion of Doom album), ''Incorporated'' (Legion of Doom album), 2006 * Incorporated (TV seri ...
the town and instituted local government consisting of a mayor, a sheriff and twelve
aldermen An alderman is a member of a municipal A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level sub ...
. In his ''Guide to Hull (1817)'', J. C. Craggs provides a colourful background to Edward's acquisition and naming of the town. He writes that the King and a hunting party started a hare which "led them along the delightful banks of the River Hull to the hamlet of Wyke … dward charmed with the scene before him, viewed with delight the advantageous situation of this hitherto neglected and obscure corner. He foresaw it might become subservient both to render the kingdom more secure against foreign invasion, and at the same time greatly to enforce its commerce". Pursuant to these thoughts, Craggs continues, Edward purchased the land from the Abbot of Meaux, had a manor hall built for himself, issued proclamations encouraging development within the town, and bestowed upon it the royal appellation, ''King's Town''.


Prosperity

The port served as a base for Edward I during the
First War of Scottish Independence The First War of Scottish Independence was the first of a series of wars between English and Scottish forces. It lasted from the English invasion of Scotland in 1296 until the ''de jure In law and government, ''de jure'' ( ; , "by law") ...
and later developed into the foremost port on the east coast of England. It prospered by exporting wool and woollen cloth, and importing wine and timber. Hull also established a flourishing commerce with the
Baltic Baltic may refer to: Geography Northern Europe * Baltic Sea, a sea in Europe * Baltic region, an ambiguous term referring to the general area surrounding the Baltic Sea * Baltic states (also Baltics, Baltic nations, Baltic countries or Baltic rep ...

Baltic
ports as part of the
Hanseatic League The Hanseatic League (; gml, Hanse, , ; german: label=Modern German New High German (NHG) is the term used for the most recent period in the history of the German language German (: , ) is a mainly spoken in . It is the most widely ...
. From its medieval beginnings, Hull's main trading links were with Scotland and northern Europe. Scandinavia, the Baltic and the Low Countries were all key trading areas for Hull's merchants. In addition, there was trade with France, Spain and Portugal. Sir
William de la Pole William is a popular given name of an old Germanic languages, Germanic origin.Hanks, Hardcastle and Hodges, ''Oxford Dictionary of First Names'', Oxford University Press, 2nd edition, , p. 276. It became very popular in the English language after ...
was the town's first mayor. A prosperous merchant, de la Pole founded a family that became prominent in government. Another successful son of a Hull trading family was bishop John Alcock, who founded
Jesus College, Cambridge Jesus College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge, England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its n ...
and was a patron of the grammar school in Hull. The increase in trade after the discovery of the Americas and the town's maritime connections are thought to have played a part in the introduction of a virulent strain of
syphilis Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection Sexually transmitted infections (STIs), also referred to as sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and the older term venereal disease, are infection An infection is the invasion of an orga ...
through Hull and on into Europe from the
New World The "New World" is a term for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas."America." ''The Oxford Companion to the English Language'' (). McArthur, Tom, ed., 1992. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 33: "[16c: from ...
. The town prospered during the 16th and early 17th centuries, and Hull's affluence at this time is preserved in the form of several well-maintained buildings from the period, including Wilberforce House, now a museum documenting the life of
William Wilberforce William Wilberforce (24 August 175929 July 1833) was a British politician, philanthropist, and a leader of the movement to abolish the Atlantic slave trade, slave trade. A native of Kingston upon Hull, Yorkshire, he began his political career ...

William Wilberforce
. During the
English Civil War The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of civil wars A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, ...
, Hull became strategically important because of the large
arsenal The Royal Armoury, Leeds An arsenal is a place where arms and ammunition Ammunition (informally ammo) is the material fired, scattered, dropped or detonated from any weapon or weapon system. Ammunition is both expendable weapons (e ...

arsenal
located there. Very early in the war, on 11 January 1642, the king named the governor of Hull while Parliament nominated Sir John Hotham and asked his son, Captain John Hotham, to secure the town at once. Sir John Hotham and Hull corporation declared support for
Parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of ...
and denied
Charles ICharles I may refer to: Kings and emperors * Charlemagne (742–814), numbered Charles I in the lists of French and German kings * Charles I of Anjou (1226–1285), also king of Albania, Jerusalem, Naples and Sicily * Charles I of Hungary (1288 ...

Charles I
entry into the town. Charles I responded to these events by besieging the town. This siege helped precipitate open conflict between the forces of Parliament and those of the . After the Civil War, docks were built along the route of the
town walls A defensive wall is a fortification usually used to protect a city, town or other settlement from potential aggressors. The walls can range from simple palisades or earthworks to extensive military fortifications with towers, bastions and gate ...
, which were demolished. The first dock (1778, renamed in 1854) was built in the area occupied by Beverley and North gates, and the intermediate walls, which were demolished, a second dock ( Humber Dock, 1809) was built on the land between Hessle and Myton gates, and a third dock between the two was opened 1829 as Junction Dock (later Prince's Dock).
Whaling Whaling is the process of hunting of whales for their usable products such as Whale meat, meat and blubber, which can be turned into Whale oil, a type of oil that became increasingly important in the Industrial Revolution. It was practiced as ...

Whaling
played a major role in the town's fortunes until the mid-19th century. As sail power gave way to steam, Hull's trading links extended throughout the world. Docks were opened to serve the frozen meat trade of Australia, New Zealand and South America. Hull was also the centre of a thriving inland and coastal trading network, serving the whole of the United Kingdom. Throughout the second half of the 19th century and leading up to the First World War, the
Port of Hull The Port of Hull is a port at the confluence of the River Hull The River Hull is a navigable river in the East Riding of Yorkshire in Northern England. It rises from a series of springs to the west of Driffield, and enters the Humber Estua ...
played a major role in the emigration of Northern European settlers to the New World, with thousands of emigrants sailing to the city and stopping for administrative purposes before travelling on to Liverpool and then North America. Parallel to this growth in passenger shipping was the emergence of the Wilson Line of Hull (which had been founded in 1825 by Thomas Wilson). By the early 20th century, the company had grown – largely through its monopolisation of North Sea passenger routes and later mergers and acquisitions – to be the largest privately owned shipping company in the world, with over 100 ships sailing to different parts of the globe. The Wilson Line was sold to the
Ellerman Lines Ellerman Lines was a UK cargo and passenger shipping company that operated from the late nineteenth century and into the twentieth century. It was founded in the late 19th century, and continued to expand by acquiring smaller shipping lines unti ...
– which itself was owned by Hull-born magnate (and the richest man in Britain at the time) Sir John Ellerman. Hull's prosperity peaked in the decades just before the
First World War World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainmen ...
; it was during this time, in 1897, that
city status City status is a symbolic and legal designation given by a national or subnational government. A municipality may receive city status because it already has the qualities of a city, or because it has some special purpose. Historically, city status ...
was granted. After the decline of the whaling industry, emphasis shifted to deep-sea
trawling Trawling is a method of fishing Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish Fish are Aquatic animal, aquatic, craniate, gill-bearing animals that lack Limb (anatomy), limbs with Digit (anatomy), digits. Included in this definition a ...
until the Anglo-Icelandic Cod War of 1975–1976. The conditions set at the end of this dispute initiated Hull's economic decline. Many of the suburban areas on the western side of Hull were built in the 1930s, particularly Willerby Road and Anlaby Park, as well as most of Willerby itself. This was part of the biggest British housing boom of the 20th century (possibly ever).


Hull Blitz

The city's port and industrial facilities, coupled with its proximity to
mainland Europe Mainland or continental Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven regions are commonly rega ...

mainland Europe
and ease of location being on a major estuary, led to extremely widespread damage by bombing raids during the
Second World War World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
; much of the city centre was destroyed. Hull had 95% of its houses damaged or destroyed, making it the most severely bombed British city or town in terms of number of damaged or destroyed buildings, apart from London, during the Second World War. More than 1,200 people died in air raids on the city and some 3,000 others were injured. The worst of the bombing occurred in 1941. Little was known about this destruction by the rest of the country at the time, since most of the radio and newspaper reports did not reveal Hull by name but referred to it as "a North-East town" or "a northern coastal town". Most of the city centre was rebuilt in the years following the war. As recently as 2006 researchers found documents in the local archives that suggested a non-exploded wartime bomb might be buried beneath a major new redevelopment, the Boom, in Hull.


City of Culture

In 2017 Hull was awarded the title of 'City of Culture' by the department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport. Within the city there was a series of festivals which occurred in public spaces to promote the city and its newly given title. At the start of the year there was a huge firework display attracting a crowd of 25,000. Furthermore, development to the infrastructure of Hull occurred with new pavements being developed across the city-centre.


Governance

Following the
Local Government Act 1888 The Local Government Act 1888 (51 & 52 Vict. c.41) was an Act of Parliament Acts of parliament, sometimes referred to as primary legislation, are texts of law passed by the Legislature, legislative body of a jurisdiction (often a parliament or ...
, Hull became a
county borough County borough is a term introduced in 1889 in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was a sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity A polity is an identifiabl ...
, a local government district independent of the East Riding of Yorkshire. This district was dissolved under the
Local Government Act 1972 The Local Government Act 1972 (c. 70) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the supreme legislative body A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and ...
, on 1 April 1974 when it became a
non-metropolitan district Non-metropolitan districts, or colloquially "shire districts", are a type of local government district The districts of England (also known as local authority districts or local government districts to distinguish from unofficial city distri ...
of the newly created
shire county A non-metropolitan county, or colloquially, shire county, is a county-level entity in England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Sc ...
of Humberside. Humberside (and its
county council A county council is the elected administrative body governing an area known as a county. This term has slightly different meanings in different countries. Members are elected in County Council elections. Ireland The county councils created und ...
) was abolished on 1 April 1996 and Hull was made a unitary authority area. The single-tier local authority of the city is now
Hull City Council (Kingston upon) Hull City Council is the governing body for the unitary authority A unitary authority is a local authority for a place's borough which is responsible for all local government functions within its area or performs additional functi ...
(officially Kingston upon Hull City Council), headquartered in the
Guildhall A guildhall is either a town hall, or a building historically used by guilds for meetings and other purposes, in which sense it can also be spelled as "guild hall" and may also be called a "guild house". It is also the official or colloquial nam ...

Guildhall
in the city centre. The council was designated as the UK's worst performing authority in both 2004 and 2005, but in 2006 was rated as a two star 'improving adequate' council and in 2007 it retained its two stars with an 'improving well' status. In the 2008 corporate performance assessment the city retained its "improving well" status but was upgraded to a three star rating. The Liberal Democrats won overall control of the City Council in the 2007 local elections, ending several years in which no single party had a majority. They retained control in the 2008 local elections by an increased majority and in the 2010 local elections. Following the UK's local elections of 2011, the
Labour Party Labour Party or Labor Party may refer to: Angola *MPLA, known for some years as "Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola – Labour Party" Antigua and Barbuda *Antigua and Barbuda Labour Party Argentina *Labour Party (Argentina) Armenia ...
gained control of the council, increasing their majority in the
2012 2012 was designated as: *International Year of Cooperatives2012 was designated as the International Year of Cooperatives by the United Nations General Assembly on 18 December 2009. The designation has honored the use of cooperative organiz ...
and retained this following the 2014 local elections. They increased their majority by one in the 2015 local elections, but lost it in the 2016 local elections. In the 2018 local elections all of the council was up for election following boundary changes that reduced the number of seats by 2. Labour retained control of the council but with a much reduced majority, while in the 2019 local elections there was no change to the make-up of the council. In the 2021 local elections the Liberal Democrats gained a couple of seats but Labour retained control by just three seats. The city returned three members of parliament to the
House of Commons The House of Commons is the name for the elected lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Township, Ontario United States: *Chambers County, Alabama *Chambers, Arizona, an unincorpor ...

House of Commons
and at the last general election, in
2019 2019 was designated as International Year of the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements by the United Nations General Assembly The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; french: link=no, Assemblée générale, AG) is one of the six pr ...
, elected three Labour MPs: Emma Hardy,
Diana Johnson Dame Diana Ruth Johnson (born 25 July 1966) is a British Labour Party politician A politician is a person active in party politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or ot ...

Diana Johnson
and Karl Turner.
William Wilberforce William Wilberforce (24 August 175929 July 1833) was a British politician, philanthropist, and a leader of the movement to abolish the Atlantic slave trade, slave trade. A native of Kingston upon Hull, Yorkshire, he began his political career ...

William Wilberforce
is the most celebrated of Hull's former MPs. He was a native of the city and the member for
Hull Hull may refer to: Structures * Chassis, of an armored fighting vehicle * Fuselage, of an aircraft * Hull (botany), the outer covering of seeds * Hull (watercraft), the body or frame of a ship * Submarine hull Mathematics * Affine hull, in affin ...
from 1780 to 1784 when he was elected as an Independent member for
Yorkshire Yorkshire (; abbreviated Yorks), formally known as the County of York, is a historic county of Northern England Northern England, also known as the North of England or simply the North, is the most northern area of England England ...
. Hull is the only city and forms the major urban area in the official government-defined Hull and Humber Ports City Region.


Geography

Kingston upon Hull is on the northern bank of the
Humber Estuary The Humber is a large tidal estuary An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. Estuaries form a transition zone betw ...
. The city centre is west of the River Hull and close to the Humber. The city is built upon
alluvial Alluvium (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power ...
and glacial deposits which overlie chalk rocks but the underlying chalk has no influence on the topography. The land within the city is generally very flat and is only 2 to 4 metres (6.5 to 13 ft)
above sea level Above may refer to: *Above (artist) Tavar Zawacki formerly known as 'ABOVE' (born 1981) is an American abstract art Abstract art uses visual language of shape, form, color and line to create a composition which may exist with a degree of ind ...
. Because of the relative flatness of the site there are few physical constraints upon building and many open areas are the subject of pressures to build. The parishes of Drypool,
Marfleet Marfleet is an area of Kingston upon Hull, East Riding of Yorkshire, England, in the east of the city, near King George Dock, Hull, King George Dock. Marfleet was until the late 20th century a small village outside the urban area of Hull – ...
,
Sculcoates Sculcoates is a suburb of Kingston upon Hull Kingston upon Hull, usually abbreviated to Hull, is a port city and unitary authorities of England, unitary authority in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England. It lies upon the River Hull at its c ...
, and most of Sutton parish, were absorbed within the borough of Hull in the 19th and 20th centuries. Much of their area has been built over, and socially and economically they have long been inseparable from the city. Only Sutton retained a recognisable village centre in the late 20th century, but on the south and east the advancing suburbs had already reached it. The four villages were, nevertheless, distinct communities, of a largely rural character, until their absorption in the borough—Drypool and Sculcoates in 1837, Marfleet in 1882, and Sutton in 1929. The current boundaries of the city are tightly drawn and exclude many of the
metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core Urban means "related to a city". In that sense, the term may refer to: * Urban area, geographical area distinct from rural areas * Urban culture, the cul ...

metropolitan area
's nearby villages, of which Cottingham is the largest. The city is surrounded by the rural East Riding of Yorkshire. Some areas of Hull lie on reclaimed land at or below sea level. The Hull Tidal Surge Barrier is at the point where the River Hull joins the Humber Estuary and is lowered at times when unusually high tides are expected. It is used between 8 and 12 times per year and protects the homes of approximately 10,000 people from flooding. Due to its low level, Hull is expected to be at increasing levels of risk from flooding due to global warming. Historically, Hull has been affected by tidal and storm flooding from the Humber; the last serious floods were in the 1950s, in 1953, 1954 and the winter of 1959. Many areas of Hull were flooded during the June 2007 United Kingdom floods, with 8,600 homes and 1,300 businesses affected. Further flooding occurred in 2013, resulting in a new flood defence scheme to protect homes and businesses, stretching from St Andrews Quay retail park, St Andrew’s Quay Retail Park to Victoria Dock, Hull, Victoria Dock, linking to other defences at Paull and Hessle. Started in 2016, it was completed in early 2021. At around 00:56 GMT on 27 February 2008, Hull was north of the epicentre of an 2008 Lincolnshire earthquake, earthquake measuring 5.3 on the Richter magnitude scale, Richter Scale which lasted for nearly 10 seconds. This was an unusually large earthquake for this part of the world. Another notable quake occurred early in the morning of 10 June 2018.


Climate

Located in Northern England, Hull has a temperate maritime climate which is dominated by the passage of mid-latitude depressions. The weather is very changeable from day to day and the warming influence of the Gulf Stream makes the region mild for its latitude. Locally, the area is sunnier than most areas this far north in the British Isles, and also considerably drier, due to the rain shadowing effect of the Pennines. It is somewhat warmer than west coast areas at a similar latitude such as Liverpool in summer due to stronger shielding from maritime air but also colder in winter and North Sea breezes keep the city cooler than inland areas during summer. It is also one of the most northerly areas where the July average maximum temperature exceeds , although this appears to be very localised around the city. Flooding in June 2007 caused significant damage to areas of the city. Droughts and heatwaves also occur such as in 2003, 2006 and recently in 2018. The absolute maximum temperature recorded is , set in August 1990. Typically, the warmest day should reach , though slightly over 10 days should achieve a temperature of or more in an "average" year. All averages refer to the 1981–2010 period. The absolute minimum temperature is , recorded during January 1982. Winters are generally mild for the latitude with snow only occurring a couple of times a year on average and mostly only staying for a day or 2 before melting. It is frequently cloudy and the North Sea winds make it feel colder than it actually is. An average of 32.5 nights should report an air frost. Heavy snowfalls do occasionally occur such as in 2010. On 23 November 1981, during the record-breaking 1981 United Kingdom tornado outbreak, nationwide tornado outbreak, Hull was struck by two tornadoes. The first, rated as a very weak F0/T0 tornado, touched down in the
Port of Hull The Port of Hull is a port at the confluence of the River Hull The River Hull is a navigable river in the East Riding of Yorkshire in Northern England. It rises from a series of springs to the west of Driffield, and enters the Humber Estua ...
shortly before 13:30 local time. This was followed several minutes later by a much stronger F1/T2 tornado, which passed through and caused damage to residential buildings across the north-eastern suburbs of Hull.


Demography

According to the 2001 UK census, Hull had a population of 243,589 living in 104,288 households. The population density was 34.1 per hectare. Of the total number of homes 47.85% were rented compared with a national figure of 31.38% rented. The population had declined by 7.5% since the 1991 UK census, and has been officially estimated as 256,200 in July 2006. In 2001, approximately 53,000 people were aged under 16, 174,000 were aged 16–74, and 17,000 aged 75 and over. Of the total population 97.7% were white and the largest minority ethnic group was of 749 people who considered themselves to be ethnically Chinese. There were 3% of people living in Hull who were born outside the United Kingdom. In 2006, the largest minority ethnic grouping was Iraqi Kurds who were estimated at 3,000. Most of these people were placed in the city by the Home Office while their applications for asylum were being processed. In 2001, the city was 71.7% Christian. A further 18% of the population indicated they were of no religion while 8.4% did not specify any religious affiliation. Historically, minorities of many faiths and nationalities have lived around the docks, Old Town and City Centre, coming in from European ports like Hamburg, aided by continental railways and steam-ships from the mid-1800s. Over 2 million passed through Hull between 1850 and 1914, on the way to a new life in America and elsewhere, but some planned or decided to stay. Dutch, History of the Jews in Hull, Jews, Germans, Scandinavians and others were sometimes prominently involved in the life of the port city. They found opportunity but endured discrimination at times, such that these communities have now largely dispersed. Also in 2001, the city had a high proportion, at 6.2%, of people of working age who were unemployed, ranking 354th out of 376 local and unitary authorities within England and Wales. The distance travelled to work was less than for 64,578 out of 95,957 employed people. A further 18,031 travelled between 3.1 and 6.2 miles (5 and 10 km) to their place of employment. The number of people using public transport to get to work was 12,915 while the number travelling by car was 53,443. Men in the University ward had the fourth lowest life expectancy at birth, 69.4 years, of any ward in England and Wales in 2016.


Economy

The economy of Hull was built on trading and seafaring, firstly whaling and later seafishing. Merchant's houses such as Blaydes House and some warehouses survive in the Old Town, where trade was centred on the River Hull, later shifting to the Humber docks. Another major industry was oilseed crushing. Although the fishing industry declined in the 1970s due to the Cod Wars, the city remains a busy port, handling 13 million tonnes of cargo per year. The port operations run by Associated British Ports Holdings, Associated British Ports and other companies in the port employ 5,000 people. A further 18,000 are employed as a direct result of the port's activities. The port area of the city has diversified to compensate for the decline in fishing by the introduction of RO-RO, Roll-on Roll-off ferry services to the continent of Europe. These ferries now handle over a million passengers each year. Hull has exploited the leisure industry by creating Hull Marina from the old Humber and Railway docks in the centre of the city. It opened in 1983 and has 270 berths for yachts and small sailing craft. Industry in the city is focused on the chemical and health care sectors. Several well-known British companies, including BP, Smith & Nephew and Reckitt Benckiser, have facilities in Hull. The health care sector is further enhanced by the research facilities provided by the University of Hull through the Institute of Woundcare and the Hull York Medical School partnerships. In recent years, with the decline of fishing and heavy industry, the retail sector, tourism, the arts and further and higher education sectors have played an increasingly prominent role in the process of economic regeneration and raising the profile of the city. In 2009 it was estimated that businesses in Hull deliver an annual turnover of almost £8 billion, and over 5 million annual visitors contribute almost £210 million to Hull's economy.


Retail

As the biggest settlement in the East Riding of Yorkshire and the local transport hub, Hull is a natural focus for retail shoppers. The city centre has three main shopping centres, St Stephen's Hull, St Stephen's, Princes Quay, and the Prospect Centre. There are also a number of "retail parks", and suburban shopping centres including St Andrews Quay retail park on the Humber bank and Kingswood retail park (Kingswood). Hull also has many shopping streets, both inside and outside the city centre. The main non-city-centre shopping streets are Hessle Road, Holderness Road, Chanterlands Avenue, Beverley Road, Princes Avenue, Kingston upon Hull, Princes Avenue, and Newland Avenue. Additionally, two covered shopping arcades remain in the town centre: Hepworth Arcade, and Paragon Arcade. The ''St Stephen's Hull, St Stephen's'' shopping centre development on Ferensway adjacent to Hull Paragon Interchange is a scheme, that opened in 2007. It is anchored by a large 24-hour Tesco Extra superstore and provides many shop units, food outlets, a hotel, and a 7 screen cinema. The St Stephens development is in direct competition with the ''Princes Quay Shopping Centre'' (1991), which was built on stilts over the closed Prince's Dock, and houses a variety of chain stores and food outlets. It was originally built with four retail floors, known as "decks", with the uppermost deck housing a Vue (cinema), Vue cinema since December 2007. Since the opening of St Stephens, shopping patterns within the city centre have shifted away from the vicinity around Princes Quay, resulting in reduced footfall. The ''Prospect Centre'' on Prospect Street is a smaller, older shopping centre which benefits from large footfall and is home to a range of chain stores, banks and fashion retailers. It contains branches of B&M, Claire's, a large Wilko (retailer), Wilko, Poundland, W H Smith, Iceland (supermarket), Iceland, and Hull's main post office. Outside the city centre at Bransholme, the ''North Point Shopping Centre'' (Bransholme Shopping Centre) contains a similar range of popular chain stores and budget-oriented retailers including Boyes (retailer), Boyes and Heron Foods. The city's branch of Woolworths Group (United Kingdom), Woolworth's on King Edward Street closed in 2008, as did the branch of T J Hughes on the site of the former C&A store on Ferensway in August 2011, following the parent companies' bankruptcies. There are a number of budget and discount retailers including four branches of Boyes (retailer), Boyes, Primark, Peacocks (retailer), Peacocks. Hull has a selection of supermarkets, including several branches of Tesco, Sainsbury's, Morrisons, the The Co-operative brand, Co-operative and budget food stores. The electrical retailer Comet Group was founded in the city as ''Comet Battery Stores Limited'' in 1933; the company's first superstore was opened in Hull in 1968. Other retailers such as Heron Foods, and Jacksons Stores, Jacksons also began their operations in Hull.


Development, 2000–2010

In addition to the St Stephen's retail project, a number of other commercial, office and services developments were planned or took place during the first decade of the 21st century. One high-profile project was the £165 million Humber Quays development, built near to the Humber Estuary, which gained World Trade Centre status as the World Trade Centre Hull & Humber. Phase 1 of the project includes two office buildings and 51 new apartments. A second phase is expected to include a new 200-bedroom 4-star hotel, a restaurant, and more high-quality office space. The 50-stall indoor Edwardian Trinity Market, a grade II listed building, and Hepworth's Arcade were modernised and renovated in the late 2000s. The city centre railway station, and adjacent bus terminal were also redeveloped, and were official opened in 2009, as the Hull Paragon Interchange. Several large-scale developments also planned, including a £100 million residential development on east bank of the River Hull, called the ''Boom'', which would include over 600 luxury riverside apartments, shops, boutiques, bistro cafés, a 120-bed luxury hotel, and health and education facilities. Also planned and not built was the ''Quay West'' extension to the Princes Quay shopping centre, that was cancelled in 2010. The
late 2000s recession The Great Recession was a period of marked general decline ( recession) observed in national economies globally that occurred between 2007 and 2009. The scale and timing of the recession varied from country to country (see map). At the time, th ...
halted many of the building development projects. Additionally, the local development agency 'Hull Forward' lost funding in June 2010 due to governmental budgetary cuts on public spending. and the regional development agency, Yorkshire Forward was abolished. The 'Boom' development was to be linked to the city centre by a new swing footbridge, Scale Lane Bridge, across the River Hull. The bridge was officially opened in June 2013. An investment of £14.5 million by Network Rail was used to enhance the capacity of the port freight railway line, the Hull Docks Branch, (completed 2008); the project was intended to increase its capacity from 10 trains per day to 22.


Development, 2010–present

In January 2011 Siemens Wind Power and Associated British Ports signed a memorandum of understanding concerning the construction of a wind turbine manufacturing plant at Alexander Dock. The plan would require some modification of the dock to allow the ships, used for transporting the wind turbines, to dock and be loaded. Planning applications for the plant were submitted in December 2011, and affirmed in 2014, concerning Wind turbine design#Blades, blades for the 6 MW Offshore wind power, offshore model. The creation of an enterprise zone, Humber Enterprise Zone, was announced in 2011 to encourage further industrial development in the
Humber Estuary The Humber is a large tidal estuary An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. Estuaries form a transition zone betw ...
region. A site waste-to-energy centre costing in the region of £150 million is also planned to be built by the Spencer Group. Announced in mid-2011, and named 'Energy Works', the proposed plant would process up to 200,000 tonnes of organic material per year, with energy produced via a waste gasification process. In July 2014, demolition began in the Fruit Market to allow room for the construction of the C4DI (Centre for Digital Innovation), a technology hub whose aim is to promote the tech sector in Hull and East Yorkshire. The building was completed and opened in December 2015. A £1.6 million renovation to Trinity Market started in 2016. In March 2017, the Old Town area was designated as one of 10 Heritage Action Zones by Historic England with the benefit that the area would get a share of £6 million.


Culture

Hull has several museums of national importance. The city has a theatrical tradition with some famous actors and writers having been born and lived in Hull. The city's arts and heritage have played a role in attracting visitors and encouraging tourism in recent efforts at regeneration. Hull has a diverse range of architecture and this is complemented by parks and squares and a number of statues and modern sculptures. The city has inspired author Val Wood who has set many of her best-selling novels in the city. The Wilberforce Lecture and award of the Wilberforce Medallion, which has taken place annually since 1995, celebrates the historic role of Hull and
William Wilberforce William Wilberforce (24 August 175929 July 1833) was a British politician, philanthropist, and a leader of the movement to abolish the Atlantic slave trade, slave trade. A native of Kingston upon Hull, Yorkshire, he began his political career ...

William Wilberforce
in combating the abuse of human rights. In April 2013 Hull put forward a bid to be the
UK City of Culture UK City of Culture is a designation given to a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. ...
in 2017, reaching the shortlist of four in June 2013 along with Dundee, Leicester and Swansea Bay. On 20 November 2013, Maria Miller, the Culture Secretary, announced that Hull had won the award to become the Hull UK City of Culture 2017, UK City of Culture 2017. Monopoly (game), Monopoly have released a version focusing on Hull, with attractions such as the Deep and St Stephens included.


Museums


Museums-quarter

The Museums Quarter is a development on the High Street in the heart of the Old Town. It combines four museums around a leisure garden. The work cost £5.1 million and was carried out from 1998 to 2003, being formally opened by the Prince Richard, Duke of Gloucester, Duke of Gloucester. The Museums are Wilberforce House, the birthplace of
William Wilberforce William Wilberforce (24 August 175929 July 1833) was a British politician, philanthropist, and a leader of the movement to abolish the Atlantic slave trade, slave trade. A native of Kingston upon Hull, Yorkshire, he began his political career ...

William Wilberforce
(1759–1833), the politics of the United Kingdom, British politician, Abolitionism in the United Kingdom, abolitionist and social reformer; the Arctic Corsair, a Fishing trawler, deep-sea trawler that was converted to a museum ship in 1999, on the adjacent
River Hull The River Hull is a navigable river in the East Riding of Yorkshire in Northern England. It rises from a series of springs to the west of Driffield, and enters the Humber Estuary at Kingston upon Hull. Following a period when the Archbishops of ...

River Hull
; the Hull and East Riding Museum, showing the archaeology and history of the region; and the Streetlife Museum of Transport, which includes a sizeable collection of vintage cars, preserved public transport vehicles and horse-drawn carriages.


Others

Other museums include the Hull Maritime Museum in Victoria Square, the Spurn Lightship, and The Deep, a public aquarium.


Art galleries

The civic art gallery is the
Ferens Art Gallery The Ferens Art Gallery is an art gallery in the England, English city of Kingston upon Hull. The site and money for the gallery were donated to the city by Thomas Ferens, after whom it is named. The architects were S. N. Cooke and E. C. ...

Ferens Art Gallery
on Queen Victoria Square, a Grade II listed building. It is named after Thomas Ferens who provided the funds for it. Other galleries include the three-storey Humber Street Gallery, in the former Fruit Market building which was opened in 2017 as part of Hull City of Culture. This now includes the "Dead Bod", a graffito originally painted on the Alexandria Dock, which became a local landmark. There are other smaller exhibition spaces.


Visual culture and sculpture

Marine painter John Ward (painter), John Ward (1798–1849) was born, worked and died in Hull and a leading ship artist of his day. Artist and Royal Academician David Remfry (born 1942) grew up in Hull and studied at the Hull College of Art (now part of Lincoln University) from 1959 to 1964. His tutor, Gerald T Harding, trained at the Royal College of Art, London and was awarded the Abbey Minor Travelling Scholarship in 1957 by the British School in Rome. Remfry has had two solo exhibitions at the Ferens Art Gallery in 1975 and 2005. Hull has a number of historical statues such as the Wilberforce Memorial in Queen's Gardens, Hull, Queen's Gardens and the gilded King William III statue on Market Place (known locally as "King Billy"). There is a statue of Hull-born Amy Johnson in Prospect Street. In recent years a number of modern art sculptures and heritage trails have been installed around Hull. These include a figure looking out to the
Humber The Humber is a large tidal estuary An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. Estuaries form a transition zone betw ...
called 'Voyage' which has a twin in Iceland. In July 2011, this artwork was reported stolen. There is a shark sculpture outside The Deep and a fountain and installation called 'Tower of Light' outside Britannia House on the corner of Spring Bank. The Seven Seas Fish Trail marks Hull's fishing heritage, leading its followers through old and new sections of the city, following a wide variety of sealife engraved in the pavement. Running along Spring Bank there is also an elephant trail, with stone pavers carved by a local artist to the designs of members of the community. This trail commemorates the Victorian Zoological Gardens and the route taken daily by the elephant as it walked from its house down Spring Bank to the zoo and back, stopping for gingerbread at a shop on the way. The animals are further represented on the Albany Street 'Home Zone' a project involving local residents and resulting in sculptures of a hippo ('Water Horse') at the bottom of Albany Street; an elephant balancing on its trunk on an island in the middle; and two bears climbing poles and reaching out to each other to form an open archway across the entrance to Albany Street from Spring Bank. Other sculptural details of animals along the street represent the participation of street residents, either through workshops with artists and makers, or through independent work of their own. In 2010 a public art event in Hull city centre entitled ''Larkin with Toads'' displayed 40 individually decorated giant toad models as the centrepiece of the Larkin 25 festival. Most of these sculptures have since been sold off for charity and transported to their new owners. Visitors to Hull's Paragon Interchange are now greeted by the new statue of Philip Larkin unveiled on 2 December 2010. In 2019 a series of blue plaques appeared around Hull as part of the ''Alternative Heritage'' project. The art project was designed to celebrate the little known and quirky facts that make Hull the city it is. A variety of tongue in cheek and humorous blue plaques appeared over night celebrating everything from Chip Spice to The Beautiful South. New plaques continue to appear on a regular basis and their content has occasionally divided opinion in the city.


Three Ships mural

The mural is on a curved screen attached to the end-wall of the old city centre Co-operative store building sited at the intersection where Jameson Street meets King Edward Street, now a mainly pedestrianised area created for the UK City of Culture, City of Culture 2017. Built by 1963 and later home to British Home Stores, BHS, the building closed in 2016 with the collapse of BHS retail stores and was scheduled for demolition due to asbestos content. The building was listed as Grade II after lobbying by local pressure group Hull Heritage Action Group, potentially preventing demolition of the mural-wall. Specialist spraying to seal the building's internal structure has enabled moves to determine the actual level of asbestos in the mural-wall itself and provided a possible solution to incorporate the wall into a new development.


Theatres

The city has two main theatres. Hull New Theatre, which opened in 1939, with a £16 million refurbishment in 2016–17, is the largest venue which features musicals, opera, ballet, drama, children's shows and pantomime. The Hull Truck Theatre is a smaller independent theatre, established in 1971, that regularly features plays, notably those written by John Godber. Since April 2009, the Hull Truck Theatre has had a new £14.5 million, 440 seat venue in the St Stephen's Hull development. This replaced the former home of the Hull Truck Theatre on Spring Street, a complex of buildings demolished in 2011. The playwright Alan Plater was brought up in Hull and was associated with Hull Truck Theatre. Hull has produced several veteran stage and TV actors. Sir Tom Courtenay, Ian Carmichael and Maureen Lipman were born and brought up in Hull. Younger actors Reece Shearsmith, Debra Stephenson, Liam Gerrard and Liam Garrigan were also born in Hull. In 1914, there were 29 closed cinemas in Kingston upon Hull, cinemas in Hull but most of these have now closed. The first purpose-built cinema was the Prince's Hall in George Street which was opened in 1910 by Hull's theatre magnate, William Morton (theatre manager), William Morton. It was subsequently renamed the Curzon. On 25 July 2018, a new 3,000 seat Bonus Arena, arena was opened to the public in the centre of the city. It was officially opened on 20 August 2018, with a Van Morrison concert.


Poetry

Hull has attracted the attention of poets to the extent that the Australian author Peter Porter (poet), Peter Porter has described it as "the most poetic city in England". Philip Larkin set many of his poems in Hull; these include "The Whitsun Weddings (poem), The Whitsun Weddings", "Toads", and "Here". Scottish-born Douglas Dunn's ''Terry Street'', a portrait of working-class Hull life, is one of the outstanding poetry collections of the 1970s. Dunn forged close associations with such Hull poets as Peter Didsbury and Sean O'Brien (writer), Sean O'Brien; the works of some of these writers appear in the 1982 Bloodaxe anthology ''A Rumoured City'', a work that Dunn edited. Andrew Motion, past Poet Laureate, lectured at the University of Hull between 1976 and 1981, and Roger McGough studied there. Both poets spoke at the Humber Mouth Festival in 2010. Contemporary poets associated with Hull are Maggie Hannan, David Wheatley (poet), David Wheatley, and Caitriona O'Reilly. 17th-century Metaphysical poetry, metaphysical poet and parliamentarian Andrew Marvell was born nearby, grew up and was educated in the city. There is a statue in his honour in the Market Square (Trinity Square), set against the backdrop of his alma mater Hull Grammar School.


Music


Classical

In the field of classical music, Hull is home to Sinfonia UK Collective (formerly Hull Sinfonietta, founded in 2004), a national and international touring group that serves Hull and its surrounding regions in its role as Ensemble in Residence at University of Hull, and also the Hull Philharmonic Orchestra, one of the oldest amateur orchestras in the country. and formerly The Hull Philharmonic Youth Orchestra, established in 1952, the Hull Choral Union, the Hull Bach Choir – which specialises in the performance of 17th- and 18th-century choral music - the Hull Male Voice Choir, the Arterian Singers and two Gilbert & Sullivan Societies: the Dagger Lane Operatic Society and the Hull Savoyards are also based in Hull. There are two brass bands, the East Yorkshire Motor Services Band, who are the current North of England Area Brass Band Champions, and East Riding of Yorkshire Band who are the 2014 North of England Regional Champions within their section. Hull City Hall annually plays host to major British and European symphony Orchestras with its 'International Masters' orchestral concert season. During the 2009–10 season visiting orchestras included the Saint Petersburg Academic Symphony Orchestra, St Petersburg Symphony Orchestra and the Czech National Symphony Orchestra. Internationally renowned touring pop, rock, and comedy acts also regularly play the City Hall. In September 2013 a five-year partnership with the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra was announced by the City Council.


Rock, pop and folk

On the popular music scene, in the 1960s, Mick Ronson of the Hull band ''Rats'' worked closely with David Bowie and was heavily involved in production of the album ''The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars''. Ronson later went on to record with Lou Reed, Bob Dylan, Morrissey and the Wildhearts. There is a Mick Ronson Memorial Stage in Queen's Gardens, Hull, Queen's Gardens in Hull. The 1960s were also notable for the revival of English folk music, of which the Hull-based quartet, the Watersons were prominent exponents. The Who performed and recorded a concert, at the Hull City Hall, on 15 February 1970. In the 1980s, Hull groups such as the Red Guitars, the Housemartins and Everything but the Girl found mainstream success, followed by Kingmaker in the 1990s. Paul Heaton, former member of the Housemartins went on to front the Beautiful South. Another former member of the Housemartins, Norman Cook, now performs as Fatboy Slim. In 1982, Hull-born Paul Anthony Cook, Stuart Matthewman and Paul Spencer Denman formed the group Sade (band), Sade. In 1984, the singer Sade Adu, Helen Adu signed to CBS Records and the group released the album ''Diamond Life''. The album had sales of four million copies. Vocalist and actor Roland Gift, who formed the Fine Young Cannibals, grew up in Hull. The pioneering Industrial music, industrial band Throbbing Gristle formed in Hull; Genesis P-Orridge (Neil Megson) attended Hull University between 1968 and 1969, where he met Cosey Fanni Tutti (Christine Newby), who was born in the city, and first became part of the Hull performance art group COUM Transmissions in 1970. The record label Pork Recordings started in Hull in the mid-1990s, and has released music by Fila Brazillia. The New Adelphi Club, The New Adelphi is a popular local venue for alternative live music in the city, and has achieved notability outside Hull, having hosted such bands as the Stone Roses, Radiohead, Green Day, and Oasis (band), Oasis in its history, while the Springhead caters to a variety of bands and has been recognised nationally as a 'Live Music Pub of the Year'. In the 2000s, Hull indie rock band The Paddingtons saw mainstream success with two UK Top 40 singles in 2005, later reforming in 2014 and performing at the Humber Street Sesh with notable bands such as Sulu Babylon and Street Parade. In the 1990s, the duo Scarlet (British band), Scarlet from Hull had two Top 40 hits with "Independent Love Song" and "I Wanna Be Free (To Be With Him)" in 1995. The Humber Street Sesh night has released four DIY compilations featuring the cream of Hull's live music scene, and there are currently a few labels emerging in the city, including Purple Worm Records based at Hull College, with bands such as The Blackbirds showing a promising future.


Nightlife, bars and pubs

The main drinking area in the city centre is the Old Town. One pub has Hull's smallest window (The George Hotel). England's civil war was said to be started in a pub situated in the Old Town.


Festivals

''The Humber Mouth'' literature festival is an annual event and the 2012 season featured artists such as John Cooper Clarke, Kevin MacNeil and Miriam Margolyes. The annual Hull Jazz Festival takes place around the Hull Marina, Marina area for a week at the beginning of August. From 2008 Hull has also held its Freedom Festival, Hull, Freedom Festival, an annual free arts and live music event that celebrates freedom in all its forms. Performers have included Pixie Lott, JLS and Martha Reeves and The Vandellas, Public Service Broadcasting (band), Public Service Broadcasting and The 1975 as well as featuring a torchlight procession, local bands like The Talks and Happy Endings from Fruit Trade Music label and a Ziggy Stardust photo exhibition including photos of the late-Hull-born Mick Ronson who worked with David Bowie. Former United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan was awarded the Wilberforce Medallion at the 2017 festival. Early October sees the arrival of Hull Fair which is one of Europe's largest travelling funfairs and takes place on land adjacent to the MKM Stadium. The city's Pride in Hull festival is one of the largest free-to-attend LGBT+ Pride events in the UK, attracting in excess of 50,000 attendees. Headline performers have included Adore Delano, Louise Redknapp, Marc Almond, Nadine Coyle of Girls Aloud, Alaska Thunderfuck and B*Witched. The Hull Global Food Festival held its third annual event in the city's Queen Victoria Square for three days – 4–6 September 2009. According to officials, the event in 2007 attracted 125,000 visitors and brought some £5 million in revenue to the area. In 2007 the Hull Metalfest began in the Welly Club, it featured major label bands from the United States, Canada and Italy, as well as the UK. The first Hull Comedy Festival, which included performers such as Stewart Lee and Russell Howard was held in 2007. In 2010, Hull marked the 25th anniversary of the death of the poet Philip Larkin with the Larkin 25 Festival. This included the popular ''Larkin with Toads'' public art event. The 40 Larkin toads were displayed around Hull and later sold off in a charity auction. A charity appeal raised funds to cast a life-size bronze statue of Philip Larkin, to a design by Martin Jennings, at Hull Paragon Interchange. The statue was unveiled at a ceremony attended by the Lord Mayor of Hull on 2 December 2010, the 25th anniversary of Larkin's death. It bears an inscription drawn from the first line of Larkin's poem, 'The Whitsun Weddings (poem), The Whitsun Weddings'. In 2013, from 29 April to 5 May, Hull Fashion Week took place with various events happening in venues in and around Hull's City centre. It finished with a finale on 5 May at Hull Paragon Interchange, when recently reformed pop group Atomic Kitten appeared in a celebrity fashion show. On 3 August 2013, the second Humber Street Sesh Festival took place celebrating local music talent and arts, with several stages showcasing bands and artists from the Fruit Trade Music Label, Humber Street Sesh and Purple Worm Records. In 2018, the 16th Pride in Hull festival saw attendees take part in the annual celebration of LGBT+ culture. Headline performers included Adore Delano, Nadine Coyle, SuRie and Bright Light Bright Light. In 2019, Hull Pride had acts such as Alaska 5000, Social Beings and Step. Kerry Katona was due to perform at Fuel nightclub, but cancelled the performance.


Religion

Unlike many other English cities, Hull has no cathedral. Since 13 May 2017, the Holy Trinity Church (dating back to 1300) became a Minster (church), Minster, known as Hull Minster. It is a part of the Church of England, Anglican Diocese of York and has a suffragan bishop. Hull forms part of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Middlesbrough's southern vicariate. St Charles Borromeo, Hull, St Charles Borromeo is the oldest post-Reformation Roman Catholic church in the city. There are several seamen's missions and churches in Hull. The Mission to Seafarers has a centre at West King George Dock and the St Nikolaj Danish Seamen's Church is located in Osborne Street.


Parks and green spaces

Hull has a large number of parks and green spaces. These include East Park, Kingston upon Hull, East Park, Pearson Park, Pickering Park, Kingston upon Hull, Pickering Park, Peter Pan Park (Costello Playing fields), and West Park. West Park is home to Hull's MKM Stadium. Pearson Park contains a lake and a 'Victorian Conservatory' housing birds and reptiles. East Park has a large boating lake and a collection of birds and animals. East Park and Pearson Park are registered Grade II listed sites by Historic England. The city centre has the large Queen's Gardens, Hull, Queen's Gardens parkland at its heart. This was originally built as formal ornamental gardens used to fill in the former . It is now a more flexible grassed and landscaped area used for concerts and festivals, but retains a large ornamental flower circus and fountain at its western end. The streets of Hull's suburban areas also lined with large numbers of trees, particularly the Avenues area around Princes Avenue, and Boulevard to the west. Many of the old trees in the Avenues district have been felled in recent years with the stumps carved into a variety of 'living sculptures'. Other green areas include the University area and parts of Beverley Road to the north. West Hull has a district known as 'Botanic'. This recalls the short-lived Botanic Garden that once existed on the site now occupied by Hymers College. Elephants once lived nearby in the former Zoological Gardens on Spring Bank and were paraded in the local streets. The land has since been redeveloped. There was also a former Botanic Garden between Hessle Road and the Anlaby Road commemorated by Linnaeus Street.


Media

Hull's only local daily newspaper is the longstanding ''Hull Daily Mail'', whose circulation area covers much of the East Riding of Yorkshire too. A free paper, ''The Hull Advertiser'', used to be issued weekly by the same publisher. The city was once served by three competing daily newspapers, all operating from the Whitefriargate area ''Eastern Morning News'', ''Hull News'' and ''Hull and East Yorkshire Times''. On 17 April 1930 the last edition of ''Evening News'' was published after the paper was taken over by its longstanding rival the ''Hull Daily Mail''. Local listings and what's-on guides include ''Tenfoot City Magazine'' and ''Sandman (magazine), Sandman Magazine'' (combined into single volume covering all of England, print version then made defunct in favour of online site). The BBC has its ''BBC Yorkshire and Lincolnshire, Yorkshire and Lincolnshire'' regional headquarters at Queen's Gardens, Hull, Queen's Gardens, from which the regional news programme ''BBC Look North (East Yorkshire and Lincolnshire), Look North'' is broadcast. Radio services broadcasting from the city are community radio stations, Hull Kingston Radio, 106.9 West Hull FM (formerly WHCR FM) and Hospital radio station Kingstown Radio. The BBC's regional station BBC Radio Humberside is also based in Hull and broadcasts to East Yorkshire & Northern Lincolnshire. Commercial stations for the city Viking FM and Greatest Hits Radio Yorkshire (formerly KCFM (FM), KCFM broadcast from outside of Hull and are now part of a national network like Capital FM Yorkshire which has a base over away in
Leeds Leeds is the largest city in the Ceremonial counties of England, county of West Yorkshire, England. Leeds is to the east of Bradford, north of Sheffield, south-west of York, and north-east of Manchester. The city forms the core of the City of ...

Leeds
. The Hull University Union's student radio station Jam 1575, stopped broadcasting on MW. On 24 November 2013 a RSL (Restricted Service Licence) was given to new station "Hull Community Radio" broadcasting on 87.9 FM.


Sport

Sports in the city include professional football, rugby league, golf, darts, Track and field, athletics and watersports. The city's professional association football, football club, Hull City A.F.C., play in the EFL Championship, Championship, the second tier of the English football league system, after promotion, as champions, from EFL League One, League One, at the first time of asking, in the 2020–21 Hull City A.F.C. season, 2020–21 season. The team play at the MKM Stadium. There are also two non-league clubs based in the city, Hall Road Rangers F.C., Hall Road Rangers, who play at Haworth Park, and Hull United A.F.C., Hull United, who play at Craven Park, Hull, Hull College Craven Park. Both teams play in the Northern Counties East Football League, Northern Counties East Division One. Hull is also a rugby league hub, in the Super League competition is Hull F.C., Hull FC, who alongside the city's football club Hull City A.F.C., play at the MKM Stadium. Also in Super League are
Hull Kingston Rovers Hull Kingston Rovers are a professional rugby league club in Kingston upon Hull Kingston upon Hull, usually abbreviated to Hull, is a port city and unitary authorities of England, unitary authority in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England ...
, who play at Craven Park, Hull, Craven Park Stadium in East Hull, following promotion from the RFL Championship, Championship in 2017. There are also several lower league teams in the city, such as East Hull A.R.L.F.C., East Hull, West Hull ARLFC, West Hull, Hull Dockers and Hull Isberg, who all play in the National Conference League. Rugby union is catered for by Hull Ionians who play at Brantingham Park. and Hull RUFC who are based in the city. The city has two athletics clubs based at the Costello Stadium in the west of the city – Kingston upon Hull Athletics Club and Hull Achilies Athletics Club. Hull Cycle Speedway Club is at the Hessle raceway near the Humber bridge. The side race in the sports Northern league and won both the league titles in 2008. Other cycling clubs also operate throughout the city including Hull Thursday, the area's road racing group. Hull Arena, is an ice rink and concert venue, which is home to the Hull Pirates ice hockey team who play in the National Ice Hockey League National League following reorganisation for the 2019–20 season. It is also home to the Kingston Kestrels ice sledge hockey team. In August 2010, ''Hull Daily Mail'' reported that Hull Stingrays was facing closure, following a financial crisis. The club was subsequently saved from closure following a takeover by Coventry Blaze. But on 24 June 2015, the club announced on its official website that it has been placed into liquidation. The Hull Hornets American football existed from 2005 until 2011. The club, which acquired full member status in the British American Football League on 5 November 2006, played in the BAFL Division 2 Central league for 5 years. The Humber Warhawks formed in 2013 are now Hull's American football team. Greyhound racing returned to the city on 25 October 2007 when The Boulevard (stadium), The Boulevard stadium re-opened as a venue for the sport. In mid-2006 Hull was home to the professional wrestling company One Pro Wrestling, which held the Devils Due event on 27 July in the Gemtec Arena. From 16 May 2008, Hull gained its own homegrown wrestling company based at the Eastmount Recreation Centre—New Generation Wrestling—that have featured the likes of El Ligero, Kris Travis, Martin Kirby and Alex Shane. Hull Lacrosse Club was formed in 2008 and currently plays in the Premier 3 division of the North of England Men's Lacrosse Association. The city played host to the Clipper Round the World Yacht Race, a tough race around the globe, for the 2009–10 race which started on 13 September 2009 and finished on 17 July 2010. The locally named yacht, Hull and Humber, captained by Danny Watson, achieved second place in the 2007–2008 race. The city hosted British Open Squash Championships, The British Open Squash Championships at KC Stadium, the KC Stadium in 2013 and 2014, before moving to the adjacent Airco Arena in 2015, as part of a three-year deal. Swimming is hosted at Beverley Road Baths, Woodford Leisure Centre, the Ennerdale Centre, and Albert Avenue Baths. Albert Avenue pools were established in 1933, with an outdoor pool which shut to swimmers in 1995, but has been used for canoe training. A major refurbishment to upgrade the complex and return outdoor swimming was announced in 2021. Included are a fitness studio, gym and general upgrades.


Transport

The main road into and out of Hull is the M62 motorway/A63 road, one of the main east–west routes in Northern England. It provides a link to the cities of
Leeds Leeds is the largest city in the Ceremonial counties of England, county of West Yorkshire, England. Leeds is to the east of Bradford, north of Sheffield, south-west of York, and north-east of Manchester. The city forms the core of the City of ...

Leeds
, Manchester and Liverpool, as well as the rest of the country via the UK motorway network. The motorway itself ends some distance from the city; the rest of the route is along the A63 dual carriageway. This east–west route forms a small part of the European route E20, European road route E20. Hull is close to the Humber Bridge, which provides road links to destinations south of the Humber. It was built between 1972 and 1981, and at the time was the longest single-span suspension bridge in the world. It is now eighth on the list of longest suspension bridge spans, list. Before the bridge was built, those wishing to cross the Humber had to either take a Humber Ferry or travel inland as far as Goole. Bus services are provided by Go North East, Go Ahead North East company East Yorkshire (bus company), East Yorkshire (previously known as EYMS) and Stagecoach in Hull which cover the city's central, suburban and industrial areas. To provide greater travel flexibility, bus users can obtain a 'Hull Card' which can be used on services run by either operator. Hull Paragon Interchange, opened on 16 September 2007, is the city's transport hub, combining the main bus and rail termini in an integrated complex. It is expected to have 24,000 people passing through the complex each day. There are services that run to certain other parts of the UK. These include through expresses to London King's Cross railway station, London, up to seven per day provided by Hull Trains and one a day by London North Eastern Railway. Other long-distance rail services are provided by TransPennine Express serving Leeds railway station, Leeds and Manchester Piccadilly railway station, Manchester. Northern Trains operates regular local stopping trains to , and , and the coastal towns of Bridlington railway station, Bridlington and Scarborough railway station, Scarborough, along with services to Selby railway station, Selby, York railway station, York, Doncaster railway station, Doncaster and Sheffield railway station, Sheffield. P&O Ferries provide daily overnight ferry services from King George Dock in Hull to Zeebrugge and Rotterdam. Services to Rotterdam are worked by ferries MS ''Pride of Rotterdam'' and . Services to Zeebrugge are worked by ferries MS ''Pride of Bruges'' and MS ''Pride of York'' (previously named ). Both ''Pride of Rotterdam'' and ''Pride of Hull'' are too wide to pass through the lock at Hull. Associated British Ports built a new terminal at Hull to accommodate the passengers using these two ferries. The Rotterdam Terminal at the
Port of Hull The Port of Hull is a port at the confluence of the River Hull The River Hull is a navigable river in the East Riding of Yorkshire in Northern England. It rises from a series of springs to the west of Driffield, and enters the Humber Estua ...
, was built at a cost of £14,300,000. The nearest airport is Humberside Airport, away in Lincolnshire, which provides a few charter flights but also has high-frequency flights to Amsterdam with KLM and Aberdeen with Eastern Airways each day. Doncaster Sheffield Airport in South Yorkshire is from Hull city centre and provides a wider choice of charter flights as well as a number of low-cost flights to certain European destinations. The nearest airport with intercontinental flights is Leeds Bradford Airport is away. Road transport in Hull suffers from delays caused both by the many bridges over the navigable River Hull, which bisects the city and which can cause disruption at busy times, and from the remaining three railway level crossings in the city. The level-crossing problem was greatly relieved during the 1960s by the closure of the Hull and Hornsea Railway, Hornsea and Hull and Holderness Railway, Withernsea branch lines, by the transfer of all goods traffic to the Hull and Barnsley Railway, high-level line that circles the city, and by the construction of two major road bridges on Hessle Road (1962) and Anlaby Road (1964). According to the 2001 census data cycling in the city is well above the national average of 2%, with a 12% share of the travel to work traffic. A report by the University of East London in 2011 ranked Hull as the fourth-best cycling city in the United Kingdom.


Murdoch's Connection

In March 2021, a new footbridge was opened connecting the city to Princes Quay waterfront, marina and fruit market over Castle Street, a dual carriageway road also designated A63 road, A63. Named Murdoch's Connection after Hull's first female doctor, GP Mary Murdoch (Hull), Mary Murdoch, the name was nominated by pupils from Newland School for Girls in Newland, Kingston upon Hull, Newland, Hull. Works began in autumn 2018 but progress was delayed due to the COVID-19, coronavirus pandemic. There was no opening ceremony due to distancing restrictions; instead, videos were compiled. Members of the public have been requested not to attach love locks. A nearby road was renamed from Garrison Road to A63 road#Roger Millward Way, Roger Millward Way in 2018, after rugby player Roger Millward who played for
Hull Kingston Rovers Hull Kingston Rovers are a professional rugby league club in Kingston upon Hull Kingston upon Hull, usually abbreviated to Hull, is a port city and unitary authorities of England, unitary authority in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England ...
. The developments are part of a wider improvement and redevelopment scheme.


Infrastructure


Telephone system

Hull is the only city in the UK with its own independent telephone network company, KCOM, formerly KC and Kingston Communications, a subsidiary of KCOM Group. Its distinctive cream telephone booth, telephone boxes can be seen across the city. KCOM produces its own 'White Pages' telephone directory for Hull and the wider KC area. Colour Pages is KCOM's business directory, the counterpart to Yellow Pages. The company was formed in 1902 as a municipal department by the City Council and is an early example of municipal enterprise. It remains the only locally operated telephone company in the UK, although it is now privatised. KCOM's Internet brands are Karoo Broadband (ISP serving Hull) and Eclipse (national ISP). Initially Hull City Council retained a 44.9 per cent interest in the company and used the proceeds from the sale of shares to fund the city's sports venue, the MKM Stadium, among other things. On 24 May 2007 it sold its remaining stake in the company for over £107 million. KCOM (Kingston Communications) was one of the first telecoms operators in Europe to offer Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line, ADSL to business users, and the first in the world to run an interactive television service using ADSL, known as Kingston Interactive TV (KiT), which has since been discontinued due to financial problems. In the last decade, the KCOM Group has expanded beyond Hull and diversified its service portfolio to become a nationwide provider of telephone, television, and Internet access services, having close to 180,000 customers projected for 2007. After its ambitious programme of expansion, KCOM has struggled in recent years and now has partnerships with other telecommunications firms such as BT who are contracted to manage its national infrastructure. Telephone House, on Carr Lane, the firm's 1960s-built headquarters, in stark modernist style, is a local landmark. In October 2019, Hull became the first UK city to have full fibre broadband available for all residents. In July 2021, KCOM formed a partnership with home entertainment provider ZYBRE, offering Hull and the East Riding of Yorkshire something different with a combination of ultrafast fibre broadband, cloud gaming and customisable TV.


Hydraulic power

The first public hydraulic power network, supplying many companies, was constructed in Hull. The Hull Hydraulic Power Company began operation in 1877, with Edward B. Ellington as its engineer and the main pumping station (now a Grade II listed building) in Catherine Street. Ellington was involved in most British networks, including those in London, Liverpool, Birmingham, Manchester and Glasgow, but the advent of electrical power combined with wartime damage meant the Hull company was wound up in 1947.


Public services

Policing in Kingston upon Hull is provided by Humberside Police. In October 2006 the force was named (jointly with Northamptonshire Police) as the worst-performing police force in the United Kingdom, based on data released from the Home Office. However, after a year of "major improvements", the Home Office list released in October 2007 shows the force rising several places (although still among the bottom six of 43 forces rated). Humberside Police received ratings of "good" or "fair" in most categories. Hull (HM Prison), HM Prison Hull is located in the city and is operated by HM Prison Service. It caters for up to 1,000 Prison security categories in the United Kingdom, Category B/C adult male prisoners. Fire service in the United Kingdom, Statutory emergency fire and rescue service is provided by the Humberside Fire and Rescue Service, which has its headquarters near Hessle and five fire stations in Hull. This service was formed in 1974 following local government reorganisation from the amalgamation of the East Riding of Yorkshire County Fire Service, Grimsby Borough Fire and Rescue Service, Kingston Upon Hull City Fire Brigade and part of the Lincoln (Lindsey) Fire Brigade and a small part of the West Riding of Yorkshire County Fire and Rescue Service. Hull and East Yorkshire Hospitals NHS Trust provides healthcare from three sites, Hull Royal Infirmary, Castle Hill Hospital and, until 2008, Princess Royal Hospital, Kingston upon Hull, Princess Royal Hospital and there are several private hospitals including ones run by BUPA and Nuffield Hospitals. The Yorkshire Ambulance Service provides emergency patient transport. NHS primary health care services are commissioned by the Hull Clinical Commissioning Group and are provided at several smaller clinics and general practitioner surgeries across the city. NHS Mental health services in Hull are provided by Humber NHS Foundation Trust. It runs a memory clinic in Coltman Street, west Hull designed to help older people with early onset dementia. Waste management is co-ordinated by the local authority. The Waste Recycling Group is a company which works in partnership with the Hull City and East Riding of Yorkshire councils to deal with the waste produced by residents. The company plans to build an energy from waste plant at Salt End to deal with 240,000 tonnes of rubbish and put waste to a productive use by providing power for the equivalent of 20,000 houses. Hull's Distribution Network Operator for electricity is CE Electric UK (Yorkshire Electricity, YEDL); there are no power stations in the city. Yorkshire Water manages Hull's drinking water, drinking and waste water. Drinking water is provided by boreholes and aquifers in the East Riding of Yorkshire, and it is abstracted from the River Hull at Tophill Low, near Hutton Cranswick. Should either supply experience difficulty meeting demand, water abstracted from the River Derwent, Yorkshire, River Derwent at both Elvington, City of York, Elvington and Loftsome Bridge can be moved to Hull via the Yorkshire water grid. There are many reservoirs in the area for storage of potable and non-potable water. Waste water and sewage has to be transported in a wholly pumped system because of the flat nature of the terrain to a sewage treatment works at Salt End. The treatment works is partly powered by both a wind turbine and a biogas CHP engine.


Education


Higher education


University of Hull

Kingston upon Hull is home to the University of Hull, which was founded in 1927 and received its Royal Charter in 1954. It now has a total student population of around 20,000 across its main campuses in Hull and Scarborough, North Yorkshire, Scarborough. The main University campus is in North Hull, on Cottingham Road. Notable alumni include former Deputy Prime Minister John Prescott, social scientist Lord Anthony Giddens, ''Woman's Hour'' presenter and writer Jenni Murray, and the dramatist Anthony Minghella. The University of Hull is a partner in the new University Centre of the Grimsby Institute of Further and Higher Education (GIFE) being built in Grimsby, North Lincolnshire.


Hull York Medical School

Hull York Medical School is a joint venture between the University of Hull and the University of York. It first admitted students in 2003 as a part of the British government's attempts to train more doctors.


University of Lincoln

The University of Lincoln grew out of the University of Humberside, a former polytechnic (United Kingdom), polytechnic based in Hull. In the 1990s the focus of the institution moved to nearby Lincoln, Lincolnshire, Lincoln and the administrative headquarters and management moved in 2001. The University of Lincoln has retained a campus in George Street in Hull city centre whilst Hull University purchased the adjacent University of Lincoln campus site on Cottingham Road.


Other institutions

The Hull School of Art, founded in 1861, is regarded nationally and internationally for its excellence as a specialist creative centre for higher education. The Northern Academy of Performing Arts and Northern Theatre School both provide education in musical theatre, performance and dance.


Schools and colleges

Hull has over List of schools in Hull, 100 local schools; of these, Hull City Council supports 14 secondary and 71 primary schools. The highest achieving state school in Hull is Malet Lambert School, Schools which are independent of the City Council include Hymers College and Hull Collegiate School. The latter, which is run by the United Church Schools Trust, was formed by the merging of Hull Grammar School and Hull High School. There is a further education college, Hull College, and two large sixth form colleges, Wyke College and Wilberforce College. East Riding College operates a small adult education campus in the city, and Endeavour Learning and Skills Centre is an adult education provision operated by HCC Training, Hull Training & Adult Education. Hull Trinity House Academy has been offering pre-sea training to prospective mariners since 1787. There are only two single-sex schools in Hull: Trinity House Academy, which teaches only boys, and Newland School for Girls.


Schools ratings

The city has had a poor examination success rate for many years and is often at the bottom of government GCSE league tables. In 2007 the city moved off the bottom of these tables for pupils who achieve five A* to C grades, including English and Maths, at General Certificate of Secondary Education by just one place when it came 149th out of 150 local education authorities. However, the improvement rate of 4.1 per cent, from 25.9 per cent in 2006 to 30 per cent in summer 2007, was among the best in the country. They returned to the bottom of the table in 2008 when 29.3 per cent achieved five A* to C grades which is well below the national average of 47.2 per cent. There are insufficient places in referral units for school children with special needs or challenging behaviour due to squeezed budgets and cuts to children's services.


Dialect and accent

The local Accent (dialect), accent is quite distinctive and noticeably different from the rest of the East Riding; however it is still categorised among Yorkshire dialect and accent, Yorkshire accents. The most notable feature of the accent is the strong I-mutation in words like ''goat'', which is in standard English and across most of Yorkshire, becomes ("''gert''") in and around parts of Hull (cf. similar ''refined'' pronunciations in
Leeds Leeds is the largest city in the Ceremonial counties of England, county of West Yorkshire, England. Leeds is to the east of Bradford, north of Sheffield, south-west of York, and north-east of Manchester. The city forms the core of the City of ...

Leeds
/
York York is a cathedral city City status in the United Kingdom is granted by the monarch of the United Kingdom The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United ...

York
), although there is variation across areas and generations. In common with much of England (outside of the far north), another feature is dropping the H from the start of words, for example Hull is more often pronounced 'Ull in the city. The vowel in "Hull" is pronounced the same way as in northern English, however, and not as the very short that exists in Lincolnshire. Though the rhythm of the accent is more like that of northern Lincolnshire than that of the rural East Riding, which is perhaps due to migration from Lincolnshire to the city during its industrial growth, one feature that it does share with the surrounding rural area is that an sound in the middle of a word often becomes an : for example, "five" may sound like "fahve", "time" like "tahme". The Square-nurse merger, SQUARE~NURSE merger is a feature of Hull's dialect. The vowel sound in words such as ''burnt, nurse, first'' is pronounced with an sound, as is also heard in Middlesbrough and in areas of Liverpool yet this sound is very uncommon in most of Yorkshire. The word pairs spur/spare and fur/fair illustrate this. The generational and/or geographic variation can be heard in word pairs like pork/poke or cork/coke, or hall/hole, which some people pronounce almost identically, sounding to non-locals like they are using the second of the two variations – while others make more of a vocal distinction; anyone called "Paul" (for example) soon becomes aware of this (pall/pole).


Notable people

:''Most of the notable people associated with the city can be found in the :People from Kingston upon Hull, People from Kingston upon Hull and :People associated with the University of Hull, People associated with the University of Hull categories.'' People from Hull are called "Hullensians" and the city has been the birthplace and home to many notable people. Amongst those of historic significance with a connection to Hull are former city MP
William Wilberforce William Wilberforce (24 August 175929 July 1833) was a British politician, philanthropist, and a leader of the movement to abolish the Atlantic slave trade, slave trade. A native of Kingston upon Hull, Yorkshire, he began his political career ...

William Wilberforce
who was instrumental in the abolition of slavery and Amy Johnson, aviator who was the first woman to fly solo from England to Australia. Entertainers from the city include; Dorothy Mackaill, 1950s singer David Whitfield, sports commentator Tony Green, actors Sir Tom Courtenay, Ian Carmichael, John Alderton and more recently Reece Shearsmith. and actress Maureen Lipman. Playwrights Richard Bean, John Godber and Alan Plater have close connections with Hull. Musicians include: Paul Heaton of The Housemartins and The Beautiful South, and guitarists Mick Ronson and Trevor Bolder, who worked with David Bowie and more recently 2000s indie band The Paddingtons. The astrophysicist Edward Arthur Milne and logician John Venn both hailed from Hull. The poet Philip Larkin lived in Hull for 30 years and wrote much of his mature work in the city. Artist David Remfry RA studied at Hull College of Art before moving to London and New York. Chemist George William Gray, George Gray, who had a 45-year career at the university, developed the first stable liquid crystals that became an immediate success for the screens of all sorts of electronic gadgets. Notable sportspeople include Ebenezer Cobb Morley (16 August 1831 – 20 November 1924) was an English sportsman and is regarded as the father of the Football Association and modern football. Clive Sullivan, rugby league player, who played for both of Hull's professional rugby league teams and was the first black Briton to captain any national representative team. The main A63 road into the city from the Humber Bridge is named after him (Clive Sullivan Way). Nick Barmby played for Tottenham Hotspur, Middlesbrough, Everton, Liverpool, and Leeds United before returning to play for his hometown club Hull City. He also won 23 England caps and played in the famous 5–1 victory over Germany in 2001. Another footballer is Dean Windass, who had two spells with Hull City. On accepting a peerage, Welsh-born Baron Prescott of Kingston-upon-Hull (former MP and Deputy Prime Minister John Prescott) took his title from his adopted home city of Hull.


International relations

Hull has formal Town twinning, twinning arrangements with The following cities are named directly after Hull: * Hull, Massachusetts, United States * Hull, Quebec, Canada


Freedom of the City

The following people and military units have received the Freedom of the City of Kingston upon Hull.


Individuals

* The Most Reverend Desmond Tutu : 2 July 1987. * Helen Suzman Order of the British Empire, DBE: 2 July 1987. * Nelson Mandela : 2 July 1987. * John Prescott, Rt Hon John Prescott: 1 August 1996. * Kevin McNamara (politician), Kevin McNamara Order of St Gregory the Great, KSG: 16 January 1997. * Jean Bishop – "Bee Lady": 23 November 2017. * Tom Courtenay, Sir Thomas Courtenay: 18 January 2018. * Yvonne Blenkinsop: 15 November 2018.


Military Units

* The East Yorkshire Regiment: 1 June 1944. * The Prince of Wales's Own Regiment of Yorkshire: 5 June 1958. * The Yorkshire Regiment: 16 November 2006. * The Royal Dragoon Guards * 2nd East Riding Artillery Volunteers, 440 (Humber) light Anti-Aircraft Regiment Royal Artillery (Army Reserve (United Kingdom), TA): 28 June 1960. * 2nd East Riding Artillery Volunteers, 440 (Humber) light Anti-Aircraft Regiment Royal Artillery (Army Reserve (United Kingdom), Territorials): 3 August 1967. * RAF Patrington: 16 May 1970. * 150 Regiment RLC, 150(N) Transport Regiment Royal Corps of Transport (Army Reserve (United Kingdom), Volunteers): 1 February 1990. * RRH Staxton Wold: 3 March 1994. * 150 Regiment RLC, 150 (Yorkshire) Transport Regiment Royal Logistic Corps (Army Reserve (United Kingdom), Volunteers): 3 March 1994. * , Royal Navy, RN: 3 March 1994. * 250th Field Ambulance (Volunteer Unit): 15 July 1999. * Hull Unit Sea Cadets (United Kingdom), Sea Cadet Corps: 27 February 2014.


See also

*Grade I listed churches in the East Riding of Yorkshire *Land of Green Ginger *Trams in Kingston upon Hull *Trolleybuses in Kingston upon Hull *Hull triple trawler tragedy (1968) *Sculcoates power station *History of the Jews in Hull


Notes

:There was no census in 1941: figures are from National Register. United Kingdom and Isle of Man. Statistics of Population on 29 September 1939 by Sex, Age and Marital Condition. :The ''Hull Daily Mail'' article indicates the 1991 population was 254,117. :There is a discrepancy of 6 between Office for National Statistics figures (quoted before) and those on the ''Vision of Britain'' website (quoted here). :The ''Hull Daily Mail'' article indicates the 2001 population was 246,355.


References


Bibliography

* * *


External links


Hull City Council

"Hull's City of Culture bid film revealed to the public" – BBC News article,12 November 2013

Hull History Centre – A Brief History of Hull
{{DEFAULTSORT:Hull, Kingston upon Kingston upon Hull, 1291 establishments in England Trading posts of the Hanseatic League Ports and harbours of Yorkshire Ports and harbours of the Humber Unitary authority districts of England Port cities and towns in Yorkshire and the Humber Port cities and towns of the North Sea Staple ports Populated coastal places in the East Riding of Yorkshire Cities in Yorkshire and the Humber Local government districts of Yorkshire and the Humber Populated places established in the 13th century Local government districts of the East Riding of Yorkshire Unparished areas in the East Riding of Yorkshire Towns in the East Riding of Yorkshire